Jazz Theory I

5th edition
by
Hiroaki Honshuku
Index
Notation ........................................................................................................... 2
Class Restrictions ............................................................................................ 4
Key Signature (the Circle of the 5th) .............................................................. 5
Intervals ........................................................................................................... 6
How to get the Interval ............................................................................... 7
Chord
Chord Structure .......................................................................................... 8
Chord Tone & Tension ............................................................................... 9
Inversion ................................................................................................... 10
Mode
Church Mode ............................................................................................ 12
How to get the correct mode scale ........................................................... 13
Tension & Avoid Note .............................................................................. 14
Tritone ...................................................................................................... 15
Tritone Substitution Chord (Altered Mixo) ............................................. 16
Melody Analysis ...................................................................................... 18
Exercise .................................................................................................... 19
Summary .................................................................................................. 20
Diatonic Functioning Chord .......................................................................... 21
Analysis .................................................................................................... 22
Harmonic Rhythm .................................................................................... 23
Secondary Dominant ................................................................................ 24
Extended Dominant .................................................................................. 26
Related II minor ....................................................................................... 27
Example (Peace) ...................................................................................... 28
Summary .................................................................................................. 31
Project ............................................................................................................ 32
About the author ............................................................................................ 33

Theory II Subject
Diminished Scales
Minor Key
Modal Interchange
Special
# Dominant
b
IV-7( 5)
Deceptive Resolution
Compound Chords

Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

-1-

Notation

Notation is the most profound communication tool between the composer and the performer. If the
music is not notated clearly, the performer will fail to sight read. The composer, most likely, has to
be present at the rehearsal, and the performer will demand more payment for the over work. On the
other hand, if the music is written perfectly clear, the performer will be blamed for a bad performance. As most of the college assignments will not accept hand written paper, this class requires
basic notation skill by hand. The assignments done by unreadable hand writing or notated by
computer will not be graded.
• Basically, a right up angle of 30˚ should be kept in mind. This angle is the maximum and/or
comfortable angle to the sight reader's eyes.
TIP Unlike written language, music notation is very psychological to the sight reader. You must
pretend to be a a performer reading the music for the first time, trying to get all the necessary
information (tempo, dynamics, articulations, etc.) as quick as possible.

Note Head
30˚ right up angle.

Quarter Rest
Starts from the bottom.
Note that the starting circle
is on the 2nd line.

8th Rest
Should fit between the 2nd and
the 4th line.

Treble Clef (G Clef)
Starts from the bottom, should make
a sharp top, and circle the note G.

Stem
• Flag
The length of the stem is an 8va. The
The direction of the flag is the same
direction of the stem switches at the 3rd
side of the note head, going down, and
up.
line.
Same space as the
• Important: Each
staff space
ledger must be

the same size as
the staff space. If
8va
Extended
the ledger lines
are more than two, the length of the stem is extended to
the 3rd line.

-2-

Bass Clef (F Clef)
Starts from circling the
note F (4th line).

Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

The Beam Angle
Should not exceed 30˚.

The direction of the beam is decided by the first and the last note. However, it is better to
use a leveled one when many notes in the beam are distant.
Leveled


Imaginary Bar Line
An imaginary bar line is a line drawn in the middle of a measure that has a time signature in
even beats (2/4, 4/4, 6/8, 12/8 etc.). It is a sub-division of a bar.
The dotted quarter on the 2nd
beat crosses the Imaginary bar
line which makes it harder to
read. The sight reader will not
be able to tell the time signature of the piece without going back to the top of the piece. Therefore, it must be written as
shown in the 2nd bar.
Exception to this rule is when the note value is bigger than 2
beats (half note in this case), because it is not as difficult to
identify the imaginary bar line in sight reading.

Space
Spacing is one of the biggest issues. If each note is not spaced in relation to the others, the sight
reading will not be easy.

The example on the first measure here makes sight reading almost impossible. You have to
rewrite it as in the 2nd measure.

Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

-3-

Class Restriction (the big rules)
*
*

The neat manuscript skill is required as described in page 2 and 3.
When the Interval is asked verbally, the prefix must always be said along with the number. For
example, 7th will not have any meaning if Major, minor or other prefixes are not attached.
* "-" sign must be used for chord tones, -3rd and -7th, while "b" sign is used for tensions, b9th and
b13th.
"Aug" and "dim" sign must be used for chord tones, Aug5th and dim5th, while "#" sign is used for
tensions, #9th and #11th.
* The Chord spelling must follow the class rule as shown below:

Never in this class

X

CM7

Prefered
much
Prfered vvery
ery m
uch iin
n tthis
his cclass
lass

CMaj7

X

Cy7

minor

X

Cm7

C-7

minor 7th with flatted 5th

X

C 7

C-7( 5)

Augumented

X

C+7

CAug7

diminished

X

C7

Chord with tensions

X

C7

Major

Never "Half Diminished"!
There is no diminish function.

-4-

ø

o

b9,b13

b

Cdim7

b13)

C7( b9

Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

Key Signature

Circle of the 5th
B
F

G

C

D
A
E

The Circle of the 5th only
goes clockwise, because
5th goes down to resolve.
For example, "C" is a
tonic, which becomes the
5th of "F", so "C" goes
down to "F". "F" becomes
5th of "Bb" so on...

B

F

E
A

P5th Up

F

A
D
G

B

P5th Down

C

E

G
C

C

D
G
D

C
F
E

A

B

Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

-5-

Intervals

Intervals

C D E

F G A B

(C)

THE
SPOT

THE
SPOT

1/2 Step

1/2 Step

Major 2nd
C Major Scale Starting from the Tonic

Major 3rd
Perfect 4th
Perfect 5th

Major 2nd

No Spot

Mjor 3rd

No Spot

Perfect 4th

1 Spot

Perfect 5th

1 Spot

Major 6th

1 Spot

Major 7th

1 Spot

Perfect 8th

2 Spots

Major 6th
Major 7th

-6-

Major

minor

Augmented

diminished

Double Augmented

double diminished

If the interval is 4th, 5th, and 8th, use this chart.
One level = Half Step

If the interval is 2nd, 3rd, 6th, and 7th, use this chart.
One level = Half Step

Perfect 8th

Perfect

Augmented

diminished

Double Augmented

double diminished

Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

• How to get the correct interval with no screw-ups

w
& #w

Lets find the interval shown here, step by step as shown below.

w
& w

1.

Hide any accidentals.

2.

Use your fingers to count the distance.
E
F
G
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Now you know the interval is some kind of 10th. When you count, do not forget to include the
first note.

w
& w

Write down the number NOW.

(
3.

10th)

Since this is more than an octave away (the number is greater than 8), you have to take the top
note down an octave in order to find the kind (Major, Perfect, etc.) or it will not fit with the chart
shown on page 6.

œ
& ww

Now this is a 3rd that will fit in the chart. The third is the Major-minor group, not the Perfect
group. So, is this Major or minor?
Lets use the keyboard chart.

C D E F G A B C D E F G A B

Major 3rd

According to the chart on page 6, C to E is a Major 3rd and does not have the Spot (where the
black key is missing). But E to G has the Spot, which tells you the interval is a step shorter than
Major 3rd. Therefore, it is a minor 3rd.
4.

Put the accidental back in.
From here on, forget the keybord.

œ
& # ww

E to G = minor 3rd

Use both of your hands vertically, and add the accidental.

Adding a # on the
bottom note makes
the distance shorter
by a step.

Now you know the answer is a diminished 10th. Easy!.

* The MORE Spots, the SMALLER the Interval. The Fewer Spots, the BIGGER the interval.

Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

-7-

The definition of a chord is two or more notes in a certain interval
away vertically. To be a tonal harmonic chord, the root and the 3rd are
essential.

Chord
Diatonic Triads

Major Triad

minor Triad

C Maj

A-

& www

w

w

w

ww
w

M3rd

-3rd
P5th

P5th

Augumented Triad
E aug

& # # www

w

w

w

#w

#w

w

diminished Triad

C #di m

# www

M3rd

#w

w

w
-3rd
dim5th

Aug5th

Seventh Chord

Major Seventh

minor Seventh

C Maj7

www
w

&

w

w

w

w
M3rd

A -7

www
w

P5th

P5th
M7th

-7th

b

Dominant Seventh
G7

w
& www

w

w

w

w
M3rd

www
w

b

B-7( 5)

minor Seventh ( 5)

w

w

w

w

-3rd
P5th

dim5th
-7th

-8-

w

w

w -3rd w

-7th

Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

Chord Tone & Tension (references)

C Major Scale

w

w

¿

w

w

w

T9th

3rd

(4)

5th

13th

M7th

w

w

w

w

w

¿

w

Root (1)

T9th

-3rd

T11th

5th

b6th

-7th

w

w

¿

w

w

w

T9th

3rd

(4)

5th

T13th

-7th

&w
Root (1)

A minor Scale

&

G Dominant Scale

&w
Root (1)

#
C Maj7( 5)

& # wwww

M7th
Aug5th
M3rd
Root
C Maj9

& wwww

M7th
P5th
M3rd
T.M9th

C di m7

b b ∫ wwww

dim7th
dim5th
-3rd
Root
C-9

b b wwww

-7th
P5th
-3rd
T.M9th

C Maj6

wwww
M6th
P5th
M3rd
Root

b
G 7( 9)

w
b www

Root
P5th
M3rd
T.-9th

9

C6

C-6

b
C-( 6)

www
ww

b wwww

b b wwww

M9th
M6th
P5th
M3rd
Root

M6th
P5th
-3rd
Root

-6th
P5th
-3rd
Root

b
G 7( 13)

www
bw

M3rd
M3rd
Root
T.-13th

#
G 7( 9)

# www
w
T.Aug9th
-7th
P5th
M3rd

C-(11)

b b www
w

-3rd
-7th
T.P11th
Root

Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

-9-

Inversion

Chord: Root Position and Inversion
Almost every type of chord is formed with a rule. That is, if the root is on the staff line, the rest of
the chord tones above it will also be on the line. Similarly, if the root is in the staff space, the rest
of the chord tones above it will also be in the space. Therefore, whenever you see a chord formed
with notes that are a mix of on the line and in the space, you should assume the chord is an Inversion.
FMaj7/E

& wwww

b

& b bb wwww

w
& www
w

bw
& b www

w
b b www

b

F-7 ( 5)

b b b www
w

b

#

G 7

bw
b b b www

C -(Maj7)

# # www
#w

b

w
b b bb wwww

E -7(13)

#

DMaj7( 11)

# ## wwww
w

E -9

# ww
www

Ddi m7

b b www
w

Fdi m7

b b ∫ www
w

b

D di m7

bw
b ∫bb www

Exception is Six and/or Six Nine chords. Though usually, the Six chords are regarded as a
type of inversion.
CMaj6

& www
w

- 10 -

w
b b www

b

A Maj7

Diminished chords are the ones you need to spell correctly, or you may never find the right
scale.
Edi m7

www
w

b

Likewise, all the tension notes must be written in the same rule to be a root positioned
chord.
CMaj7(13)

A Maj7/E

Examples shown below contains Cb, Fb, and B#. Those spellings are necessary to find the
root of the chord.
D 7

b

FMaj7

C -6

b wwww

6
C9

www
ww

6
C-9

w
b wwww

Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

- 11 -

Church Mode
Parent Key: C Major

Transposed to C Root

C Ionian

&w w w ¿ w w w w

Ionian

I Maj7

R

T9

3

(4)

5

T13

M7

R

&w w w w w ¿ w w
D Dorian

Dorian

II-7

R

T9

-3 T11

5

(6)* -7
(T13)

Phrygian

III-7

R

(2)

-3 T11

5

(6)

-7

w w
w
w
w
w
&w w

IV Maj7

R

T9

3

T#11

5

T13

M7

w w
w
w
¿
w
&w w

V7

R

T9

3

(4)

5

T13

-7

& wwww

Ionian

- 12 -

D -7

www
w

Dorian

bw w
b
w
w
w
b
w
w b¿

C Lydian

w w
w
w
#
w
w
w w

C Mixo-Lydian

bw w
w
w
¿
w
w w

C Aeolian

bw w
b
¿
w
w
b
w
w w

C Locrian

bw w
b
w
b
w
w
b
w
w b¿

*Note: The 6th note of Dorian becomes Avoid Note
only when it is followed by V7 chord of the
key, because the note will create Tritone with
the -3rd, which will be a duplicate of the Tritone following V7 has.

[x=Avoid Note]

C Maj7

C Phrygian

R

w
w
¿
w
w
Aeolian
&w w w
VI-7
R
T9
-3 T11
5
(6)
-7
R
w
B Locrian
w
w w w
w
¿
w
Locrian
&
b
(
5)
b5 Tb13 -7 R
VII-7
R
(2)
-3 T11
A Aeolian

C Major Diatonic Chords

bw w
¿
w
w
b
w
w w

R

G Mixo-Lydian

Mixo-Lydian

C Dorian

R

F Lydian

Lydian

w w
w
w
¿
w
w w

R

w
w
w
¿
w
w
&w ¿ w
E Phrygian

C Ionian

Diatonic Chords are chords built on each of the scale notes within the
same key. Therefore, no note will have accidentals except melodic and
harmonic minor scale.
E -7

www
w

Phrygian

F Maj7

www
w

G7

Lydian

Mixolydian

www
w

www
w

A -7

Aeolian

www
w

b

B-7( 5)

Locrian

Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

• How to get the correct mode scale with no screw-ups

B-( 5)

Parent Key: C

C Maj

w

w

w

w

w

w

Next, using the chart above, find the Parent key for Eb Aeolian. The Aeolian is located at
the Major 6th above the Parent key. You will get Gb Major going down a Major 6th from
Eb as the Parent key.
Apply the key signature of Gb Major to the scale above. The key signature for Gb Major is
Bb-Eb-Ab-Db-Gb-Cb.

& bw

Major 6th
Aeolian

Lets find the correct scale for Eb Aeolian using the chart above.
First, write out the notes across an octave from E to D (ignore the b at this point).

&w

Ionian

Major
2nd
Dorian

D-

Major 3rd
Phrygian

E-

Perfect 4th
Lydian

F Maj

Perfect 5th
Mixolydian

G7

Major 7th
Locrian

A-

w

bw

bw

bw

bw

bw

This is the Eb Aeolian scale. Easy, Isn't it?!

Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

- 13 -

Tension
*

Tension notes are notes other than chord tones that can be placed 8va above the chord, yet will not
create b9th interval from one of the chord tones. If the note creates the b9th interval from one of the
chord tones, the note becomes a scale note rather than a tension note.

Non Chord Tones

&w

w

w

w

w

w

w

Chord Tones

Avoide Note

&

C Maj7

C Maj9

ww
ww

˙œ
œœ
˙
M9th

*

*

*

C Maj13

˙
œ˙
œœ

˙
œœ
˙œ

M9th

9th

The example above shows that each one of the non chord tones from the C Ionian scale can be
placed above the chord, except the 4 th note. The scale note 2nd (D) becomes Tension 9th, and the
scale note 6th (A) becomes Tension 13th. The scale note 4th (F), however, will create b9th interval
from the chord tone 3rd (E). Therefore, the 4th note in a Ionian scale becomes an Avoid Note,
which is identified by writing with a parenthesis, like (4), and is called "The scale note 4".
The b9th interval is the most dissonant interval that will destroy a sense of quality of the chord. In
the example above, as soon as the note F is played over C Maj chord, it destroys a sense of Major
harmony.
The definition of the Avoid Note is;
1) Do not start with.
2) Do not hold with.
3) Do not end with.
Note that in general, passing the Avoid Note with a value smaller than an 8th note will not create
any effect. Occasionally, even the beat value (i.e., quarter note in 4/4) is acceptable if the note is
placed on the weak beat (i.e., 2nd and 4th beat in 4/4).

- 14 -

Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

Tritone

ac//22==c;b;(8va
(8va/ 2/ 2= =Tritone)
Tritone)
ab
b
a
c

&

w

#w bw

*

The word Tritone originally came from the interval built with three whole tones. However, it
is often talked about as the three points within
an Octave: the bottom note (a), the top note (c)
and the very mid point note (b). Since the Medieval Era, this interval was often called "The
Devil's interval" because of the difficulty in performance. Since this interval must be exact mid
point of an Octave, the enharmonic spelling will
not matter.

w

Whole Note x 3

*

The real importance of the Tritone interval is as follows:
The Tritone interval is the most unstable interval to the human ear, and it wants to be resolved. In
other words, this interval will not create a stable sound for use as a stand-alone chord. If this
interval is used in the end of a music, it will never sound a sense of complete release.
Note that it became more popular to purposely use the Tritone to make an unstable impression in
this century.

The Primary Resolution
(Inward resolution)
Tritone goes inward to resolve to the root and the third
of the target chord. The
chord itself resolves down
from G7 to C by Perfect 5th.

The Secondary Resolution
(Outward resolution)
Tritone goes outward to resolve to the root and the third
of the target chord. The
chord itself resolves down
from G7 to Gb by minor 2nd.

G7

&

œ˙œ
˙

From F to E
Down by 1/2 step

C

˙œœ

From B to C
Up by 1/2 step

G7

&

œ˙œ
˙

From E to G
Up by 1/2 step

Gb

b b b œ˙œ

From B to B
Down by 1/2 step

Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

- 15 -

Tritone Substitution Chord (Substituted Dominant, or subV7)

*

As shown before, a dominant chord can resolve to 2 targets, one by going down Perfect 5th as a
primary dominant motion, the other by going down minor second. This is called Substituted Dominant Motion.

*

The example bellow shows that there are two dominant chords that can be resolved to a target
chord, C Maj. Note that G7 (Primary Dominant) and Db7 (Substituted Dominant) have the same
Tritone, F and B(Cb). This means that Db7 can substitute G7. Thus, this function of the dominant
resolution is called Tritone Substitution. Coincidentally, the distance from the root of G7 to the
root of Db7 is a Tritone away.

D b7

G7

˙œ˙
œ

&

B=C

b bb œ˙œ˙

F=F

*

From C to C C
Up by 1/2 step

n œ˙
œ

From F to E
Down by 1/2 step

This is an example of a Be-Bop line over a Substituted Dominant chord.

D b7

&

œ œ bœ bœ
œ œ bœ bœ
3rd T#11th T9th

? b bb wwww
*

R

b7th

R

C Maj7

T13th T9th

˙.

Œ

˙˙˙ ...
˙.

Œ

When the same line is played over the Primary Dominant, the natural tensions, 9th, 13th, and a least
important chord tone, 5th becomes Altered Tensions.

œ œ bœ bœ œ œ bœ

&
G7

?

- 16 -

b7th

wwww

R Tb13th b5th 3rd

b5th T#9th Tb9th

C Maj7

˙.

Œ

˙˙˙ ...
˙.

Œ

Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

*

As seen in the example, an Altered Mixolydian scale is a result of a superimposed Substituted
Dominant scale.

œ

˙

œ

˙

œ

˙

˙

G Mixolydian (parent Key: C)

&

˙

Db Mixolydian (parent Key: Gb)

&

G Altered Mixolydian
(Db Mixolydian Superimposed
over G Mixolydian)

&

˙

Db Lydianb7th
(Raised 11th in order to maintain
the substitute function)

&

˙

˙

œ

˙

There are few important points that must be remembered:
1) ONLY on a Dominant chord is a b9th interval allowed for the non-chord tones, because Tritone
is stronger than the b9th dissonance effect.
2) The 4th note of the Mixolydian (includes any kind of tension notes) is ALWAYS the Avoid
Note, because the 4th note is the root of the target chord. Tritone must maintain the wanting to
resolve, so it cannot anticipate the target.
3) Note that the tension 9th splits to b9th and #9th as a result of superimposing the Substituted
Mixolydian.
V to I motion
G7

w
& www

C

w
ww

Altered Mixolydian (Commonly called; Altered Scale)

w
R(1)

subV to I motion

D b7

& b bb wwww

C Maj7

www
w

bw
Tb9th

#w
T#9th

w

¿

bw

bw

w

3rd

(4)

b5th

Tb13th

b7th

bw

bw

bw

5th

T13th

b7th

Lydian b7th (Mixolydian with #11th)

bw

bw

w

R(1)

T9th

3rd

w
T#11th

Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

- 17 -

Melody Analysis

* This is jazz specific, while classical music theory explains further.

C7

œ œ œ bœ œ œ
& 44 ‰
œ

*

Analyzing melody is done by numbering each
note according to the mode (C Mixolydian, in
this example).

T9th R 3rd 7th T9th R 5th

C7

œ bœ œ œ
& 44 ‰ œ œ
œ
5th (4) 3rd 7th T9th R 5th

1/2 step
C 7 1/2 step

& 44 ‰

œ #œ

œ bœ nœ

œ

œ

T9th Pass. 3rd 7th T9th R 5th

1/2 step

C7

#œ œ bœ nœ œ
4
&4 ‰ œ
œ
5th App. 3rd 7th T9th R 5th
C7

1/2 step

1/2 step

œ nœ bœ œ
& 44 ‰ œ œ
œ
T9th R 3rd W.App. R 5th
W.App.
App.
C7

B7

& 44 ‰ b œ
7th

C7

œ

7th

T 13th

B7

& 44 ‰ b œ
7th

- 18 -

j
œ œ

j
œ ‰ œj œ
7th

T 13th 5th

An Avoid Note
An Avoid Note is one of the Scale Notes as explained before, so it will be marked accordingly.
In this example, the 4th note is the Avoid Note
to the Mixolydian. Therefore, it will be marked
as (4), which indicates it is one of the Scale
Notes.
A Passing Note
Passing Note is a note located between the notes
from the mode. APassing Note must be preceded by a 1/2 step, and followed by a 1/2 step
as well. Note that D# in this example is not T#9th
because the Passing Note function is obvious.
An Approach Note
An Approach Note , unlike a Passing Note, is a
note that is followed by a note from the mode
by a 1/2 step. Note that D# in this example is
not T#9th because the Approach Note function
is obvious.
An Double Approach Note
An Double Approach Note is a note that is followed by an Approach Note. Note that a Double
Approach note must have the opposite direction
of an Approach Note by a whole step.
Anticipation
Anticipation is defined by a value smaller than
the beat value (i.e., Quarter Note in 4/4). In this
first example, if the note A is a quarter note
placed on 2 instead of an 8th note on the end of
2, it becomes T13th against C7, and will be
changed to b7th on beat 3 even though the note
is tied over.
The second example shows that the Anticipation appears followed by a rest. It is easier if
the imagination is used to hear the ring of the
note over the rest.

Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

Melody Analysis Exercise

*

Number each note according to the chord.

A
C

& 44 .. ‰ œ .

F-7

bœ .

œ

œ

1

b
B 7

C7
j
bœ œ bœ œ œ ˙

2

4

5

D-7
j A7
œ œ œ œ œ ˙.

E-7

‰ j‰ œ œ œ œ.
œ

Œ
6

j
œ œœœœ

j
œ œ.

3

G7

& œ œ ‰ œj ˙

A7

œ.

1

D7

Yardbird Suite by Charlie parker

b
B 7

7

G7

8

#

2

G7

C

b

& œ.

#
F -7 ( 5)

j‰ j
œ œ ˙.

j j
#œ œ œ

Ó

10

B

12

B7 ( 9)

C7

‰ jœ œ
œ œ œ w

9

E-7

Œ

3

œ œ œbœ

11

b

B7( 9)

13

E-7

A7

œ œ œ #œ œ œ #œ ˙
œ
14

Œ

‰ j

15

b

D-7

&

œ.

j
œ ‰ œ œ œ ‰ œ.

E-7 ( 5)

16

..

Œ

A7

D7

œ œ œ # œ œ ‰ œj œ .
œ

17

18

D-7

b

D 7

jœœœœÓ
œ
19

A'
C

& ‰ œ.
20

œ

F-7

bœ .

œ

j
& ‰ œ ˙.

b

j
bœ œbœ œ œ ˙

21

D7

24

b

B 7

C7

B 7

œ.

22

25

œ œ ‰ #œ œ œ

23

6
C9

G7

‰ j 3 œ
œ œ œ œ

A7

j
œ œ

œ œ w
26


27

Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

- 19 -

Summary of Chord and Tension

The definition of a Chord is any combination of more than one note piled up vertically.
The definition of Tension is one of the non-chord tones from the scale (including the church mode
scales), and can be placed an octave above the chord and yet does not create b9th interval with any
one of the chord tones. However, the b9th violation will not affect the dominant chord which Avoid
Note is always (4).
C Maj7

& www
w

C2

C Maj6

ww

www
w

w
www
w

This is still a chord.
Note that there is no
3rd, 5th or 7th, because 2nd is the
highest chord tone.

Note the difference. The Major 13th chord may
have hidden 9th and #11th.

b

C -7

& b b www
w

C -6

b wwww

C -( 6)

b b wwww

C Maj13

w
b b wwww

C -7(13)

As shown above, the number attached to the chord name indicates the available tensions. In 6
chord, because 6 is the highest number, 7th, 9th, 11th, and 13th will not be available in the strict
sense in theory. However, composers often write 6 chord to prohibit only 7th. Especially in Major
chord, Major 7th chord cannot be used if the melody is the root. Because the melody always
sounds an 8va above the chord no matter what the actual range of the note is, it will sound the
violation with the b9th interval. Even though the melody is played in a close range on the same
harmony instrument, it will still be weak sounding by a 1/2 step above the M7th of the chord. Thus,
when the melody is the root of the chord, M6th or 6/9th chord must be used to maintain the integrity
of the melody.
The minor b6th chord in the example above may be easier if treated as an inversion of AbMaj7
chord. However, spelling this chord this way maintains minor quality which affects the performance, and indicates Aeolian mode as well.
Important Chord spelling rule:
If a number appears with no prefix (i.e., C9, C13), it is a dominant chord; while the Maj sign must
be used to indicate a Major chord (i.e., CMaj9, CMaj13), except on 6 chord, which does not need
any prefix to identify whether Dominant or Major because 6 chord is prohibited to have 7th note
which is needed to create Tritone in the dominant chord, and therefore it will never be a dominant
chord.

- 20 -

Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

Diatonic Functioning Chord

Basic Cadence
C Maj7

&

T - SD - T

F Maj7

www
w

C Maj7

& www
w

T-D-T

www
w

www
w

G7

C Maj7

www
w

C Maj7

D -7

E -7

www
w

F Maj7

www
w

G7

T

SD

T

SD

D

www
w

T = Tonic Function

Subdominant Functioning Chords
II- (D-7) is Inverted IV Maj(13).

w
w
& www

D-9

www
ww

C Maj7

www
w

ww
ww

www
w

www
w

ww
& wwww

CMaj(13)

www
w

b

B-7( 5)

A -7

T

SD = Subdominant Function

Tonic Functioning Chords
III- (E-7) is I Maj9 without the Root.
VI- (A-7) is Inverted I Maj6

FMaj(13)

G7

www
w

C Maj7

& www
w

ww
ww

F Maj7

& www
w

T - SD - D - T

C Maj7

D

D = Dominant Function

wwwA -7
w

E -7

www
w
(œ)

Dominant Functioning Chords
b
VII- (B-7( 5)) is V7 without the Root.

www
& ww

www
w

G 7(9)

b

B-7( 5)

b

Note: In jazz theory, -7( 5) will not substitute the dominant
even though it contains Tritone. This chord is a member of
minor chords, instead (i.e., II degree in a minor key).

Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

- 21 -

Analysis
Find all the Dominant Chords first

When you see a set of progression: __7 (any Dominant 7th, including altered tension(s)) going
down Perfect 5th to any kind of chord, draw an arrow.

G7

[V to I Motion]

b

Scale: Mixolydian
with or without
altered tension(s)

CMaj 7

P5 ↓

C-6

#

When you see a set of progression: __7 (any Dominant 7th, including altered tension 11th) going
down minor 2nd to any kind of chord, draw a dotted arrow. (See page 13 for the scale)
[SubV to I Motion]

b

Scale: Lydian b7th

G7( 9)

P5 ↓

-2 ↓

D7

C7

b
When you see a set of progression: __ -7 (any minor, including __ -7( 5) ) going up Perfect 4th
to __7 (any Dominant 7th, including altered tension(s)), draw a bracket.
D-7

P4 ↑

G7

P4 ↑

G7( 9)

[II - V Motion]

b

D-7( 5)

b

Complete Major II - V - I

D-7

P4 ↑

G7

P5 ↓

CMaj 7

P5 ↓

C-

Complete minor II - V - I

b

D-7( 5) P4 ↑

- 22 -

b

G7( 9)

Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

Harmonic Rhythm


Harmonic Rhythm is a division line in music that evenly divides the section.
I.e., a 32 bars music form is divided in 16 bars x 2, the 16 bars section will be divided in 8 bars x 2,
the 8 bars section....., a measure in 4/4 is divided in 2 beats x 2..., and so on.
Harmonic Rhythm creates a sense of section which affect melody as well as chord changes.
Note that the Blues form differs in division. The 12 bars form could have been divided into 6 bars
each, but the 6 bars section cannot be divided into 3 bars each because it is an odd number. Therefore, the Harmonic Rhythm in a 12 bars Blues form is 4 bars x 3.
In most of the standard jazz music, which written in a 32 bars form, the Harmonic Rhythm subdivision is 8 bars x 4, because most common form styles are "A-A-B-A" and "A-B-A-C".

32 bars
form

*

A(A)

4

4

A(B)

4

4

B(A)

4

4

A(C)

4

4

IMPORTANT: Note that any of the dominant functions are not affected when it appears within
Harmonic Rhythm; However, II - V motion are affected. As shown in the examples , if the II -V
motion is seen across the Harmonic Rhythm division, it will never sound II - V motion.
Harmonic Rhythm Division
F7

b
A 7( 9)

E -7

D -7

G7

& 44 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’
Harmonic Rhythm Division
C Maj7 E -7

& 44 ’

Harmonic Rhythm Division

b
A 7( 9) D -7

b
b
E -7 ( 5) A 7( 9) D -7

G7

In both examples, E-7 will sound an extension of CMaj7 because E-7 is a tonic
functioning diatonic chord. Therefore, it will not be analyzed with a bracket.

Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

- 23 -

Secondary Dominant

Secondary Dominant Chords are non-diatonic dominant chords that resolve to a diatonic chord. V7
chord is already a diatonic chord, so it is called primary dominant chord. IV7 is not a Secondary
Dominant Chord, because expected destination (Perfect 5th down) is a bVII, which is not a diatonic
chord. However, it may be considered as a SubV7 chord which resolved to III-7 (minor 2nd down),
so it could be analyzed as SubV7/III.
C
C Maj7

D -7

www
w

& wwww

E -7

www
w

V7/II

II-7

A7

D -7

F Maj7

C7

&’ ’ ’ ’

V7/III
B7

ww
ww

A -7

ww
ww

b

B-7( 5)

III-7
E -7

’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’

V7/V

V7

F Maj7

D7

G7

’ ’ ’ ’

’ ’ ’ ’

’ ’ ’ ’

IVMaj7

b
VI-7( 5)

V7/VI

VI-7

V7/VII

E7

A -7

F7

b
B -7 ( 5)

’ ’ ’ ’

’ ’ ’ ’

’ ’ ’ ’

&’ ’ ’ ’

- 24 -

ww
ww

ww
ww

4
&4 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’

V7/IV

G7

#

Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

Available Scale for Secondary Dominant Chords.
V7/II

A7

˙

œ

œ

˙

œ

˙

R

T9

3

(4)

5

Tb13

b7

&

V7/III

B7

œ

œ

˙

œ

˙

R

Tb9

3

(4)

b5

Tb13

b7

V7/IV

C7

Mixolydian

˙

œ

˙

œ

˙

œ

R

T9

3

(4)

5

T13

b7

&

V7/V

D7

Mixolydian

˙

œ

œ

˙

œ

˙

R

T9

3

(4)

5

T13

b7

œ

˙

3

(4)

5

œ
Tb13

&

V7/VI

E7

˙
R

V7/VII F#7

& #˙
R

Mixolydian b5, b9, b13 (Can be Altered Mixo with #9 added)

˙

&

&

Mixolydian b13 (see the option bellow)

Mixolydian b9, b13

œ
Tb9

˙

b7

Mixolydian b5, b9, b13 (Can be Altered Mixo with #9 added)

œ
Tb9

œ

3

(4)

˙
b5

œ

˙

Tb13

b7

It is very common to see V7/II with Tb9. This is because II-7 is assumed as a I-7 momentary, so the
key signature of that assumed minor will apply, which is b9 to V7/II. This option will not occur with
any other Secondary Dominant Chord.
V7/II
A7 Mixolydian b9, b13

& w
R

bw
Tb9

#w

¿

w

w

w

3

(4)

5

Tb13

b7

Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

- 25 -

Extended Dominant

Scale: Mixolydian

Extended Dominant Chords are dominant chords in a pattern of Circle of 5th which eventually
reaches to a target. The changes shown below are typical Rhythm Changes bridge in Bb. The target
chord after this section is Bb Maj7, which is I Maj7.

(V7/V/V/V)

(V7/V/V)
V7/V

D7

G7

V7

C7

F7

& ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’
Extended
Dominant

Extended
Dominant

Secondary
Dominant

Primary
Dominant

Note that the Roman Numeral Analysis is usually not applicable to the Extended Dominant Chords.
However, this class will apply them with Parentheses as shown.

Left:

Hiro Honshuku with
Dave Liebman and
Tiger Okoshi at Live
House RAG.
Bottom: Honshuku with his
Boston Blazing Orchestra and Mike
Stern.

- 26 -

Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

Related II•

Any dominant chord can be preceded by a minor chord, which is a P4th below the dominant chord.
This is because the dominant chord is assumed as a V7 no matter where it is resolving to, so the
added minor chord becomes a II- chord as the relationship. Therefore, the Roman numeral analysis are not applied, but brackets are needed.

Bb

Shown below is the bridge of Rhythm Changes and an arrangement applied with
related II- chords. This kind of re-harmonization was common during the Be-Bop
Era.
V7/V
D7

G7

V7

C7

F7

& ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’

Bb

A -7

D -7

D7

V7/V

II-7

C7

C -7

G -7

G7

V7
F7

& ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’

The example shown below is Autumn Leaves, and its arrangement. Note that the target is
completely ignored and replaced with a sequence of subV7 and its related II-7.

G-

b
& b 44 œ œ œ

IV-7

bVII7

C -7

F7

w

œ

C -7

˙
j
b
& b 44 ‰ œ œ œ

b

B Maj7

˙
œ œ œ

˙

F7

Ó

II-7(b5)

b

b

A-7 ( 5)

E Maj7

œ

w
œ œ œ

bVII7

IV-7
G-

bIII Maj7 bVI Maj7

subV7/
B -7

E7

b

B -7

b

E 7

V II-7(b5) V7(b9)

b

A-7 ( 5)

Œ ‰ œj œ œ œ œJ œ . œ Œ Œ ‰ œj œ œ œ w

Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

b

D7 ( 9)

œ

- 27 -

PEACE

Analysis (cont.)

b

b

II-7( 5)

G-

V7( 9)

b

D7( 9)

œ3

.. Œ

F

œ

œ

Bb

b
( 5)

F7

#
( 9)

œ

œ

#œ nœ

(I Maj7)
A/G

#

#

b

#

b
E -7( 5)

F -/E

œ œ œ

&

bb
9

- 28 -

#

C7( 11)

SubV7

I Maj7

B7( 11)

B Maj7

#

E7
3

SubV7

I Maj7

#

b

D7( 11)

D Maj7

3

#œ nœ œ bœ œ
7

n/a

B -7

œ nœ #œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ

b

3

œ nœ #œ

V7

3

II-7( 5)
Db

6

Bb

œ
J

5

VI-7 (VI-7)
F -7

II-7

3

4

AMaj7

&

˙.

3

I Maj7

œ.

A

b
B Maj7

3

bb

C7

2

C -7

b
& b œ bœ bœ œ

G -7
3

#
b
II-7( 5) V7( 9) I Maj7
BbBb

BMaj7

V7

œ œ œ œ œ3 œ œ

1

bII Maj7

II-7

b

A -7( 5)
3
b
œ
4
&b 4 ‰ œ

Horace Silver

b˙ .

Œ

8

b

3

bœ bœ œ œ œ

˙.

Œ

..

10

Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

PEACE

Analysis (cont.)

b

Bb

b

VII-7( 5)

V7( 9)/VI

b

VI-7

D7( 9)

3
.. Œ œ

œ

œ

G -7

b
& b œ bœ bœ œ

œ
J

#
b
II-7( 5) V7( 9) I Maj7
#

b

C -7( 5) F7( 9)

œ

B -7

B Maj7

3

3

œ.

2

b

BMaj7

C7

œ œ3 œ œ œ3 œ œ

1

bII Maj7

V7/V

b

A -7( 5)
3
b
4
œ
œ
&b 4 ‰

Horace Silver

œ

˙.
4

E7
3

3

3

œ nœ #œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ
5

The analysis shown on page 22 is a way for improvisation, which is not quite
correct in the sense of strict theory. These complicated changes in the beginning
are landing on bar 4. One reasons is that the 4th bar will sound strong as a target
to the human sense. Another reason is that all of the changes will not sound too

far away from key in Bb Major. Therefore, if all of the progressions of the first 4
bars are analyzed as in key in Bb Major, it will be shown above. This analysis is

done using a technique called Modal Interchange, which will be explained later
in this book. When you are improvising, it is necessary to see the quick momentary key changes in order to make effective solo line. When you are composing,
it is necessary to use a related change to get to a landing key.

Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

- 29 -

Analysis (cont.)

Available Scale for "PEACE".

b

A -7 ( 5)

b

D7( 9)

Mixo b9

G -7

C7

Dori

Mixo

œ bœ œ œ
œ œ œ bœ œ œ ¿ œ
b
œ
¿
œ œ bœ
œ
& œ b¿ œ
¿
œ
œ
œ bœ #œ
œ
Loc

b

Note: When this is analyzed
as VI-7 as theory suggests,
Aeolian should be used instead. As matter of fact, if this
piece is played slow using Aeolian rather than Dorian, it
will sound more effectively.

C -7 ( 5)

#

BMaj7

F7 ( 9)

b

B -7

E7

AMaj7

F -7

B Maj7
#
Lyd
Loc
Mixo 9
Ion
bœ bœ
& #œ #œ #œ #œ #œ #œ œ b¿ bœ œ bœ bœ bœ œ #œ œ b¿ œ
œ œ œ
b
¿
œ
œ
œ

#

Ion
# œ # œ Aeo
œ
œ
¿ œ
¿
#
œ
#
œ
œ
œ
œ
#œ œ œ #œ
& #œ œ œ #œ #¿ œ œ #œ #œ ¿
#
œ
œ
Dori

Mixo

#

b

D7( 11)

E -7

Dori

Lyd b7

b

D Maj7

Ion

#

C7 ( 11)

Lyd b7


œ œ œ
bœ bœ œ
#
œ
b
¿
œ œ bœ
& bœ œ bœ bœ bœ œ
#
œ
œ
œ
b
œ
œ

œ œ œ #œ

#

B7( 11)

&

Lyd b7

b

B Maj7

Ion

#œ #œ œ
œ œ œ
œ #œ #œ #œ
bœ œ œ b¿

- 30 -

Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

Summary of Analysis

When you are asked to analyze a tune in the class, the steps shown below are required

1. Arrow and Bracket Analysis, and the Key of the Moment indication with the box.
C
CMaj7

4
&4 ‰
2.

D7

G7

CMaj7 FMaj7

G7

E -7 A7

3

3
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œœ œ œ œœœ œ œ ˙
œ œ œ
œ
œ
œœ

D -7

‰œœœ

Roman Numeral Analysis and Mode (Scale) Analysis.

C

I Maj7

VI-7

V7/V V7

I Maj7 IV Maj7 V7

Ion

Aeo

Mixo

Mixo

Ion

D7

G7

CMaj7

4
&4 ‰
3.

A -7

A -7

Lyd

III-7 V7/II II-7

Mixo Phry Mixo Dori
b9,b13

CMaj7 FMaj7

G7

E -7 A7

3

3
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œœ œ œ œœœ œ œ ˙
œ œ œ
œ
œ
œœ

D -7

‰œœœ

Indication for M.I.(Modal Interchange) and/or D.R.(Deceptive Resolution) if applicable.
V7/V V7
I Maj7 VI-7
I Maj7 IV Maj7 V7 III-7 V7/II II-7
Ion

C

CMaj7

4
&4 ‰

Aeo

A -7

Mixo

Mixo

D7

G7

Ion

Lyd

Mixo Phry Mixo Dori
b9,b13

CMaj7 FMaj7

G7

E -7 A7

3

3
œ œ œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œœ œ
œœ œ œ ˙
œ œ
œ
œ
œœ

D -7

‰œœœ

D.R.
4.

Scale Degree Analysis.
I Maj7
Ion

VI-7
Aeo

V7/V V7
Mixo Mixo

III-7 V7/II II-7
Mixo Phry Mixo Dori
b9,b13

I Maj7 IV Maj7 V7
Ion

Lyd

D.R.

C

CMaj7

& 44 ‰

A -7

D7

G7

CMaj7 FMaj7
3

G7

E -7 A7

œ œ œ œ œ œœœ œ œ œœ
œ ˙
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ œ R T11 5 T9 b7 5 R 3 R b7 3 R 3 R M7 5 3 b3

5 T13

3

b7

D -7

‰œœœ
5 T11 b
3

Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

- 31 -

Project
• Write a piece using the technique you have learned
• 32 bars form recommended.
• Two types of the conventional forms are recommended.
1)

A - A - B - A
i.e.; "Take The A Train"

2)

A - B - A - C
i.e.; "The Days Of Wine And Roses"

If you are sure you can make unconventional form musically, it is acceptable as long as you know
what you are doing.
I.e.; "Peace", "Blue In Green"
No Blues please.

• Check Points

Notation
Neatness, Imaginary bar line, Beats positioning, Accidentals, Ending bar line, Beaming, Clef and
so on.

Scale notes
Notes must fit in the chord scales, unless otherwise it is an passing/approach note. Therefore, you
must analyze with Roman numeral and name of the scale (mode) for your piece referring to the
page 31.

• Extra Points
• Musical Phrasing.
• Intro and TAG (Outro).
• Recording of the piece.

- 32 -

Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

Draft

Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

-1-

Diminished Scales
Diatonic Functioning Diminish Chord

I dim 7 ................................ resolve to .......................... I Maj 7

#I dim 7 ................................ resolve to ............................... II-7

bIII dim 7 .............................. resolve to ............................... II-7
#II dim 7 ............................... resolve to ............................. III-7
#IV dim 7 .............................. resolve to ................................. V7
V dim 7 ............................... resolve to ................................. V7

#V dim 7 ............................... resolve to ............................. VI-7
bVI dim 7 .............................. resolve to ................................. V7

All the diatonic functioning diminished chords must resolve by half step up or down,
except I dim 7 and V dim 7 resolve to the same root.

C

I dim 7

I Maj 7

C di m7

C Maj7

& b b ∫ www
w

www
w

#
F

I dim 7
F #di m7

b

A wwww

D bdi m7 C #di m7
A ww
# n ww

See Tip on Page 29.

-2-

w

R

T9

b3

T11

dim 5

(6)

œ Aw

œ

w

dim 5

Tb13

G-9

III dim 7

b
& b b ∫ ∫b wwww

w

∫œ

nw

dim 7

TM7

#w

dim 7

TM7

II-7

bw
& b # www

Bb

∫w

œ

w

R

(2)

b3

(4)

II-7
C -7

A A wwww

w

w

œ

R

(2)

b3

(4)

dim 5

Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

w Aœ
Tb13

dim 7

#w
TM7

#

II dim 7
A #di m7

G

&

a wwww

w
# # www

#

#
C

III-7
B -7

IV dim 7

www
w

V dim 7
C di m7

w

R

(2)

b3

(4)

œ

‹w

dim 5

Tb13

dim 7

TM7

b ∫ ∫ ∫ www
b
&
bw

œ

w

œ

w

#w

R

(2)

b3

T11

dim 5

Tb13

dim 7

TM7

w

∫w

œ

w

R

T9

b3

T11

w

œ

w

œ

R

(2)

b3

(4)

dim 5

dim 5

(6)

∫œ
dim 7

bw
(7)

VI-7
D -7

www
w

& b A# wwww

G bdi m7

w

A www
w

V dim 7
C #di m7

VI dim 7

C7

#

b

œ aw

V7

& b b b ∫ wwww

Bb

G7

bw
& # www

F

w

V7

F #di m7

F

F #di m7
A ww
# ww

See Tip on Page 29.

w Aœ
Tb13

dim 7

#w
TM7

V7
F7

A www
w

w

œ Aw

R

(2)

b3

Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

(4)

œ

w Aœ

dim 5

Tb13 dim 7

#w
TM7

-3-

Symmetric Diminished Scale
G di m7

C Maj9

b b b www
& w

W

ww
ww
w

w

w

R

T9

1/2

bw
dim 3

W

w
T11

1/2

bw

W

dim 5

b w 1/2 b w
Tb13

W

dim 7

Symmetric Diminished Scale appears as non-diatonic functioning
diminished chord (means it does not fit any one of eight categories
described before). Because the scale is built with constant whole/
half steps, there is no tension which will create b9th interval. Therefore, all the tensions are available.

The example shown above will sound strong resolution because
of the root motion of V to I. G dim 7, however, does not create any
logical voice leading (will be discussed later). Therefore, G dim 7
is not functioning as diatonic.

bw
TM7

Combination Dominant Scale

If one diminished scale could built with whole and half steps, the
reversed positions as half/whole would be possible, too. This scale
is usually used for dominant. Note; there is no available tension
this time.

b

9
G7( # 11)

b ww
#
& www

C Maj9

www
ww

R

w

Tb 9

bw

T# 9

bw

3

nw

T#11

#w

b wwww
b
b
&
ww

ww
www

9

C6

R

Tb9

T# 9

3

bw

nw

w

w

T#11

w

Altered

-4-

b

w7

The same scale may start on the root of the substitute dominant
chord.

b

9
D b7( # 11)

w

w

13

Lydian b7

Altered

5

Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

5

bw

13

bw

Lydian b7

b7

bw

Non Diatonic Functioning Diminished Chords
Additional information for the diminished chords (p.10-12).

As we discussed thoroughly, diminished chord scales will be decided by the fact that if the diminished chord is acting as a diatonic function within the key of the moment.
The list below shows the progressions which will not create a resolution sound in the sequence
even though it may look diatonic functioning diminished chords. This list will against the list on
page 10.

bII dim 7 ........... goes to, but does not resolve to ........... I Maj7
bV dim 7 ........... goes to, but does not resolve to ........... IV Maj7
bVI dim 7 .......... goes to, but does not resolve to ........... V7
bVII dim 7 ........ goes to, but does not resolve to ........... VI-7
#VI dim 7 .......... goes to, but does not resolve to ........... VII-7(b5)
Those progressions are called non diatonic functioning diminished chords sequence. Therefore,
the chord scales will not be considered by the Key of the moment. The Symmetric diminished
scale will be used, instead.

Again, if any of the diminished chords do not resolve in the Key of the moment as shown on the
page 10, the chord scale will be Symmetric diminished scale as well.

There is an exception to the rule above.

I

#I dim 7

C

C di m7

#

b ww
& www
w
# ww
The #I dim 7 did not resolve to II-7.

V on 5th
G/D

ww
w

#II dim 7
#

D di m7

ww
# # ww

I on 3rd
C/E

ww
w

Instead, it resoled to V with the 5th (D) on bass. This is a
semi-diatonic functioning progression, because the ear will hear the bass move to the 2nd degree of
the diatonic scale (C Major) as where the II-7 is supposed to be, and the actual chord on top of the
bass which is another diatonic chord. #II dim 7 resolves to I with the 3rd on bass is also semidiatonic for the same reason. Therefore, the chord scale will be decided by the Key of the moment.
Note that this kind of progression is commonly heard in Gospel music.

Tip

Enharmonic respelling is necessary when the root of the diminished choed is flat.

b

#

I.e.; Respell E dim 7 to D dim 7 in order to find the chord scale.

Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

-5-

Minor Key

Relative Keys

Relative Keys are a pair of keys which uses same key signature. Those two keys are Major and
minor, and the minor key starts from VI degree of the Major key. In other word, the tonic of relative
minor starts from Major 6th above the tonic of relative Major.
C Major ---- Major 6th ↑ ---- A minor
C minor ---- Major 6th ↓ ---- EbMajor

Scale Degree
C Maj
I

&w

II

w

III

w

IV

w

V

w

VI

VII

w

w

w

w

w

w

w

I

II

bIII

IV

V

bVI

bVII

www
w

www
w

www
w

www
w

A-

Diatonic Chords / Modes
C Maj
Ion
IMaj7

& wwww

Dori
II-7

www
w

Phry
Lyd Mixo
III-7 IVMaj7 V7

www
w

www
w

www
w

Aeo
Loc
b
VI-7 VII-7( 5)

www
w

I-7
Aeo

www
w

www
w

II-7( 5) bIIIMaj7 IV-7
Loc
Ion
Dori

b

A-

-6-

Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

V-7 bVIMaj7 bVII7
Phry Lyd
Mixo

Minor Key (cont.)

Minor scale has three different types. The reason is Leading Tone.
Leading Tone is a note which leads the tonic form -2nd below.
Since Natural minor scale (Aeolian Mode) is VIth mode of relative Major, the scale does not have Leading Tone. Therefore,
Natural minor does not sound resolving to the Tonic.

C Maj Scale

&w

w

A Natural minor Scale (Aeolian Mode)

w

w

w


Leading
Tone

Aug 2nd
Gap

A Harmonic minor

&

w

w

w

w

w

w

w

w

w #w

Leading
Tone

w

w

w

w

w

w

w

w


Not
Leading
Tone

A Melodic minor

w

#w w nw nw w w w
#
w
w
w
w
w w
w w

Leading
Tone

Harmonic minor is a minor scale with Leading Tone. Leading
Tone is needed for resolution harmonically. Note that raising the
7th note to make Leading Tone changed V-7 chord to V7 chord
(E-7 to E7 in A minor, see page 32), which makes much smoother
progression of V7 to I -.
Harmonic minor is smoother harmonically. It, however, no longer
smooth as a scale because Leading Tone created an Aug 2nd interval from the 6th note F. To make the scale smoother, the 6th
note is rased, too. That is Melodic minor Scale. The rased 6th
and 7th are needed only when going up to the tonic. Therefore,
descending scale goes back to Natural minor Scale (Aeolian
Mode).

Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

-7-

Minor Key (cont.)

Diatonic Chords

Natural minor
I-7

II-7( 5)

bIIIMaj7

IV-7

V-7

A -7

B-7

C Maj7

D -7

www
w

E -7

bIIIMaj7(#5)
C Maj7( 5)

b
(b5)

www
w

www
w

& www
w

Harmonic minor
I-(Maj7)
A-(Maj7)

b
(b5)

II-7( 5)
B-7

www
w

& # www
w

Melodic minor Ascending
I-(Maj7)

II-7

A-(Maj7)

B -7

& # www
w

-8-

# wwww

#

# wwww

bIIIMaj7(#5)
#
C Maj7( 5)

# wwww

bVIMaj7

bVII7

www
w

www
w

F Maj7

www
w

IV-7

V7

bVIMaj7

VIIdim7

D -7

E7

F Maj7

www
w

www
w

# wwww

IV7

V7

VI-7( 5)

D7

E7

ww
# ww

w
# www

w
# www

b
b
F #-7( 5)

Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

G7

G #di m7

w
# www

b

VII-7( 5)

b

G #-7( 5)

# ww
# ww

Harmonic Consideration for minor key

Typical minor diatonic chords in minor key chord progression.

A -7

B-7

IV-7
Dori

Ion

(b5)

C Maj7

bVIMaj7

V7
Mixo

D -7

Lyd

E7

F Maj7

www
w

# wwww

www
w

www
w

www
w

& www
w

bIIIMaj7

b

II-7( 5)
Loc

I-7
Aeo

VIIdim7
dim
G #di m7

w
# www

Because Mixolydian and diminished scales varies according to the Key of the Moment, all the
tension notes must be adjusted.

E7

& w
R

w

#w

¿

w

w

w

Tb9

3

(4)

5

Tb13

b7

Therefore, this is Mixo b9 which contains b13 automatically.

diminished scale for VIIdim7 is shown below.

& #w
R

¿

w

¿

w

w

w

w

(2)

dim3

(4)

dim5

Tb13

dim7

T Maj7

Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

-9-

Minor Key (cont.)

b

"-7( 5)" appears very distinctively. Most likely, this is a
II chord of a minor key of the moment. If this chord is
followed by a Dominant chord, it must be a minor II - V
progression, no matter what chord to resolve. Thereb
fore, the mode is Locrian for the II-7( 5), and Mixo b9
for the V7.

C-

4
&4 œ

œ œ

b
II-7( 5)

V7

Loc

Mixo b9

b
D-7( 5)

G7

w

˙

I Maj7
C

Ion
C Maj7

3

œ œ #œ

w

˙

œ

œ œ

Night And Day by Cole Porter

F-

4
&b 4

œ

b
II-7( 5)

V7

Loc

Mixo b9

b
G-7( 5)

˙

b
C 7( 9)

˙

I Maj7

œ.

F

Ion
F Maj7

j
œ #œ .

j
œ ˙

˙

Œ

œ

I Love You by Cole Porter

- 10 -

Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

Modal Interchange

C Natural minor

bIIIMaj7

IV-7

V-7

bVIMaj7

bVII7

b

E bMaj7

F -7

G -7

A bMaj7

B b7

II-7( 5)

C -7

D-7( 5)

b wwwœ

&b b www
w

Tonic minor

bIIIMaj7

I-7
C -7

& b b wwww

b

I-7

E bMaj7

b ww
b ww

w
b b www

w
b www

bw
b wœw

Subdominant minor

b
(b5)

V-7

II-7( 5)

IV-7

G -7

D-7

F -7

b wwww

b wwwœ

b b wwœw

b www
b œ

bVIMaj7
A bMaj7

w
b b wwœ

b œw
b ww

bVII7
b

b Bœww 7
bw

Note that the notes indicated black are scale degree b6 in C Natural minor (C Aeolian) which is the
Avoid. That is why any diatonic chord contains scale degree b6 is not Tonic minor. Those are
Subdominant minor chords.

V-7 (G Phrygian)
G -7

&w
R

b¿
(2)

bw
b3

w

w

b¿

w

T11

5

(b6)

b7

V-7 is not common, because b3 of the Parent minor Key (Eb in C minor) which is necessary to
characterize minor sound is not chord tone nor available tension on V-7 (Phrygian Mode) Scale.

Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

- 11 -

minor II - V - I
b
II-7( 5)
b

D-7( 5)

&

b www
w

V7

I-

b
G 7( 9)

C-

b www

w
b www

b

Because the II-7( 5) usually precedes the V7 chord, it is a modal interchange chord from Harmonic
minor.

Altered Subdominant Chord

b
(b5)

II-7( 5)
D-7

&

b wwww

bII Maj7
D bMaj7

w
b b www

Lyd

bVI Maj7
A bMaj7

&

b ww
b ww

bVI7
A b7

b b www
bw

Lyd b7

Note that the bVI7 (altered bVI Maj7) and the bVII7 (diatonic) are not Dominant functioning chords
because those are not located at the 5th position in the diatonic, and do not resolve to I- going down
Perfect fifth.

- 12 -

Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

Modal Interchange (cont.)

Mixolydian Modal Interchange Chord.

bVIIMaj7

V-7

&

B bMaj7

G -7

C Mixolydian Scale

w

w

w

w

R

T9

3

(4)

w
b www
5

C7

w

ww
ww

b ww
ww

T13

b7

R

Summary of the basic Modal Interchange Chords
Tonic minor
from natural minor

Subdominant minor
from natural minor

I-7

Aeolian

bIIIMaj7

V-7 (not common)

Phrygian

bIIMaj7

Lydian


II-7
IV-7

Locrian
Dorian

(b5)

bVIMaj7
bVI7
bVII7

V7

II-7( 5)

from Harmonic minor

V7

Mixolydian Modal
Interchange



b
II-7( 5)

b

bVIIMaj7
V-7

Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

Ionian

Lydian

Lydian b7
Mixolydian
Locrian

Mixo b9, b13
Lydian
Dorian

- 13 -

Modal Interchange (cont.)

bVIMaj7
b
G Maj7

IMaj6

b

B Maj6

SubV7

B7

b 2 ‰. œ œ œ œ œ
b
& 4
œœœœ œ ˙
R
1

2

3

4

IMaj6

I-7

V7(b9)/II

B Maj6

B -7

G 7( 9)

b

b

b

b ‰. œ œ œ œ œ
b
&
œœœœ œ ˙
R
5

6

8

Ab

IMaj6

b

II-7

V7

B -7

E7

b

B Maj6

b

b ‰. œ œ œ œ œ
b
&
œœœœ œ ˙
R
17

18

19

Eb

œ

V7

IMaj6

IV-7

V7/IV

B Maj6

F-7

B7

b

b
& b ‰ . Rœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙
- 14 -

22

Œ

20

II-7

b

21

Œ

œ

7

Œ

œ

23

Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

œ
24

Œ

Special Dominant

Special Dominant Chords are chords which appear in diatonic situation, yet do not resolve by going
down Perfect 5th nor minor 2nd.

II7

II7 appears as a substitution of V7. The tritone resolves to a part of I Maj7 (5th, M7th).
D7

& # wwww

CMaj7

w
#w

ww
ww

ww
œ

Since II7 is derived from V7/V, Take The "A" Train changes (below) is well known.
#

CMaj7

4
&4 w

D7( 11)

jœ.
œ
œ
œ œ #œ ˙ .

D-7

G7

CMaj7

œ
œ #œ œ œ bœ œ bœ œ œ ˙ .

˙. Œ w

˙.

Œ

• II7 can be explained as a Modal Interchange chord from I Lydian.

III7

Since III7 is derived from V7/VI, it resolves to IV Maj7 which is Inverted VI-6.

III7

IV Maj7

E7

FMaj7

& # wwww

bVI7

www
w

V7/VI

w
# www

E7

VI-b6

wwww

b

A -( 6)

Since bVI7 is same structure as SubV7/V, it resolves to I Maj with 5th on root.

bVI7

b
A 7

b b www
& bw

I Maj

www
w
C

Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

bVI7
b
A 7

b b www
bw

V7
G7

ww
ww

- 15 -

Special Dominant (cont.)

VI7

Since VI7 is derived from V7/II, it resolves to IV Maj7 which is II-9 without the root.

VI7

IV Maj7

A7

FMaj7

w
& # www

VII7

ww
ww

V7/II

II-9

A7

D-9

ww
wwœ

# www
w

Since VII7 is derived from V7/III, it resolves to I Maj7 which is III- without the root.
VII7

I Maj7

V7/III

III-

B7

CMaj7

B7

E-

ww
ww

& # # wwww

rd

ach

u
O
t
I

eM

t

v
roo

G
nal

atio

ern

Int

Ha
o
S
g
n
gi
n
i
Sw

ww
w

w
# # www

C

k
c
e
h

ine

- 16 -

Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

#IV-7(b5)

#IV-7(b5) is often found in standard jazz progressions as a special diatonic
functioning chord. It can be explained theoretically in a number of different
ways (shown bellow). Yet, as always, the available scale is Locrian because it
is a minor 7th chord with a flated 5th.

#IV-7(b5) Locrian
# (b5)
F -7

& #w

#IV-7(b5) can be explained as a V7/ without the root.
V
#IV-7(b5)
V7
b 5)
#
(
F -7
G7

ww
ww

w

w

V7/V

V7

D7(9)

G7

ww
# www

ww
ww

Instead of resolving to V, #IV-7(b5) can resolve to I/5th (inverted), just as #IV diminished chord did.
This also supports that II7 followed by I chord (p. 29).
#IV-7(b5)
#IV-7(b5)
I/5th
V7

b

#
F -7 ( 5)

w
& # www

w

w

It can be explained as a Modal Interchange chord from Tonic Lydian (C Lydian), just as II7 was
explained in p. 37.

w
& # www

w

¿

b

ww
ww

G7

#
F -7 ( 5)

www
#w

C/G

ww
w

#IV-7(b5) can be found as a passing chord which resolve to IV chord. This is the most common
use of #IV-7(b5).
#IV-7(b5)
#IV-7(b5)
IVMaj7
IV-7
b
b 5)
#
#
(
(
5)
F -7
FMaj7
F -7
F -7

w
& # www

www
w

Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

w
# www

b b wwww

- 17 -

Those are the common use of #IV-7(b5) shown below. There are many Modal Interchange chords in
the music, as well. Reviewing the Modal Interchange (p. 35-38), indicate those chords with "M.I.".

b
D-7( 5) G 7

Night And Day

4
&4 œ œœ w

b
D-7( 5)

C Maj7

3

˙ œ œ #œ w

1

2

œ

3

Œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ

4

5

#IV-7(b5)
G7

C Maj7

3

& œ œ œ œ #œ w
6

8

E bdi m7

E-7

9

D-7

12

13

The Days of Wine
And Roses

&

17

18

B b-(Maj7 )

œ œ œ

22

b
B-7( 5)

27

- 18 -

E b7

˙

˙

23

#IV-7(b5)

&

w

˙.
28

A-7

œ

˙

D-7

G-7

30

Œ

16

G-7

œ œ œ
œ ˙

20

21

A-7

D-7

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
25

œ œ œ œ œ ˙
29

˙

œ œ

24

B b7

15

19

B b-7

˙.

œ œœ w

˙

Œ œ œ œ ˙

w

C Maj7

b
D 7( 9)

E b7

F Maj7

œ

14

j j
œ œ œ

10

G7

& œ œ œ œ œ bœ
œ œ œ œ bœ œ ˙
11

F-7

j
.
œ œ œ œ œ œ b˙

Œ

œ

7

b
F #-7( 5)

26

C7

F Maj6

œ w
31

Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

˙.
32

Œ

Deceptive Resolutions

Standard Deceptive Resolutions: A dominant 7th chord resolve to a tonic functioning chord (see
page 16) other than I chord.

V7

w
& www

G7

I

V7

VI-

ww
w

G7

www
w

A-

C

www

VI- shares the root and the 3rd of I.

&

V7

I

V7

III-

G7

CMaj7

G7

E-

www
w

ww
ww

www
w

ww
w

III- is I Maj7 without the root.

Non Standard Deceptive Resolutions: Since the dominant 7th chord resolve to the I Major 7th in
a Major key, other Modal Interchange Major 7th chords may be seen as a deceptive resolution.

V7

ww
& ww

G7

bVI Maj7
b
A Maj7
w
bw
b ww

Altered Deceptive Resolution of V7 to VI-.

V7

bIII Maj7

G7

E Maj7

ww
ww

V7

bII Maj7

V7

G7

D Maj7

G7

& wwww

www
b
bw

Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

b www
bw

Altered Deceptive Resolution of V7 to III-.

Other Modal Interchange Major Chords.

b

b

ww
ww

bVII Maj7
b

B Maj7

b wwww

- 19 -

Deceptive Resolutions (cont.)

One additional Deceptive Resolution is a dominant 7th chord followed by #IV-7(b5). This progression may be seen as three diferent functions.

• #IV-7(b5) appears as a related II-7 of V7/III.
II-7

V7

#IV-7(b5)

D -7

G7

#
F -7 ( 5)

V7/III

III-7

B7

E -7

b

ww
w
& w

www
w

˙
# ˙˙˙

www
w

# ˙˙˙
˙

#IV-7(b5) appears as a passing chord to IV-7. This may be called Altered Subdominant minor, sometime.
I Maj7

V7

#IV-7(b5)

CMaj7

G7

#
F -7 ( 5)

IV-7

b

w
& www

ww
ww

ww
# ww

F -7

bw
b www

M.I.

#IV-7(b5) appears as a Lydian Modal Interchange tonic functioning chord. As the
VI-7 and the III-7 replaces I Major in the Standard Deceptive Resolution, #IV-7(b5)
replaces I Major Lydian chord.
II-7

V7

#IV-7(b5)

D -7

G7

#
F -7 ( 5)

b

w
& www

ww
ww

w
# www

M.I.
- 20 -

Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

˙˙˙ ...
˙.

Œ

Compound Chords

Inversion is a chord with the bass which is replaced with a chord tone other than the root.
C7

& b www
w

Root Position

b

C7/E

b wwww

w
b www

1st Inversion

2nd Inversion

3rd Inversion

C7/G

b www
w

C7/B

Hybrid is a chord with a bass which is other than any of chord tones. Note that the any kind of 3rd
against the bass can not be included in the upper structure chord, because it will characterize a
chord to the bass. Basically, the upper structure chord is derived from the scale notes against the
bass. However, because the 3rd of the bass is not included, ambiguous sound will be created.

&
?

CMaj7/D

D -7/G

ww
ww
w

www
w
w

w
# ww
#w

1)

2)

3)

A/D

#

1) Derived from D Dorian with b7, 9, 11, and 13 those which create the upper structure chord.
Since the b3rd (F) is missing from this chord, it will not sound D-7. It rather sound C Maj7
with the 9th on the bass.
2) Derived from G Mixolydian with 5, b7, 9 and S4. Note that the avoid note (S4: C) can be
used because the 3rd (B) is missing from this chord. The sound will be D-7 with the 11th
on the bass.
3) Derived from D# Locrian with 11, b7 and S2(b9). Note that the flat 9th interval created
between D# and E is acceptable in two reasons. The one is because Locrian is a semidominant functioning mode, so as altered dominant tensions are, flat 9th interval will create
more resolution sense. The other is because the upper structure chord creates strong unity
as a chord, the ear can separate it from the bass. However, the caution must be taken when
it is used.

Polychord is a chord combined with two triads or 7th chord. Usually, the upper structure is
created from the available tensions of the bottom chord. This is extremely useful when the keyboard voicing is needed to be specified for ensemble arranging reasons.
D
C

&
?

# www
ww
w

ED-

ww
w
ww
w

Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

F -7
Gb

b b wwww
bw
b b ww

- 21 -

Project I
• Write a piece using the technique you have learned.
• 32 bars form recommended.
• Two types of the conventional forms are recommended.
1)

A - A - B - A
ie; "Take The A Train"

2)

A - B - A - C
ie; "The Days Of Wine And Roses"

If you are sure you can make unconventional form musically, it is acceptable as long as you know
what you are doing.
ie; "Piece", "Blue In Green"
No Blues please.

• Check Points

Notation
Neatness, Imaginary bar line, Beats positioning, Accidentals, Ending bar line, Beaming, Clef and
so on.

Scale notes
Notes must fit in the chord scales, unless otherwise it is an approach note. Therefore, you must
analyze with Roman numeral and name of the scale (mode) for your piece.

• Extra Points
• Musical Phrasing.
• Intro and TAG (Outro).
• Recording of the piece.

- 22 -

Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

Project II
1. Quiz on Intervals and Chord Scales (Modes).
2. Write a piece using five subjects of the seven listed below
(Diatonic Functioning Dominant Chords must be included as
indicated). The piece must be analyzed according to the
directions of Appendix A.
1)

Diatonic Functioning Dominant Chords (include Primary Dominant).
Must use at least two of the four listed below.
a)
Secondary Dominant
b)
Extended Dominant
c)
Special Dominant
d)
Substituted Dominant (SubV7)

2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

Related II#IV-7(b5)
Diatonic Functioning Diminished Chord.
Minor Key.
Modal Interchange (exclude Lydian M.I. and Mixolydian M.I.).
Deceptive Resolutions

Warning
• If the piece is notated and analyzed in a hard-to-read way, it will be returned without being graded.
• Note that this assignment is not for writing a musical composition, but for
a correct harmony and melody with the theory you have learned.
• Duplicated analysis must be avoided (i.e. #IV-7(b5) as a Modal Interchange).

Tip
• Write the chord progression first, then the melody according to the available scales.
• The bass motion (P5th down, Major or minor 2nd up and down) will make
the sound stronger.

Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

- 23 -

Quiz #1

Name

Date

1. Write out the Intervals.

w
&
bw

#w
‹ w

(

) (

∫w
bw
) (

#w
w

bw
bw

) (

) (

)

2. Write a note by the given Interval.

&

bw
-9th Below

#w
P12th Above

w
Aug.6th Below

#w
dim.15th Above

w
-10th Above

Hint
1. Hide all the accidentals.
2. With your fingers, count the Interval. Do not forget to include the note to begin with.
3. Write down the number NOW.
4. If the Interval is more than an octave apart, take the top note down, so the Interval
becomes within an octave.
5. Find how many of "1/2 Step Spot" in the distance according to the chart. Remember,
you need to think of only C Major scale.
6. Find the kind ( Major, Perfect, etc.) using the bar chart. Use your both hands vertically, so you can picture the distance with the bar chart.
For example, the Interval is 6th with 2 of "1/2 Step Spot" in the distance, because
M6th supposed to have only 1 "1/2 Step Spot", it becomes one of the bar chart level
shorter, so it is -6th.
7. Still holding your hands vertically, apply the accidental(s) you hid in the beginning
one by one.
Jazz Theory Quiz, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1996 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

Quiz #2

Name

Date

1. Write out the Intervals.

w
bw

w
w

&
(

) (

#w

w
bw

w
#w

w

) (

) (

) (

)

2. Write a note by the given Interval.

&

#w
M10th Above

w
Aug.4th Above

bw
w
-13th Above

P15th Below

#w
M7th Below

3. Find out the parent key, then write out the given scale.

Parent Key ____ B Phrygian

Parent Key ____ Db Mixolydian

Parent Key ____ A Lydian

Parent Key ____ D Locrian

&

&
Parent Key ____ Bb Aeolian

&
Jazz Theory Quiz, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1996 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

Quiz Summer '96 par 1

Name

Date

1. Write out the Intervals. [4 point each]

bw
# # ww

&
(

bw
)

(

bw
bw

&
(

)

(

)

)

(

)

bw
bw

‹w
#w
(

)

#w
#w

bw
w

# ww

(

‹w
w

(

)

)

w
w

(

)

(

)

2. Write a note by the given Interval. [4 point each]

œ

&

Aug 4th ↓

-13th ↓

œ

œ

-9th ↑

Aug 5th ↑

œ
M16th ↑

Roman Numeral

Mode

/ Eb

)

(

)

Key

Parent Key

Key

Mode

(

C

Roman Numeral

Mode

Parent Key

( V dim /

n/a

/ n/a

/

D- (

Parent Key

C

VI-

)

Parent Key

/ F # Loc / G

Roman Numeral

)

Key

/

Eb- ( bVI Maj /

Key

(

III-

Mode

Key

Key

(

Key

Roman Numeral

Key

3. Fill out the blank, write out the Chord Scale and label each note. [5 point each]

/

Roman Numeral

Roman Numeral

G

Mode

Parent Key

/

Mode

Parent Key

/

F Ion

/

Roman Numeral

Mode

V7

/

Roman Numeral

( bIII dim /

)

)

Parent Key

/ C Harmonic minor )

Mode

Parent Key

n/a

/ n/a

)

Jazz Theory Quiz, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1996 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

• Analyze the composition shown below by the direction given on the next page.

Hiroaki Honshuku

[Bossa]

q»ª•

# b
F -7( 5)

A

A-/G

2 œ
&4 ≈ ≈œœ

F Maj7

œ. œ ˙

œ

1

2

3

8

5

6

#

D di m7

B b7

9

E-7

œœ≈œ
œœ
#œ œ

10

E b7

E-7

œ

11

D bMaj7

D-7

≈ œ ≈ œ œ ≈ œ œ ≈ œ ≈ œ ≈ œ ≈ œ œ œ œ ≈ œ œ ≈ œ ≈ œ ≈ œ ≈ b œ œj ‰

& bœ
12

13

G bMaj7

14

A b-7

bœ œ

17

œ

22

15

B b-7

œ bœ œ ≈ bœ ≈ œ

Œ

20

21

A b-7

D b7

œ b œ b œ ≈ b œJ .

≈ œ ≈ œ œ œ ≈ œ bœ . bœ œ

23

G bMaj7

24

bœ bœ bœ œ œ œ
≈ ≈
&

G di m7

œ

25

A b-7

A di m7

28

A b7

A7

19

A b-7

16

œ bœ œ œ bœ œ
≈ ≈

Œ

18

& œ b œ b œ ‰ b Jœ

27

≈œ≈œœ

Œ

b
E-7( 5)

œœ
j
œ ‰ œ œ ≈ #œ ≈ œ œ œ ≈ œ œ œ

7

& bœ .

œ

D7

& #œ ≈ bœ œ œ

B

E bMaj7

4

b
A 7( 9)

F-7

b
E 7( 13)

Œ

26

G bMaj7

G7

≈ bœ ≈ bœ œ œ ≈ œ ≈ œ œ œ ≈ œ ˙

Œ
29

30

31

œ

Œ

32

Jazz Theory Quiz, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1996 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

Quiz Summer '96 par 2

Name

Date

Direction for the analysis
• Indicate the key(s) with box(es) beginning of the piece and whenever modulation occur.
• Draw arrows, dotted arrows, and brackets.
• Write out roman numeral wherever it applies.
• Write out the name of mode or scale for every chords. Be aware of hidden altered tension.
• Indicate with M.I. wherever which applies.
• Write out the diminished scale on bar 10, 26, and 28 below. Number each scale note below the scale.

• Find the notes which are not one of chord tones under every chords, and write the number of the
scale degree or tension number in the each boxes below. Use parenthesis if the note is not available.
Use n/a for the measure which does not have any one of them. Be aware of anticipations.
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

Jazz Theory Quiz, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1996 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

Quiz #2

Name

Date

1. Write out the Intervals.

w
bw

& # # ww
(

) (

bw

bw
w
) (

bw
#w

bw
) (

) (

)

2. Write a note by the given Interval.

&

bw
-9th Below

#w
P12th Above

‹w
w
Aug.6th Below

dim.15th Above

∫w
-10th Above

Hint
1. Hide all the accidentals.
2. With your fingers, count the Interval. Do not forget to include the note to begin with.
3. Write down the number NOW.
4. If the Interval is more than an octave apart, take the top note down, so the Interval
becomes within an octave.
5. Find how many of "1/2 Step Spot" in the distance according to the chart. Remember,
you need to think of only C Major scale.
6. Find the kind ( Major, Perfect, etc.) using the bar chart. Use your both hands vertically, so you can picture the distance with the bar chart.
For example, the Interval is 6th with 2 of "1/2 Step Spot" in the distance, because
M6th supposed to have only 1 "1/2 Step Spot", it becomes one of the bar chart level
shorter, so it is -6th.
7. Still holding your hands vertically, apply the accidental(s) you hid in the beginning
one by one.
Jazz Theory Quiz, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1996 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

Quiz Winter '96

Name

Date

1. Write out the Intervals. [4 point each]

bw
# # ww

&
(

bw
)

(

)

bw
bw

&
(

(

)

)

(

bw
bw

‹w
#w
(

)

#w
#w

bw
w

# ww

)

(

‹w
w

(

)

)

w
w

(

)

(

)

2. Write a note by the given Interval. [4 point each]

œ

&

Aug 4th ↓

-13th ↓

œ

œ

-9th ↑

Aug 5th ↑

œ
M16th ↑

/

Roman Numeral

B

VI-

/

Roman Numeral

( V7/V

Key

Key

(

)

)

F

_______)

)

/ _____

Roman Numeral

(

Key

III-

Key

(

Ab

Mode

Mode

F#

Loc

Mode

B

Mode

/ _____

Roman Numeral

Mode

( V7/VI / _____

)

(

Roman Numeral
SubV7 /

_____

)

Roman Numeral

Mode

Mode

Key

Roman Numeral

( SubV7/II /

Eb

Key

Eb

Key

Key

3. Fill out the blank, write out the Chord Scale and number each note. [5 point each]

Roman Numeral

Mode

(

/

F#

_______)

Phry

)

Jazz Theory Quiz, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1996 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

Quiz Winter '96

Name

Date

/ _____

/

Roman Numeral

(

B

VI-

/

Roman Numeral

( V7/V

Key

(

)

)

Key

III-

Ab

F

Mode

Mode

F#

Loc

Mode

B

_______)

Mode

/ _____

)

Key

(

Roman Numeral

Key
Key

Roman Numeral

Key

Eb

Key

Key

1. Fill out the blank, write out the Chord Scale and number each note. [5 point each]

Roman Numeral

Mode

( V7/VI / _____

)

Roman Numeral
( SubV7 /

)

Mode

_____

Roman Numeral
( SubV7 /

Mode

Roman Numeral

Mode

/II

(

/

Eb

F#

_______)

Phry

)

Jazz Theory Quiz, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1996 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

2.

Analyze the music along with the direction listed as follow; [50 pints total]
• Draw arrows (including dotted arrows).
• Draw Brackets.
• Identify the Key of the music.
• Apply Roman Numeral Analysis.
• Apply Mode or Chord scale.
• Scale Degree Analysis (applying number below each note against the chord).

b

B 7

4 œ
& 4 ‰ J ‰ b œJ œ

œ

1

G- 7

C7

j
& ‰ Jœ ‰ œ œ

œ œ bœ œ ˙

‰ œJ ‰ b Jœ b œ œ œ œ ˙ .

2

3

FMaj7

A- 7

#

j
& ‰ Jœ ‰ œ œ

10

b

G- 7

A di m7

C7

œ œ bœ œ ˙

œ
8

b

D -7

C7

œ bœ œ œ œ

œ

Œ

4

7

G- 7

F di m7

FMaj7

œ
œ
‰ J ‰ œJ

6

FMaj7

9

G 7

œ bœ œ œ ˙

œ

5

b

A- 7

b

G 7

FMaj7

œ bœ œ bœ ‰ œ ‰ nœ ˙ .
J
J

Œ
11

Œ

12

3. Write out the diminished chord scale appears in the bar 7 and the bar 9. [5 point each]

Jazz Theory Quiz, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1996 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

Quiz

E

/

Roman Numeral
( VII-(b5) /

_____

Roman Numeral

Mode

(

VI-

Key
Key

(

/

Roman Numeral

Db

II-

/

Roman Numeral

(

II-

Mode

)

/ _____

Roman Numeral

(

Phry

G

Key

(

)

)

Mode

/ _____

III-

Mode

)

Mode

/ _____

/

Roman Numeral

F

_______)

V7

Roman Numeral

(

)

Mode

Roman Numeral

Roman Numeral

A

Mode

Bb

Key

_______)

Mode

G

(

Key

VI-

Loc

Key

Key

B

Key

Roman Numeral

G

)

Mode

C#

( IVMaj / _____

Key

/

Db

)

Key

Key

(

Mode

/ _____

Roman Numeral

(

Key

II-

/

Roman Numeral

)

Mode

Eb

_______)

Mode

C#

Phry

( IVMaj / _____

Roman Numeral

(

VI-

)

Mode

/ _____

Roman Numeral

( VII-(b5) /

Mode

Roman Numeral

Mode

(

/

)

Mode

Key

Roman Numeral

(

Key

Bb

Key

Key

• Fill out the blank, write out the Chord Scale.

A#

F#

)

_______)

Dori

)

Jazz Theory Quiz, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1996 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

Number the melody according to each chords. Non-available note must be parenthesized. Be
aware of the passing note, the approach note, and Enharmonic spelling on the altered tensions.
from Waltz For Debby by Bill Evans
A
D -7

FMaj7

& 34 .. ˙ .

2

9

G-7

œ œ œ

4

10

C 7/B

b

12

G7/B

˙.

7

A-7

G-7

˙.

13

œ œ œ
8

D7

˙.

C7

Œ œ œ

6

œ œ bœ

11

D7/C

5

C7

œ

#

˙.

1

B Maj7

œ

A7/C

˙.

3

b

F7

E7

b˙ .

˙.

1

G-7

C7

˙.

14

15

˙.

..

16

B

#

2

B-7

& n˙

E7

AMaj7

œ #œ œ œ #˙ .

17

18

D7

A7

27

28

G-7

Œ #˙

21

D-7

˙.

B-7

˙.

20

œ œ bœ œ bœ œ n˙

œ

26

˙.

19

G-7

C -7

B-7

22

23

b

F7

30

31

˙
24

˙.

A-7

œ
25

E7
œ œ œ
œ
œ œ œ œ œ

B Maj7

D -7

A7

œ œ bœ ˙ .
œ

29

C7

32

33

34

C

b

A-7

A 7

& ˙.
35

˙.
36

D7/C

G 7

˙.
37

G7/B

45

C7

46

53

E7

54

55

G-7

&œ œ œ
63

64

40

œ

˙.
65

b

E 7

49

43

A-7

50

b

B Maj7

E 7

51

A-7

58

˙.
66

67

˙

˙

Œ

52

A-7

Œ œ œ œ œ œ

59

˙.

D7

E7

Œ œ bœ œ bœ œ ˙ .
57

˙.

42

#

˙.

˙.
œ
b
œ
b
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ

˙.

F6

A7/C

˙.

41

B 6

b

C7

E7

b˙ .

b

B Maj7

48

56

G-7

˙.

b

F7

A-7

˙.

E7

62

39

47

D-7

˙.

38

œ œ œ œ œ ˙.

B-7

FMaj7

˙.

Œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙

& ˙.
44

b

G-7

60

61

Œ

68

Jazz Theory Quiz, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1996 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

1) Draw solid and dotted arrows.
2) Draw brackets.
3) Write out applicable Roman numerals over the chord.
4) Write out the name of the scales or neame of the modes below each measure.
A

D -7

FMaj7

G-7

E7

A7/C

#

D7/C

G7/B

C7

& 34 .. ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’
1

2

3

b

F7

1

B Maj7

4

G-7

5

C7

C 7/B

6

b

A-7

10

2

11

B-7

E7

12

AMaj7

D7

13

G-7

14

C7

15

16

B

#

C -7

B-7

8

’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ..

& ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’’’ ’ ’ ’
9

7

B-7

G-7

C7

A-7

& ’’’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’
17

18

D7

19

G-7

20

A7

21

D-7

22

23

b

F7

B Maj7

24

25

D -7

A7

E7

& ’’’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’’’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’
26

27

28

29

b
A 7

A-7

30

31

33

34

C

b
G 7

G-7

32

FMaj7

D-7

G-7

E7

A7/C

#

& ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’’’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’
35

36

D7/C

37

G7/B

38

C7

39

40

b

F7

41

42

b

B Maj7

b

B 6

E 7

43

A-7

D7

& ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’’’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’’’
44

45

B-7

46

E7

47

48

49

b

A-7

50

b

B Maj7

E 7

51

A-7

52

E7

A-7

& ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’’’ ’’’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’’’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’
53

54

E7

55

G-7

56

C7

57

58

59

60

61

F6

& ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’’’
62

63

64

65

66

67

68

Jazz Theory Quiz, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1996 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

Theory II Quiz Spring '98

Name

Date

1. Write out the Intervals. [4 point each]

w
&
bw
(

) (

) (

(

) (

#w
M10th Above

w
#w

) (

w

)

w

2. Write a note by the given Interval. [4 point each]

&

) (

#w

w
bw

) (

bw
bw

) (

w
bw

w
w

&

#w
w

∫w
bw

#w
‹ w

) (

)

bw

#w

w

Aug.4th Above

-13th Above

P15th Below

M7th Below

F# Loc

Roman Numeral

Mode

Key

C

Key

Roman Numeral

Eb

Mode

( SubV7/II /

)

Key

( #IV-7(b5) /

/

/ Eb

)

D- (

)

)

Roman Numeral

Parent Key

/

Parent Key

/

Roman Numeral

Mode

Parent Key

( I dim7 /

n/a

/ n/a

Roman Numeral

Mode

Parent Key

/

Mode

Parent Key

/

F Ion

/

Roman Numeral

Mode

Key

( III-7

Bb- ( bVI Maj7 /

Parent Key

E

( V7/VI /

Key

Key

Mode

Key

Roman Numeral

Key

3. Fill out the blank, write out the Chord Scale and label each note. [5 point each]

G

( bIII dim7 /

Roman Numeral

)

)

Parent Key

/ n/a

Mode

Parent Key

n/a

/ n/a

)

)

Jazz Theory Quiz, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1998 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

Theory I Quiz Spring '98

Name

Date

1. Write out the Intervals. [4 point each]

w
&
bw
(

) (

) (

(

) (

) (

) (

2. Write a note by the given Interval. [4 point each]

&

#w
M10th Above

w
#w

w

) (

w

)

#w

w
bw

) (

bw
bw

) (

w
bw

w
w

&

#w
w

∫w
bw

#w
‹ w

)

bw

#w

w

Aug.4th Above

-13th Above

P15th Below

M7th Below

F# Loc

Roman Numeral

Mode

Key

C

Key

Roman Numeral

Eb

Mode

( V7/III /

Roman Numeral

( V7/V

/

)

B

)

E

)

G

Parent Key

/ Gb

Parent Key

/

Parent Key

/ n/a

Mode

)

Key

( #IV-7(b5) /

/

Key

( VI-7

Bb

Key

Key

Mode

Key

Roman Numeral

Key

3. Fill out the blank, write out the Chord Scale and label each note. [5 point each]

Parent Key

/ n/a

Roman Numeral
( SubV7 /

Mode

Roman Numeral

Mode

(

( V7/VI /

( V7/VI /

II-7

/ n/a

/

Roman Numeral

Roman Numeral

Parent Key

Parent Key

/

Mode

)

)

Parent Key

/ n/a

Mode

)

Parent Key

/ n/a

)

Jazz Theory Quiz, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1998 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)

About the author
Hiroaki Honshuku : flute, ewi, composer, arranger, band leader

http://a-no-ne.com • http://anonemusic.com

Hiroaki Honshuku was first introduced to jazz in 1985 while teaching music at the US Naval Base in Yokosuka, Japan.
Two years later, Hiro came to Boston area. He started at Berklee College of music as a scholarship student in January 1987.
By the fall, he was also accepted to New England Conservatory as a scholarship graduate student. He has studied with
George Russell, Dave Holland, Bob Moses, George Garzone, Matthew Marvuglio, and Thomas McKinley. Hiro was chosen
leader of the 1990 New England Conservatory Honors Jazz Quintet, which performed throughout New England region.
In May 1990, Hiro graduated simultaneously from Berklee College of Music and New England Conservatory. He received
Summa Cum Laude for his Diploma of Music at Berklee as a performance major. He received Academic Honors and
Distinction in Performance for his Master of Music at New England Conservatory as a Jazz Composition major. Besides
being very active playing in New England region jazz clubs, he has been busy teaching in the Boston area. Since graduation,
he has taught multiple levels of jazz theory and directed small and large jazz ensembles at New England Conservatory.
Hiro has been an assistant director for George Russell at New England Conservatory since 1987 until Russell’s recent
retirement. He was also invited as an assistant and a flutist as well as digital audio technician for Russell’s Living Time
Orchestra since 1997. Hiro has been deeply inspired by Russell’s Lydian Chromatic Concept for Tonal Organization, which
now characterizes Hiro’s writing style with Tonal Gravity without any traditional II-V-I resolution.
Hiro has also played with Mike Stern, Dave Liebman, Mick Goodrick, Dave Weckl, Tiger Okoshi, George Russell, George
Garzone, Maria Schneider, Bob Moses, and Tom McKinley. Hiro has recorded more than 20 CDs for various artists. He
also recorded 5 leader albums, which are available at Amazon.com, CDBaby, and iTunes Store. The complete discography
is available at A-NO-NE web site.
While Hiro was into performing Avant-garde improvisational music using his electric gear in Berlin, Germany between
1990 and 1991, he was introduced to the Brazilian music by Paulo Maragucci, a well-known Rio de Janeiro composer/multi
instrumentist who was studying at New England Conservatory. Since he joined Brazilian group, Manga-Rosa led by Sergio
Brandão in 1992, not only his composition style has added Brazilian rhythms, Hiro has been very active performing and
recording in the Brazilian music scene including Jequere led by José Pienasola, Gustavo Assis-Brasil Group, Teresa Inês
Group, Gilson Schachnik Group, Alfredo Cardim, João Marcos, and many others. Hiro has performed for Teresa Inês Rio
de Janeiro shows in 2000 – 2001.
In the jazz scene, Hiro has been a long-time regular member of Jazz Composers Alliance Orchestra and Power Jazz
Unit.
The nature of the A-NO-NE Band varies according to the performance. This concept was started by Hiro at the end of
1987 when he realized he wanted to be a strong composer. He made a list of good musicians around the Boston area, and
tried to organize different size bands and different types of music for several concerts. The A-NO-NE Band can be a small
Jazz group, Avant-garde, Funk Fusion and even a Big Band. All of the selections of the A-NO-NE Band are written by Hiro.
Because of the success in four A-NO-NE Big Band concerts, he was invited to Paris as a guest conductor in June 1990,
and his later formed big band “Boston Blazing Jazz Orchestra” was invited to the Jazz Festival in Kyoto ‘94 for a week long
performance hosted by Geila Zilkha.
Hiro still keeps his classical music activity. Among those, he was invited for a recital at Paroisse de la Trinité, Paris,
France, where he performed his own compositions dedicated to Messiaen.
Besides Hiro is busy performing and teaching, Hiro also runs a small project studio for digital audio editing and MIDI
sequencing as well as location recording works using the state of the art tools. To help his own audio work on Macintosh,
he has programmed a few applications, which are freely available at Apple web site under Dashboard Widget.
April 2007