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# LEARNING AREA: INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS

## Week Learning Learning Outcomes Suggested Activities Notes Vocabulary

Objective
1.1 A student is able to: Observe everyday objects such as table, a
Understanding • explain what physics is pencil, a mirror etc and discuss hoe they
Physics are related to physics concepts.

## • recognize the physics in everyday View a video on natural phenomena and

objects and natural phenomena discuss how they related to physics
concepts.

## Discuss fields of study in physics such as

forces, motion, heta, light etc.

1.2 A student is able to: Discuss base quantities and derived Base quantities are: Base quantities-
Understanding base • explain what base quantities and quantities. length (l), mass(m), time kuantiti asas
quantities and derived derived quantities are (t), temperature (T) and Derived quantities –
quantities • list base quantities and their units From a text passage, identify physical current (I) kuantiti terbitan
• list some derived quantities and quantities then classify them into base Length- panjang
their units. quantities and derived quantities. Suggested derived Mass – jisim
quantities: foce (F) Temperature – suhu
• express quantities using prefixes. List the value of prefixes and their Density ( ρ ) , volume (V) Current – arus
• express quantities using scientific abbreviations from nano to giga, eg. nano and velocity (v) Force – daya
notation (10-9), nm(nanometer) More complex derived Density – ketumpatan
quantities may be Volume – isipadu
Discus the use of scientific notation to discussed Velocity - halaju
express large and small numbers.
Week Learning Learning Outcomes Suggested Activities Notes Vocabulary
Objective
• express derived quantities as well Determine the base quantities( and units) When these quantities Scientific notation –
as their units in terms of base in a given derived quantity (and unit) from are introduced in their bentuk piawai
quantities and base units. the related formula. related learning areas. Prefix- imbuhan

## • solve problems involving Solve problems that involve the conversion

conversion of units of units.

1.3 A student is able to: Carry out activities to show that some
Understanding scalar • define scalar and vector quantities can be defined by magnitude
and vector quantities quantities only whereas other quantities need to be
defined by magnitude as well as direction.

## Compile a list of scalar and vector

• give examples of scalar and vector quantities.
quantities.
1.4 A student is able to Accuracy- kejituan
Understanding • Measure physical quantities Choose the appropriate instrument for a Consistency-
measurement using appropriate instruments given measurement kepersisan
Sensitivity-kepekaan
• Explain accuracy and Discuss consistency and accuracy using the Error- ralat
consistency distribution of gunshots on a target as an Random - rawak
example

## Discuss the sensitivity of various

• Explain sensitivity instruments

## Demonstrate through examples systematic

• Explain types of experimental errors and random errors.
error Discuss what systematic and random
errors are.

## Use appropriate techniques to reduce

error in measurements such as repeating
• Use appropriate techniques measurements to find the average and
to reduce errors compensating for zero error.
Week Learning Learning Outcomes Suggested Activities Notes Vocabulary
Objective
1.5 Analysing A student is able to: Observe a situation and suggest questions
scientific • Identify variables in a given suitable for a scientific investigation. Scientific skills are
investigations situation Discucc to: applied throughout
• Identify a queation suitable a) identify a question suitable for
for scientific investigation scientific investigation
• Form a hypothesis b) identify all the variables
• Design and carry out a simple c) form a hypothesis
experiment to test the hypothesis d) plan the method of investigation
including selection of apparatus and
work procedures

## Carry out an experiment and:

• Record and present data in a a) collect and tabulate data
suitable form b) present data in asuitable form
• Interpret data to draw a c) interpret the data and draw
conclusion conclusions
• Write a report of the d) write a complete report
investigation
LEARNING AREA:2.FORCES AND MOTION

## Week Learning Learning Outcomes Suggested Activities Notes Vocabulary

Objective
2.1 A student is able to: Carry out activities to gain an idea of: Average speed = total Distance – jarak
Analysing linear • Define distance and a) distance and displacement distance / time taken Displacement –
motion displacement b) speed and velocity sesaran
• Define speed and velocity and c) acceleration and deceleration Speed – laju
Velocity – halaju
s
state that v= Acceleration –
t pecutan
• Define acceleration and Deceleration,
deceleration and state that retardation –
v −u Carry out activities usisng a data nyahpecutan
a= logger/graphing calculator/ticker timer to
t a) identify when a body is at rest, moving
• Calculate speed and velocity with uniform velocity or non-uniform
• Calculate velocity
acceleration/deceleration b) determine displacement, velocity and
acceleration
Solve problems using the following
equations of motion:
• v = u + at
Solve problems on linear motion with
uniform acceleration using
1 2
• s = ut + at
2
• v = u + at v 2 = u 2 + 2as
1 2
• s = ut + at
2
• v 2 = u 2 + 2as
2.2 A student is able to: Carry out activities using a data
Analysing motion • plot and interpret displacement- logger/graphing calculator/ ticker timer to
graphs time and velocity-time graphs plot
a) displacement-time graphs
• deduce from the shape of a b) velocity-time graphs
displacement-time graph when a
body is: Describe and interpret:
i. at rest a) displacement-time graphs
ii. moving with uniform velocity b) velocity-time graphs
iii. moving with non-uniform velocity

## Week Learning Learning Outcomes Suggested Activities Notes Vocabulary

Objective
• determine distance, displacement Determine distance, displacement velocity Reminder
and velocity from a displacement – and acceleration from a displacement –time Velocity is determined
time graph and velocity–time graphs. from the gradient of
• deduce from the shape of displacement –time graph.
velocity- time graph when a body is: Acceleration is
a. at rest determined from the
b. moving with uniform gradient of
velocity velocity –time graph
c. moving with uniform
acceleration Distance is etermined
• determine distance, displacement from the area under a
velocity and acceleration from a velocity – time graph.
velocity–time graph
• solve problems on linear motion Solve problems on linear motion with
with uniform acceleration. uniform acceleration involving graphs.

## 2.3 A student is able to: Carry out activities/view computer

Understanding • explain what inertia is simulations/ situations to gain an idea on Newton’s First Law of Inertia - inersia
Inertia inertia. Motion maybe introduced
here.
• relate mass to inertia Carry out activities to find out the
relationship between inertia and mass.

## • give examples of situations Research and report on

involving inertia a) the positive effects of inertia
• suggest ways to reduce the b) ways to reduce the negative effects of
negative side effects of inertia. inertia.

## 2.4 A student is able to: Carry out activities/view computer Momentum –

Analysing momentum • define the momentum of an object simulations to gain an idea of momentum by momentum
comparing the effect of stopping two Collision – pelanggaran
objects: Explosion – letupan
a) of the same mass moving at
different speeds
b) of different masses moving at the same
speeds

## Week Learning Learning Outcomes Suggested Activities Notes Vocabulary

Objective
• ( )
define momentum p as the Discuss momentum as the product of mass Conservation of linear
product of mass (m) and velocity (v) and velocity. momentum- keabadian
p = mv Reminder momentum
i.e.
Momentum as a vector
• state the principle of conservation
View computer simulations on collision and quantity needs to be
of momentum
xplosions to gain an idea on the emphasized in problem
conservation of momentum solving

## Conduct an experiment to show that the

total momentum of a closed system is a
constant

## Carry out activities that demonstrate the

conservation of momentum e.g. water
rockets.

• describe applications of
Research and report on the applications of
conservation of momentum
conservation of momentum such as in
rockets or jet engines .

## Solve problems involving linear momentum

• solve problems involving
momentum
2.5 A student is able to: With the aid of diagrams, describe the When the forces acting
Understanding the • describe the effects of balanced forces acting on an object: on an objects are
effects of a force forces acting on an object a) at rest balanced they cancel each
• describe the effects of b) moving at constant velocity other out (nett force =
unbalanced forces acting on an c) accelerating 0). The object then
object behaves as if there is no
Conduct experiments to find the force acting on it.
• determine the relationship relationship between:
between force, mass and a) acceleration and mass of an object Newton’s Second Law of
acceleration i.e. F = ma. under constant force Motion may be introduced
b) acceleration and force for a constant here
mass.

## Week Learning Learning Outcomes Suggested Activities Notes Vocabulary

Objective
2.6 Analysing impulse A student is able to: View computer simulations of collision and Accuracy- kejituan
and impulsive force • explain what an impulsive force is . explosions to gain an idea on impulsive Consistency-
• give examples of situations forces. kepersisan
involving impulsive forces Sensitivity-kepekaan
• define impulse as a change of Discuss Error- ralat
momentum, i.e. a) impulse as a change of momentum Random - rawak
Ft = mv - mu b) an impulsive force as the rate of
• define impulsive forces as the change of momentum in a collision or
rate of change of momentum in a explosion
collision or explosion, i.e. c) how increasing or decreasing
mv - mu time of impact affects the magnitude
F = of the impulsive force.
t
• explain the effect of increasing or Research and report situations where:
decreasing time of impact on the a) an impulsive force needs to be
magnitude of the impulsive force. reduced and how it can be done
• Describe situation where an b) an impulsive force is beneficial
impulsive force needs to be reduced
and suggest ways to reduce it.
• describe situation where an
impulsive force is beneficial
Solve problems involving impulsive forces
• solve problems involving impulsive
forces
Week Learning Learning Outcomes Suggested Activities Notes Vocabulary
Objective
2.7 Being aware of A student is able to: Research and report on the physics of
the need for • describe the importance of vehicle collision and safety features in
safety features in safety features in vehicles vehicles in terms of physics concepts.
vehicles Discuss the importance of safety
features in vehicles.

2.8 Understanding A student is able to: Carry out activity or view computer When considering a
gravity • explain acceleration due to simulations to gain an idea of body falling freely, g Gravitational field –
gravity acceleration due to gravity. (= 9.8 m/s2) is its medan gravity
Discuss acceleration but when
a) acceleration due to gravity it is at rest, g (=9.8
• state what a gravitational b) a gravitational field as a N/kg) is the Earth’s
field is region in which an object gravitational field
• define gravitational field experiences a force due to strength acting on it.
strength gravitational attraction and The weight of an
c) gravitational field strength object of fixed mass
(g) as gravitational force per unit is dependent on the g
mass exerted on it.
Carry out an activity to determine the
value of acceleration due to gravity.
Discuss weight as the Earth’s
• determine the value of gravitational force on an object
acceleration due to gravity

## • define weight (W) as the

product of mass (m) and
acceleration due to gravity (g)
i.e. W =mg.
• solve problems involving
acceleration due to gravity. Solve problems involving acceleration
due to gravity.

## Week Learning Learning Outcomes Suggested Activities Notes Vocabulary

Objective
2.9 Analysing A student is able to: With the aid of diagrams, describe Resultant – daya
forces in • describe situations where situations where forces are in paduan
equilibrium forces are in equilibrium equilibrium , e.g. a book at rest on a Resolve- lerai
table, an object at rest on an inclined
plane.
• state what a resultant force is With the aid of diagrams, discuss the
• add two forces to determine resolution and addition of forces to
the resultant force. determine the resultant force.
• Resolve a force into the
effective component forces .
• Solve problems involving foces Solve problems involving forces in
in equilibrium equilibrium (limited to 3 forces).

## 2.10 A student is able to: Observe and discus situations where

Understanding • Define work (W) as the work is done.
work, energy, product of an applied force (F) Discuss that no work is done when:
power and and displacement (s) of an a) a force is applied but no
efficiency. object in the direction of the displacement occurs
applied force i.e. W = Fs. b) an object undergoes a
displacement with no applied force
acting on it.
• State that when work is done Give examples to illustrate how
energy is transferred from one energy is transferred from one object
object to another. to another when work is done

## • Define kinetic energy and Discuss the relationship between work

1 done to accelerate a body and the
state that Ek = mv 2
2 change in kinetic energy

## Week Learning Learning Outcomes Suggested Activities Notes Vocabulary

Objective
• Define gravitational potential Discuss the relationship between work 2.10
energy and state that Ep = mgh done against gravity and gravitational Have students recall Understanding
potential energy. the different forms of work, energy,
• State the principle of Carry out an activity to show the energy. power and
conservation of energy. principle of conservation of energy efficiency.
• Define power and state that State that power is the rate at which
P = W/t work is done, P = W/t.
Carry out activities to measure power.
Discuss efficiency as:
• Explain what efficiency of a Useful energy output x 100 %
device is. Energy input
Evaluate and report the efficiencies
of various devices such as a diesel
engine, a petrol engine and an electric
engine.
Solve problems involving work, energy,
• Solve problems involving work, power and efficiency.
energy, power and efficiency
2.11 Appreciating A student is able to: Discuss that when an energy
the importance of • recognize the importance of transformation takes place, not all the
maximising the maximising efficiency of devices energy is used to do useful work.
efficiency of in conserving resources. Some is converted into heat or other
devices. types of energy. Maximising efficiency
during energy transformations makes
the best use of the available energy.
This helps to conserve resources
Week Learning Objective Learning Outcomes Suggested Activities Notes Vocabulary
2.12 Understanding A student is able to: Carry out activities to gain an idea
elasticity. • define elasticity on elasticity.

## • define Hooke’s Law Plan and conduct an experiment to

find the relationship between force
and extension of a spring.

## • define elastic potential energy Relate work done to elastic

1 potential energy to obtain
and state that E p = kx 2 1
2 Ep = kx 2 .
2
Describe and interpret force-
extension graphs.

## • determine the factors that Investigate the factors that

affect elasticity. affects elasticity.

## • Describe applications of Research and report on applications

elasticity of elasticity.

## Solve problems involving elasticity.

• Solve problems involving
elasticity
LEARNING AREA:3.FORCES AND PRESSURE

## Week Learning Learning Outcomes Suggested Activities Notes Vocabulary

Objective
3.1 Understanding A student is able to: Observe and describe the effect of a Introduce the unit of Pressure = tekanan
pressure • Define pressure and state force acting over a large area pressure pascal (Pa)
F compared to a small area, e.g. school (Pa = N/m2)
that P = shoes versus high heeled shoes.
A
Discuss pressure as force per unit
area
Research and report on applications of
• Describe applications of
pressure.
pressure
Solve problems involving pressure
• solve problems involving
pressure

3.2 Understanding A student is able to: Observe situations to form ideas that Depth – kedalaman
pressure in liquids • relate depth to pressure in a pressure in liquids: Density –
liquid a) acts in all directions ketumpatan
b) increases with depth Liquid - cecair
• relate density to pressure in a Observe situations to form the idea
liquid that pressure in liquids increases with
density
Relate depth (h) , density (ρ ) and
• explain pressure in a liquid and
gravitational field strength (g) to
state that P = hρ g
pressure in liquids to obtain P = hρ g
• describe applications of Research and report on
pressure in liquids. a) the applications of pressure in
liquids
b) ways to reduce the negative
effect of pressure in liquis
• Solve problems involving Solve problems involving pressure in
pressure in liquids. liquids.

## Week Learning Learning Outcomes Suggested Activities Notes Vocabulary

Objective
3.3 Understanding A student is able to: Carry out activities to gain an idea of Student need to be
gas pressure and • explain gas pressure gas pressure and atmospheric introduced to
atmospheric instruments used to
pressure Discuss gas pressure in terms of the measure gas pressure
behaviour of gas molecules based on (Bourdon Gauge) and
the kinetic theory atmospheric pressure
(Fortin barometer,
• explain atmospheric pressure Discuss atmospheric pressure in aneroid barometer).
terms of the weight of the Working principle of
atmosphere acting on the Earth’s the instrument is not
surface required.
Introduce other units
Discuss the effect of altitude on the of atmospheric
magnitude of atmospheric pressure pressure.
• describe applications of 1 atmosphere = 760
atmospheric pressure Research and report on the mmHg = 10.3 m water=
application of atmospheric pressure 101300 Pa
• solve problems involving 1 milibar = 100 Pa
atmospheric pressure and gas Solve problems involving atmospheric
pressure and gas pressure including barometer
3.4 Applying A student is able to: Observe situations to form the idea Enclosed- tertutup
Pascal’s principle • state Pascal’s principle. that pressure exerted on an enclosed Force multiplier-
liquid is transmitted equally to every pembesar daya
part of the liquid Hydraulic systems
– system haudraulik
• Explain hydraulic system Discuss hydraulic systems as a force Transmitted –
multiplier to obtain: tersebar
Outpur force = output piston area
Input force input piston area

## Week Learning Learning Outcomes Suggested Activities Notes Vocabulary

Objective
• Describe applications of Research and report on the
Pascal’s principle. application of Pascal’s principle
(hydraulic systems)
• Solve problems involving Solve problems involving Pascal’s
Pascal’s principle. principle

3.5 Applying A student is able to: Carry out an activity to measure the
Archimedes’ • Explain buoyant force weight of an object in air and the Have students recall
principle. weight of the same object in water to the different forms of
gain an idea on buoyant force. energy.
• Relate buoyant force to the Conduct an experiment to investigate
weight of the liquid displaced the relationship between the weight
of water displaced and the buoyant
force.
• State Archimedes’ principle. Discuss buoyancy in terms of:
a) An object that is totally or
partially submerged in a fluid
experiences a buoyant force equal
to the weight of fluid displaced
b) The weight of a freely floating
object being equal to the weight of
fluid displaced
c) a floating object has a density less
than or equal to the density of the
fluid in which it is floating.

## • Describe applications of Research and report on the

Archimedes principle applications of Archimedes’ principle,
• e.g. submarines, hydrometers, hot air
balloons

## Week Learning Learning Outcomes Suggested Activities Notes Vocabulary

Objective
Solve problems involving Solve problems involving Archimedes’
Archimedes principle principle.
Build a Cartesian diver. Discuss why
the diver can be made to move up and
down.

3.6 Understanding A student is able to: Carry out activities to gain the idea
Bernoulli’s • State Bernoulli’s principle that when the speed of a flowing fluid
principle. • Explain that resultant force increases its pressure decreases, e.g.
exists due to a difference in blowing above a strip of paper, blowing
fluid pressure through straw, between two pingpong
balls suspended on strings.

## Discuss Bernoulli’s principle

Carry out activities to show that a
resultant force exists due to a
difference in fluid pressure.

## • Describe applications of View a computer simulation to observe

Bernoulli’s principle air flow over an arofoil to gain an idea
on lifting force.
Research and report on the
applications of Bernoulli’s principle.

## • Solve problems involving Solve problems involving Bernoulli’s

Bernoulli’s principle principle.

LEARNING AREA:4.HEAT

## Week Learning Learning Outcomes Suggested Activities Notes Vocabulary

Objective
4.1 Understanding A student is able to: Carry out activities to show that thermal equilibrium
thermal • Explain thermal equilibrium thermal equilibrium is a condition in – keseimbangan
equilibrium. which there is no nett heat flow terma
between two objects in thermal
contact

## • Explain how a liquid in glass Use the liquid-in-glass thermometer

thermometer works to explain how the volume of a fixed
mass of liquid may be used to define a
temperature scale.

4.2 Understanding A student is able to: Observe th change in temperature Heat capacity only specific heat
specific heat • Define specific heat capacity ( when: relates to a particular capacity – muatan
capacity c) a) the same amount of heat is used to object whereas haba tentu
Q heat different masses of water. specific heat capacity
• State that c = b) the same amount of heat is used to relates to a material
mc
heat the same mass of different
liquids.
Discuss specific heat capacity
Guide students to
• Determine the specific heat Plan and carry out an activity to analyse the unit of c
capacity of a liquid. determine the specific heat capacity as Jkg −1 K −1 or
• Determine the specific heat of Jkg −1 o
C −1

## Week Learning Learning Outcomes Suggested Activities Notes Vocabulary

Objective
• Describe applications of Research and report on applications of
asepsific heat capacity specific heat capacity.

## • Solve problems involving Solve problems involving specific heat

specific heat capacity. capacity.

4.3 Understanding A student is able to: Carry out an activity to show that Melting –peleburan
specific latent heat • State that transfer of there is no change in temperature Solidification-
heat during a change of phase when heat is supplied to: pemejalan
does not cause a change in a) a liquid at its boiling point. Condensation –
temperature b) a solid at its melting point. kondensasi
With the aid of a cooling and heating Specific latent
curve, discuss melting, solidification, heat – haba pendam
boiling and condensation as processes tentu
involving energy transfer without a
change in temperature.

## • Define specific latent heat Discuss Guide students to

(l ) a) latent heat in terms of analyse the unit of Specific latent
Q molecular behaviour (l ) heat of fusion –
• State that l = b) specific latent heat as Jkg −1 haba pendam tentu
m
pelakuran
Plan and carry out an activity to Specific latent
determine the specific latent heat of heat of
• Determine the specific latent a) fusion b) vaporisation vaporisation – haba
heat of a fusion. pendam tentu
• Determine the specific latent pepengewapan
heat of vaporization Solve problems involving specific
latent heat.
• Solve problems involving
specific latent heat

## Week Learning Learning Outcomes Suggested Activities Notes Vocabulary

Objective
4.4 Understanding A student is able to: Use a model or view computer
the gas laws • explain gas pressure, simulations on the bahaviour of
temperature and volume in terms molecules of a fixed mass of gas to
of gas molecules. gain an idea about gas pressure,
temperature and volume.
Discuss gas pressure, volume and
temperature in terms of the
behaviour of molecules based on the
kinetic theory.

## • Determine the relationship Plan and carry out an experiment on a

between pressure and volume at fixed mass of gas to determine
constant temperature for a therelationship between:
fixed mass of gas, i.e pV = a) pressure and volume at
constant constant temperature
• Determine the relationship b) volume and temperature at
between volume and temperature constant pressure
at constant pressure for a fixed c) pressure and temperature at
mass of gas, i.e V/T = constant constant volume
• Determine the relationship
between pressure and Extrapolate P-T and V-T graphs or
temperature at constant volume view computer simulations to show
for a fixed mass of gas, i.e p/T = that when pressure and volume are
constant zero the temperature on a P-T and V-
• Explain absolute zero T graph is – 2730C.
• Explain the absolute/Kelvin Discuss absolute zero and the Kelvin
scale of temperature scale of temperature

## • Solve problems involving Solve problems involving the pressure,

pressure, temperature and temperature and volume of a fixed
volume of a fixed mass of gas mass of gas.

LEARNING AREA:5.LIGHT

## Week Learning Learning Outcomes Suggested Activities Notes Vocabulary

Objective
5.1 Understanding A student is able to: Observe the image formed in a plane
reflection of light. • Describe the characteristic of mirror. Discuss that the image is:
the image formed by reflection a) as far behind the mirror as the
of light object is in front and the line
joining the object and image is
perpendicular to the mirror.
b) the same size as the object
c) virtual
d) laterally inverted

## • State the laws of reflection Discuss the laws of reflection

of light
• Draw ray diagrams to show Draw the ray diagrams to determine
the position and characteristics the position and characteristics of
of the image formed by a the image formed by a
i. plane mirror a) plane mirror
ii. convex mirror b) convex mirror
iii. concave mirror c) concave mirror
• Describe applications of Research and report on applications of
reflection of light reflection of light

## • Solve problems involving Solve problems involving reflection of

reflection of light light

## • Construct a device based on Construct a device based on the

the application of reflection of application of reflection of light
light

## Week Learning Learning Outcomes Suggested Activities Notes Vocabulary

Objective
5.2 Understanding A student is able to: Observe situations to gain an idea of Real depth – Dalam
refraction of light. • Explain refraction of light refraction nyata
• Define refractive index as Conduct an experiment to find the Apparent depth –
sini relationship between the angle of dalam ketara
η= incidence and angle of refraction to
sinr
obtain Snell’s law.

## Carry out an activity to determine the

• Determine the refractive
refractive index of a glass or perspex
index of a glass or Perspex block
block

## Discuss the refractive index, η , as

• State the refractive index,
Speed of light in a vacuum
η , as
Speed of light in a medium
Speed of light in a vacuum
Speed of light in a medium Research and report on phenomena
due to refraction, e.g. apparent depth,
• Describe phenomena due to the twinkling of stars.
refraction Carry out activities to gain an idea of
apparent depth. With the aid of
diagrams, discuss real depth and
apparent depth.

## Solve problems involving refraction of

light
• Solve problems involving
refraction of light

## Week Learning Learning Outcomes Suggested Activities Notes Vocabulary

Objective
5.3 Understanding A student is able to: Carry out activities to show the
total internal • Explain total internal effect of increasing the angle of
reflection of light. reflection of light incidence on the angle of refraction
• Define critical angle (c) when light travels from a denser
medium to a less dense medium to gain
an idea about total internal reflection
and to obtain the critical angle.

• Relate the critical angle to the Discuss with the aid of diagrams:
1 a) total internal reflection and
refractive index i.e η = critical angle
sin c
b) the relationship between critical
angle and refractive angle
Research and report on
• Describe natural phenomenon
a) natural phenomena involving total
involving total internal reflection
internal reflection
• Describe applications of total
b) the applications of total
internal reflection reflection e.g. in
telecommunication using fibre
optics.
Solve problems involving total internal
• Solve problems involving total reflection
internal reflection

5.4 Understanding A student is able to: Use an optical kit to observe and
lenses. • Explain focal point and focal measure light rays traveling through
length convex and concave lenses to gain an
• determine the focal point and idea of focal point and focal length.
focal length of a convex lens Determine the focal point and focal
• determine the focal point and length of convex and concave lenses.
focal length of a concave lens

## Week Learning Learning Outcomes Suggested Activities Notes Vocabulary

Objective
• Draw ray diagrams to show With the help of ray diagrams, thermal equilibrium
the positions and characteristics discuss focal point and focal length – keseimbangan
of the images formed by a terma
convex lens. Draw ray diagrams to show the
• Draw ray diagrams to show positions and characteristic of the
the positions and characteristics images formed by a
of the images formed by a a) convex lens b) concave lens
concave lens.

## • Define magnification as Carry out activities to gain an idea of

v magnification.
m= With the help of ray diagrams,
u
discuss magnification.
• Relate focal length (f) to the
Carry out activities to find the
object distance (u) and image
relationship between u, v and f
distance (v)
1 1 1
i.e. = +
f u v
Carry out activities to gain an idea on
• Describe, with the aid of ray the use of lenses in optical devices.
diagrams, the use of lenses in With the help of ray diagrams,
optical devices. discuss the use of lenses in optical
devices such as a telescope and
microscope

## Construct an optical device that uses

• Construct an optical device lenses.
that uses lenses.
Solve problems involving to lenses
• Solve problems involving to
lenses.