Contents

Introduction Electricity in Pakistan Reasons Effects Government policies Solutions

A crucial stage or turning point in the course of something is called crisis. Pakistan is facing crises in electricity. Electricity is important because..... Electricity is a oxygen of economic life and its shortage can seriously danger the economic development It is the most reliable indicator in term economic development of its per capita consumption of electrical energy Because of the continuous and rapid growth in population, urbanization and industrialization in Pakistan in recent years, the demand for electric power is much greater than its production. This has resulted in serious electrical crises in Pakistan.

Electricity in Pakistan
Electricity in Pakistan is generated, transmitted, distributed and retail supplied by vertically integrated public sector utilities Electric supply companies in Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) Karachi Electric Supply Corporation (KESC) Faisalabad Electric Supply Company Gujranwala Electric Power Company Hub Power Company Hyderabad Electric Supply Company Islamabad Electric Supply Company Kot Addu Power Company Lahore Electric Supply Company Multan Electric Power Company Peshawar Electric Power Company Quetta Electric Supply Company Tribal Electric Supply Company

Dams in Pakistan Total dams
Misriot Dam Tanaza Dam Tarbela Dam Mangla Dam Warsak

Ongoing projects
Gomal Zam Dam Project Mirani Dam Project Mangla Dam Raising Project Sabakzai Dam Project Satpara Dam Project

Future projects
Diamer Basha Dam project Kurram Tangi Dam Project Munda Dam Project Akhori Dam Project

Energy data of Hydel power in Pakistan

Installed capacity
Electricity - total installed capacity: 19,505 MW (2007) Electricity - Sources (2007) fossil fuel - 12,580 MW - 65% of total hydro - 6,463 MW - 33% of total nuclear - 462 MW - 2% of total

Electricity production
Electricity - production: 88.42 TWh (2005) Electricity - production by source (2003) fossil fuel: 63.7% of total hydro: 33.9% of total nuclear: 2.4% of total

Electricity consumption
Electricity - consumption: 74.62 TWh (2004) Electricity - exports: 0% Electricity - imports: 0% Electricity Consumption per Capita = 345.00 kWh/capita

Reasons of Electricity crisis in Pakistan

Pakistan is dying out of load shedding: Load shedding is actually destroying the economy of the country. Small industry . Large industry. There are around 16 independent power producers that contributes significantly in electricity generation in Pakistan. Balancing Pakistan's supply against the demand for electricity has remained a largely unresolved matter. Pakistan faces a significant challenge in revamping its network responsible for the supply of electricity.

Alternatives of load shedding

Government policies
The government has devised a three-month action plan for the summer season, and claims that an additional cumulative 1,000 MW to 1,500 MW power would be generated. Implementation of the plan, if pursued earnestly, could reduce the present daily load shedding by one to two hours It is envisaged that 2,200 MW would be added to the system by end April next year and, subsequently, a total of 6,000 MW by end December. This is too tall a claim. The existing availability of power in the WAPDA/PEPCO system in December 2009 will be 10,300 MW, whereas demand is projected at 16,200 MW. This results in power deficit of 5,900 MW. To meet this shortfall, it is planned to add to the existing system 1,200 MW from PEPCO thermal power units, 1,270 MW through the IPPs, 1,200 MW from the rental power facilities (PEPCO) and another 150 MW from hydropower (WAPDA). PEPCO is currently implementing the Power Transmission Enhancement Investment Programme, at a total cost of $800 million, aiming at rehabilitation and expansion of 220 and 500 kV transmission systems. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is financing the project. Govt. has also in talks to import new power generation units from China and Tajikstan. Also, the World Bank has agreed to partially finance another project titled the Electricity Distribution and Transmission Improvement Project, which is in the pipeline, costing about $310 million. These projects will require at least three years to complete.

Demand and Supply of electricity in Pakistan Demand of electricity
Pakistan's current installed capacity is around 19,845 MW PEPCO blames independent power producers (IPPs) for the electricity crisis They have been able to give PEPCO only 3,800 MW on average out of 5,800 MW

Supply of electricity
Total supply of electricity is very low At present total power production capacity in the country is about 19,500 MW, out of which Hydra Power is only 6,500 MW approximately, balance of 13,000 MW is thermal either using Natural Gas or Furnace Oil. Small capacity of 450 MW is Nuclear and only 150 MW is through coal.
Electricity Production (billion kWh) Electricity Consumption (billion kWh) % Urban % Rural Population w. Electricity Rural Electricity Consumption (Per Capita) Urban Electricity Consumption (Per Capita) 80 74.6 34% 64% 33% N/A 425 kWh

Demand and Supply of electricity in Pakistan Supply and Demand position:2008-2020(MW)
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020

Existing 15,903 15,903 Generation Proposal 530 4,235

15,903

15,903

15,903

15,903 15,903

15,903

15,903

15,903

15,903

15,903

15,903

7,226

10,115

10,556

13,307 13,520

14,607

16,134

18,448

18,448

18,448

18,448

Total Existing

16,484 20,138

23,129

26,018

26,459

29,210 29,423

30,510

32,037

34,351

34,351

34,351

34,351

Expected 13,146 16,110 Available Generation Demand 16,484 17,868

18,503

20,814

21,167

23,368 23,538

24,408

25,630

27,481

27,481

27,481

27,481

19,352

20,874

22,460

24,126 25,919

28,029

30,223

35,504

34,918

37,907

41,132

Surplus

-3,338 -1,758

-849

-60

-1,293

-758

-2,381

-3,621

-4,593

-8,023

-7,437

-10,426 -13,651

Solutions of electricity crisis in Pakistan Solutions by Government

Steps that should be taken

Conclusion of electricity crisis in Pakistan

When this crisis will be finished???

References
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electricity_sector_in_Pakistan http://www.blurtit.com/q252864.html http://www.cssforum.com.pk/css-compulsory-subjects/currentaffairs/current-affairs-notes/4082-energy-crisis-pakistan.html http://www.daily.pk/business/businessnews/9478-tajikistan-offers-toexport-electricity-to-pakistan.html http://www.crss.pk/weekly_roundup/we10feb08.pdf Power Sector in Pakistan Renewable Energy Sector Supply and Demand Position 2008 – 2020 http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_solutions_of_the_electricity_crisis _in_Pakistan http://wiki.answers. http://www.geo.tv/1-2-2009/31802.htm http://www.aaj.tv/news/Latest/24_detail.html http://www.nation.com.pk/pakistan-news-newspaper-daily-englishonline/Regional/Islamabad/02-Jan-2009/Sherry-Rehman-blames-waterresources-for-loadshedding

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