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**For other uses, see Buckling (disambiguation).
**

In science, buckling is a mathematical instability, lead-

ing to a failure mode. Theoretically, buckling is caused

by a bifurcation in the solution to the equations of static

equilibrium. At a certain stage under an increasing load,

further load is able to be sustained in one of two states of

equilibrium: an undeformed state or a laterally-deformed

state.

In practice, buckling is characterized by a sudden fail-

ure of a structural member subjected to high compressive

stress, where the actual compressive stress at the point of

failure is less than the ultimate compressive stresses that

the material is capable of withstanding. Mathematical

analysis of buckling often makes use of an axial load ec-

centricity that introduces a secondary bending moment,

which is not a part of the primary applied forces to which

the member is subjected. As an applied load is increased

on a member, such as column, it will ultimately become

large enough to cause the member to become unstable and

is said to have buckled. Further load will cause signiﬁ-

cant and somewhat unpredictable deformations, possibly

leading to complete loss of the member’s load-carrying

capacity. If the deformations that follow buckling are not

catastrophic the member will continue to carry the load

that caused it to buckle. If the buckled member is part

of a larger assemblage of components such as a build-

ing, any load applied to the structure beyond that which

caused the member to buckle will be redistributed within

the structure.

1 Columns

The ratio of the eﬀective length of a column to the least

radius of gyration of its cross section is called the slen-

derness ratio (sometimes expressed with the Greek let-

ter lambda, λ). This ratio aﬀords a means of classify-

ing columns. Slenderness ratio is important for design

considerations. All the following are approximate values

used for convenience.

• A short steel column is one whose slenderness ratio

does not exceed 50; an intermediate length steel col-

umn has a slenderness ratio ranging fromabout 50 to

200, and are dominated by the strength limit of the

material, while a long steel column may be assumed

to have a slenderness ratio greater than 200 and its

behavior is dominated by the modulus of elasticity

A column under a concentric axial load exhibiting the character-

istic deformation of buckling

The eccentricity of the axial force results in a bending moment

acting on the beam element.

of the material.

• A short concrete column is one having a ratio of un-

supported length to least dimension of the cross sec-

tion equal to or less than 10. If the ratio is greater

than 10, it is considered a long column (sometimes

referred to as a slender column).

• Timber columns may be classiﬁed as short columns

if the ratio of the length to least dimension of the

cross section is equal to or less than 10. The dividing

line between intermediate and long timber columns

cannot be readily evaluated. One way of deﬁning the

lower limit of long timber columns would be to set

it as the smallest value of the ratio of length to least

cross sectional area that would just exceed a certain

1

2 1 COLUMNS

constant K of the material. Since K depends on the

modulus of elasticity and the allowable compressive

stress parallel to the grain, it can be seen that this

arbitrary limit would vary with the species of the

timber. The value of K is given in most structural

handbooks.

If the load on a column is applied through the center of

gravity (centroid) of its cross section, it is called an axial

load. A load at any other point in the cross section is

known as an eccentric load. Ashort column under the ac-

tion of an axial load will fail by direct compression before

it buckles, but a long column loaded in the same manner

will fail by buckling (bending), the buckling eﬀect being

so large that the eﬀect of the axial load may be neglected.

The intermediate-length column will fail by a combina-

tion of direct compressive stress and bending.

In 1757, mathematician Leonhard Euler derived a for-

mula that gives the maximum axial load that a long, slen-

der, ideal column can carry without buckling. An ideal

column is one that is perfectly straight, homogeneous,

and free from initial stress. The maximum load, some-

times called the critical load, causes the column to be in

a state of unstable equilibrium; that is, the introduction

of the slightest lateral force will cause the column to fail

by buckling. The formula derived by Euler for columns

with no consideration for lateral forces is given below.

However, if lateral forces are taken into consideration the

value of critical load remains approximately the same.

F =

π

2

EI

(KL)

2

where

F = maximum or critical force (vertical load

on column),

E = modulus of elasticity,

I = area moment of inertia,

L = unsupported length of column,

K = column eﬀective length factor, whose

value depends on the conditions of end support

of the column, as follows.

K

K

K

K

KL is the eﬀective length of the column.

Examination of this formula reveals the following inter-

esting facts with regard to the load-bearing ability of slen-

der columns.

1. Elasticity and not the compressive strength of the

materials of the column determines the critical load.

2. The critical load is directly proportional to the

second moment of area of the cross section.

3. The boundary conditions have a considerable eﬀect

on the critical load of slender columns. The bound-

ary conditions determine the mode of bending and

the distance between inﬂection points on the de-

ﬂected column. The inﬂection points in the deﬂec-

tion shape of the column are the points at which the

curvature of the column change sign and are also the

points at which the internal bending moments are

zero. The closer together the inﬂection points are,

the higher the resulting capacity of the column.

A demonstration model illustrating the diﬀerent “Euler” buckling

modes. The model shows how the boundary conditions aﬀect the

critical load of a slender column. Notice that each of the columns

are identical, apart from the boundary conditions.

The strength of a column may therefore be increased by

distributing the material so as to increase the moment of

inertia. This can be done without increasing the weight

of the column by distributing the material as far from the

principal axis of the cross section as possible, while keep-

ing the material thick enough to prevent local buckling.

This bears out the well-known fact that a tubular section

is much more eﬃcient than a solid section for column

service.

Another bit of information that may be gleaned from this

equation is the eﬀect of length on critical load. For a

given size column, doubling the unsupported length quar-

ters the allowable load. The restraint oﬀered by the end

connections of a column also aﬀects the critical load. If

the connections are perfectly rigid, the critical load will

be four times that for a similar column where there is no

resistance to rotation (in which case the column is ideal-

ized as having hinges at the ends).

Since the radius of gyration is deﬁned as the square root

of the ratio of the column’s moment of inertia about an

axis to cross sectional area, the above formula may be

rearranged as follows. Using the Euler formula for hinged

3

ends, and substituting A·r

2

for I, the following formula

results.

σ =

F

A

=

π

2

E

(ℓ/r)

2

where F/Ais the allowable stress of the column, and l/r

is the slenderness ratio.

Since structural columns are commonly of intermediate

length, and it is impossible to obtain an ideal column,

the Euler formula on its own has little practical applica-

tion for ordinary design. Issues that cause deviation from

the pure Euler column behaviour include imperfections in

geometry in combination with plasticity/non-linear stress

strain behaviour of the column’s material. Consequently,

a number of empirical column formulae have been de-

veloped to agree with test data, all of which embody the

slenderness ratio. For design, appropriate safety factors

are introduced into these formulae. One such formula is

the Perry Robertson formula which estimates the critical

buckling load based on an initial (small) curvature. The

Rankine Gordon formula (Named for WilliamJohn Mac-

quorn Rankine and Perry Hugesworth Gordon (1899 –

1966)) is also based on experimental results and suggests

that a column will buckle at a load Fₐₓ given by:

1

F

max

=

1

F

e

+

1

F

c

where Fₑ is the Euler maximum load and F is the maxi-

mum compressive load. This formula typically produces

a conservative estimate of Fₐₓ.

1.1 Self-buckling

Afree-standing, vertical column, with density ρ , Young’s

modulus E , and radius r , will buckle under its own

weight if its height exceeds a certain critical height:

[1][2][3]

h

crit

=

(

9B

2

4

EI

ρgπr

2

)

1/3

where g is the acceleration due to gravity, I is the second

moment of area of the beam cross section, and B is the

ﬁrst zero of the Bessel function of the ﬁrst kind of order

−1/3, which is equal to 1.86635086...

2 Buckling under tensile dead

loading

Usually buckling and instability are associated to com-

pression, but recently Zaccaria, Bigoni, Noselli and Mis-

seroni (2011)

[4]

have shown that buckling and instability

Fig. 2: Elastic beam system showing buckling under tensile dead

loading.

can also occur in elastic structures subject to dead tensile

load. An example of a single-degree-of-freedom struc-

ture is shown in Fig. 1, where the critical load is also in-

dicated. Another example involving ﬂexure of a structure

made up of beam elements governed by the equation of

the Euler’s elastica is shown in Fig.2. In both cases, there

are no elements subject to compression. The instability

and buckling in tension are related to the presence of the

slider, the junction between the two rods, allowing only

relative sliding between the connected pieces. Watch a

movie for more details.

3 Constraints, curvature and mul-

tiple buckling

Fig. 3: A one-degree-of-freedom structure exhibiting a tensile

(compressive) buckling load as related to the fact that the right

end has to move along the circular proﬁle labeled 'Ct' (labelled

'Cc').

Buckling of an elastic structure strongly depends on the

curvature of the constraints against which the ends of the

structure are prescribed to move (see Bigoni, Misseroni,

Noselli and Zaccaria, 2012

[5]

). In fact, even a single-

degree-of-freedom system (see Fig.3) may exhibit a ten-

sile (or a compressive) buckling load as related to the fact

that one end has to move along the circular proﬁle labeled

'Ct' (labelled 'Cc').

The two circular proﬁles can be arranged in a 'S'-shaped

proﬁle, as shown in Fig.4; in that case a discontinuity of

the constraint’s curvature is introduced, leading to multi-

ple bifurcations. Note that the single-degree-of-freedom

structure shown in Fig.4 has two buckling loads (one ten-

sile and one compressive). Watch a movie for more de-

4 5 VARIOUS FORMS OF BUCKLING

Fig. 4: A one-degree-of-freedom structure with a 'S'-shaped bi-

circular proﬁle exhibiting multiple bifurcations (both tensile and

compressive).

tails.

4 Flutter instability

Structures subject to a follower (nonconservative) load

may suﬀer instabilities which are not of the buckling type

and therefore are not detectable with a static approach.

[6]

For instance, the so-called 'Ziegler column' is shown in

Fig.5.

Fig. 5: Asketch of the 'Ziegler column', a two-degree-of-freedom

systemsubject to a follower load (the force P remains always par-

allel to the rod BC), exhibiting ﬂutter and divergence instability.

The two rods, of linear mass density ρ, are rigid and connected

through two rotational springs of stiﬀness k1 and k2.

This two-degree-of-freedom system does not display a

quasi-static buckling, but becomes dynamically unstable.

To see this, we note that the equations of motion are

1

3

ρl

2

1

(l

1

+ 3l

2

) ¨ α

1

+

1

2

ρl

1

l

2

2

cos(α

1

−α

2

)¨ α

2

+

1

2

ρl

1

l

2

2

sin(α

1

−α

2

) ˙ α

2

2

+ (k

1

+k

2

)α

1

−k

2

α

2

+

+(β

1

+β

2

) ˙ α

1

−β

2

˙ α

2

−l

1

P sin(α

1

−α

2

) = 0,

1

2

ρl

1

l

2

2

cos(α

1

−α

2

)¨ α

1

+

1

3

ρl

3

2

¨ α

2

−

1

2

ρl

1

l

2

2

sin(α

1

−α

2

) ˙ α

2

1

−k

2

(α

1

−α

2

) −β

2

( ˙ α

1

− ˙ α

2

) = 0,

and their linearized version is

1

3

ρl

2

1

(l

1

+ 3l

2

) ¨ α

1

+

1

2

ρl

1

l

2

2

¨ α

2

+ (k

1

+k

2

)α

1

−k

2

α

2

−l

1

P(α

1

−α

2

) = 0,

1

2

ρl

1

l

2

2

¨ α

1

+

1

3

ρl

3

2

¨ α

2

−k

2

(α

1

−α

2

) = 0.

Assuming a time-harmonic solution in the form

α

j

= A

j

e

−iΩt

, j = 1, 2,

we ﬁnd the critical loads for ﬂutter ( P

f

) and divergence

( P

d

),

P

f,d

=

k

2

l

1

·

k + (1 +λ)

3

∓λ

√

k(3 + 4λ)

1 + 3λ/2

where λ = l

1

/l

2

and k = k

1

/k

2

.

Fig. 6: A sequence of deformed shapes at consecutive times in-

tervals of the structure sketched in Fig.5 and exhibiting ﬂutter

(upper part) and divergence (lower part) instability.

Flutter instability corresponds to a vibrational motion of

increasing amplitude and is shown in Fig.6 (upper part)

together with the divergence instability (lower part) con-

sisting in an exponential growth.

Recently, Bigoni and Noselli (2011)

[7]

have experimen-

tally shown that ﬂutter and divergence instabilities can be

directly related to dry friction, watch the movie for more

details.

5 Various forms of buckling

Buckling is a state which deﬁnes a point where an equilib-

rium conﬁguration becomes unstable under a parametric

change of load and can manifest itself in several diﬀerent

phenomena. All can be classiﬁed as forms of bifurcation.

There are four basic forms of bifurcation associated with

loss of structural stability or buckling in the case of struc-

tures with a single degree of freedom. These comprise

two types of pitchfork bifurcation, one saddle-node bi-

furcation (often referred to as a limit point) and one

transcritical bifurcation. The pitchfork bifurcations are

the most commonly studied forms and include the buck-

ling of columns and struts, sometimes known as Euler

buckling; the buckling of plates, sometimes known as lo-

cal buckling, which is well known to be relatively safe

5

(both are supercritical phenomena) and the buckling of

shells, which is well-known to be a highly dangerous (sub-

critical phenomenon).

[8]

Using the concept of potential

energy, equilibrium is deﬁned as a stationary point with

respect to the degree(s) of freedom of the structure. We

can then determine whether the equilibrium is stable, if

the stationary point is a local minimum; or unstable, if

it is a maximum, point of inﬂection or saddle point (for

multiple-degree-of-freedom structures only) – see ani-

mations below.

In Euler buckling,

[9][10]

the applied load is increased by

a small amount beyond the critical load, the structure de-

forms into a buckled conﬁguration which is adjacent to

the original conﬁguration. For example, the Euler col-

umn pictured will start to bow when loaded slightly above

its critical load, but will not suddenly collapse.

In structures experiencing limit point instability, if the

load is increased inﬁnitesimally beyond the critical load,

the structure undergoes a large deformation into a diﬀer-

ent stable conﬁguration which is not adjacent to the orig-

inal conﬁguration. An example of this type of buckling

is a toggle frame (pictured) which 'snaps’ into its buckled

conﬁguration.

6 Bicycle wheels

A conventional bicycle wheel consists of a thin rim kept

under high compressive stress by the (roughly normal) in-

ward pull of a large number of spokes. It can be consid-

ered as a loaded column that has been bent into a cir-

cle. If spoke tension is increased beyond a safe level,

the wheel spontaneously fails into a characteristic saddle

shape (sometimes called a “taco” or a extquotedblpringle

extquotedbl) like a three-dimensional Euler column. This

is normally a purely elastic deformation and the rim will

resume its proper plane shape if spoke tension is reduced

slightly.

7 Surface materials

Sun kink in rail tracks

Buckling is also a failure mode in pavement materials,

primarily with concrete, since asphalt is more ﬂexible.

Radiant heat from the sun is absorbed in the road sur-

face, causing it to expand, forcing adjacent pieces to push

against each other. If the stress is great enough, the

pavement can lift up and crack without warning. Going

over a buckled section can be very jarring to automobile

drivers, described as running over a speed hump at high-

way speeds.

Similarly, rail tracks also expand when heated, and can

fail by buckling, a phenomenon called sun kink. It is

more common for rails to move laterally, often pulling

the underlain railroad ties (sleepers) along.

8 Energy method

Often it is very diﬃcult to determine the exact buckling

load in complex structures using the Euler formula, due

to the diﬃculty in deciding the constant K. Therefore,

6 12 DYNAMIC BUCKLING

maximum buckling load often is approximated using en-

ergy conservation. This way of calculating the maximum

buckling load is often referred to as the energy method in

structural analysis.

The ﬁrst step in this method is to suggest a displacement

function. This function must satisfy the most important

boundary conditions, such as displacement and rotation.

The more accurate the displacement function, the more

accurate the result.

In this method, there are two equations used (for small

deformations) to approximate the “inner” energy (the po-

tential energy stored in elastic deformation of the struc-

ture) and “outer” energy (the work done on the system by

external forces).

U

inner

=

E

2

∫

I(x)(w

xx

(x))

2

dx

U

outer

=

P

Crit

2

∫

(w

x

(x))

2

dx

where w(x) is the displacement function and the sub-

scripts x and xx refer to the ﬁrst and second derivatives

of the displacement. Energy conservation yields:

U

Inner

= U

Outer

9 Flexural-torsional buckling

Occurs in compression members only and it can be de-

scribed as a combination of bending and twisting of a

member. And it must be considered for design purposes,

since the shape and cross sections are very critical. This

mostly occurs in channels, structural tees, double-angle

shapes, and equal-leg single angles.

10 Lateral-torsional buckling

When a simply supported beam is loaded in ﬂexure, the

top side is in compression, and the bottom side is in

tension. When a slender member is subjected to an axial

force, failure takes place due to bending or torsion rather

than direct compression of the material. If the beam is

not supported in the lateral direction (i.e., perpendicular

to the plane of bending), and the ﬂexural load increases

to a critical limit, the beam will fail due to lateral buck-

ling of the compression ﬂange. In wide-ﬂange sections,

if the compression ﬂange buckles laterally, the cross sec-

tion will also twist in torsion, resulting in a failure mode

known as lateral-torsional buckling.

10.1 The modiﬁcation factor (Cb)

where

M

max

M

A

M

B

M

C

11 Plastic buckling

Buckling will generally occur slightly before the calcu-

lated elastic buckling strength of a structure, due to non-

linear behavior of the material. When the compressive

load is near the buckling load, the structure will bow sig-

niﬁcantly and the material of the column will diverge

from a linear stress-strain behavior. The stress-strain

behavior of materials is not strictly linear even below

yield, and the modulus of elasticity decreases as stress in-

creases, and signiﬁcantly so as the stresses approach the

yield strength. This lower rigidity reduces the buckling

strength of the structure and causes at a load less than that

predicted by the assumption of lineal elastic behavior.

A more accurate approximation of the buckling load can

be had by the use of the tangent modulus of elasticity, E,

in place of the elastic modulus of elasticity. The tangent

modulus is a line drawn tangent to the stress-strain curve

at a particular value of strain. Plots of the tangent modu-

lus of elasticity for a variety of materials are available in

standard references.

12 Dynamic buckling

If a column is loaded suddenly and then the load re-

leased, the column can sustain a much higher load than

its static (slowly applied) buckling load. This can happen

in a long, unsupported column (rod) used as a drop ham-

mer. The duration of compression at the impact end is the

time required for a stress wave to travel up the rod to the

other (free) end and back down as a relief wave. Maxi-

mumbuckling occurs near the impact end at a wavelength

much shorter than the length of the rod, and at a stress

many times the buckling stress of a statically-loaded col-

umn. The critical condition for buckling amplitude to

remain less than about 25 times the eﬀective rod straight-

ness imperfection at the buckle wavelength is

σL = ρc

2

h

where σ is the impact stress, Lis the length of the rod, c is

the elastic wave speed, and h is the smaller lateral dimen-

sion of a rectangular rod. Because the buckle wavelength

depends only on σ and h , this same formula holds for

thin cylindrical shells of thickness h .

[12]

7

13 Buckling of thin cylindrical

shells subject to axial loads

Solutions of Donnell’s eight order diﬀerential equation

gives the various buckling modes of a thin cylinder under

compression. But this analysis, which is in accordance

with the small deﬂection theory gives much higher val-

ues than shown from experiments. So it is customary to

ﬁnd the critical buckling load for various structures which

are cylindrical in shape from pre-existing design curves

where critical buckling load Fᵣ is plotted against the ra-

tio R/t, where R is the radius and t is the thickness of

the cylinder for various values of L/R, L the length of the

cylinder. If cut-outs are present in the cylinder, critical

buckling loads as well as pre-buckling modes will be af-

fected. Presence or absence of reinforcements of cut-outs

will also aﬀect the buckling load.

14 Buckling of pipes and pressure

vessels subject to external over-

pressure

Pipes and pressure vessels subject to external overpres-

sure, caused for example by steamcooling within the pipe

and condensing into water with subsequent massive pres-

sure drop, risk buckling due to compressive hoop stresses.

Design rules for calculation of the required wall thick-

ness or reinforcement rings are given in various piping

and pressure vessel codes.

15 See also

• Perry Robertson formula

• Stiﬀening

• Wood method

• Yoshimura buckling

16 References

[1] Kato, K. (1915). “Mathematical Investigation on the Me-

chanical Problems of Transmission Line”. Journal of the

Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers 19: 41.

[2] Ratzersdorfer, Julius (1936). Die Knickfestigkeit von

Stäben und Stabwerken. Wein, Austria: J. Springer. pp.

107–109.

[3] Cox, Steven J.; C. Maeve McCarthy (1998). “The

Shape of the Tallest Column”. Society for In-

dustrial and Applied Mathematics 29: 547–554.

doi:10.1137/s0036141097314537.

[4] D. Zaccaria, D. Bigoni, G. Noselli and D. Misseroni,

Structures buckling under tensile dead load. Proceedings

of the Royal Society A, 2011, 467, 1686-1700.

[5] D. Bigoni, D. Misseroni, G. Noselli and D. Zaccaria, Ef-

fects of the constraint’s curvature on structural instability:

tensile buckling and multiple bifurcations. Proceedings of

the Royal Society A, 2012, doi:10.1098/rspa.2011.0732.

[6] Bigoni, D. Nonlinear Solid Mechanics: Bifurcation The-

ory and Material Instability. Cambridge University Press,

2012 . ISBN 9781107025417.

[7] D. Bigoni and G. Noselli, Experimental evidence of ﬂut-

ter and divergence instabilities induced by dry friction.

Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 2011, 59,

2208–2226.

[8] “A general theory of elastic stability” By J. M. T. Thomp-

son & G. W. Hunt, Wiley, 1973

[9] “Buckling of Bars, Plates, and Shells” By Robert M. Jones

[10] “Observations on eigenvalue buckling analysis within a ﬁ-

nite element context” by Christopher J. Earls

[11] http://dcist.com/2012/07/excessive_heat_probable_

cause_in_gr.php

[12] Lindberg, H. E., and Florence, A. L., Dynamic Pulse

Buckling, Martinus Nijhoﬀ Publishers, 1987, pp. 11–56,

297–298.

• Timoshenko, S. P., and Gere, J. M., Theory of Elas-

tic Stability, 2 ed., McGraw-Hill, 1961.

• Nenezich, M., Thermoplastic ContinuumMechanics,

Journal of Aerospace Structures, Vol. 4, 2004.

• The Stability of Elastic Equilibriumby W. T. Koiter,

PhD Thesis, 1945.

• Dhakal Rajesh and Koichi Maekawa (October

2002). “Reinforcement Stability and Fracture of

Cover Concrete in Reinforced Concrete Members”.

• Willian T. Segui (2007). “Steel Design” Fourth Edi-

tion. United States. Chris Carson.

• Analysis and design of ﬂight vehicle structures-

E.F.Brune

17 External links

• The complete theory and example experimental

results for long columns are available as a 39-

page PDF document at http://lindberglce.com/tech/

buklbook.htm

• Laboratory for Physical Modeling of Structures and

Photoelasticity (University of Trento, Italy)

• http://www.midasuser.com.tw/t_support/tech_

pds/files/Tech%20Note-Lateral%20Torsional%

20Buckling.pdf

8 18 TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

18 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

18.1 Text

• Buckling Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buckling?oldid=619939216 Contributors: The Anome, Edward, Michael Hardy, Ronz,

Mulad, Charles Matthews, Cutler, Giftlite, Christopherlin, Simian, Bristoleast, Quadell, Antandrus, Rogerzilla, Sonett72, Imroy, Rich

Farmbrough, Mecanismo, Nk, Slipperyweasel, PAR, UpstateNYer, Snowolf, TVBZ28, Spindustrious, Netkinetic, Firsfron, AshishG,

JamesBurns, Rjwilmsi, Ahnielsen, Parutakupiu, Alangstone, RussBot, Ytrottier, Kirill Lokshin, ReddyRose, Laos, Sjhan81, Little Savage,

A13ean, SmackBot, Redmess, Bluebot, Yimapo, Chlewbot, OrphanBot, Cdickof, Bejnar, Ceoil, Hemmingsen, Peterlewis, Gregorydavid,

DavesTA, Studi111, Wiki17, Tarchon, Ale jrb, Basar, Csh314159, Herb Lindberg, Agentilini, Grahams Child, Thijs!bot, Mathmoclaire,

Hongwei77, AndrewDressel, Hazmat2, Headbomb, Tdogg241, MER-C, Galvanist, R'n'B, CommonsDelinker, Cadwaladr, KylieTastic, In-

wind, Nico77, BoJosley, Squids and Chips, Barneca, Corvus cornix, C. Raleigh, Kallog, AllHailZeppelin, Dolphin51, ClueBot, PipepBot,

Bbanerje, Baxtrom, Christofogus, Moberg, Kmellem, Crowsnest, Addbot, Power.corrupts, AVand, CanadianLinuxUser, MrOllie, ينام,

Jarble, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Ciphers, Piano non troppo, Materialscientist, AdmiralProudmore, Thehelpfulbot, Awadee, Sławomir Biały,

Pinethicket, Foobarnix, Brambleclawx, RjwilmsiBot, Herbert E Lindberg, John of Reading, WikitanvirBot, Dimsa, Mmeijeri, Josve05a,

Paulcbrand, Tolly4bolly, Amv9-NJITWILL, ClueBot NG, Editor randy, SSMG-ITALY, Flyingdreams, ScottSteiner, Tholme, Mwregehr,

Registreernu, McZusatz, Mark Arsten, Mn-imhotep, Zedshort, Hghyux, Gestrella-NJITWILL, Mogism, Jamesx12345, Richardunique,

AresLiam, Damontallen, Monkbot, Mkwadee, Bmcginty2 and Anonymous: 143

18.2 Images

• File:Bifurcation_buckling.png Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6f/Bifurcation_buckling.png License: Pub-

lic domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Kallog

• File:Buckled_column.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/43/Buckled_column.svg License: Public domain

Contributors:

• Buckled_column.png Original artist: Buckled_column.png: Original uploader was Spindustrious at en.wikipedia

• File:Buckledmodel.JPG Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/69/Buckledmodel.JPG License: CC-BY-SA-3.0

Contributors: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Buckledmodel.JPG Original artist: Grahams Child

• File:Buckling_beam_element.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/24/Buckling_beam_element.svg License:

Public domain Contributors: Original uploader’s own work Original artist: Baxtron (creator and/or uploader)

• File:Buckling_curvature_2.gif Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6e/Buckling_curvature_2.gif License: CC-

BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: SSMG-ITALY

• File:Continuous_model_tensile_buckling.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e6/Continuous_model_

tensile_buckling.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: SSMG-ITALY

• File:Deformed_shapes.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7c/Deformed_shapes.jpg License: CC-BY-3.0

Contributors: http://ssmg.ing.unitn.it Original artist: SSMG-ITALY

• File:Limit_point_instability.png Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0e/Limit_point_instability.png License:

Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Kallog

• File:Saddle-node-animation.gif Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ee/Saddle-node-animation.gif License:

CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Mkwadee

• File:Sketch_curvature_1.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/25/Sketch_curvature_1.jpg License: CC-BY-

SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: SSMG-ITALY

• File:Spoorspatting_Landgraaf.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a1/Spoorspatting_Landgraaf.jpg Li-

cense: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: http://www.railpedia.nl/display/test/Spoorspatting, uploaded by Sonett72 at English Wikipedia Origi-

nal artist: Railpedia.nl

• File:Subcritical.gif Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/16/Subcritical.gif License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors:

Own work Original artist: Mkwadee

• File:Supercritical.gif Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ed/Supercritical.gif License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contrib-

utors: Own work Original artist: Mkwadee

• File:Transcritical-animation.gif Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4b/Transcritical-animation.gif License:

CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Mkwadee

• File:Ziegler_column.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/27/Ziegler_column.jpg License: CC-BY-3.0

Contributors: http://ssmg.ing.unitn.it Original artist: SSMG-ITALY

18.3 Content license

• Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0

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