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Water and Water supply

Kalule Charles.M

Learning objectives
• By the end of the session participants will be
able to;
1. List common sources of water
2. List the basic uses of water
3. Mention water related diseases

4. Describe the safe water chain and its benefits
5. Describe prevention of water contamination

• Much of ill health in the developing countries is traced to
lack of safe and wholesome water supply.
• In 1980 the UN General Assembly launched the
International drinking water and sanitation decade; aim
of providing adequate safe drinking water to all.
• In 1981, the 34th WHA in a resolution emphasized that
safe drinking water is a basic element of PHC.
• Water is also an essential part of health education, food
and nutrition and maternal and child health (MCH)

• Water should be easily accessible, adequate in
quantity, free from contamination, safe and
readily available throughout the year.
• Water intended for human consumption should
be both safe and wholesome;
– Free from pathogenic agents
– Free from harmful chemical substances
– Pleasant to taste i.e., free from colour and odour
– Usable for domestic purpose.

Water uses i
• Agricultural
– Fishing
– Irrigation
– Pesticide and fertilizer application

• Industrial
– Power generation
– Cooling
– Heating
– Processing

Swimming. water racing – Cleaning streets – Fire protection .Water uses ii • Transportation • Public purposes – Recreation. beatification. fountains. ornamental ponds.

water is useful in carrying away wastes from all establishment and institution. • It is helpful in disease elimination.Water uses iii • Domestic – – – – Cooking Drinking Hygiene and sanitation Gardening • In general. economic. and cultural development. . promote development and improve quality of life. • It is an important factor in the social.

springs. rivers. streams. shallow wells.e oceans. • Surface water i. ponds. deep wells . • Rain water . lakes. Gravity flow schemes. tanks.Classification of water sources • Ground water springs.

• It is less subject to contamination Disadvantages • usually high in mineral content • Requires pumping or some arrangement to lift the water.Ground water Advantages • It is likely to be free from pathogenic agents • It usually requires no treatment • The supply is likely to be certain even in dry season. .

.Surface water Advantages • Commonly available Disadvantages • Subject to continuous or intermittent pollution. • The cost of purification is high. never safe for human consumption and must be subjected to sanitary protection and purification.

Rain water • Is the prime source of all water • A part of the water sinks into the ground to form ground water. • Chemically very soft • Tends to be impure as it passes through the atmosphere. . Characteristics • Is the purest in nature • Physically clear. part of it evaporates back onto the atmosphere and some of it runs off to form surface water. bright and sparkling.

Rain water • What are the advantages and disadvantages of rain water? .

and water returns to the land (or sea).Hydrologic cycle – Also known as the water cycle. forming tiny droplets in clouds. – When the clouds meet cool air over land. – The sun's heat provides energy to evaporate water from the earth's surface (oceans.). .this is called transpiration. etc. The water vapour eventually condenses. lakes. is the journey water takes as it circulates from the land to the sky and back again. sleet. – Plants also lose water to the air . or snow) is triggered. precipitation (rain.

-Some of the underground water is trapped between rock or clay layers . .Hydrologic cycle -Some of the precipitation soaks into the ground (Percolation). eventually returning to the seas as slightly salty water.this is called groundwater. -But most of the water flows downhill as runoff (above ground or underground).

Hydrologic cycle .

Hydrologic cycle .

Ground Water Flowing artesian well Precipitation Well requiring a pump Evaporation and transpiration Evaporation Confined Recharge Area Runoff Aquifer Infiltration Stream Water table Infiltration Lake Unconfined aquifer Less permeable material such as clay Confined aquifer Confirming permeable rock layer Fig. 15-3 p. 308 .

The stages of the hydrologic cycle • • • • • • Evaporation Transport Condensation Precipitation Groundwater Run-off ASSIGNMENT-2 Using a diagrammatic illustration. show how each stage above plays a role in the hydrologic cycle .

. the remainder continues its natural flow towards the ocean. • When it rains the dam captures soil laden water behind it – the sand in the water sinks to the bottom. whilst the silt remains suspended in the water.Sand dams • A sand dam is a reinforced concrete wall (or a similarly robust and impermeable surface) built 1-5 metres high across a seasonal sand river. • Research shows that only 1 to 3% of rainwater is retained behind any individual dam.

Sand dam • Eventually the dams fill with sand .000 people. .sometimes after only one rainfall or over 1 – 3 seasons. • 25 to 40% of the volume of the sand held is actually water. • A mature sand dam can store millions of litres of water – refilling after each rainfall providing a year round supply of clean water to over 1.

SW USA and Brazil. • Further examples are recorded in Japan. India. .Sand dams • The highest concentration of sand dams with the strongest track record are found in Kenya. • Although examples are found throughout world’s semi-arid regions from Angola to Zimbabwe. Thailand.

Sand dams .

Sand dam .

Sand dam .

Sand dam .

Sand dams There are two simple ways: • Scooping a hole in the sand. Scope holes used for domestic water should be protected from contamination by livestock by fencing. The water will naturally emerge to the surface. • A slotted pipe buried in the sand that either passes through the dam wall or is connected to a simple hand pump situated on the river bank .

Sand dams . .ug/images?hl=en&clien t=firefox-a&rls=org. Park.Reference • Environmental engineering by Joseph Nemerow and Franklin J. • Park’s Text book of preventive and social medicine by K. • http://www. Argardy. Nelson L.


Water Related Diseases • Are those diseases that affect humans as a result of drinking. . • The disease causing agents may be organic as in germs or inorganic as in chemical contaminants. use for personal hygiene and recreation purposes or getting into contact with water contaminated with and or infested with disease causing agents.

• It is estimated that 80% of that burden is attributable to unsafe water supply. . • Diarrheal diseases account for 4.1% of the total DALY’S global burden of disease & are responsible for the deaths of 1.Burden of Water related diseases • Poor water quality pose a major threat to human health. sanitation and hygiene (MOH.8M people every year. 2005). • It was estimated that 88% of that burden is attributable to unsafe WASH & 90% are U5 children mostly in developing countries (WHO 2004).

• 1. . • 2. they are a major challenge in developing world.(2/3 of these are in the developing countries (UNIS 2004).4bn people around the world do not have access to basic sanitation.1bn (17%) of the global population lack access to safe water supply (WHO 2002).BURDEN OF WATER RELATED DISEASES • Although water related diseases have largely been eliminated in wealthier nations.

• While sanitation coverage in sub Saharan Africa is 36% (64% lack access to sanitation facilities).BURDEN OF WATER RELATED DISEASES • 42% of the sub Saharan population do not have access to improved water sources. .7% have access to sanitation facilities (DWD 2010). (WHO 2004). • 78% of the Ugandan population has access to safe water supply while 69.

TB. safe. . malaria or any other infectious diseases that plague the developing world until we have won the battle for safe drinking water. sanitation and basic health care”.WATER FOR LIFE DECADE 2005-2015 • The human right to water entitles every one to sufficient. acceptable. physically accessible and affordable water for personal and domestic uses. • “We shall not finally defeat AIDS.

Classification of water related diseases • Water borne diseases • Water Washed diseases • Water Contact diseases • Water Insect/vector borne diseases • Water-dispersed diseases .

.Water Borne diseases • Are contracted as result of ingestion of causative organisms in drinking water. • Pathogens are transmitted from excreta to water and then to humans. Hepatitis A & E.g cholera. bacteria and parasites e. dysenteries and Guinea worm. • These include most of the enteric & diarrheal diseases caused by viruses. typhoid.

• The extent to which disease occurs depends on the load of disease causing agent. • Excreta is poorly isolated from the environment • Sewage treatment is inadequate. leachate is washed into water sources. . • Water borne diseases can spread rapidly where there is no proper sanitation and excreta.Water Borne Diseases • Most water borne diseases are prevalent in countries where.

Prevention and control • Improvements in quality directly reduces incidence of diseases. • Treatment of waste water/sewage. . • Maintain safe the water chain. • Identification and treatment of cases. • Promotion of hygiene practices. • Improvements in sanitation facilities.

Water Washed Diseases • Diseases resulting from poor personal hygiene due to inadequate amounts of water supply for washing and bathing. ring worm. • These include skin diseases.Trachoma and conjunctivitis. lice (typhus & relapsing fevers) and fungal infectionsringworms. .scabies. • Eye infections. • Parasitic infection like jiggers.

• Improve personal Hygiene. • Disrupt the route of transmission.Prevention and control • Increase quantity of water supply. • Identify and treat cases. .

rice. swimming. Schistosomiasis and Guinea Worm. • They are passed on to humans when they are ingested or when one gets in contact with water. • Transmission is more likely due to human activities like fishing. .Water Contact/based Diseases • Are transmitted from/by hosts which either live in water or require water for part of their developmental stage e.g. farming.

. • Provide protective wear. • Prevent human contact with infected or suspicious water bodies. • Control direct contact of human being with water sources. • Identification and treatment of cases.Prevention and control • Reduce surface water contamination. • Control intermediate vector population.

g malaria.Water insect/vector based Diseases • Diseases that are spread by insects which either breed or bite near water e. • They are not attributed to water quality but often spread by large scale development of systems provide conducive conditions . trypanosomiasis. yellow fever filariasis. onchocerciasis.

• Decrease the need for visiting infected areas. • Reducing man – insect contact. • Destroy breeding sites.Prevention and Control • Improving environmental sanitation. . • Identify and treat cases. • Improving on housing conditions.

• The mist may come from hot tubs. showers or air-conditioning units for large buildings.Water dispersed diseases • Avery rare and uncommon disease called legionnaires disease or legionellosis. • It is a type of pneumonia caused by bacteria caused by breathing in mist from water that contains the bacteria. .

. • The bacteria is dispersed as aerosols from the air conditioning system. Prevention • Clean and disinfect air conditioning systems regularly.Water dispersed diseases • The bacteria don't spread from person to person.

• Work-time is lost in looking after the sick. • Over burden the already constrained health facilities.CONSEQUENCES • Poor water and sanitation drain the economy in terms of treatment and drugs. • Individual families spend their hard earned incomes on treatment. .

SAFE WATER CHAIN • Safe water chain is the process of keeping water safe from the time it is drawn from a safe water source up to the time of its consumption (i. .drawing technique – transportation – storage – usage). water source – containers used .e.

2. Treating the water to reduce or remove contamination that could be present to the extent necessary to meet the water quality targets. . Preventing re-contamination during storage. 1. distribution. and 3. the objectives are to ensure safe drinking water throughout the chain.OBJECTIVES OF SAFE WATER CHAIN • According to the World Health Organization. Preventing contamination of source waters. and handling of drinking water.

3. Increases productivity. 1. Improves performance at school and at work place . Reduce water related diseases 2. Here are three benefits.Benefits of safe water chain • The safe water chain is a proven source of some short-term and long-term benefits. thereby improving socio economic status.

.Safe water chain • With relevant examples discuss how a safe water chain can be maintained.

PREVENTION OF WATER CONTAMINATION 1. Protection of water source – Water catchment area – Zoning – Avoid stepping in water 2. Treatment of water . Improvement in handling of water – Use of clean containers 3. .Dade.REFERENCES • /en/ 768. Havard University press.html. • Moeller. • http://www. .html 2008 • http://wwww.aquamedia.cmf/id/14 232. • K Park publish/ features safe water plans in Uganda 2008 • http://www.Preventive and social medicine. W: environmental health.