SCULDER   Institute  for  the  Study  of  Mind,  Drugs  and  Behaviour   Loyola  University  Medical  Centre   2160  S.  First  Avenue   Maywood,  Ill.  60253  

  A  series  of  experiments  are  presented  which  have  provided  rigorously  quantified   and  carefully  analyzed  data  on  the  behaviour  of  small,  fluorescent,  plastic  cubes   of   varying   size   and   weight   in   an   environment   of   organic   complexity.   These   variables  have  been  studied  as  to  their  effects  on  the  psychomotor  activity  of  the   cubes,   on   the   social   behaviour   of   the   basic   units,   and   on   the   evolution,   the   affinities,  drives  and  Intelligence  of  the  cubes.     A   new   point   of   view   regarding   the   behaviour   of   richly   connected   systems   is   expressed.   The   data   suggest   that   there   are   errors   caused   by   the   dogmatic   separation   of   scientific   disciplines   and   strongly   favours   a   metagoal   of   trans-­‐ cultural,  trans-­‐world  unity  of  science.  

  The   series   of   experiments   reported   here   represent   more   than   eight   years   of   research.  However,  none  of  the  data  have  been  published  previously.  The  work   has   been   carried   cut   with   difficulty   in   that   the   necessary   funds   were   from   personal   contributions   of   the   author   and   motivated   graduate   students.   An   initial   tentative  grant  request  in  regard  to  the  project  was  not  permitted  to  pass  beyond   the   chairman’s   desk   and   caused   such   emotional,   vindictive   and   threatening   behaviour  on  the  part  of  the  establishment  that  much  of  this  work  has  had  to  be   carried  out  secretly.  Only  the  virtues  of  the  tenure  system  permitted  the  analysts   and  presentation  of  this  data.     This   laboratory   has   been   engaged   for   many   years   in   studies   on   mouse   behaviouri,ii.  A  serious,  no-­‐nonsense  consideration  of  the  concepts  on  which  our   behavioural,   theories   were   based   promoted   the   investigation   reported   here.   In   our   everyday   conversations   in   the   laboratory   we   had   a   natural   enough   tendency   to   let   the   concepts   of   our   professed   field   (behaviour)   soul   over   to   our   descriptions   of   the   behaviour   of   “inanimate”   things;   and   we   found   ourselves   deep  in  information  theory,  systems  theory,  Gestalt  theory,  etc.  when  we  tried  to   establish  the  validity  of  the  assumptions  underlying  our  initial  points  of  view  and   to   pin-­‐point   the   rationale   behind   the   classical   constructs   of   animal   psychology   which  we  used  to  speak  about  the  mice  under  investigationiii.    

We   came   to   view   the   organism   as   a   behavioural   system   that   mirrored   aspects   of   the  environmental  reality;  and  we  began  to  wonder  which  was  the  reflection  of   which,   e.g.,   did   the   adaptive   intelligent   animal   reflect   the   environment   or   did   the   environment   reflect   the   animal?   Feedback   apparently   was   involved   in   the   simplest  motor  act.  The  mice  acted  upon  things  as  a  result  of  things  acting  upon   them;  and  the  stimulus  was  modified  by  the  actions  of  the  mouse-­‐actions  that  it   (the   stimulus)   caused.   An   on-­‐going   developmental   situation   existed   for   which   there  was  neither  a  be-­‐ginning  nor  an  end  but  rather,  in  most  cases,  there  was  a   dyadic  relation-­‐ship  as  follows:             Environment   Mouse     A   B           A  is  an  event  (or  series  of  events)  of  a  system  external  to  the  mouse  and  affecting   it,   and   B   is   an   event   (or   series   of   events)   within   the   mouse   affecting   the   other   system  so  as  to  modify  A.     The   experiments   reported   here   were   conceived   with   only   a   slight   change   in   reference  or  point  of  view.  This  change  in  reference  seemed  reasonable  because   it   appeared   to   us   that   there   was   only   a   convention   directing   us;   and,   possibly,   new  insights  would  be  gained  if  we  ignored  our  conventional,  egocentric,  Judeo-­‐ Christian   philosophy.   The   philosophy   treats   the   world   as   divided   into   animate   and  inanimate  objects  and  maintains  itself  by  rigorously  indoctrinating  us  from   infancy   that   this   dichotomy   has   some   validity.   The   validity   is   enforced   by   suitable  separation  of  terminologies,  concepts,  and  hypotheses  in  use  in  separate   disciplines  studying  one  or  the  other  category.     We  jokingly  referred  to  our  studies  as  the  founding  of  a  new  science  -­‐  “cubology,”   the  study  of  the  behaviour  of  cubes  in  a  complex  organic  medium.  After  we  began   our   research   and   discovered   that   this   was   indeed   a   new   science,   we   began   to   worry  about  its  implication.  In  what  way  were  the  conclusions  that  we  reached   more   silly   and   irrelevant   than   those   of   scientific,   behavioural,   life   sciences   orthodoxy?   The   measurements   are   accurate   and   valid.   The   hypotheses   are   simple,  clear,  and  not  devious;  but  the  overall  implications  are  alarming  in  that   the   principles   and   the   logic   of   cubology   are   those   of   economics,   sociology,   psychology,  or  any  of  the  model-­‐constructing  sciences  of  the  artificial.  

I  Animals  
  The  animals  used  in  these  experiments  were  wild-­‐trapped,  male,  domestic  mice,   Mus   musculus   domesticus.   After   a   two-­‐week   quarantine   period   in   the   environmental   chamber   of   the   laboratory,   the   animals   were   admitted   into   the   cube   chamber   described   below.   They   were   not   further   studied.   The   number   of   male   animals   was   maintained   at   thirty   individuals   in   the   chamber   throughout   each   experiment.   Food   and   water   were   available   ad   libitum   at   the   sides   of   the   chamber  in  small  containers.  

II  Cubes  
  The   work   reported   here   dealt   with   the   behaviour   of   solid   polyethylene   plastic   cubes.   Control   cubes   for   this   study   were   1.5   cm.   on   a   side,   all   the   same   weight   and   solid.   During   certain   studies   either   the   dimensions   or   the   weights   of   the   cubes   were   changed.   If   the   cube   dimensions   were   the   parameter   under   consideration,  2  sizes  of  cubes  differing  from  the  1.5  cm  on  a  side  control  cubes   were  constructed.  These  were  either  1.2  or  1.8  cm  on  a  side.  The  smaller  cubes   were   weighed   with   lead   inserts   re-­‐covered   with   plastic   and   were   of   the   same   weight  as  the  control  cubes.  The  larger  ones  were  partially  hollow  so  that  their   weights  also  equalled  the  control  cubes.  Thus  in  studies  on  the  effect  of  size  on   behaviour,  all  cubes  weighed  the  same.  For  those  studies  involving  the  effect  of   weight   on   behaviour,   the   control   cubes   of   1.5   cm.   dimension   were   hollowed   or   weighed  and  then  recovered  to  all  look  identical  although  they  now  weighs  2,  3   or  4  grams.     All   cubes   were   impregnated   with   fluorescence   that   was   activated   strongly   by   a   dark   light   of   385   milli-­‐microns   and   emitted   fluorescent   light   at   435   milli-­‐ microns.   The   latter   radiation   could   be   recorded   by   means   of   a   camera   as   described  below.     At  the  beginning  of  each  experiment  34,560  cubes  were  admitted  to  the  chamber   described  below  and  placed  equidistant  from  one  another  on  the  floor.  

III  The  Cube  Chamber  

  This  was  a  large  chamber,  6.1  x  3.7  x  2.4  meters  in  size.  It  was  constructed  from   pine  2”  x  4”  studs.  The  entire  chamber  on  the  inside  had  a  lining  of  ¼  inch  wire   netting   forming   the   walls   and   a   ceiling.   The   floor   was   a   smooth   aluminium   sheet   perforated   with   0.5   cm   holes   spaced   ¼   cm   apart.   These   holes   allowed   faeces,   food   particles,   and   urine   to   fall   from   the   chamber   but   did   not   permit   escape   of   the  cubes  and  provided  a  smooth  solid  base  for  their  activities.  The  chamber  was   maintained   in   a   dark   room   at   22oC.   ±   1.3o   with   a   light-­‐dark   cycle   of   16   hours   daylight.   The   on   time   was   6   a.m.   When   photographed   for   analysis,   the   entire   chamber   was   lit   briefly   with   strong   ultraviolet   radiation   and   all   other   illumination  was  extinguished  briefly  at  that  time.    

A  modified  wide  angle  Minolta  camera  mounted  above  the  chamber  was  used  for   photography.   One   picture   (frame)   of   the   total   field   (floor   of   the   chamber)   was   photographed   at   every   five-­‐minute   interval   throughout   the   experiment.   This   series   of   frames   provided   us   with   a   moment-­‐to-­‐moment   record   of   the   behaviour   of   the   cubes   in   the   presence   of   complex   organic   material.   The   mathematical   analysis   and   quantisation   of   these   data   was   made   possible   by   means   of   a   computer  read-­‐out  of  the  film.  Each  cube  appeared  as  a  point  of  light  and  suitable   programs  allowed  us  to  formulate  the  statistically  relevant  generalities  that  are   presented  here.  

IV  Experimental  paradigm  

  The   basic   experiment   has   already   been   indicated   above.   The   chamber   was   emptied   and   cleaned.   The   34,560   cubes   were   admitted   to   the   chamber   and   placed  equidistant  from  one  another  on  the  floor.  The  mice  were  admitted  to  the   chamber  at  6.00  a.m.  and  the  filming  was  begun  at  this  time  at  the  rate  of  1  frame   every  5  minutes.  Each  experiment  lasted  thirty  days.     Experiments   were   run   using   control;   light,   heavy,   large   and   small   cubes.   Some   experiments  were  also  run  using  an  equally  distributed  population  of  the  three   differently  weighed  cubes  or  the  three  different  sized  cubes.  Mixture  of  weighted   and   sized   cubes   were   not   studied.   The   experiments   were   essentially   simple   in   concept,  although  very  tedious  to  execute.     From   the   motion   pictures   of   each   experiment,   measurements   were   taken;   and   three   basic   kinds   of   behaviour   were   studied:   activity,   ethnology   or   social   behaviour  and  psychology.  The  qualitative  difference  between  these  behaviours   and  the  effects  of  changing  the  two  parameters  of  weight  and  size  on  these  three   behaviours  are  reported  in  the  results  section  below.  

I.  Psychomotor  Activity.  
A.  Control  Cubes.     These   studies   pertained   to   the   overall   amount   of   activity   shown   by   the   control   cubes   without   consideration   of   the   quality.   The   estimates   were   derived   by   super   positioning   with   the   computer   a   fine   grid   over   each   frame   of   the   serial   sequence   of   film   and   analyzing   the   number   of   cubes   crossing   a   line   of   the   grid   within   each   five   minute   unit   of   time.   The   procedure   was   similar   to   that   used   to   record   the   psychomotor   behaviour   of   animals.   The   general   overall   activity   of   the   cubes   analyzed   in   this   way   showed   several   interesting   features.   The   activity,   for   example,   showed   diurnal   rhythm,   an   orientation   reflex   (this   is   a   period   of   heightened  activity  early  in  the  experiment  when  the  cubes  are  unfamiliar  with   the  environment  and  becoming  acquainted  with  each  other),  and  a  tendency  to   stabilize  at  a  certain  constant  activity  level.  (Thermodynamic  equilibrium?)     The  average  daily  psychomotor  activity  taken  from  ten  studies  of  control  cubes  is   shown  in  Figure  1.  There  is  a  clear  indication  that  the  cubes  become  increasingly   frenzied  until  around  the  fifth  day  at  which  time  the  overall  daily  activity  settles   down   to   what   might   be   considered   the   energy   level   of   the   total   population   of   controls.  The  activity  of  the  first  five  days  is  the  orienting  reflex.     Figure   2   shows   a   more   detailed   hour-­‐by-­‐hour   analysis   of   an   average   day’s   activity   from   such   studies.   Data   from   the   first   five   days’   activity   or   orientation   period  have  been  withheld  from  this  analysis.  The  cubes  show  two  distinct  peaks   of  activity  -­‐  one  at  8.00  pm.  and  another  at  4.00  a.m.  Night  time  activities  average   considerably  higher  than  those  during  the  day  when  cubes  appear  to  rest.   B.  The  effect  of  size  on  psychomotor  activity.       Interestingly,   smaller   cubes   were   much   more   active   than   larger   ones.   Although   less   intelligent   (see   analysis   below),   they   showed   both   a   much   higher   level   of   orienting   reflex   and   of   general   activity.   On   the   other   hand,   larger   cubes   were   more  sluggish  and  never  as  highly  active.  (See  Chart  1.)   C.  The  effect  of  weight  on  psychomotor  activity.     Weight   was   found   to   be   an   important   variable   in   that   heavier   cubes   showed   lessened  psychomotor  activity.  Light  cubes  showed  considerable  orienting  reflex   and  activity.  (See  Chart  2)  

II  Ethnology  
A.  Control  Cubes     The   analysis   of   locomotor   behaviour   presented   above   made   no   distinction   among   types   of   behaviours.   Psychomotor   activity   does   not   differentiate   between   a   positive   (social)   and   a   negative   (antisocial)   response   of   one   cube   towards   another.  One  of  the  most  striking  discoveries  of  these  studies  is  the  existence  of   self-­‐organizing   properties   among   the   cubes.   Initially   at   the   beginning   of   each   experiment   the   cubes   are   scattered   equidistant   from   and   symmetrical   with   regard   to   one   another.   If   the   camera   film   is   projected   on   a   screen   at   several   frames  per  second,  a  moving  picture  results  that  makes  it  clearly  evident  that  the   overall  movement  of  the  cubes  is  not  random.  Indeed,  their  effect  on  each  other   and   on   the   organic   constituents   of   the   system   is   such   that   at   unpredictable   intervals  the  cubes  aggregate  at  one  point  or  another  on  the  floor  of  the  chamber.     The  size  of  the  aggregates  varies,  but  the  average  aggregate  of  ten  experiments   was   composed   of   130   cubes   (S.E.   ±   27).   Aggregates   of   the   cubes   wander   as   “tribes”  one  cube  following  the  other,  about  the  cage  floor;  and  they  may  settle  or   disperse.  The  cubes  did  not  often  show  “cueing”  behaviour,  the  usual  effect  was   that   one   cube   would   leave   a   tribe   and   settle   somewhere.   It   would   then   communicate   with   others   of   its   group   and   cause   them   to   follow   and   settle   nearby,   sometimes   a   tribe   was   seen  to  divide  into  several  aggregates  or  one  may   coalesce  with  another  forming  larger  stable  communities.     The   cube   aggregates   present   fascinating   parallels   to   human   colonies   or   civilizations.  After  the  fifth  day  the  tribes  have  stabilized  to  certain  regions  of  the   cage   floor   and   the   attractions   among   unit   cubes   of   each   tribe   seem   more   enduring.   We   have   observed,   however,   on   rare   occasions,   sudden,   unexplained   activity  on  the  part  of  the  cubes  to  form  new  social  relation-­‐ships  and  new  tribes   after  a  period  of  inactivity  by  the  members  of  the  group.  This  begins  when  one   member  ventures  out  and  this  act  promotes  a  rapid  following  by  the  rest  of  the   herd,   one   at   a   time.   It   appears   that   there   is   some   kind   of   seeding   or   catalytic   effect   in   that   if   a   little   group   gets   together,   it   forms   the   nucleus   for   the   organization   or   accumulation   of   other   cubes   to   form   a   larger   aggregate.   There   appears  also  to  be  a  “law  of  exponential  aggregation”  in  that  once  a  small  society   is   formed,   there   is   an   increasingly   rapid   rate   of   accretion   until   some   optimum   size  is  reached  after  which  activity  among  the  involved  cubes  ceases.  Some  cubes   were  observed  to  oscillate,  to  not  settle  down  at  one  place  or  another.  Such  cubes   showed   frenzied   activity   and   instability.   It   is   interesting   that   these   were   the   cubes  that  most  often  ceased  their  restless  search  only  after  they  had  achieved   some   unusual   or   improbable   position   in   the   cage   and   were   therefore   often   the   more  intelligent.  

B.  The  effect  of  cube  size  on  the  quality  of  behaviour.     Both   weight   and   size   affect   the   quality   of   behaviour.   For   example,   among   different-­‐sized   cubes,   like   attracts   like;   e.g.,   cubes   of   a   similar   size   aggregate   together.  Small  cubes  tend  to  show  more  activity  but  move  more  randomly  than   control   cubes;   they   show   less   stability   and   organization.   Larger   cubes   often   aggregate   together   without   much   random   movement   once   a   seed   is   formed.   Their  colonies  are  resistant  to  change.   C.  The  effect  of  weight  on  the  quality  of  behaviour.     When  populations  of  mixed  weighted  cubes  were  studied,  their  discrimination  of   one   another   was   not   found   to   be   as   great   as   that   found   among   cubes   of   different   size.   There   was   a   noted   tendency   for   heavier   cubes   not   to   increase   their   negentropy,   e.g.,   they   were   found   to   aggregate   less   and   therefore   contain   less   structure,   less   information   in   their   groups.   The   control   cubes   and   light-­‐weighted   cubes  occasionally  formed  conglomerate  societies.  

III.  Intelligence.  
  The   above   data   and   that   which   follows   is   admittedly   difficult   to   quantify.   After   the   investigators   had   developed   a   familiarity   with   the   behaviours,   the   entire   sequences  of  film  were  reviewed  and  the  number  of  times  in  each  experiment  a   particular   strategy   was   observed   was   recorded.   The   observations   and   generalities   presented   in   this   pilot   study   are   based   on   these   analyses.   Intelligence   was   estimated   on   the   basis   of   the   frequency   and   degree   of   improbable  and  complex  behaviour.  As  has  been  noted,  the  activity  of  the  small   and   the   light   cubes   was   often   very   great   -­‐   but   it   appeared   random,   almost   like   Brownian  movement.       However,   other   cubes   as   they   moved   about   seemed   to   gather   information,   to   attempt  strangely  unlikely  acts  for  example;  and  (this  was  most  noted  among  the   control   cubes)   the   cubes   occasionally   assumed   three-­‐dimensional   configurations.   E.g.,   one   cube   mounted   another   and   rested   on   it.   Even   piles   of   three  cubes,  a  very  improbably  event,  were  observed.  Most  rarely,  but  on  several   occasions,   arches   were   observed   two   or   three   layered   levels;   that   is,   two   columns  were  bridged  over  at  the  top  with  a  cube.  During  every  experiment  the   emergence   and   temporal   duration   of   these   columns   or   improbable   three-­‐ dimensional  structures  were  recorded.  Intelligence  was  estimated  on  the  basis  of   the  frequency  and  degree  of  improbable  and  complex  behaviour.  On  such  a  scale,   in  terms  of  our  evaluation,  the  variables  have  the  following  effect  on  intelligence:     Either   increasing   or   decreasing   the   weights   lessened   the   likelihood   of   intelligent   behaviour.  Increasing  or  decreasing  the  size  lessened  the  likelihood  of  intelligent   behaviour.   In   other   words   it   would   appear   that   in   the   case   of   either   size   or   weight  there  had  to  be  a  critical  amount  of  plastic  present  for  the  generation  of   mood   and   complex   behavioural   stratagems.   There   was   a   non-­‐linear   complexity   involved   here.   In   spite   of   our   clear   definition   of   intelligence   in   terms   of   the   behaviour   of   the   cubes   (their   readiness   to   form   complex   associations)   the  

internal   factors   responsible   for   their   behavioural   traits   in   this   matter   have   escaped  us.  Why  should  the  removal  of  a  small  plug  of  material  from  the  centre   of   the   cube   render   it   more   stupid?   Why   should   a   different   bodily   dimension   cause  either  sluggish,  unimaginative  or  hyperactive,  unstable  behaviour?  

  It  must  be  understood  that  this  is  a  new  field  of  exploration,  and  that  the  work   presented   here   is   a   pilot   study   which   should   be   developed   in   future   work.   There   are   exciting   implications   in   the   observation   that   in   suitable   environments,   intelligence  can  be  found  in  relatively  undifferentiated  matter  and  form,  namely   in  the  plastic  cores  of  the  cubes.     Some  comment  must  be  made  in  regard  to  the  results  presented  here.  Although   the   experiment   is   unconventional,   the   data  are   sound.   The   cubes   behave   under   these   conditions   in   the   manner   presented   here.   They   show   social   aggregation,   negentropy   increase,   diurnal   rhythm,   etc.   These   behaviours   are   made   no   less   remarkable  if  it  is  noted  that  it  would  not  be  so  to  a  different  environment.  This   is  true  of  all  behaviours.     When   we   investigate   some   aspect   of   the   universe,   the   way   we   sub-­‐divide   the   system   is   arbitraryiv   and   a   matter   of   convention   and   convenience.   Things   are   identified   by   their   looseness   of   coupling   with   other   things   or   by   degrees   of   decompositionv.  Much  of  this  depends  on  mechanistic  assumptions  of  causation.     It   is   necessary   in   this   discussion   to   digress   for   just   a   moment   and   consider   an   interesting   phenomenon   of   mathematics.   This   is   necessary   because   in   science,   once  we  establish  our  categories  and  our  variables,  the  rest  is  mathematics.  Let   us  consider  the  mathematical  properties  of  the  surface  of  a  sphere.     From  measurements  made  on  the  surface  a  consistent  set  of  relationships  can  be   worked   out,   all   describing   the   surface;   these   measurements   even   indicate   a   property  called  curvature  while  telling  nothing  of  what  is  inside  and  outside  or  of   a   third   dimension.   The   measurements   or   pointer   readings   provide   a   discipline   and   knowledge   about   intrinsic   properties   of   the   sphere’s   surface,   properties   present   in   the   information   gathered   at   the   surf   ace.   In   science   we   deal   with   a   three   dimensional   world.   Measurements   of   this   physical   space   also   indicate   curvature   as   one   of   its   intrinsic   propertiesvi.   We   measure   and   draw   our   proofs   from  this  intrinsic  information  because  acme  tells  us  that  by  definition  space  is   everything   and   everywhere.   The   universe   has   no   extrinsic   properties;   we   can   know  of  none,  we  can  conceive  no  fourth  dimension.    

Yet   obviously,   contrary   to   the   above   doctrine   we   all   know   of   something   extrinsic   to  the  mathematical  systems  of  physical  science.  We  know  we  are  conscious  (or   something!)   -­‐   our   thoughts,   our   intelligence,   our   being   we   know.   They   are   extrinsic   to   our   present   scientific   paradigms.   The   words   to   express   conscience   and  its  qualities  are  inadequate  because  words  suggest  things  -­‐  space-­‐occupying   things  with  dimension  and  duration;  and  “they”  are  not  of  this  substance.  “They   are  extrinsic  to  physical  reality  and  in  that  sense  do  not  exist.  But  this  suggests   there  may  be  a  discrepancy  in  how  we  are  handling  our  thinking  about  reality.     How  is  a  dyadic  or  higher  order  feedback  relationship  to  be  studied  or  divided  in   regard  to  behaviour?  Many  of  our  sciences  may  be  blind  to  this  problem.  Do  the   men   cause   the   ghettos   or   do   the   ghettos   produce   the   men?   Does   a   family   constellation   cause   the   psychotic   or   does   the   psychotic   promote   the   family   constellation?  Did  society  evolve  the  brain  or  does  the  brain  create  society?  Who   is   the   controller   and   by   when   controlled?   Where   is   the   stimulus?   If   it   can   be   traced   back   to   the   creature   which   is   stimulated?   What   point   of   view,   what   hypothesis,   what   demon   or   ghost   has   the   greatest   validity   in   regard   to   a   systems   approach  to  behaviour?     We   may   be   leaving   out   something   in   our   worldview   and   in   our   scientific   dogmavii.   We   did   not   consider   the   mice   in   our   cubology;   they   were   extrinsic   to   the   cubes   part   of   the   environment.   In   studying   the   behaviour   of   men   and   their   affairs   and   artefacts   we   find   a   lot   that   resembles   the   cubes.   Are   we   leaving   something  out?  Is  something  important  extrinsic  to  our  data?    


  The  experiments  reported  here  represent  a  departure  from  more  classical  points   of  view.  It  is  ingrained  in  the  dogma  o  the  behavioural  sciences  that  in  a  feedback   relationship  (where  event  A  affects  B,  and  event  B  is  affecting  A)  the  important   behaviour   especially   if   it   is   intelligent,   self-­‐organizing,   or   goal-­‐directed,   is   a   property  of  the  organic  part.  The  control  or  mind  or  brain  is  presupposed  to  lie   in   the   organic   part.   There   appears   no   valid   basis   for   this   assumptionviii.   The   mouse  cube  experiment  shows  that  intelligence  of  a  sort  (mind,  and  the  like)  can   be  found  as  well  in  solid  blocks  of  plastic  in  the  proper  environment.       The   idea   at   fault   seems   to   be   that   mind   or   behaviour   or   control   are   attributed   to   parts   of   a   system.   The   conclusion   tentatively   reached   by   this   author   is   that   the   concepts   of   most   at   our   behavioural   sciences   are   rooted   in   a   culturally   determined   point   of   view   and   advancement   or   intellectual   change   with   some   reward   is   possible   only   when   these   hardened   dogmas   of   the   life   sciences   are   broken   by   other   frames   of   reference,   other   consciously-­‐perceived,   accidentally   discovered  realities,  transcultural  and  metalinguistic.     It   is   perhaps   impossible   for   the   straight-­‐jacketed   minds   of   pure   scientists   to   consider   the   revolutionary   import   of   this   attitude;   but   those   who,   along   with   their   being   scientists   are   also   philosophers,   or,   more   importantly,   sorcerers,   understand  the  depths  and  dangers  it  portends  to  us  and  our  societyix.  

              Activity  Index  


          Day     Figure   1:   Mean   daily   psychomotor   activity   of   a   control   cube   population.   The   ordinate   represents   the   percent   mean   activity   index   obtained   by   averaging   the   five   minute   activities   of   ten   populations   for   each   day   of   a   typical   control   study   and   expressing   this   as   a   percent   of   the   highest   daily   (24   hour)   activity   shown   by   any  of  the  populations  throughout  the  study.  The  abscissa  is  time  in  days.      

                              Activity  Index  

      Time  of  Day  06:00  to  06:00         Figure   2:   An   average   24-­‐hour   activity   record   showing   the   diurnal   effect.   The   ordinate   in   this   case   is   the   mean   percent   activity   computed   on   an   hourly   basis   for   ten   studies.   The   records   for   the   first   five   days   of   these   studies   were   not   averaged  because  of  the  orientation  reflex  (Pig.  1).  The  abscissa  represents  time   in  hours.    

Chart  1       THE  EFFECT  OF  SIZE  ON  PSYCHOMOTOR  ACTIVITY   Orienting  Reflex   Small   37.0  ±  0.8   Control   17.3  ±  0.2   Large   4.2  ±  0.7   Daily  Activity   Small   30.3  ±  0.3   Control   12.7  ±  0.1   Large   2.7  ±  1.2     This   chart   indicates   the   mean   counts/hour   value   (±   SEM)   of   the   psychomotor   activity  during  the  first  five  days  of  the  study  (orientation  reflex)  and  the  mean   daily   activity   (±   SEM)   for   the   remainder   of   the   study.   It   can   be   seen   that   the   smaller  cubes  are  generally  more  active  and  reactive  compared  with  the  control   and   larger   cubes.   The   differences   bet   en   the   behaviours   of   the   treated   cubes   and   the  control  cube  behaviours  here  always  significant  P  <  0.05  and  in  some  cases   were  highly  significant.       Chart  2       Orienting  Reflex   Small   23.9  ±  0.3   Control   16.4  ±  0.6   Large   14.2  ±  0.3   Daily  Activity   Small   20.3  ±  0.2   Control   12.3  ±  0.2   Large   9.9  ±  0.8     This  chart  indicates  the  mean,  counts  per  hour  value  (±  SEM)  of  the  psychomotor   activity   during   the   first   five   days   of   the   study   (Orienting   reflex)   and   the   mean   daily   activity   (±   SEM   for   the   remainder   of   the   study.   It   can   be   seen   that   the   lighter  cubes  are  generally  more  active  and  reactive  compared  with  the  control   and  heavier  cubes,  The  difference  from  control  value  all  achieved  P<0.05.  


  *This  has  been  modified  from  an  original  article  published  in     The  Worm  Runner’s  Digest  Vol.  15,  No.  1,  Dec.  1973,  122-­‐126     Which  was  in  turn  also  published  in     Systems  and  Management  Annual  1975,  C.  West  Churchman  Ed.,   Petrocelli/Charter,  N.Y.  511-­‐518.  

Additional  Information  by  David  Walker  

  This  paper  was  given  to  me  by  my  mother  when  she  was  on  a  psychology  course   in   the   early   eighties,   and   has   sat   around   in   my   files   ever   since.   In   September   1998   I   had   some   time   and   so   decided   to   scan   it   in   and   check   it   out.   I   sent   the   following  e-­‐mail  to  Loyola  University  Medical  Centre:     I   was   handed   a   copy   of   a   paper   entitled   'A   study   of   the   activity,   ethology   and   psychology  of  fluorescent  plastic  cubes'  by  C  L  Scudder  (1976)  at  'Institute  for  the   study   of   mind,   drugs   and   behaviour,   Loyola   University   Medical   Centre,   2160   S   First   Avenue,  Maywood,  Ill  60153.  I  was  trying  to  find  out  if  this  is  the  real  accreditation   for  this  paper,  or  if  this  is  as  much  spoof  as  the  article  itself.     to  which  I  got  the  following  reply:     I'm   unable   to   locate   a   CL   Scudder   here   at   the   medical   centre   currently,   and   we   don't  have  an  institute  by  that  name.  It  would  be  difficult  for  us  to  determine  the   authenticity  of  something  from  1976  without  more  information.  Sorry  we  couldn't   be  of  more  help.     Jacqueline  LaSota     Director   Public  Relations  and  WWW  Marketing  Department   Loyola  University  Health  System     In  2009  I  decided  to  create  a  PDF  version  of  the  document  and  also  looked  into   its  history  a  little  further.  I  found  more  references  to  the  Worm  Runner’s  Digest   including  one  at  Wikipedia  that  says  the  journal  published  both  satirical  articles   and  scientific  papers.       As  someone  involved  in  Business  Intelligence  I  have  periodically  used  this  article   as  an  example  of  how  analysis  without  assessing  all  the  information  can  lead  to   false  conclusions     In   the   scanning   process   I   have   allowed   the   spell   checker   to   change   the   words   from  US  English  to  UK  English;  I  have  also  redrawn  the  three  graphics;  otherwise   it  is  a  faithful  reproduction  of  the  document  I  was  handed.    



                                                                                                                  i  Scudder,  C.L.  and  Richardson,  D.   On  the  behavioural  effects  of  bilateral  glossopharyngealectomy  in  mice.     Psychon.  Sci,  16  (3):  141-­‐143,1969.     ii  Scudder,  C.L.,  Avery,  D.  and  Karczmar,  A.G.   Study  of  avoidance  conditioning  in  five  genera  and  strains  of  mice.   Agressologia  10;  135-­‐144,  1969.     iii  Scudder,  CL.   The  Mind:  An  Evolving  System  of  Models.  In  Fields  Within  Fields  Within  Fields,   Julius  Stedman,  Ed.  14:  49-­‐53,  Winter,  1975.     iv  Ashby,  W.R.   Design  for  a  brain.   London:  Chapman  and  Hall,  1952.     v  Glassman,  R.E.   Persistence  and  loose  coupling  in  living  systems.   Behavioural  Science,  18(2),  83-­‐98,  1973.     vi  Callahan,  J.J   The  curvature  of  Space  in  a  Finite  Universe;   Sci.  Amer.  Vol.  235  90-­‐100.  1976.     vii  Scudder,  C.L.   On  the  Environmental  Mind.   Systems  and  Management  Science  Annual,  C.  West  Churchman,  Editor.  pg.  5-­‐15.   1975.     viii  Scudder,  C.L.   Mindless  Meaning,  Meaningless  Mind.   Perspectives  In  Biology  and  Medicine,  19(4),  533-­‐536,  1976     ix  Scudder,  C.L.  Kelipoth,   in  World  Union,  Vol.  XVI,  No.  7,  2-­‐16,  1976    

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