You are on page 1of 32

FOOD PROCESSING | SLIDES

All images copyright.

TEACHING THE FOOD SYSTEM | A PROJECT OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR A LIVABLE FUTURE

OVERVIEW

Degrees of food processing


Why are foods processed?
How are foods processed?
Concerns over food processing

TEACHING THE FOOD SYSTEM | A PROJECT OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR A LIVABLE FUTURE

Essential questions
How do foods differ by their degree of
processing?
Why and how are foods processed? Who
benefits from food processing?
How do practices in the food processing
industry affect food, people and the
environment?

TEACHING THE FOOD SYSTEM | A PROJECT OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR A LIVABLE FUTURE

OVERVIEW
Degrees of food processing
Why are foods processed?
How are foods processed?
Concerns over food processing

TEACHING THE FOOD SYSTEM | A PROJECT OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR A LIVABLE FUTURE

Degrees of food processing

Not all processed foods are alike


Minimally processed foods
Processed food ingredients
Highly processed foods

TEACHING THE FOOD SYSTEM | A PROJECT OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR A LIVABLE FUTURE

Degrees of food processing

Minimally processed foods

Washed
Peeled
Sliced
Juiced
Frozen
Dried
Fermented
Pasteurized

All images copyright.

TEACHING THE FOOD SYSTEM | A PROJECT OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR A LIVABLE FUTURE

Degrees of food processing

Processed food ingredients

Milled
Refined
Crushed
Exposed to
chemicals

Andler, L. Pile of sugar. 2006.


National Cancer Institute. Bottle of oil. 2009. Ranveig. Flour in bowl. 2005.
All images available at Wikimedia Commons.

TEACHING THE FOOD SYSTEM | A PROJECT OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR A LIVABLE FUTURE

Degrees of food processing

Highly processed foods

Baked
Fried
Smoked
Toasted
Puffed
Shredded
Artificially flavored
Artificially colored
Sprayed with
vitamins

Ehardt S. Cheetos on plate. 2005.


Available at Wikimedia Commons.
All other images copyright.

TEACHING THE FOOD SYSTEM | A PROJECT OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR A LIVABLE FUTURE

OVERVIEW
Degrees of food processing
Why are foods processed?
How are foods processed?
Concerns over food processing

TEACHING THE FOOD SYSTEM | A PROJECT OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR A LIVABLE FUTURE

Why are foods processed?

Preservation

Salting meats
Fermenting dairy
Pickling vegetables
Canning
Pasteurizing milk

Hundhammer D. Parmigiano reggiano cheese. 2004.


Available on Wikimedia Commons.
All other images copyright.

TEACHING THE FOOD SYSTEM | A PROJECT OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR A LIVABLE FUTURE

10

Why are foods processed?

Food safety

Heating
Refrigerating
Freezing
Fermenting
Drying
Salting

Images of E. Coli bacteria.


Some strains can cause illness.
All images copyright.

TEACHING THE FOOD SYSTEM | A PROJECT OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR A LIVABLE FUTURE

11

Why are foods processed?

Variety
Modifying:
Flavor
Texture
Aroma
Color
Form

Fritz. Essene bread. 2010. Available on Wikimedia Commons.


All other images copyright.

TEACHING THE FOOD SYSTEM | A PROJECT OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR A LIVABLE FUTURE

12

Why are foods processed?

Convenience
Convenience food
Fast food
Superbass . Granola bar. 2007.
Available at Wikimedia Commons.
All other images copyright.

TEACHING THE FOOD SYSTEM | A PROJECT OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR A LIVABLE FUTURE

13

Why are foods processed?

Nutrition: Fortification
Commonly fortified foods:
Salt, with iodine
Milk, with vitamin D
Grain products, with
folic acid, iron,
B vitamins

TEACHING THE FOOD SYSTEM | A PROJECT OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR A LIVABLE FUTURE

14

Why are foods processed?

Nutrition: Fortification
Commonly fortified foods:
Salt, with iodine
Milk, with vitamin D
Grain products, with
folic acid, iron,
B vitamins

Cocoa Krispies are copyright 2009 Kellogg North America Company.

TEACHING THE FOOD SYSTEM | A PROJECT OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR A LIVABLE FUTURE

15

Why are foods processed?

Nutrition: Preserving nutrients


Canning
Freezing

All images copyright.

TEACHING THE FOOD SYSTEM | A PROJECT OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR A LIVABLE FUTURE

16

OVERVIEW
Degrees of food processing
Why are foods processed?
How are foods processed?
Concerns over food processing

TEACHING THE FOOD SYSTEM | A PROJECT OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR A LIVABLE FUTURE

17

How are foods processed?

Frozen orange juice concentrate


1. Harvesting
2. Unloading and washing
3. Sorting
4. Juice extracting
5. Pulp separating
6. Preheating (pasteurizing)
7. Evaporating
8. Essence recovery
9. Cooling
10.Packaging

All images copyright.

TEACHING THE FOOD SYSTEM | A PROJECT OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR A LIVABLE FUTURE

18

How are foods processed?

Packaged chicken meat


1. Live chickens are shipped
to a processing plant
Socially Responsible Agriculture Project .
Chicken factory farm. 2009. www.sraproject.org.
All other images copyright.

TEACHING THE FOOD SYSTEM | A PROJECT OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR A LIVABLE FUTURE

19

How are foods processed?

Packaged chicken meat (continued)


2. Shackling to
assembly line
3. Stunning
4. Bleeding
5. Scalding
6. Feather removal
7. Feet, head and neck
removal
8. Eviscerating
Image copyright.

TEACHING THE FOOD SYSTEM | A PROJECT OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR A LIVABLE FUTURE

20

How are foods processed?

Packaged chicken meat (continued)


9. Washing
10.Chilling
11.Grading
12.Cutting and deboning
13.Packaging

Image copyright.

TEACHING THE FOOD SYSTEM | A PROJECT OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR A LIVABLE FUTURE

21

How are foods processed?

Chicken nuggets
1. Mechanical deboning
2. Mixing w/other
ingredients
3. Forming
4. Dusting, battering,
breading
5. Par frying
6. Freezing and packaging
7. Deep frying
CecilBuffington.com. Mechanically deboned meat. Public domain. Other images copyright.

TEACHING THE FOOD SYSTEM | A PROJECT OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR A LIVABLE FUTURE

22

OVERVIEW
Degrees of food processing
Why are foods processed?
How are foods processed?
Concerns over food processing

TEACHING THE FOOD SYSTEM | A PROJECT OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR A LIVABLE FUTURE

23

Concerns over food processing

Highly processed foods


Not inherently unhealthy, but many are:
High in added sugar
High in sodium
High in saturated fats, trans fats
Low in fiber
Made with refined grains
Conducive of unhealthy
eating behaviors
TEACHING THE FOOD SYSTEM | A PROJECT OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR A LIVABLE FUTURE

24

Concerns over food processing

Premium products
Versions of highly processed foods with:
Less sugar
Less fat
Less salt
Less cholesterol
No trans fats
Fortifications

Lays are copyright Frito-Lay North America, Inc.

TEACHING THE FOOD SYSTEM | A PROJECT OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR A LIVABLE FUTURE

25

Concerns over food processing

Food safety
2009 recall of over 2,000
products made w/peanut meal:
Peanut butter
Cookies
Crackers
Cereal
Candy
Ice cream
Pet food
USDA ARS.
Food safety inspectors at a
poultry processing plant.

TEACHING THE FOOD SYSTEM | A PROJECT OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR A LIVABLE FUTURE

26

Concerns over food processing

Worker justice
Dangerous tasks
Hazardous conditions
Inadequate training
High injury rates
No compensation
Smuggled illegal
immigrants
Threats against
organizing

Top: Valbuena J. USDA.


Bottom: Cecilbuffington.com.
Public domain.

TEACHING THE FOOD SYSTEM | A PROJECT OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR A LIVABLE FUTURE

27

Concerns over food processing

Industry concentration
Small number of
corporations control
processing industry
Affects farmers,
consumers

Farmers
Processors
Retailers
Consumers

TEACHING THE FOOD SYSTEM | A PROJECT OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR A LIVABLE FUTURE

28

Concerns over food processing

Industry consolidation
Larger, fewer
processing plants
Producers left without
means to process

Farmers
Processors
Retailers
Consumers

TEACHING THE FOOD SYSTEM | A PROJECT OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR A LIVABLE FUTURE

29

Concerns over food processing

Local and regional food systems


May help loosen the
bottleneck

Regional
processors

Farmers
Processors
Retailers
Consumers

TEACHING THE FOOD SYSTEM | A PROJECT OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR A LIVABLE FUTURE

30

Concerns over food processing

Packaging waste
Reduce, Reuse, Recycle!

All images copyright.

TEACHING THE FOOD SYSTEM | A PROJECT OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR A LIVABLE FUTURE

31

Concerns over food processing

Chemicals in packaging
BPA linked to:
Cardiovascular
disease
Diabetes
Male sexual
dysfunction
Certain cancers
Changes to immune
function
TEACHING THE FOOD SYSTEM | A PROJECT OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR A LIVABLE FUTURE

32