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Hygiene

Dr. margaret Hannah.

Hygiene
• Hygiene is the maintenance of healthful practices.
• It is the science concerned with the prevention of
illness and maintenance of health.
• In modern terminology, this is usually regarded as
a particular reference to cleanliness.
• Hygiene is required in several aspects in life

Hygiene
1. Personal care
1. Self
2. Those that cannot (children, the sick and the
disabled).

2. Food handling
3. Housing conditions
1. Homes (domestic)
2. Work (occupation)
3. Industries (production)

1.Personal Hygiene • Learning objectives • By the end of the session students should be able to. List the components of personal hygiene 3. Describe the benefits of personal hygiene . Explain the meaning of personal hygiene 2.

• Elementary cleanliness is common knowledge. .Personal Hygiene • Personal hygiene refers to the set of practices associated with the preservation of one’s body in a clean state. and good looks are the result of careful and continuous grooming. • Personal hygiene is the first step to good grooming and good health.

A. • There is also need to maintain menstrual hygiene.Components of personal hygiene • Every external part of the body demands a basic amount of attention on a regular basis. teeth. . nails and feet all need grooming. hands. Body hygiene • Our hair. skin. • Here are some grooming routines.

. The skin should be washed regularly. combed & shaven. 2.Components of personal hygiene 1. Armpits & the genital area should be shaven once a fortnight. Hair should be washed regularly. Care should be taken to clean the face and ears at least twice daily. 3. 4.

• The teeth. tongue and gums. involving the teeth. Care should be taken to wash the hands with soap and water before eating and after using a latrine or toilet.Components of personal hygiene 5. 6. Clothing and beddings should be cleaned regularly and kept free of infestation with lice. . Dental hygiene refers to oral cleanliness. bed bugs etc. B. tongue and gums should be cleaned by brushed at least twice daily.

Improves performance at the work place and in school. thereby improving the socio-economic status.Benefits of maintaining good personal hygiene 1. . Increases productivity at household and national level. 4. Reduces infections related to poor personal hygiene 3. Maintaining good personal hygiene 2.

2. clothing and mouth clean. Create community awareness. 4. Disinfect all contaminated and infested materials. .Prevention and control of diseases related to personal hygiene 1. 3. Keep your body. Treat all related infections.

Explain the meaning of domestic hygiene 2. 1. List the components domestic hygiene .Domestic Hygiene • Learning objectives • By the end of this session students should be able to.

• This is achieved by observing simple health practices to avoid infections such as those that cause diarrhea. intestinal worms and other unhealthy conditions .Domestic Hygiene • Domestic hygiene is the maintenance of a healthy environment in the home and the areas surrounding the homestead. skin infections.

1. with all rooms measuring not less than 80 sq ft. – A well drained site – Adequate ventilation and lighting – Smooth floor and walls that are kept neat and clean – Leak proof roof – Clean beds and beddings .Components of domestic hygiene • Every household should have the following in order for the home to be considered an ideal homestead. Main house – Adequate floor space.

Components of domestic hygiene 2. Latrine/toilet – Situated 30 m from the water source – A pit and sound superstructure – Hole cover – Smoked regularly – Hand washing facility – Privacy – Anal cleansing material – A facility for children – And the associated latrine use practices .

– Adequate means of smoke escape – Firewood drying rack – Situated 10 m from the latrine 4. Bathroom/bath shelter – Provided with a soak pit – Provides privacy . Kitchen – Adequate floor space measuring not less than 35 sq ft.Components of domestic hygiene 3.

A food storage facility or granary . pot or any other container 8. such as a compost pit 7. Animal shelter. such as a tank.Components of domestic hygiene 5. Means of refuse collection and disposal. drum. A kitchen garden or back yard garden 9. if required – No body should share accommodation with animals 6. A clean water storage facility.

Components of domestic hygiene 10. Compound – Leveled and well drained – Not littered with waste – No tall grass . Drying rack for kitchen utensils 11. Drying line for clothes 12.

Components of domestic hygiene 12. . are an important source of food for families in both urban and rural areas. also called kitchen or back yard gardens. • Home gardens are a good source of vitamins that are essential in regular small amounts. Home gardens • Home gardens.

Defend the rationale for food hygiene 3. Describe common food borne diseases . List the components of food hygiene 4.Food Hygiene • Learning objectives • By the end of this session students should be able to. 1. Explain what food hygiene is 2.

• Food hygiene is the condition surrounding the handling.Food hygiene • Food hygiene: All conditions or measures necessary to ensure the safety and suitability of food at all stages in the food chain. preparation. • Or the process of keeping one's food and food storage spaces clean while minimizing the risk of food contamination. and storage of food in ways that keep food borne diseases away. .

.Food hygiene • The practice of safe handling and storing food must be observed not just in businesses but also in one's household. • Food handler: Any person who directly handles packaged or unpackaged food. food equipments and utensils or food contact surfaces and is therefore expected to comply with hygiene regulations. • After all. your home is where you and your loved ones live and eat.

6. 4. To be able to monitor marketing products 7. 2.Food hygiene. To promote food security .rationale 1. To set standards and develop guidelines for food premises. To prevent and control food borne diseases. 3. To assist in investigation of food outbreaks To create awareness among consumers To make recommendations for public food handlers and consumers 5.

• Reporting systems. often decisions are not evidence based. Who handlers food. the tourism sector is largely dependent on safety of food • Immunity. what is required • Economy . • The law.Food hygiene – important considerations • Food handlers. the legal implications. for food poisoning related illness. . the advent of HIV/AIDS present special challenge with regard to food hygiene.

Food 2. Personnel 3.Components of food hygiene 1. Premises . Utensils 4.

Catering and wrapping of food – Use wrappers that will not contaminate food 3. spitting. Protective wear – Clean and washable over clothing. sneezing. – Observe proper food habits. Personal cleanliness – Keep all parts of their body and clothings clean – Keep any open cut or abrasion covered suitably. smoking . 2. Unhealthy persons not allowed to handle food.Food handlers 1. talking. neck and head covering. 4.Food hygiene.

solvents. • Many different disease-causing microbes. or pathogens. heavy metals.Food borne disease • Food borne diseases are caused by the consumption of food or drink contaminated by microbes. and therefore there are many different food borne infections . or other harmful substances. can contaminate food.

Invasive infection . Food poisoning 2. Food infection 1. Food infections .Chemical poisoning .Food borne disease • There are 2 broad categories of food borne diseases.Toxins (exotoxins and endotoxins). Food poisoning .Enterotoxigenic . 2. 1.

Typhoid 3. Dysenteries 4.Examples of food borne diseases 1. Worm infestation . Diarrhea 5. Cholera 2.

• Here below are some ways of preventing food borne diseases. . food borne diseases can be prevented.Prevention and Control of food borne diseases • It is important to remember that like other diseases caused by infectious agents.

Keep food at safe temperatures .Separate raw from cooked food .Use safe water and raw materials .Cook food thoroughly .Prevention and Control of food borne diseases • The five keys to safer food (WHO 2009) - Keep clean .

• Wash and sanitize all surfaces and equipment used for food preparation. • Wash your hands after going to the toilet. • Protect kitchen areas and food from insects.Keep clean • Wash your hands before handling food and often during food preparation. pests and other animals .

Separate raw from cooked food • Separate raw meat. . poultry and seafood from other foods. • Use separate equipment and utensils such as knives and cutting boards for handling raw foods. • Store food in containers to avoid contact between raw and prepared foods.

poultry. eggs. especially meat. • Reheat cooked food thoroughly and eat while still hot . pork and sea foods • Bring foods like soups and stews to boiling.Cook food thoroughly • Cook food thoroughly.

• Do not store food too long even in the refrigerator. • Do not thaw frozen food at room temperature.Keep food at safe temperatures • Do not leave cooked food at room temperature for more than 2 hours. • Keep cooked food piping hot (more than 60°C) prior to serving. • Refrigerate promptly all cooked and perishable food (preferably below 5°C). .

• Select fresh and wholesome foods. • Wash fruits and vegetables thoroughly. such as pasteurised milk. • Do not use food beyond its expiry date .Use safe water and raw materials • Use safe water or treat it to make the food safe. especially if they are going to be eaten raw. • Choose foods processed for safety.

• Unicef-Nov2009. Park (2001) Park’s Textbook of preventive and social medicine 15th edition.com/search?hl=en&source=hp&q=personal+hygiene&btn G=Google+ Search&aq=1&oq=personal+h&aqi=g10 24/11/2009. tracking progress on child and maternal nutrition • http://www.html 26/11/2009. • Savage King and Burgess 2006. • http://www.google. NUTRITION FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 2nd Edition Oxford Medical Publication.int/en/what-we-do/health-topics/diseaseprevention/nutrition/policy/six-key-areas-of-the-action-plan/takingintegrated-action-to-add .References • K.org/health/index_imcd.euro.unicef. • • http://www.who.pdf.