Name: Delfeayo Walters

ID# 0008907
Course Title: History of Design
Course Code: ARTH 321
Tutor: L. S-Nicholson
Barbados Community College
Date: November 6th 2014

Nepal – Kathmandu Valley
Democratic republic of Nepal is a sovereign Independent Kingdom and is Located
between the border of India and China (Tibet) and within this democratic nation lies
“Kathmandu Valley”. Kathmandu is the largest city of Nepal and is the political as well
as cultural capital of the country. Kathmandu is a city where ancient traditions rub
shoulders with the latest technological advances and even so it is rich in its history.
This valley is a lush vast green-emerald coloured region surrounded by the Himalayas.
Kathmandu Valley consist of the three ancient cities of Kathmandu, Patan and Bhaktapur,
which were once independent states ruled by the Malla kings from the 12th to the
18th centuries.
*Abhaya Malla was one of the first kings in the Malla dynasty (c.1216-1255)
“Abhaya” means “fearlessness” in Sanskrit*
Swayambhu Purana gives a very detailed scripture about the progress and ancestry of the
valley. It’s said that Kathmandu valley was once a lake and one of the first Buddist saints
“Manjusri” caught sight of a Lotus flower and cut a gorge with his magical sword at
Chovar to allow the lake to drain. The place where the lotus flower settled became and
the valley thus became habitable. The Chovar gorge is the only channel for all the waters
of the Kathmandu valley; Just beyond the gorge is a temple of “Lord Ganesh” (Hindu
God of Wisdom, Knowledge and new beginnings) The main image of the shrine is a
massive rock, which is naturally curved.

The valley is literally full of medieval villages, centuries-old temples and sacred sites,
while just beyond the valley rims lay Himalayan viewpoints and two adventurous roads
to Tibet. Within the valley are many notable places to visit that hold valuable information
relating to their past.

Bhaktapur District
Bhaktapur Durbar Square, which is a plaza on the outskirts of the old Bhaktapur
Kingdom. The square has a 55-window palace designed by King Jitamitra Malla
The Durbar square is surrounded by sensational architecture and vividly showcases the
skills of the Newari artists and craftsmen over several centuries. The royal palace was
originally situated at Dattaraya square and was only later moved to the Durbar square

Lalitpur District also translated as “City of Beauty’’
Patan Dubar Square the oldest of all three cities of Kathmandu Valley. It is best
known for its artistic heritage. It is probably one of the oldest Buddhist cities in the
world. “Patan means eternity itself and Patan Durbar Square is the spectacular sight
of Aisa indeed.”
One of its more known incredible sights is the Golden window; this was specially built
for King Siddhi Narasingha Malla. His devotion to Lord Krisha as well as the Buddhist
God of compassion Karunamaya Lokeshwar is a famous episode in Nepalese history of

Kathmandu Durbar Square
This massive complex is home to many palaces, temples and courtyards. One of the main
attractions in the square “Hanuman Dhoka Palace Complex.” Named in honor of the
monkey god, Hanuman. There is also a stone statue of Shiva in a rage; it can be a very
frightening sight to look at but yet amazing because of the artwork and symbolism at the
same time.

Kathmandu Valley is so vast and so much to offer, Nepalese history is so deep rooted
and crosses over to many religions, architectural structures, cultures and traditions.
Much is to be appraised about this rich nation.