Submitted by:
3rd Year, 5th Term
Chemical Engineering
March, 2013


Page 0


With all my regards, I pay my thanks and acknowledgments to the management
department of BYCO Petroleum Pakistan limited (BPPL). I sincerely thank Miss.
Mehreen Bashir Nawaz, Manager HR for letting me intern in BYCO oil refining
I would also like to thank Engr. Abdul Qadir, as he supervised and advised us throughout
the internship and utilizes his time on guiding and training us. I also would like to pay my
thanks and respect to Engr. Salman Azeem and Engr. Asad ullah. I also like to
acknowledge Engr. Azeem, Engr. Shams ur Rehman, Engr. Asad, Engr. M. Irfan, Engr.
Hisham Hafeez, Engr, Aamir Iqbal and others for their support and time. This highly
informative and interactive internship would have not been possible without the support
of the Management of BPPL. I would like to mention my acknowledgments to all of the
above respected peoples for giving me such an remarkable experience for my
professional career.
All my regards and respect to all of the above mentioned.

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.............................................................................................................................................5 3.......................................................................................................13 5.10 5: REFINERY:.....................................................................................................................4 3: UTILITIES OF REFINERY:.............4: INSTRUMENT AIR:............................................................................................................18 10: ISOMERIZATION UNIT:........................................................................................................................................................................3: COOLING TOWER:....................................................................................INTERNSHIP REPORT CONTENTS 1: INTRODUCTION TO BYCO PETROLEUM LIMITED:....3 2: ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY:.........14 8: NAPHTHA HYDROTREATING:............................2: BOILER:..................................20 11: REFINING PRODUCTS:........................................................10 3............13 6: CRUDE OIL:.........................................................................................................1: TYPES OF REFINERY:..............................................................................................22 Page 2 .........................................14 7: CRUDE DISTILLATION UNIT (CDU):............1: WATER TREATMENT (REVERSE OSMOSIS PLANT):...............17 9: GAS RECOVERY PLANT:...........................4 3.................10 4: INSTRUMENTATIONS.......8 3.......................................................................................... DEVICES AND SYSTEM:...............................................

BYCO Petroleum Pakistan Limited is relatively an emerging company in the industry.000 barrels at ORC-II of crude oil per day to various petroleum products such as LPG. BYCO Petroleum Pakistan Limited was incorporated in Pakistan as a public limited company in January 1995 and was granted the certificate of commencement of business in March 1995. From oil refining. ORC-I (Oil Refining Complex-I) and ORC-II (Oil Refining Complex-II) takes ISO-9000. HSD. naphtha. jet fuel. kerosene. ORC-I and ORC-II operate its own electricity.000 barrels at ORC-I and 120. furnace oil. HOBC. the group has diverse set of operations under it. steam. BYCO Petroleum Pakistan's operational refinery has the capacity of 35. motor gasoline. and water treatment facilities. Page 3 . ISO 14000 and OSHA 18000 certification.INTERNSHIP REPORT 1: INTRODUCTION TO BYCO PETROLEUM LIMITED: BYCO is one of the most reputable and highly regarded petroleum refining industries. petroleum marketing and chemicals manufacturing to petroleum logistics.

PPE is needed when there are hazards present. The goals of environmental health and safety programs include fostering a safe and healthy work environment. or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer's body from injury.INTERNSHIP REPORT 2: ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY: Environmental health and safety is a cross-disciplinary area concerned with protecting the safety. as its EHS departments are working responsibly to take every measures to protect environment. All organizations have a duty of care to ensure that employees and any other person who may be affected by the companies undertaking remain safe at all times. Moral obligations would involve the protection of employee's lives and health. apparels. BYCO has got ISO-9000. including medical care. customers. health and welfare of people engaged in work or employment. Personal protective equipment (PPE) refers to protective clothing. Legal reasons for ESH practices relate to the preventative. helmets. goggles. family members. employers. legal. The utility section generally includes:        Water Steam Electricity Instrument air Manufactured gas Fuel Inert air Page 4 . and financial reasons. goggles or glasses. The function of utility section is to deliver the required help and services to run the plant and to yield the product. EHS can be important for moral. ISO 14000 and OSHA 18000 certification. 3: UTILITIES OF REFINERY: The utility section in any industry is one of the most important departments as it provides all the basic needs to the industrial processes and operations. gloves. The purpose of personal protective equipment is to reduce employee exposure to hazards when engineering and administrative controls are not feasible or effective to reduce these risks to acceptable levels. ear muff or plugs and respirators. and many others who might be affected by the workplace environment. PPE includes safety shoes. punitive and compensatory effects of laws that protect worker's safety and health. sick leave and disability benefit costs. safety helmets. EHS may also protect co-workers. ESH can also reduce employee injury and illness related costs.

The result is that the solute is retained on the pressurized side of the membrane and the pure solvent is allowed to pass to the other side. Therefore water treatment is the most important facility as it reduces many hazardous factors related to the plant and industry.1: WATER TREATMENT (REVERSE OSMOSIS PLANT): Water treatment describes those industrial-scale processes used to make water more acceptable for a desired end-use.1. Reverse osmosis occurs when the water is moved across the membrane against the concentration gradient. Steam boilers can suffer from scale or corrosion when left untreated leading to weak and dangerous machinery.INTERNSHIP REPORT 3.000 (approx.000) and Hub dam spill back TDS Page 5 . Reverse osmosis (RO) is a membrane-technology filtration method that removes many types of large molecules and ions from solutions by applying pressure to the solution when it is on one side of a selective membrane. scale deposits can mean additional fuel is required to heat the same level of water because of the drop in efficiency. A lack of proper water treatment can lead to the reaction of solids and bacteria within pipe work and boiler housing. The treatment of water includes: 3. 54. The bore well TDS level is above 40.1: OPEN CHANNEL SYSTEM: The source of water for reverse osmosis plant is from Bore well and Hub dam spill back. from lower concentration to higher concentration.

leaving rather purified water than DAF. The water is then pumped to the DAF where all the suspended particles are scraped off from the top of the tank by blowing air in it. When there is a drop in pressure. The released air forms tiny bubbles which adhere to the suspended matter causing the suspended matter to float to the surface of the water where it may then be removed by a skimming device. chemical dosing is done as to avoid the hazardous effects that can be happened due to the presence of some chemical impurities in water.4: TURBIMAX FILTER: The water is then pumped to TURBIMAX filters. 2. Some of the quantity of water is recycled back to DAF to attain maximum purity.2 to 8. 3.INTERNSHIP REPORT level is 35000 to 39000. After chemical dosing. Page 6 .1.0 ppm to 3. FERRIC CHLORIDE: The impurities of water are also removed by the flocculation and coagulation. The water is entered from the top of the filter at a pressure of 100psi.0 ppm in the raw water tank to prevent the growth of bacteria in the system. the filters are then applied to backwash system to remove the caked impurities on sand and gravels. Chlorine chemicals are very effective against bacteria. Ferric chloride is added to DAF in order to lift up the impurities forming cluster.1.5 to accomplish the function effectually. CAUSTIC SODA: Caustic soda is also added to the water in order to maintain the pH of the water in between 8. 3. which is when dissociate in water. 1. POLYELECTROLYTE: Polyelectrolyte aids ferric chloride to produce flocks. Turbidity meter and chloride meter are installed in other to check the values during the operation. These filters are filled with sand and gravel. The both sources of water are supplied to the plant through an open channel system.1. 3. SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE: Sodium Hypochlorite 12% dose in the upstream of DAF after open channel feed pump in order to maintain a free chlorine level of 2.2: CHEMICAL DOSING: Before treating the water.3: DISSOLVED AIR FLOTATION (DAF): Dissolved air flotation (DAF) is a water treatment process that clarifies water by the removal of suspended matter such as oil or solids. The removal is achieved by dissolving air in the water under pressure and then releasing the air at atmospheric pressure in a flotation tank. These suspended clusters are then removed by scraping them off from the surface of water. All the impurities are captured by the sand and gravels. Polyelectrolyte is a polymer. viruses and fungi that contaminate water. 4. charges the polymers to initiate the flocculation. 3. water is given a certain time to react with the chemicals.

1.1.000ppm to 400ppm. The latter is then flushed to the raw water tank and subjected to purify again.1. where 90% permeate is recovered. The 10% rejected water is flushed back to raw water tank to reprocess. The salts are split into its ions and moves towards their respective electrodes when current are applied. where only 40% permeate is recovered while the 60% is rejected water. 3.INTERNSHIP REPORT 3. The TDS of water is reduced from 400ppm to less than 10ppm.A. Before introducing the water in SWRO filter.W Tank Permeate Permeate SWR O BW RO Reject Reject EDI Reject Page 7 .7: ELECTRODEIONIZATION: The water is then flowed to electrodeionization filter. antiscalant and sodium metabisulfite is dosed to prevent the scaling on membrane and to remove chlorine.T R. recovering 99% of permeate. giving up 100% purified water. where at 25 volts of current.5: SEA WATER REVERSES OSMOSIS (SWRO): The water is then introduced into 5 micron cartridge filter at a pressure of 550-890 psi.6: BRACKISH WATER REVERSES OSMOSIS (BWRO): Likewise the water is then entered to BWRO 5 micron cartridge filter at a pressure around 150-200 psi. D.F Open channel Sand Filter S. The pressure along the filter reduces the TDS from around 40. 3. the TDS of water is minimized to 0ppm. Caustic soda is dosed to maintain the pH of the BWRO water.

All those gases leave the deaerator from vent and steam to the economizer.1: DEMINERALIZED WATER: The demineralized water is used in boilers to convert water into steam.2: BOILER: A boiler is a closed vessel used to heat the water or other fluid for use in other operations and process. Hydrazine (N 2H4) is dosed into the deaerator to scavenge oxygen and moisture from water.2. 3. Page 8 . Likewise when the water is in tubes and fire is around the tubes in boiler drum. When water is in the boiler drum and fire is in tubes to vaporize the water. as demineralized water is free from all kind of impurities and minerals that at high temperatures and pressures can cause scaling and corrosion in the pipelines. resulting in the rising of temperature of water up to 150°C. Generally boilers are used to generate steam for the usage of plants. 3. There are two types of boiler. From RO water plant demineralized water is pumped to boiler plant to produce high pressure steam.2: HIGH PRESSURE DEAERATOR: Water is then pumped to high pressure deaerator to remove oxygen and other dissolved gases to avoid scaling and corrosion in pipelines. Here the chemical dosing scavenges the dissolved gases and moisture. the boiler is said to be a water tube boiler.2.INTERNSHIP REPORT 3. the boiler is named as fire tube boiler. Fire Tube Boilers and Water Tube Boilers. Boiler feed water is showered from the top of deaerator and low pressure steam is introduced from the bottom.

The steam from steam drum is then flowed to the super heater at a temperature of 250°C. Economizers are so named because they can make use of the enthalpy in fluid streams that are hot.2. It is a reservoir of water/steam at the top end of the water tubes. The steam generated by water tube boiler is high pressure steam. thereby recovering more useful enthalpy and improving the boiler's efficiency.3: ECONOMIZER: Economizer is a mechanical device used to minimize energy consumption by reusing the left heat to preheat a fluid. Here the flue gases at 350°C exchanges their heat to steam and leaving to the stack at 160°C.5: SUPER HEATER: A super heater is a device used to convert saturated steam or wet steam into dry steam used in steam engines or in processes. In boilers.2. The temperature of steam is elevated to 190°C. 3. S t a c k LP steam D. 3. In super heater the flue gases from the burners of steam drum.INTERNSHIP REPORT 3. exchanges their heat to the steam resulting in the further rise in the temperature of steam to 340°C at 42 bar pressure.4: STEAM DRUM: A steam drum is a standard feature of a water-tube boiler. which is then utilized for the refining of crude oil and generating low pressure and moderate pressure steam as per required. economizers are heat exchange devices that heat fluids.2. They are a device fitted to a boiler which saves energy by using the exhaust gases from the boiler to preheat the cold water used to fill it. up to but not normally beyond the boiling point of that fluid. The drum stores the steam generated in the water tubes and acts as a phase-separator for the steam/water mixture. The difference in densities between hot and cold water helps in the accumulation of the "hotter"-water/and saturated-steam into the steam-drum. High pressure boiler feed water pump pumped water to the economizer at 65 bar pressure at 140°C to the economizer.W HP Deaerator Econo mizer Steam drum Flue gases Super heater HP steam Mud drum Page 9 . such as steam reforming. usually water. but not hot enough to be used in a boiler.M.

or pressure. the air absorbs heat. level.3: COOLING TOWER: Cooling tower is a device used to remove the heat from the fluid to the atmosphere. Measurement instruments have two traditional classes of use:  Monitoring of processes and operations  Control of processes and operations A number of instruments are used to run. Some air-cooled towers use large fans at the top of the structure to draw the air up. Cooling tower is used to cool and humidify the hot process fluid to a certain low temperature. pressure controllers and valve positioners. 4: INSTRUMENTATIONS. is used for plant pneumatic instruments such as steam flow meters. The instrument air is also required to regulate automatically the opening of control valves in steam flow governors of steam driven turbines. DEVICES AND SYSTEM: An instrument is a device that measures a physical quantity such as flow. filtered with a range of 0 to 20psig.INTERNSHIP REPORT 3. which lowers the temperature of the remaining water. Water needing to be cooled is pumped to the top of the tower and then directed to flow down a designated path where the water forms into droplets. This process provides significant cooling to the remaining water stream that collects in the tower basin where it can be pumped back into the system to extract more process or building heat. As the water evaporates. distance. It then collects at the bottom of the cooling tower structure where it is returned to the production process. 3. Warm recirculating water is sent to the cooling tower where a portion of the water is evaporated into the air passing through the tower. angle. These droplets are met by a current of air that is blowing upward and past the water. temperature. Cooling towers are used to reject heat through the natural process of evaporation. The principle phenomena of cooling tower are evaporation and condensation of fluid to the near wet bulb temperature by using sensible heat. monitor and manage the process. thereby allowing much of the water to be used repeatedly to meet the cooling demand. These are: Page 10 .4: INSTRUMENT AIR: Instrument air. The water is cooled by the air as it passes.

This velocity is converted to pressure which is needed to discharge the fluid. 4. liquids. Compressors are similar to pumps: both increase the pressure on a fluid and both can transport the fluid through a pipe.INTERNSHIP REPORT 4. while some can be compressed. liquid is discharged by centrifugal force into a casing surrounding the impeller. The casing is there in order to gradually decrease the velocity of the fluid which leaves the impeller at a high velocity.1.3: VALVES: A valve is a device that regulates.2: COMPRESSOR: A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume. 4. 4.2: POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMP: A positive displacement pump makes a fluid move by trapping a fixed amount and forcing and displacing that trapped volume into the discharge pipe. and radiates the resulting signal from an antenna. directs or controls the flow of a fluid (gases.1: CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS: A centrifugal pump consists of an impeller and an intake at its center. lever.4: TRANSMITTERS: An electronic device that generates and amplifies a carrier wave. the compressor also reduces the volume of a gas. or flow. velocity. Page 11 .1: PUMPS: Pump is a device that raises. As gases are compressible. These are arranged so that when the impeller rotates. 4. driven by changes in pressure. Valves may be operated manually. or compresses fluids or that attenuates gases especially by suction or pressure or both. modulates it with a meaningful signal derived from speech or other sources. transfers. closing.1. delivers. or partially obstructing various passageways. pedal or wheel. 4. the main action of a pump is to pressurize and transport liquids. fluidized solids. either by a handle. or slurries) by opening. temperature. Valves may also be automatic. flow area.5: TURBINES: A turbine is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work. 4. Liquids are relatively incompressible. temperature and other major specifications to either monitor or control processes. These transmitters are used to measure pressure difference.

11: BLOWER: A blower is a machine for moving volumes of a gas (air) with moderate increase of pressure. the heat is transferred mainly by radiation to tubes around the fire in the chamber. 4. After the flue gas leaves the firebox. in which moisture or water is removed from the fluid or other substances by the application of either some mechanical treatment or by some chemical treatment.10: DRIER: A drier (dryer) is a process. one fluid giving out the heat while other accepting the heat.INTERNSHIP REPORT 4. 4.6: HEAT EXCHANGERS: A heat exchanger is a system that exchanges heats between two fluids without bringing them in direct contact. Fans produce air flows with high volume and low pressure (although higher than ambient pressure). typically a gas such as air.8: FURNACE: An industrial furnace or direct fired heater is equipment used to provide heat for a process or can serve as reactor which provides heats of reaction. 4.7: REBOILER: Reboilers are heat exchangers typically used to provide heat to the bottom of industrial distillation columns. 4. Page 12 . The rotating assembly of blades and hub is known as an impeller. Fuel flows into the burner and is burnt with air provided from an air blower. most furnace designs include a convection section where more heat is recovered before venting to the atmosphere through the flue gas stack. The flames heat up the tubes. The gases from the combustion are known as flue gas.9: FAN: A mechanical fan is a machine used to create flow within a fluid. The fan consists of a rotating arrangement of vanes or blades which act on the air. They boil the liquid from the bottom of a distillation column to generate vapors which are returned to the column to drive the distillation separation. which in turn heat the fluid inside in the first part of the furnace known as the radiant section or firebox. as opposed to compressors which produce high pressures at a comparatively low volume. 4. In this chamber where combustion takes place. The heating fluid passes through the tubes and is thus heated to the desired temperature.

and will transfer to the condenser coolant. is equipped with vacuum distillation and catalytic cracking. The coking refinery adds further complexity to the cracking refinery by high conversion of fuel oil into distillates and petroleum coke. Meta Xylene.2: HYDROSKIMMING: The hydro skimming refinery is equipped with Atmospheric Distillation. in addition to hydro skimming refinery. This type of refinery is more complex than a topping refinery and it produces gasoline. 5.1: TYPES OF REFINERY: 5. 5. heating oil. known as Atmospheric Distillation.1. gasoline.1. kerosene. 5. typically by cooling it.INTERNSHIP REPORT 4. Cyclo Hexene. Ortho Xylene. asphalt base.3: CRACKING: The cracking or hydro cracking refinery. 5. Page 13 .12: CONDENSER: A condenser is a device or unit used to condense a substance from its gaseous to its liquid state.1. Para Xylene and Toluene or Naphtha cracking. and liquefied petroleum gas.1. the latent heat is given up by the substance. 5. In so doing.1: TOPPING: The topping refinery just separates the crude into its constituent petroleum products by distillation. The cracking refinery adds one more level of complexity to the hydro skimming refinery by reducing fuel oil by conversion to light distillates and middle distillates. Topping Refinery produces naphtha but no gasoline. diesel fuel. naphtha reforming and necessary treating processes.5: INTEGRATED: The integrated refinery is equipped to upgrade its LPG or Naphtha into basic petrochemicals by way of aromatics production of Benzene. 5: REFINERY: An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha.1.4: COKING: The coking refinery is equipped to process the vacuum residue into high value products using the Delayed Coking Process.

In order to heat the feed up to a temperature where maximum yield can be obtained. or a physical separation process. and not a chemical reaction.8408 UPPER ZAKUM 0. likewise the lower the sulfur content. The higher the sulfur content.91 7: CRUDE DISTILLATION UNIT (CDU): 7. that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface. the sour the crude will be. 7.3678 1.2: PROCESS FLOW: The distillation of crude oil generally includes a distillation column and a heated feed. Distillation is a unit operation.INTERNSHIP REPORT 6: CRUDE OIL: Petroleum is a naturally occurring flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds. CHARACTERISTICS Specific gravity Sulfur wt% UMM SHAIF 0.1: DISTILLATION: Distillation is a method of separating mixtures based on differences in volatility of components in a boiling liquid mixture. The crude oils used in BYCO oil refining complex are UMM SHAIF and UPPER ZAKUM.8546 1. Page 14 . feed is passed through multiple stages. the sweet the crude will be. The quality of crude oil mostly depends upon its viscosity and sulfur content.

The crude oil is again directed to the train of heat exchangers and then furnace. As the raw crude oil arriving contains quite a bit of water and salt. In desater all salts are removed by conduction through electricity to avoid corrosion in stream lines. where the concentration of volatile component decreases in both the liquid and the vapor. LGO is then cooled by exchanging Page 15 . steam is injected from the bottom which strips out light materials from the heavier ones. not in the crude oil itself . where it enters the preheating by heat exchanger with hot products raising temperature of feed up to 120°F. It operates best at 120 150 0C. uses an electric field to separate the crude from the water droplets. Kerosene is then cooled by exchanging its heat to the feed in preheater. the first side stream withdrawn from the column is kerosene.INTERNSHIP REPORT 7. The salt is dissolved in the water in the crude oil. a large liquid full vessel. To attain maximum refining. LIGHT GAS OIL (LGO): The second side stream obtained is LGO.1: FEED PREPARATION: The crude oil is pumped to the crude oil distillation plant. Under these parameters. STRIPPING ZONE: The stripping zone is a section below the feed point. Some of its fraction is stripped back to the column to remove the other lighter fractions. hence it is conveniently placed somewhere in the middle of the preheat train. The crude is mixed with a water stream and intense mixing takes place over a static mixer. the crude is vaporized. KEROSENE: After naphtha. DESALTER: A desalter is a process unit on an oil refinery that removes salt from the crude oil. releasing all the other components to their specific boiling point. the feed is then introduced into the atmospheric distillation column having 37 trays. These five are: NAPHTHA: Naphtha is carried out from the top of distillation column and is condensed and collected in the storage tank for further processing.2: DISTILLATION: From the furnace. RECTIFYING ZONE: The rectifying zone is a name given to the section above the feed point. it is normally sent for salt removing first. the crude is then entered to Desalter. after some of its fraction is stripped back to remove lighter fractions. thus the temperature of crude oil reaches 710°F. Five fractions are obtained from the distillation. processed and stored as a final product. There are two zones in a distillation column. in desalter. After passing by the heat exchangers. at 30 psig and 710°F.2. where the concentration of more volatile component increases in both the liquid and the vapor. The desalter.2. rectifying zone and stripping zone. 7.

The reduced crude oil and HGO are mixed together and is then pumped to vacuum distillation column for further distillation under other conditions.INTERNSHIP REPORT its heat to the feed in preheater. NAPHTHA CRUDE OIL DISTILLATION COLUMN KEROS ENE PREH EATE FURNACE R LGO PREH EATE R PREH EATE R PREH EATE R PREH EATE R DESALTER PREH EATE R HGO REDUCED CRUDE OIL Page 16 . REDUCED CRUDE OIL: The reduced crude oil is fractioned out from the bottom of the column and is cooled by preheaters and coolers. It is then pumped to the hydrotreater for sulfur removal and then stored as a product in storage tank. HGO is also then directed to the preheater to exchange its heat to the feed and is then mixed with the reduced crude oil. some of which is also stripped back through strippers to remove the lighter fractions. HEAVY GAS OIL (HGO): The third side stream of column is of HGO.

2: REACTOR: The heated feed is introduced into the catalyst bed reactor. 5.1: FEED PREPARATION: Naphtha from the overhead tanks of distillation column is mixed with hydrogen gas in a stream line.1. 2. Another important reason for removing sulfur from the naphtha streams within a petroleum refinery is that sulfur. poisons the noble metal catalysts (platinum and rhenium) in the catalytic reforming. These are: 1. The catalyst used in reactor is generally alumina base impregnated with cobalt and or a combination Page 17 . The mixture is then directed into the pre heater and then to the furnace. 6. 8. 8.1: PROCESS FLOW: The hydro treating of naphtha includes the reaction of hydrogen with the poisonous inorganic compounds chained with naphtha. Conversion of organic sulfur compounds into hydrogen sulfide Conversion of organic nitrogen compounds into ammonia Conversion of organic oxygen compounds into water Saturations of olefins Conversion of organic halides into hydrogen halides Removal of organic-metallic compounds 8. There are six reactions occur in hydro treatment of naphtha. even in extremely low concentrations. The purpose of removing the sulfur is to reduce the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions that result from using those fuels.INTERNSHIP REPORT 8: NAPHTHA HYDROTREATING: Hydro treating is a catalytic chemical process widely used to remove sulfur from natural gas and from refined petroleum products. where the temperature of the mixture reaches in between 590°F to 600°F. 4.1. 3.

water.3: SEPARATION: The product from the reactor is firstly cooled by heat exchange with fresh feed and then by air coolers and then flows into product separator. where liquid flows through the gas plant for splitting further while gases to the distillate hydrotreater. recovering all the possible products. halides and other metallic components present in naphtha.1.1.INTERNSHIP REPORT of nickel and molybdenum.1: PROCESS FLOW: The process consists of a sequence of fractioning columns. oxygen. 9. the olefins present in naphtha becomes saturated. It is same as usual distillation. GASES FEED SURGE DRUM PREH EATE R FURNACE REACTOR PHASE SEPARATOR NAPHTHA 9: GAS RECOVERY PLANT: The purpose of gas recovery plant is to remove or separate lighter ends from the feed or naphtha. each with specific purposes of removing fractions from the naphtha. The mixture flows downward through the catalytic bed and hydrogen reacts with sulfur. forming hydrogen sulfides. where feed is fractioned. ammonia. nitrogen. leaving a rather purified form of feed for gas recovery plant. 9. at that temperature.1: NAPHTHA: Naphtha from the hydro treater plant enters the gas recovery plant to be fractioned further. 8. hydrogen halides etc. Page 18 .

light hydrocarbons flashes off and rises up the column and is drawn off from there and cooled for using as a fuel in refinery furnace. at 50 psig and 350°F as the boiling points of i-hexane and n-hexane are very close (140°F and 156°F).1. at 146 psig and 400°F. Some of the part of the overhead is refluxed back to maintain the purity and parameters of the column. The bottom containing the remaining fractions is then pumped to de-butaniser. When the feed enters the column. Feed from the bottom is flashed into and pentanes and iso-hexanes are taken overhead.INTERNSHIP REPORT 9.1. 9. Feed enters from the top bottom of the column where propane and butane are vaporized to flow up the column and is cooled and condensed. The overhead product is firstly washed by gas absorption method by the solution of mono ethanol amine to remove hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur components. ETHANE/METHANE D EE T H A NI S E R NAPHTHA PROPANE/BUTANE D E B U T A N I S E R A BS O RP TI O N C O L U M N LPG I-HEXANE D E I S O H E X A N I S E R HYDROGEN SULFIDE HEAVY NAPHTHA Page 19 . 9.2: DE-ETHANISER: The feed is then introduced in the de-ethaniser column containing 30 trays from the top at 190 psig and 350°F. The mixture of propane and butane are then stored as a market product.4: DE-ISOHEXANISER: The bottom of de-butaniser is introduced into de-isohexaniser containing 70 trays.1. condensed and stored.3: DE-BUTANISER: The bottom of de-ethaniser column is then flowed in to the de-butaniser having 24 trays.

It is then flows through sulfur guard bed.. Two reactors are used in series to convert maximum n-paraffin into i-paraffin.2: PROCESS FLOW: Pentane from deisohexaniser is used as a feed for the isomerization unit. After sulfur removal. forms with the same chemical composition but with different structure or configuration and. Here the mixture of naphtha and hydrogen is filtered for the removal of particles and coalesce. hence. Unconverted n-paraffin is recycled back to Penex unit.1: ISOMERIZATION: Isomerization. NAPHTHA AND HYDROGEN PREH EATE R SULFUR GAURD PREH EATE R DRIER FEED SURGE VESSEL 10. Water must be removed from feed as water is poison to catalyst. where isomerization is occurred and n-paraffin is converted into i-paraffin by the help of catalytic bed in the reactor. The purpose of sulfur guard bed is to protect the Penex catalyst from sulfur in the liquid feed.INTERNSHIP REPORT 10: ISOMERIZATION UNIT: 10. Reaction takes place in the excess of hydrogen which must also to be dried. Isomerization unit consists of three sections: Feed preparation.2. the chemical process by which a compound is transformed into any of its isomeric forms. The feed is then moved to the next reactor.e. i.2: PENEX UNIT: The feed from the feed surge drum is pumped to pre heater. usually up to 250°F and passed down flow over the adsorbent. 10. From the preheater the feedstock is directed into the first reactor where saturation of olefins occurs.2. the mixture is dried and cooled to 100°F and send to the Penex section. generally with different physical and chemical properties. Penex and Molex 10. Page 20 .1: FEED PREPARATION: The light naphtha from the overhead of the gas plant de-isohexaniser column and hydrogen is introduced in feed preparation section of ISOM plant. The feed is heated to the required temperature for sulfur removal.

2. The adsorbent in the bed is recharged by desorbent that the valve switches to the bed. The stabilizer off gas flows up gush through the stabilizer gas scrubber to remove hydrogen chloride by showering caustic from the top of the tower. The adsorbent material in the beds traps normal paraffins from the charge in its pores.3: MOLEX UNIT: The feed from the stabilizer is pumped to the rotary valve via filter for the preventative measures against the loss to the rotary valve. ROTARY VALVE: A rotary valve is a type of valve in which the rotation of a passage or passages in a transverse plug regulates the flow of liquid or gas through the attached pipes. GAS TO FUEL FEED SURGE VESSEL LIGHT HYDROCARBONS S T A B I L I Z E R HYDROGEN PREH EATE R REACTOR 1 G A S S C R U B B E R CAUSTIC REACTOR 2 CUASTIC TO KERO WASH PARAFFINS 10. The bottom product of stabilizer is routed to Molex unit by passing through coolers. HCl and cracked gases from isomerate. Liquid flow in the adsorbent chamber is always downwards.INTERNSHIP REPORT The hot stream is then passed through heat exchanger giving out its heat to the fresh feed and then is routed to the stabilizer column. Page 21 . A pump around stream continually circulates from the pump around pump to the top of the chamber. ADSORBENT CHAMBER: The adsorbent chamber has eight separate beds. Other hydrocarbons are not of a suitable shape to fit in the pores. The desorbent displaces normal paraffins due to a higher concentration of butane and resulting extract goes back to the rotary valve and then to the extract mixing drum. The purpose of stabilizer is to separate any dissolved hydrogen. The overhead vapor of stabilizer is cooled and stored in stabilizer receiver. Normal paraffins in the charge displace desorbent from the pores and the resulting raffinate goes back to the rotary valve and then to the raffinate mixing drums. At one time two streams is entering the chamber are the feed and desorbent. Extract and raffinate exit the chamber. through the chamber and back to the pump.

11: REFINING PRODUCTS: The products obtained from the refining of the crude oil are: Furnace oil. The extract containing n-paraffins are recycled back to Penex unit for conversion into iso-paraffins. Page 22 . The lighter desorbent components are taken overhead in the extract column receiver and are pumped to storage tank for reuse. petrol and etc. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). The raffinate column sends the lighter desorbents components overhead and drops the non-normals out the column bottom. Kerosene. Diesel. containing the higher octane non-normal paraffins and desorbent.INTERNSHIP REPORT DESORBENT FEED SURGE VESSEL ROTARY VALVE CHLORIDE GUARD BED DESORBENT A D S O R B E N T C H A M B E R E X T R A C T R A F F I N A T E C O L U M N C O L U M N EXTRACT RAFFINATE EXTRACT: The extract contains the extracted n-paraffins and desorbent. The extract line enters the extract column. leaves the chamber to the raffinate column. RAFFINATE: The raffinate. Fuel gas. Fuel oil. leaves for the extract column. The raffinate is cooled in the heat exchanger and stored in the tank.

00 100.00 UPPER ZAKUM Wt% Vol% 4.37 7.64 34.00 46.67 15.90 21.49 6.INTERNSHIP REPORT Fractions Gas/LPG Light naphtha Heavy naphtha Kerosene Gas oil Residue CRUDE ANALYSIS UMM SHAIF Wt% Vol% 3.97 21.10 100.63 37.68 10.37 100.31 19.61 7.05 5.42 5.81 8.48 5.00 Page 23 .38 41.6 9.53 25.88 22.16 18.39 3.00 100.84 14.