96 views

Uploaded by api-252257366

- Aisc - Facts 3 - Seismic
- 06 Earth_ Quake_ Tips
- 255 39 Solutions Instructor Manual All Chapters
- 2713_Other200104GujaratEQTR0101
- HF and Seismic Activity Report v2
- Earth quake research pdf
- 4 What is Seismology
- Earthquake Ground Motions at Soft Soil Sites
- Matlab Exercise 1
- GAIN
- i5710747General Studies Previous Paper 2001
- The Strength of Acids and Alkalis
- Ansary
- ZAMPINI_et_al-2004-Journal_of_Sensory_Studies.pdf
- 19514 Active Earth Poster
- Spectrum-Analysis-Primer-Part-11.pdf
- ACOUSTICS.pdf
- RTWP
- unit 4 cover sheet homework packet fall 2016
- Vibration Limits

You are on page 1of 7

Scientists: (Physicists, Geologists, Seismologists, Biologists) Logarithmic scales, logarithmic reexpression, and solving exponential equations (especially in the area of growth and decay).

Engineers: Logarithmic scales, logarithmic re-expression of data, integrals involving the reciprocal

function, and solving exponential equations.

Statisticians: Logarithic re-expression of data, statistical models (especially the Poisson distribution),

and solving exponential equations.

APPLICATIONS OF LOGARITHMS:

One of the most common examples that we have already looked at in class is for solving exponential equations.

There are a couple of other applications of logarithms that we will be looking into as part of this activity. They

include logarithmic scales and logarithmic re-expression of data.

LOGARITHMIC SCALES: A logarithmic scale is a scale of measurement that uses the logarithm of a physical quantity

instead of the quantity itself. A logarithmic scale is one which increases in real terms by a factor of 10, for every

increase in the scale of 1. For example a logarithmic scale of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, in fact represents values of 1, 10, 100,

1000, 10000.

THE RICHTER SCALE: Logarithmic scale for measuring earthquake magnitude. A magnitude 7.0 earthquake

generates 10 times larger amplitude waves than those of a magnitude 6.0, and releases 32 times more energy.

The Richter Scale was developed in 1935 by California seismologist Charles Richter. The magnitude on the Richter

Scale is given as follows:

is the energy released by a very

small reference earthquake, which has been standardized to be

joules.

Example 1: The 1906 San Francisco earthquake released approximately

joules of energy. Another

quake struck the Bay Area just before game 3 of the 1989 World Series, releasing

joules of

energy. Find the magnitude of each of the earthquakes on the Richter scale.

How many times more energy did the 1906 earthquake release than the one in 1989?

where I is the intensity of the earthquake (measured by the amplitude of a seismograph reading taken 100 km

from the epicenter of the earthquake) and is the intensity of a zero-level earthquake (whose amplitude is 1

micron or

cm)

Example 2: Given the following hypothetical seismographic readings, try to plot the numbers on a number line.

What problem do you encounter?

0.003

12.7

0.02

1999

0.6

332

Compute the Richter scale magnitude for each of the readings given above. Plot these numbers on a

number line. Why does this work better than the first set of numbers?

Example 3: How many times more severe was the 2001 earthquake in Gujarat, India (R = 7.9) than the 1999

earthquake in Athens, Greece (R = 5.9)?

pH: (from potential of Hydrogen) the logarithm of the reciprocal of hydrogen-ion concentration in gram atoms per

liter; provides a measure on a scale from 0 to 14 of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution (where 7 is neutral and

greater than 7 is more basic and less than 7 is more acidic)

[

where [

Example 1: Some especially sour vinegar has a pH of 2.4 and a box of Leg and Sickle baking soda has a pH of 8.4.

What are their hydrogen-ion concentrations?

How many times greater is the hydrogen-ion concentration of the vinegar than that of the baking

soda?

SOUND INTENSITY: the rate at which energy is being carried by a sound wave through a given area. It has the unit

of Watts per square meter (W/m). Intensity is the amount of energy transmitted per second over an area of a

square meter.

Humans are able to detect sound intensity as low as the threshold 10 W/m and as high as an upper limit of 1.0

W/m, a figure above which we experience pain or damage to hearing. This enormous range of hearing for the

human ear is, in fact, sensitivity best represented by a logarithmic scale. A sound level scale may be derived that

compares the intensity of sound, I W/m, with a reference value selected as the threshold of sound, W/m

Increasing the sound intensity by a factor of

100 raises its level by 20 dB

1,000 raises its level by 30 dB

10,000 raises its level by 40 dB

and so on

The decibel, named after the inventor of the telephone, Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922) is defined as follows:

watts/

watts /

where dB is the decibel level of the sound, I is the intensity of the sound measured in watts per square meter, and

is the intensity of the least audible sound that an average healthy young person can hear (standardized to be

). We convert to decibels since the range of sound intensities is so large.

Example 1: Find the number of decibels from a whisper with sound intensity

then from heavy traffic at

How many times larger is the sound intensity of heavy traffic compared to the whisper?

Example 2: A high sound level of 120 dB is regarded as the threshold of pain for the average listener. What is the

corresponding intensity?

If a listener is exposed to this sound level of 120 dB at a distance of 10 m from the source, to what

value would the sound level fall if they moved a further 10 m away?

ROCKET FLIGHT: The theory of rocket flight uses advanced mathematics and physics to show that the velocity v of

a rocket at burnout (depletion of fuel supply) is given by:

is the burnout weight (structure and payload).

kilometers per second. Would this rocket reach a launch velocity of 9.0 kilometers per

second?

LOGARITHMIC RE-EXPRESSION OF DATA: Data pairs (

can be linearized through the process of logarithmic re-expression.

Regression Type

Natural Logarithmic Regression Re-expressed

Exponential Regression Re-expressed

Power Regression Re-expressed

(x,y)

(ln x, y)

(x,y)

(x, ln y)

(x,y)

(ln x, ln y)

Example 1: Determine whether the following data can be best modeled by logarithmic, exponential, or power

regression. Find the appropriate regression model.

x

1

2

3

4

5

6

y

2

5

10

17

26

38

Example 2: Keplers Third Law of Motion states that the square of the orbit period T for each planet is proportional

to the cube of its average distance a from the Sun.

Planet Average Distance from Sun (Gm) Period of Orbit (days)

Mercury

57.9

88

Venus

108.2

225

Earth

149.6

365.2

Mars

227.9

687

Jupiter

778.3

4,332

Saturn

1427

10,760

Source: Shupe, Dorr, Payne, Hunsiker, et al., National Geographic Atlas of the World

(rev. 6th ed.). Washington, DC: National Geographic Society, 1992. plate 116.

Planet Average Distance from Sun (AU)

Mercury

0.387

Venus

0.7233

Earth

1

Mars

1.523

Jupiter

5.203

Saturn

9.539

0.241

0.6161

1

1.881

11.86

29.46

Source: Re-expression of data from: Shupe, et al., National Geographic Atlas of the

World (rev. 6th ed.). Washington, DC: National Geographic Society, 1992. plate 116.

View the scatter plots for both sets of data given above and compare the shape of the plots. Note any similarities

and/or differences.

) pairs. Rewrite the linear regression in terms of a

Re-express the (

and T, and rewrite the equation in a form with no logarithms or fractional exponents.

PROBLEMS:

1.

A recent earthquake in San Francisco measured 7.1 on the Richter scale. How many times more intense

was the San Francisco earthquake earlier in the century that measured 8.3 on the Richter scale?

2.

If one earthquake is 25 times as intense as another, how much larger is its magnitude on the Richter

scale?

3.

A person wears a hearing aid that uniformly increases the intensity level of all audible frequencies of

sound by 30 dB. The hearing aid picks up a sound having a frequency of 250 Hz at an intensity of

4.

The toadfish makes use of resonance in a closed tube to produce very loud sounds. The tube is its swim

bladder used as an amplifier. The sound level of this creature has been measured at 100 dB. Calculate

the intensity of the sound wave emitted.

- Aisc - Facts 3 - SeismicUploaded byHalleith1875
- 06 Earth_ Quake_ TipsUploaded byArun Goyal
- 255 39 Solutions Instructor Manual All ChaptersUploaded bysaravkiru
- 2713_Other200104GujaratEQTR0101Uploaded byKarunyamaya
- HF and Seismic Activity Report v2Uploaded bydownbuliao
- Earth quake research pdfUploaded byMiiss Pooja
- 4 What is SeismologyUploaded byapurvakj
- Earthquake Ground Motions at Soft Soil SitesUploaded byJớm Tisang
- Matlab Exercise 1Uploaded bymaheshluintel
- GAINUploaded bysahabatnoah
- i5710747General Studies Previous Paper 2001Uploaded bypratyo
- The Strength of Acids and AlkalisUploaded byadah89
- AnsaryUploaded bydhamodharan24
- ZAMPINI_et_al-2004-Journal_of_Sensory_Studies.pdfUploaded byGiancarlo Palomino Cama
- 19514 Active Earth PosterUploaded byDenise Kale
- Spectrum-Analysis-Primer-Part-11.pdfUploaded byFredy
- ACOUSTICS.pdfUploaded byCharles Harvey Cabrezos Daabay
- RTWPUploaded byGanesh Pal Singh
- unit 4 cover sheet homework packet fall 2016Uploaded byapi-328105463
- Vibration LimitsUploaded byJaleel Claasen
- Seismic waves.pdfUploaded byravichandra
- Myanmar• Earthquake in Shan State Situation Report No. 5 30 March 2011Uploaded byPaw Siriluk Sriprasit
- 328159108-4C-26R-AMPHENOL-6878300.pdfUploaded byMartín Córdoba Getar
- ReviewerUploaded byZhtem Cruzada
- M7_L2_FinalUploaded byUrban EcoLab Curriculum
- Power EquationsUploaded byMark Mach Allen
- Represents a Measure of UMTS Technology_RTWPUploaded byBui Thanh Khiet
- Section 3.1Uploaded bySubramanyam Hindustani
- sUploaded byrameshchandsoni01574
- Paper 1Uploaded byShou Zheng

- chapter 2 review answersUploaded byapi-252257366
- edu 6235 - plan for assessmentUploaded byapi-252257366
- edu 6235 - credit - compensationUploaded byapi-252257366
- edu 6235 - research baseUploaded byapi-252257366
- edu 6235 - professional standardsUploaded byapi-252257366
- edu 6235 - budgetUploaded byapi-252257366
- edu 6235 - vision statementUploaded byapi-252257366
- edu 6235 - district-building-individual opportunitiesUploaded byapi-252257366
- edu 6235 - course outlineUploaded byapi-252257366
- edu 6235 - professional development plan - formative assessmentUploaded byapi-252257366
- edu 6235 - videos and tutorialsUploaded byapi-252257366

- 2016_Text Book of Clinical Pharmacognosy Dr. Mansoor Ahmad Karachi UiversityUploaded byAmini Mohammad Humayoon
- SWOT Analysis of ICICI BankSWOT Analysis is Done for AUploaded bycrazysibbu11
- Operations Management 2010 April (2006 Ad)Uploaded byV
- medical-lavana.docxUploaded byAbhilashPadmanabhan
- EmpireofNeoMemorybyHeribertoYepez.pdfUploaded bydiazbarbaradiaz
- 125760133 Buckling of Thin Metal Shells 296Uploaded bypawkom
- As 60068.2.31-2003 Environmental Testing Tests - Test Ec- Drop and Topple Primarily for Equiment-type SpecimeUploaded bySAI Global - APAC
- LogUploaded bybcdchetan
- Lab InstrumentsUploaded bySoma Ghosh
- MT600BUploaded byStaman1988
- Installation Guide for Oracle f 3 Ssc sUploaded byJuan Aguilar
- h55mxv_enUploaded byWirhanuddin Iskandar
- armstrong pumpUploaded byrogel_gana
- A Review on Grid-Connected PV SystemUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- TF - AUD THEOUploaded byCarl Bryan Aberin
- Asch, M., Levi-Strauss and the Political. The Elementary Structures of Kinship and the Resolution of Relations between Indigenous People and Settler states.docUploaded bymiguel_henriques1112
- J HB TDSUploaded bywey5316
- area 51Uploaded byNechitaCosmin
- Acne Vulgaris Epidermal BarrierUploaded bytheffany
- Ug AltclockUploaded byMatthew Perez
- a3 syllabusUploaded byapi-285897975
- Web 2.0 Weekly - Jan. 19, 2010Uploaded bydamianwoj
- StQaFinalUploaded byVipul Sharma
- frekvencije kanalaUploaded byAnadin Ane Džinić
- PD Physical ExaminationsUploaded byLouie Figueroa
- EDA585 School Excellence Plan All Parts ArguellesUploaded bypatrickarguelles
- Church Stewardship IdeasUploaded byBrian Kluth
- Titu HaraziUploaded bydplotnick
- cubliCDC13Uploaded byDenis Dantas
- Part 5 - HTML 5 Drag and Drop, GeoLocationUploaded bySteve Fort