Geology - Rocks

CH 8 PAGE 277

Structure of the Earth


the study of rocks


inner most area of the Earth


layer below the Earth's crust


the outer surface of Earth

This image is on page 278 of Pearson
Draw a simple cross-section in your
notebooks – using the following terms.

Igneous Rocks


molten rock that does not reach the Earth's


molten rock reaching the Earth's surface

igneous rocks

extrusive igneous rocks
surface of the Earth

igneous rocks that form on the

intrusive igneous rocks
the surface of the Earth

igneous rocks that form below

rocks formed from cooling magma



chemical substances found in rocks


a solid that has a variety of special shapes

interlocking crystals

are crystals that have grown into each other

Characteristics of Igneous Rocks
Igneous rocks are usually

Hard – because of the minerals they contain


Strong – due to the interlocking mineral crystal that
have grown into each other and binds them tightly


Igneous Rocks - Samples

Classifying Igneous Rocks
2 physical factors classify igneous rocks:

Texture – smooth/glassy Vs obvious lumps/crystals


Dark (more Iron) eg Basalt

Light (more silica, oxygen, aluminium) eg Granite

Extrusive Rocks
Extrusive (surface) rocks cool
quickly and have small crystals.

Basalt – small crystals

Obsidian – microscopic
crystals – glassy

Many extrusive rocks contain
bubbles of gases



Intrusive Igneous Rocks
These rocks are the result of
slowly cooling magma below
the surface. They tend to
have large interlocking
crystals. Two examples are
granite and dolerite.

Uses of Igneous Rocks

Ch 8.2 Weathering
Pearson p 292 Erosion Video
Multiple Weathering simulations – on wiki as well

Weathering - the physical and chemical
processes that break rocks down into smaller

Physical weathering - breakdown of rocks by
physical process that may involve : changes
in temperature, Ice and water, Wind or Plant

Chemical weathering

Chemical weathering - water, or chemicals in the water and air
reacting and breaking down rock – eg carbon dioxide dissolves in
water creating a mild acid that can weaken some rocks, other
acids may come in the form of acid rain (pollution).


Erosion - removal of weathered rock particles away from the site of
the weathering

Agents of erosion -factors that cause erosion – water, wind and ice

Sedimentation - the process of water or wind depositing eroded
rock particles

S4F activity p 292 Sedimentation in a bottle

Soil characteristics

Texture –

the size of the particles that make up soil

Pore spaces - the amount of space in the soil that
could be filled with air or water

Structure - how well the soil particles join up to form

Water-holding capacity - measure of how much
water a particular amount of soil can hold

Permeability - a measure of how fast water enters the

Consistency - the tendency of soil particles to stick

8.3 Sedimentary Rocks

3 types of sedimentary rocks

Clastic sedimentary rocks – Layered rocks, may contain fossils

Chemical sedimentary rocks – limestone caves

Organic sedimentary rocks - coal

8.3 Sedimentary Rocks

Sedimentary rocks - rocks made by sediments being cemented

Clastic sedimentary rocks - sedimentary rocks made from
weathered sediments of other rocks – mud, silt

Chemical sedimentary rocks - sedimentary rocks that form when
dissolved materials precipitate from solution

Organic sedimentary rocks - rocks that form by the accumulation of
plant or animal debris, which is then cemented together

Fossils - preserved remains of living organisms

Natural cements - chemicals that can flow around sediments in
water and then set like cement – includes calcium carbonate, silica,
clay, iron quartz.

Clastic Sedimentary
1. Contain layers – like pages in a book
2. The grains do not interlock, but are glued
3. The rock may contain fossils.
4. p 300


Chemical Sediments

Usually soft, may
contain fossils, rare to
see any layering
Halite, gypsum and

Organic Sedimentary Rocks
Can be layered,
contain fossils, can be
hard or soft - coal.

Uses of sedimentary rocks

Limestone was used on buildings and monuments, but weathers
easily due to pollution.

Sandstone – lasts better, outer layer on many historical buildings

Gypsum – used to make plaster and Gyprock

Rock phosphate (guano) – phosphate ferilizers

Coal – energy supply

Bauxite – from near Weipa is refined in Gladstone as Aluminium

Ch 8.4 Metamorphic Rocks

Metamorphic rocks - rocks formed when high temperature and
pressure alter existing rocks. Igneous and sedimentary rocks can be
transformed into this third category of rock.

Meta – means to change. Morph – refers to form or shape.

Types of metamorphism

Tectonic plates - massive plates that make up the earth's crust, move on
the molten/plastic mantle. There is massive heat and pressure within the
earth that can deform rock formations.

Regional metamorphism - metamorphism over a wide area below the
crust caused by huge movements of the earth's crust

Contact metamorphism - metamorphism by contact with hot magma
as it pushes through the mantle and crust. Diagram 8.4.2 P 306

Metamorphic changes

Diamonds are metamorphic – Pure carbon
(charcoal) that has been subjected to very
high pressure and temperature, changes
from a very soft black organic material to
the a clear white, crystal that is the hardest
naturally occurring substance.

Banded metamorphic

Foliation - process where minerals
under pressure become
squashed flat and the rock
develops layers or bands

Uses of metamorphic rocks

Slate tiles for roofs and pool table tops

Marble for buildings and sculptures

Quartz for stone age tools

The rock cycle
p 308