Efficient MAC Protocols for

Wireless Sensor Networks
Mahendra Kumar

bandwidth Fairness –not so important .Properties of a Well Defined MAC Protocol      Energy Efficient Scalability Adaptability to changes in network topology Latency. throughput.

Reason of Energy Waste      Collision Overhearing Control Packet overhead Idle Listening Overremitting .

Existing MAC Protocols  Sensor-MAC (S-MAC) : Listen-sleep  Timeout-MAC (T-MAC) : Activation event  WiseMAC : Preamble Sampling .

S-MAC   Main goal –reduce power consumption Three major components:  Periodic sleep-listen  Collision and overhearing avoidance  Message passing .

Periodic Sleep-Listen  Each node goes to sleep for some time. and then wakes up and listens to see if any other node wants to talk to it.  During Sleep it turn off its radio. .

.Collision and Overhearing Avoidance  Interfering nodes go to sleep after they hear an RTS or CTS packet.  Duration field in each transmitted packet indicates how long the remaining transmission will be.

S-MAC .

 Updating schedules is accomplished by sending a SYNC packet. .Maintaining Synchronization  The listen/sleep scheme requires synchronization among neighboring nodes.

Advantages/Disadvantage s  Energy waste caused by idle listening is reduced by sleep schedules.  Sleep and listen periods are predefined and constant which decreases the efficiency of the algorithm under variable traffic load. .

and sleeping between bursts. .  times out on hearing nothing.  Listen period ends when no activation event has occurred for a time threshold TA.  Reduce idle listening by transmitting all messages in bursts of variable length.Timeout-MAC (T-MAC)  Proposed to enhance the poor results of S-MAC protocol under variable traffic load.

S-MAC Vs T-MAC .

 Suffers from early sleeping problem –node goes to sleep when a neighbor still has messages for it. .Advantages/Disadvantage s  Gives better result under variable load.

WiseMAC  All nodes defined to have two communication channels.  Data channel uses TDMA  Control channel uses CSMA  Preamble sampling used to decrease idle listening time.  . Nodes sample the medium periodically to see if any data is going to arrive.

WiseMAC .

 Conflict when one node starts to send the preamble to a node that is already receiving another node’s transmission where the preamble sender is not within range. Hidden terminal problem .Advantages/Disadvantage s  Dynamic preamble length adjustment results in better performance.

Other MAC Protocols   SIFT :Event Driven TRAMA : Traffic Adaptive MAC. TDMA Based .

Contention Window-based Good Very low latency is achieved with many traffic sources. Simplicity. Decentralized sleep-listen scheduling results in different sleep and wake-up times for each neighbor of a node. Contention –based Good Gives better results under variable loads Early sleeping problem. T-MAC No CSMA. which decreases the efficiency of the algorithm under variable traffic load.5 %. System-wide time synchronization is needed for slotted contention windows. Sleep and listen periods are predefined and constant. the duty cycle is at least 12.MAC Protocol Time Sync Needed Type Adaptivity to Changes Advantages Disadvantages S-MAC No CSMA. Increased idle listening caused by listening to all slots before sending. Preamble based Good Dynamic preamble length adjustment results in better performance under variable traffic conditions. Without considering the transmissions and receptions. SIFT No CSMA/CA. WiseMAC No CSMA. which is a considerably high value. Contention -based Good Energy waste caused by idle listening is reduced by sleep schedules. Hidden terminal problem TRAMA Yes TDMA/CSMA Good Higher percentage of sleep time and less collision probability is achieved compared to CSMA based protocols. .