Year 10 Science

Exam Revision
Semester 2

FORCES ENERGY
MOTION

MOTION
QUANTITIES MEASURED IN THE
STUY OF MOTION

Distance

SYMBOL

MEASURED IN

d

Metres (m)
Centimetres (cm)
Kilometres (km)
Millimetres (mm) etc.

d

As above but include a direction

v

m/s
km/h
mm/s etc.

v

As above with direction

a

m/s2
Km/h/s

actual distance travelled

Displacement
final direct distance from the
start. Change of position.

Speed
Rate of movement

Velocity
Acceleration
Rate of change of speed

calculations
Average speed = distance travelled
time taken

v = d
t

distance

Average
speed

time

example
• What is the average speed of a car travelling
from Mentone to the city which is 20 km away
if the trip takes 40 minutes?
1. Write down the formula
• v = d/t
2. Summarise the information in the question
• d= 20km
t= 40 mins = 0.67h
3. Substitute in the equation and solve
• v = 20/0.67 = 30 km/h
4. Don’t forget the units

calculations
acceleration= change in speed
time taken

a = rv
t

Change in
velocity

Acceleration

time

example
• A car overtakes a truck on the highway and
increases its speed from 80 km/h to 100 km/h
in 5 seconds. What was the car’s acceleration?
1. Write down the formula
• a = rv/t
2. Summarise the information in the question
• rv= 100 – 80 = 20km/h
t= 5 sec
3. Substitute in the equation and solve
• a = 20/5 = 4 km/h/s
4. Don’t forget the units

Newton’s first law
An object remains
at rest or will not
change its speed
or direction unless
acted upon by an
outside
unbalanced force

First Law At Work
• INERTIA
The property of
objects that makes
them resist a change
in their motion.
This means the
tendency to remain at
rest (stopped) or, if
moving, to stay
moving in a straight
direction.

Newton’s second law
Refers to how the
mass of an object
affects the way it
moves
Force=mass X acceleration
F=ma

Newton’s second law: calculations

F=mXa

Force

Force is measured in newtons
Mass is measured in kg
Acceleration is measured in m/s2

mass

acceleration

example
• What force is required to get a 1 tonne vehicle
to accelerate at 3m/s2?
1. Write down the formula
• F = ma
2. Summarise the information in the question
• a= 3 m/s2
m= 1 tonne = 1000 kg
3. Substitute in the equation and solve
• F = 3 X 1000 = 3000 newtons
4. Don’t forget the units

Newton’s third law

For every action
there is an equal
and opposite
reaction

Third law in action

The reaction force opposes the action
force, so the skateboarders are pushed
away from each other

Interpreting graphs
• A car travelled along the Nepean highway (speed
limit 80kph) for 22 minutes.
• It slowed down behind a truck then overtook it.
• The graph on the next slide represents the
journey.
• Label the axes, the sections of constant velocity,
the sections of acceleration and deceleration.
• How long was the car over the speed limit.

Interpreting graphs
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

5

10

15

20

25

Interpreting Graphs
velocity vs time
100

constant

90

80
70

acceleration

deceleration
velocity m/s

60
50
40

He was over the speed limit for 4 minutes

30
20
10
0
0

5

10

time (s)

15

20

25

ENERGY
• The Law of Conservation of Energy
– Energy is never created or destroyed. It is
transferred from one body to another.

• Kinetic Energy or energy of movement can be
determined if we know the speed and mass of
an object using the formula
KE = ½ mv2

• The unit of energy is joules.

ASTRONOMY

The Big Bang
• The theory of how the universe began
– It is the explosive expansion of a singularity
– It occurred 15 billion years ago
– evidence about the big bang is gathered through the
use of powerful telescopes.
– Light and other electromagnetic radiation arrives at
the earth to be detected by our telescopes or seen by
us.
– Radiation from the most distant part of the universe is
around 15 billion years old. So this radiation indicates
what was happening soon after the big bang.

What is a light year
• It is the distance travelled by light in one year
• it is around 10 trillion kilometres
• The closest star to us other than the sun is
proxima centauri. It is 4.24 light years away
• The closest galaxy to our galaxy, The Milky
Way, is Andromeda. Andromeda is 2.5 million
light years away.

The Doppler Effect
• Due to the Doppler Effect
we can determine the
movement of stars.
• Radiation from stars moving
towards us has a shorter
wave length (higher
frequency)
• Radiation of stars moving
away from us has a longer
wavelength (lower
frequency)
• Sometimes stars appear to
‘wobble’ due to the
gravitational pull of its own
planets orbiting around it

The Doppler Effect- red and blue shift
Due to the movement of the planets the stars
moving towards us have a blue shift in the
spectrum, those moving away have a red shift.

Parallax
This is the apparent
movement of closer stars
compared to more
distant ones due to
different observation
points from earth as it
orbits the sun.

Absolute Magnitude and Apparent
Magnitude
• Absolute Magnitude is the actual brightness of a
star at a distance of about 32 light years
• Apparent magnitude is the brightness of a star as
it appears from earth: A star of the same
magnitude appears brighter when it is closer.

Life cycle of a star

Life cycle of a star
Nebulae: clouds of dust and gas which may be pulled
together by gravity and heat up to form a star
Protostar: the final stage in the development of a star
when it is not yet hot enough for nuclear fusion to
occur
Red Giant: star in the late stage of its life
Supernova: Huge explosion at the end of the life cycle
of a supergiant, which results in the formation of
either a neutron star or a black hole.
Black Hole: the remains of a star which forms when
the force of gravity is so great not even light can
escape.

A prominence
is an arc of gas
that erupts
from the sun’s
surface

Sunspots
appear dark
because they
are cooler than
the
surrounding
surface

The sun

The extremely hot
and dense core of the
sun is where the
nuclear fusion that
powers the sun
occurs

Nuclear fusion provides the energy for
the star

EVOLUTION

NATURAL SELECTION

Originally the moths were mainly pale grey
with a few dark moths easily visible on the
pale tree trunks. Through the industrial
revolution pollution caused tree trunks to
become darker. Darker variants of the moth
were now better camouflaged and were
less likely to be eaten by predator birds.
The dark moths passed on their genes
more frequently than light moths, so over
many generations the population was
mainly dark moths.

ADAPTATION
• An adaptation is anything that improves an
organisms chance of surviving and passing on
its genes.
– A structural adaptation is related to the way the
animal or plant is built
– A behavioural adaptation is related to how the
animal acts
– A functional adaptation is related to how the
organism’s body works

SPECIATION

The horse and the donkey are in
different species because they cannot
interbreed to produce fertile offspring:
the mule is infertile!

Adaptive Radiation
Adaptive radiation is
the evolutionary
divergence of a
single species into
several species
adapted to a variety
of ecological niches.
This is a kind of
divergent evolution

Divergent evolution:
• These pentadactyl (5 digit) limbs have evolved from the same
structure in a common ancestor. This means they are
homologous structures. The limbs are adapted because of the
different selection pressures in the habitat of these species.

Convergent evolution:
• These organisms look alike because they have to deal with the
same selection pressure: catching prey in the sea. However
despite looking alike they are not closely related. The flipper
of the porpoise and the fin of the shark are analogous
structures because they serve the same purpose but are
derived from a different structure in the ancestor.

FOSSILS
AMMONITE FOSSIL
1. The animal dies and falls
to the ocean bed where
there is little oxygen. In
these anaerobic conditions
decaying bacteria are slow
to decay the animal.

2. Sediments, (sand, soil
and clay) build up and
cover the dead animal. The
shell, being the hardest
part of the animal, is the
most likely to be
preserved.

3. Over millions of years the
sediments continue to build up
putting great pressure on the
lower sediments, turning them
into rock. Within the rock
minerals impregnate the shell
remains turning it into rock: a
fossil!

Transition fossils
ARCHEOPTERYX

Archeopteryx is a transitional form as
reptiles evolved into birds. Like reptiles it
has teeth and claws (on its wings) however
it also has feathers like a bird and can fly.

Hominin fossil trends




Brain case gets larger
Forehead more vertical
Jaw recedes
Teeth smaller and more even
Brow ridges decrease and nose more
prominent