Planning the

Sleeping Area

CHAPTER

Objectives

Key Terms

After com pie/illg tllis c/tapter, YOZl will be able fo:

1/2 bath
3/4 ba th
bidet
comfort-height toilet
full bath
ground fault circuit
interrupter (Gre l)

Discuss fac tors that are important in the
design o f bedrooms.


Plan a furniture arrangement for a
bedroom.
Implement important design considerations
for a bathroom.
Plan a bathroom for accessibility by people
who a rc disabled or have li mited mobili ty.

Typically, about one-third of the house is
dedicated to the slccping area . This area includes
bedrooms, bath rooms, and accessory rooms
such as dressing rooms or saunas. Normally, the
sleeping area is in a quiet part of the house away
from vehicular traffic and other noise.
The design of bedroom and bathroom
spaces may be developed easily and rapidly
using a CADD system. Many of the elements
used in the design of these rooms are commonly
avai lable as symbols. Often, manufachtrers provide CADD symbols of their fumihtre. cabinets.
and other items that can be used in designing a
home. You can also develop custom symbols a s
needed. In add ition. CADD systems allow you
to render proposed designs and s how them to
clients for approva l. Figure 8-1 shows a CADDgenera ted renderi ng of a bathroom design.
Printed for:

lava tory
s plit bedroom plan
vanity
water closet

Bedrooms
Bedrooms are so important that houses are
frequently categorized by the number they contain, such as "two-bedroom," "three-bedroom,"
or "four-bedroom." The size of the family usually
determines the number of bedrooms needed. Ideally. a home has enough bedrooms that each family member can have one. Ln the case of a couple
with no children living at home. at least hvo bedrooms arc desirable. The second bedroom could
be used as a guest room and for other activities
when there are no guests. See Figure 8-2. A home
w ith only one bedroom may be difficult to sell.
Three-bedroom homes usually have the greatest
sales potential. A three-bedroom home can provide enough Sp.:1CC for a family of fou r. It may be

195
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hts rese

Section 2

196

Arc hitectural Planning

Figure 8-1. This CADD-gcncratcd presentation drawing demonstrates the usefulness of computergenerated images to describe a design idea. (Alexey Kasllin/Slwtterstock.com)

Figure 8-2. An extra bedroom can be used for other purposes, such as a home office or a hobby room.
(pics21 151m t tersfock.com)

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Chapte r 8

Planning the Sleeping Area

197

wise to include an extra bedroom in the plan that
can be used for other purposes until needed. It is
usually more economical to add an extra room at
the outset rather than expand later.
Th ere are several options for placing bedrooms in a home. Grouping the bedrooms
together in a separate wing or level of the
house, as shown in Figure 8-3, affords seclu sion and privacy. In a split bed room plall, the

101
D

mas ter bedroom is separated from the remaining bedrooms to p rovide even greater privacy.
See Figure 8-4. Another option is to include a
bedroom in another area of the home for an
employee, live-in relative, or overnight guests.
Each bedroom should have its own access to the
hall. An attempt should be made to p lace each
bedroom close to a bathroom . Some bedrooms
may have their own private baths.

Jl~

,
I

,I
:I

~fh-.-,--J'

I

I,

+

-

Figure 8-3. Bedrooms that are grouped together in a wing or level of the house away from other
activities help reduce noise in the sleeping area.

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Section 2

198

Arc hitectural Planning

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,

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Figure 8-4. A split bedroom plan separates the master bedroom from all the other bedrooms to provide
even greater privacy for homeowners.

Size and Furniture
One of the first challenges in designing a bedroom is determining its size. The International
Residential Code recommends 70 square feet as
the minimum size. A small bed room is shown
in Figure 8-5. It has 99 square feet and can hold
the bare essentials in furniture. An average-size
bedroom contains behveen 125 and 175 square
feet. See Figure 8-6. Such a room provides ample
space for a twin or double bed, chest of drawers, dresser, and other small pieces of fumihtre.

A large bedToom has more than 175 square feet
of floor space, as shown in Figure 8-7. A room of
this size provides space for additional furni ture.
A desk, chair, or television may be included as

Printed for:

18" ~ 32'
SI NGLE6EO
39'" x 75I

I

CH ILO'S BEDROOM
9'~11'

Figure 8-5. A small bedroom with the minimum
furniture: a single bed, nightstand, and chest of
drawers.

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Chapter 8

Planning the Sk>cping Area

' 99

o

o

NIGHT·
STAND
K1NG·SIZE BED

76- x 80'

DOUBlE BED
504" ~ 75"

b,

CHEST
MASTERBEDAOOM 18'x36"

"

WITHBATt1

16' x 21'
TRIPLE DRESSER
18",,72"

DOUBlE ~ESSER
18" x 60"

Figure 8-6. An average-size bedroom has room
for a double bcd, chest, chair, double dresser,

and nightstand.

Employability

Evaluating Job Offers
When considering a job offer or comparing

two or more positions, you should explore the
following work factors:

Physical surroundings. Where is your
workspace located? Is the atmosphere
conducive to your style of working? Is parking
provided? Is public transportation close by?

Work schedule. Will the workdays and work
hours mesh with your lifestyle? Is occasional
overtime work required?

Income and benefils. Is the proposed salary
fair? Will you receive benefits that are just
as valuable as extra income? How much
sick leave is granted during the year? Is
personal or emergency leave available?
What is the vacation leave policy? Are there
medical and life insurance benefits? Is there
a credit union? Will the company pay tuition
for college courses or special programs

Printed for:

Figure 8·7. An arrangement for a large master
bedroom with a private bath.

related to your job? Is a cafeteria on the
premises? Does it offer food to employees
at reduced cost?

Job obligations. Will you be expected to join
a union or other professional organization?
If so , what are the costs? Will you be
expected to attend meetings after work?

Advancement potential. Is there opportunity
for advancement? After demonstrating
good performance, how soon can you
seek a position with more responsibilities?
Before you can advance, are there special
expectations, such as a higher degree? Are
training programs provided?
Talking about advancement requires
considerable diplomacy. After all , you should not
appear too eager to leave the job for which you
are interviewing. Many employers expect a new
employee to remain at least one year at that job. If
you place undue emphasis on advancement. you
will appear uninterested in the current opening.
Activity
Contact two companies in your area and ask
for a list of benefits they offer their employees.
Alternatively, visit the websites of two companies
that post job and benefits information online.
Compare the benefits offered by the two
companies. On the basis of benefits alone, which
company would you choose to work for? Why?

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200

Section 2

Closets

bedroom furniture. The largest bedroom is usually
considered to be the master bedroom. It often has
its own priv<lte b.,th.
Bedroom d esign is d irectly rela ted to the
a mou n I and size of the furni tu re to be used. Common furnitu re sizes are shown in Figu re 8·8. It
is not necessa ry to design the bedroom wi th a
speci fic arrangement in mind. In fac t, it is best to
allow for several different arrangements so the

Each bedroom typically includes a closet.
The minimum width of a closet is usually 6'-0".
The minimum depth of a closet is 24", If space

is available, a 30" depth is desirable. When possible, closets should be located along interior
walls. This provides noise insu lation between
rooms and does not reduce exterior wall space.
A bedroom normally has no more than two
exterior walls. The use of one of these for close ts reduces the possibility of cross ventilation
through windows.

homeowner can change the furniture around or
pu rchase d ifferent pieces. Just make sure that
all of the items the homeowner wants to p lace
in the bed room will fit in the room you design.

Telephone lable

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dresser

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Triple
dresser

60"

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Double bed

Depth

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Dormitory bed

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Bu"k bed

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Double bed

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Architectural Planning

Queen-size bed

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King-size bed

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30"

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Wardrobe

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79"

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22"

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56"

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Figu re 8-8. Common sizes of standard bedroom furniture.

Printed for:

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Chapter 8

Planning the Sk>cping Area

201

A variety of close I doors ca n be used to provide access to the closet: slid ing, bi-fold, accord ion, or flush. The us ual height of a door is
6'-8", but most doors are also available in 8'_0"
heights. In general, plan to use doors that provide easy accessibi lity yet require little space.
See Figure 8-9. Good lig hting is also a necess ity. For all except the sma llest closets, plan to
include a light fixture inside the closet.

Doors and Windows
Windows and doors are import.,nt bedroom
features. An ideal bed room has windows on tw o
wa lls to allow cross ventilation. Each bed room
has at least one entry d oor. The door should
sw ing into the bed room. Allow space along the
wall for the door when it is open. Locating a door
near a corner of the room usually results in less
wasted space. To further conserve space, pocket
or sliding doors may be used.
Interior doors are usually 1-3/8'" thick and
6'-8'" high. Standard widths range from 2'-0" to 3'-0"
in increments of r. The minimum recommended
bedroom door width is 2'-6". A wider door, 2'-8'" or
2'-10", provides for easier movement of furniture,
especially adjacent to a hall. To accommodate a
wheelchair, doorurays should be at least 2'-8" wide.

Figure 8-9. The sliding doors on this closet allow
they are open. (/rillllil Sl1iYllrr/Slmllerstock.corrr)

Printed for:

CilSy

Decor
A well-planned bedroom is a cheerful, but
restful, p lace. Ca refully select colors that help
to create a quiet and peaceful atmosphere.
Figure 8-10 shows an example of a welldesigned, tastefully furnished bedroom. Notice
the two sma ll windows on the back wa ll and the
w ind ow on the right. Their p lacement ensures
adequate ventilation in the room.

Accessible Bedrooms
When designing a bedroom for the d isabled,
allow ample s pace for maneuvering a wheelchair a round furniture w ithout obstructions. In
addition, space mus t be allowed for easy transfer into and out of bed. See Figure 8-1] . A space
of 3' should be provided on at leas t one side of
the bed for transfer. Fou r o r more feet should
be allowed between stationary objects. A clear
s pace of 5' square usually is required for turning a wheelchair in front of a closet.
Beds intended to be accessible to a d is.,bled
person must be the same height as the seat of a
wheelchair. That is, the mattress should be the
same height as the wheelcha ir seat and firm
enough for easy transfer. An adjustable bed can

access without taking up SpilCC in the room when

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Section 2

202

Arc hitectural Planning

Figure S-lO. The decor in a bedroom should be tranquil and peaceful, yet cheerful and inviting. (Stephell
Cobu ",/Sh 1/ ttrrstock.com)

5',6 '

3 '·0 '
3"-0'

SI NGLE

"'0

v

1 '-6"

SI NGLE

"'0

.
0
0

3 '-0'

/~

DOUBlE BED

B

"•
.'

Figure 8·11. Examples of minimum space clearances for bedroom furniture in a bedroom designed for a
person in a w heelchair.

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Chapter 8

Planning the Sleeping Area

Green
Architecture
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOI: s)
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are toxic
substances that evaporate into the atmosphere. The
evaporation of vacs contributes to the development
of environmental hazards such as smog, but VOCs
can also reduce the quality of air indoors. Not only
are VOCs harmful to the environment, but they can
also be harmful to your health. Continued exposure
to these toxins can produce symptoms such as
headaches and nausea or more severe damage,
such as organ damage and cancer. Products that
contain VOCs include substances such as paint
and cleaning supplies, but VOCs are also found in
fabrics or carpets.
As you plan a home design, you can reduce
the homeowner's exposure to VOCs being
released into the home. Many VeC-containing
products are offered in more organic alternatives.
These products use plant-based materials rather
than chemicals such as benzene. Plan to use zerovac paints, and choose carpets and other flooring
materials carefully. Take the time to research the
materials. In general, choose materials with natural
finishes or fabric that is made from organic colton.

203

also be used . A clearance space of 10" is required
under the bed for the footrests of the wheelchair.
Bi-fold, accordion, or sliding doors generally allow for partial closet entry by wheelchair
users. To be accessible to the disabled, clothing
rods should be located 40" to 48" from the floor.
Adjustable shelves provide greater accessibility
and may be p laced at various heights from 40"
to 48" above the floor. Clothes hooks should not
be more than 40" from the floor.

Bathrooms
The small, drab bathroom of the late 1900s
is almost a thing of the past. Homes today have
larger, more pleasant baths. Today's homes also
have more bathrooms than were used in the
past. All homes require at least one bathroom,
and most modern homes have hvo or more. Ideally, every bedroom should have its own bath,
although this is often impractical due to the
added expense of plumbing walls that contain
water supply lines, waste lines, and vent pipes,
Bathrooms may be simple, with only the necessary fixtu res, or elaborate in design and function. See Figure 8-12. A dressing or exercise area
may be incorporated in the bath. ThI.."Se activities
require more space and added facilities. Plan the
bath around the functions to be provided.

A
Figure 8-12. A- Small bathrooms do not have to be dull or plain. The colors and interesting fl oor tile add
interest to this small bath. Oriana Shiyml/SlllIlterstock.colII) B-A large, luxury bathroom may contain a
whirlpool tub with a separate shower, dual sinks, and other attractive features. (pics721/S/lUtlerstock.com)

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Section 2

204

NU1lfber, Location, alld Siz.e

l1 '-(l'

2'·6 -

Often, the design of the house indicates the
minimum number of baths needed . If the house
is very small, one bath may be sufficient. In this
case, locate the bathroom where it is most convenient. See Figure 8-13. Locate the door in a hall
common to all the bedrooms. A person should not
be required to go through another room, such as
a bedroom, to reach the bath. In some designs, it
is convenient to have two bedrooms sharing the
same bathroom. A double-entry bath, as shown in
Figure 8-14, illustrates one design solu tion.
A f llJl batll contains a sink, toilet, and tub
or tub /shower combina tion . A 1/2 bath is one
that typically has only a sink and toilet. See
Figure 8-15. A 3/4 bath is functional for basement or attic conversions. It contains a sink, toilet, and shower, but no bath tub. A 3/ 4 bath and
a full bath are shown in Figure 8-]6.
A two-story house in which all of the bedrooms are up stairs requires at least 1-1 /2 bathsa full bath on the second level near the bedrooms
and a 1/2 bath on the first floor near the living
area. A split-level house also requires at least
1-1 / 2 baths. Since the bedrooms are located on
the upper level away from the living area, there is
a need for an other bath on a lower level. A large
ranch house requires a minimum of two baths.

DINING

A rc hitectural Planning

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"

9

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2'·6 "

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1'-6'

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5'-(l-

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Figure 8-14. A double-entry bath allows two
bedrooms to share a bath directly. Notice the
additional privacy door that separates the sinks

from the tub and toi let.

The bedrooms are usually located in a wing of the
house away from the living area . Convenience
d ictates a second bath in the living area.
For yea rs, designers have emphasized
the importance of locating bathrooms close
together and near the kitchen to reduce cost.

KITC HEN
BEDROOM

LIVI NG ROOM
BEDROOM

BEDROOM

Figure 8·13. A well-planned, centrally located bathroom in a small house.

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Chapte r 8

Planning the Sleeping Area

205

Granted, the cost will be less if bathrooms share
a common plumbing wall. However, this is a
minor consideration compared to convenience
and function. Bathrooms should be designed to
be functiona l and should be placed in the most
conven ient locations .
A small-size bath is 5' x 8'. A large bath
may be 10' x 10', 10' x 12', or larger. A fami ly
bathroom requires more countertop and storage space than a guest ba th . Most people prefer ample space for d ressing, linen storage, and
personal items. Larger bathrooms also allow
for luxury or oversize tubs. See Figure 8-17. A
large bathroom is most convenient fo r a wheelcha ir user. To be handicapped accessible, the
bathroom must have a minimum o f 5' x 5' d ear
space to allow turning of the wheelchair.

Doors
Bathroom doors are ordinarily not as wide
as bedroom doors. A door width of 2'..(," or even
2'-4" is usually sufficient. If provisions are being
made for wheelchair usc, then the door should
bea minimum of 2'-8" wide. Doors should swing
into the bathroom and not interfere with any fixtures. In some instances, a pocket door is used to
subdivide the bath into tvvo or more areas.

Figure 8-15. A half bath is often sufficient
for the lower floor of a two-story house if all
of the bedrooms are upstairs. Oriana Shiyan/
SlIlItterstock.corll)

,-J
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Figure 8-16. A-A 3/4 bath includes a shower but no bathtub. B-A full bath has a bathtub or a bathtub/
shower combination.

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Section 2

206

Archi tectural Planning

Figure 8·17. This bathroom, with a Tetro art deeo style, has plenty of space for a whirlpool tub and a
separate shower. (pics721{Slwtterslock.com)

Ventilation and Electricity
A bathroom 1111151 have ventila tion. This may
be provided by windows or an exhaust fan. If
windows are used, care must be taken to locate
them properly. WindoW's shou ld be placed such
tha t a draft is not p roduced over the tub and

for each fixture in the room. Typical fixture sizes
are shown in Figure 8·18.

Sinks
Asinkcabinet,orvallity,can provide muchn eeded countertop and s torage space, especially in a fami ly bathroom. Sinks are usua lly

maximum privacy is secured. The exception

circular, ova l, or rectangular, but other shapes

m ight be in a luxury bathroom, in which the
homeowner might want a picture window over
the tub with a view of a secluded area.
If an exhaust fan is used , it should be located
near the tub and toilet area. Electrical switches
sholild be placed so tlwi they emmol be reae/lcd
fro lll tile lub. In add ition, grollnd fault cirCliit
il/terrupter (GFCl) receptacles should be used
in the bathroom . These are fast·acting devices
that detect short circuHs and immediately shut
off power to the receptacle.

are used as well. Twin sinks are desirable when
more than one person mus t share the ba throom.
Another trend is the use of vanities built to look
like furniture. Figure 8-19 shows common sizes
of bathroom van ities. Wall·moun ted and ped.
estal sinks may be used to enhance the look of
a small bathroom or to prov ide sufficient knee
space for wheelchair users. A mirror or a mirrored medicine cabinet should be p laced above
th e sink. Arrange the mirror so it is well lighted
and away from the tub to prevent fogging.

Primary Fixtures
The three primary fixtures found in most
bathrooms are the sink, the toilet. and the tub or
shower. The sink is often called a lavatory, and
the toilet is o ften called a w aler closet (abbrev i·
ated we on floor plans). Provide a mple s pace
Printed for:

Toilets
Toilets are produced in a number of styles.
Most toilets require a space at least 30" wide fo r
installation. Allow 36" for a handicapped per·
son. Toilets should be placed so that they are
n ot visible from another room when the bathroom door is open.

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Chapter 8

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Pll1nning the Sleeping Arel1

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Figure 8-18. Common sizes of bl1throom fixtures.

Vanity bowl bases

I'
Bathtubs and Showers
Reg ular bathtubs range in size from 54" to
7r long and 28'" to 32" wide. The most common
size is 30'" x 60"". Often, a shower is instaUed
above the tub. This provides the convenience of
both and does not require two separate facilities. See Figure 8-20.
Printed for:

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Vanity hamper base

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Van ity wall cabinet

Figure 8-19. Common sizes for bathroom vanities.

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Section 2

208

Arc hitectural Planning

Figure 8-20. Combining a shower and tub offers the convenience of both without requiring a lot of extra
space. (haveseclljS/llltterstock.col1l)

Many h omes have a tub and separate
shower stall. Prefabricated showers are available in metaL fiberglass, and plastic. Hand-

held shower heads may be morc convenient
and shower controls should be within reach of
the user. Tu b and shOWer floors should be flat
and slip resistant. Common shower sizes range
from 30" x 30" to 36" x 48",

Additional Fixtures
Some luxury homes include a bidet in the
bath rooms. See Figure 8-21. Usually, a bidet
is installed only in the master bath. However,
some home designs include a bidet in the main
bath as well.
Whirlp ools, hot tu bs, and saunas can
be installed in or near the bathroom . See
Figure 8-22 . Saunas can be built as a part of
the bath during construction or purchased in
kits and added later. Some luxurious designs
include a combination of a Siluna, whirlpool,
and steam bath.

Figure 8-21. A luxurious master bathroom
w ith a bidet next to the toilet. (Mayer George
V/adilllirovicll(SlllItterstock.cOIII)

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Chapte r 8

Planning the Sleeping Area

209

Figure 8-22. This high-end design includes an enlarged bath area with a full 5.1Una. A sauna of this size
must usually be designed into the house, rather than added later. (pllOtospllObosISlllltterstock.com)

Decor
The decor of a well-planned bath provides a
pleasing and relaxing atmosphere. Select fixtures
that are appropriate for the desired color scheme
or style of the room. Plants and art pieces may be
added to enhance the beauty of the room.
Figure 8-23 shows a small bath that provides maximum convenience and practicality
at a nominal cost. Economy is partially obtained
by the supply and drains being placed on a single wall. Also, there is no wasted space in this
func tional bath. Open-shelf cabinetry helps add
the illusion of space to the room. Also notice
the bath seat that blends with the tub. This seat
provides access for elderly people and people
with limited mobility, without requiring a large
amount of space.

Safety
Safety should be a prime consideration
when planning the bath. A well-planned bath is
constructed from materials that are easy to clean
and resistant to moistu re, mildew, and mold.
Printed for:

Figure 8-23. An example of a shower/tub
combination that is accessible to people with
limited mobility. Notice the four grab bars and
the sliding bath seat. (Photo courtesy of Kohler Co.)

erikaaraujo@bisd.us (c) 2013 Goodheart-Willcox Publisher. All Rights rese

Section 2

210

Architectural Planning

Flooring materials that become slick when wet
s hould not be used. Devices should be installed
in tub and s hower faucets to control water temperature to eliminate sca lding from hot water.
Also, devices can be installed to control the
water pressure so tha t when the cold water presslIre is reduced, the hot water flow is a utomatically reduced . Non-shatter or safety glass should
be used in shower and tub enclosures.

Accessibility
Wall-moun ted toilets a re more accessible
for people in w heelch airs. A toilet seat that
is 17" to 19" high is about the same height as
most wheelchair seats and w ill provide for easy
transfer. See Figure 8-24. Elevated toilet seats are

also avai lable to provide access. Many people
are now installing com!ort-JlCigil t toilet s in
th eir homes even if the hou se is not being
equipped for disabled access. The seats on
these toilets range from 17" to 19" high. They
make access easier not on ly for people in
wheelchairs, but also fo r elderly people and
people who have joint problems or other physica l conditions.
Allow a t least 27" from the underside o f the
ba throom sink to the floo r for wheelcha ir armrests. The top of the sink s hould be at a max imu m heigh t of 34". If countertop sinks are used,
insulate any exposed pipes to preven t burns.
For easy reach, fauce t handles shou ld be a maximum of 20'" from the front of the sink. Levertype handles provide greater usability.
If the home is being designed for a person in a wheelchair, the mirror should be tilted
slightly downward or mounted low enough
for a wh('-'elchair user to see. Another option
is to insta ll a full-length mirror on a bathroom
wa ll or door. A medicine cabi net s hould be
mounted so that the top shelf is not more than
48" from the floor. The cabinet should be lo

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er
if mounted over a counter or sink.
Bathtub rims should not be lower than 18"
from the floor to provide access from a wheelchair to the tub. Tubs may also have safety features such as nonskid bottoms and grab rails. In
addition, various types of seats, stools, transfer
sea ts, or lifts for use in bathtubs or s howers are
available. See Figure 8-25. Bathtubs arc available with a built-in bath seat or p latform on the
Printed for:

Figure 8-24. Notice the height of this toilet,
which is fully equipped for use by people wi th
va rious disabilities. The grab bar on the left
swings up out of the way when not in use, but
can be lowered to provide support when nct.'CIcd.
(Kevill Penlmllow/Slwtlerstock.comJ

opposite end of the tub from the drain. Walk-in
b athtubs with built-in seats can make it easier
for people with limi ted mobility to bathe.
Walk-in or " roll-in" shower stalls are also
available for wheelchair users. In addition, special bathing wheelchai rs that can be wheeled
right into the shower area arc ava ilable. See
Figure 8-26. Some s hower designs include a
waU-mounted seat that allows people to transfer from a wheelchair to the sea t. The sea t
fold s against the wall when not in use. Placing
a shower head over the cen ter of the sh ower
m akes it more accessible for wheelchair u~rs.

erikaaraujo@bisd.us (c) 2013 Goodheart-Willcox Publisher. All Rights rese

Chapler 8

[,lanning the Sleeping Area

211

<- - - ......


A

Figure 8-25. Adjustable bath chairs like this
one allow people with limited mobility to use a
bathtub without worrying a~u t how to get in and
out of the tub. The chair is placed in the tub, and
the person slides from a wheelchair or the side of
the tub onto the bath chair. The nonskid tips on
the chair legs pl'e\.ent the chair from slipping.
(B. 5,X'Ckilrl/Sillll lerslock.com)

Specin l safety prov isions should be made
for an yone of limited mobility who might use
the ba throom. This may include a specially
designed s hower or tub, as described earlier.
In addition, grab ba rs s hould be provided,
especially in the areas where the toilet, tub,
and s hower are located. Horizontnl bars are
designed for pus hing up, while vertical bars are
designed for pulling up. Grab bars must be well
anchored. They s hou ld be 1-1/4" to 2" in diameter with a profile that can be easily g rasped
and contains no sharp edges. G rab bars should
be no further than 1-1/2" away from the wall.
Refer aga in to Figure 8-24.
Printed for:

Figure 8-26. A-This shower stall was designed
for a wheelchair to be rolled in. The bench swings
up out of the way if the person is in a shower
wheelchair. Othenvisc, the person transfers to the
bench and the wheelchair is removed.
(B BrowlI/Sllllllerstock.com) B-A shower
wheelchair that can remain in the shower while
the water is running. (dnSM/ord/Silllllerstock.com)

erikaaraujo@bisd.us (c) 2013 Goodheart-Willcox Publisher. All Rights rese

Chapter 8

Review

Summary

The sleeping area includes bedrooms,
bathrooms. and accessory rooms such as
dressing rooms or s.' unas.
The size o f the family that will live in the
house u sually determines the number o f
bedrooms needed.
When possible, closets should be located
along inte rior walls.
Ideally, bedrooms should have windows
on two wa lls for cross ventilation.
All homes require at least one bathroom,

but most homes have two or more.
All bathrooms must be ventilated by either


a window or an exhaust fan.
The primary bathroom fixtures are the
sink (lavatory), toi let (water closet), and
bathtub or shower.
Safety is a prime consideration w hen
planning a bathroom.

Internet Resources
Accessib ility Design
Ocsign ideas for accesSibility for seniors and
people w ith disabilities
Accessible S hower Design
Accessible designs for showers, bathtubs
American s with Disabilities Act (ADA)
ADA Standa rds for Accessib le Design
Home & Garden Television (HGTV)
Home design idea s
Internation al Code Council (I CC)
Published building codes and s tandards
Jacuzzi
Bath fixture s
Kohler Company
Plumbing fixtures
Moen
Plumbing fixtures

Printed for:

C

Chapter Activities
Go to tile COII/pallioll website to complete
flEe Clwpter Activities.

.

www.g-wlearnlng.comlarchlleclurel

Pfis ter
Plumbing fixtures
Sterling Plumbing
P lumbing fixtures

Review Questions
Write your nllswers 011 fI sepnrate slleet of !,flper. Do
llOt write ill tllis book.
1. Explain why it is better to desib"" and build a
house that has at least two bedrooms, even if
only one of the bedrooms iscurrentJy needed.
2. Describe the characteris tics of a split
bedroom plan.
3. Wha t is the minim um acceptable size for
a bedroom according to the International
Residential Code?
4. Explain the d ifference between a 3/ 4 ba th
and a fu ll bath.
5. What is the minimum number of
bathrooms needed for a two-story house
if all of the bedrooms a re upstairs? How
many ba throoms are needed for a large
ranch house?
6. Describe the ven tilation required for a
bathroom.
7. List two electrical safety concerns that
mus t always be addressed in a bathroom.
S. What is a com fort-height toilet, and w hen
shou ld you consider specifying one?
9. List at least th ree s.:"1fety featu res that
should be included in a bathroom.
10. What are the specifica tions for a g rab ba r?

Suggested Activities
1. Design a s mall bathroom (5' x 10'). Show the
location and size of each fixture in a plan view.

erikaaraujo@bisd.us (c) 2013 Goodheart-Willcox Publisher. All Rights rese

Chapter 8

Planning the Sleeping Area

213

2. Design and draft a plan view for a clothes
closet that is 3' deep and 8' in length. Show
the maximum door access, clothes rod, and
shelf storage area . Refer to the illustrations
in this chapter for examples.
3. Design and draft an average·size bedroom.
Make a plan view drawing of the room.
Include the bed, a dresser, a chest of
drawers, and other furniture to meet the
needs of your own activities. You may
want to include a study or reading area.
4. l.cH::Ik through a number of home design and
planning magazines for closet arrangements.
Prepare a display of clippings that illustrates
maximum use of closet space for clothes,
shoes, and other apparel.
5. Locate agencies and organizations that
specify requirements for bath faci lities to
be handicapped accessible. Enlist the help
of your local librarian or the Internet to
find at least two different sources. Then,
obtain a list of these requirements from
each source. Fina lly, design and draft a
bathroom for a disabled person that meets
all of the requirements.

D

6. Using CADD, design and draft bedroom
and bathroom symbols and add them to
your symbol library for future use.
7. Select a floor plan of a house from a
newspaper, magazine, or other literature.
Using CADD, recreate the basic floor plan.
Use the symbols in your symbol library
to furnish the bedrooms. If you want to
include something that is not in your
symbol library, create a new symbol and
add it to your symbol library.

Mrs. Wilson has asked you to prepare a
simple sketch of a proposed bathr(X)m remodel.
Her parents are moving in with her. Her mother
is confined to a wheelchair, and her father walks
with a cane. Mrs. Wilson has a room available
with a private bath, shown in Figure A, but the
bath needs to be remodeled to make it accessible
for her parents. Consider the following questions:
1. Is this bathroom large enough to accommodate
the necessary changes for wheelchair use?

D

BEDROOM
12'x13'

Figure A. Use this plan to complete the Problem Solving Case Study.
Printed for:

erikaaraujo@bisd.us (c) 2013 Goodheart-Willcox Publisher. All Rights rese

Section 2

214

Architectural Planning

2. Specifically, what changes wou ld need to
be made?

Make a sketch or a CADD drawing to show
the changes you would make.

Certification Prep
TlteJollowillg questions are presented ill tile style
used ill the American Desigll Drafting Associatioll
(ADDA) Drafter Certificatioll Test. Write your

anstllers 011 a separnte s/lcet of paper.

1. La ng uage A rts. Research and compose
a report on the history of the Americans
with Disabilities Act (ADA) and give
examples of accessibility requirements
provided in the ADA Standards for
Accessible Design. Give a five-minute oral
presentation of your findings to the class.

1. Which of the following rooms arc considered

part of the sleeping area of a home?
A. Master bedroom
B. Fam ily room
C. Bathroom
D. Guest bedroom
E. Sauna
F. Dressing room
2. Which of the following statements are true?
A. The largest bedroom is generally
considered to be the master bedroom.
B. All homes require at least one
bathroom.
C. The International Residential Code
recommends 90 square feet as the
minimum size of a bed room.
D. A minimum size bathroom is 10' x 10'.
E. All bathrooms are required to have
ventilation.
3. Which of the fo lJowing statements are/alse?
A. TIle minimum depth of a clothes
closet is 24".
B. A home with only one bedroom is
easy to sell.
C. Comfort-height toilets have seats that
are 22" to 24" from the floor.
D. Safety is a prime consideration w he n
planning a bath .

Printed for:

1. Math. In recent years, major improvem ents
have been made in the design of the flush
toilet. High-efficiency toilets use only 1.6
gallons of water per flush. Standard toilets
use approximately 5 gallons per flush. A
typical family of four flushes the toilet an
average of 20 times per day. If a family of
four replaced all of its toilets with highefficiency toilets, how much water would
the family save in one year?
2. Technology. In recent years, several new
types of bathtubs and showers have been
d eveloped, including roll-in showers and
walk-in bathtubs. Conduct research to find
various bathtubs and showers designed
specifically for people with phys ical
challenges or limited mobility. Choose one
that interests you and find out how it works
and what requirements it has for s pace and
ins tallation. Write a report describing the
specific model you investigated. Explain
the advantages and dis.,dvantages of using
this fix ture in a residence.

erikaaraujo@bisd.us (c) 2013 Goodheart-Willcox Publisher. All Rights rese

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er
if mounted over a counter or sink.
Bathtub rims should not be lower than 18"
from the floor to provide access from a wheelchair to the tub. Tubs may also have safety features such as nonskid bottoms and grab rails. In
addition, various types of seats, stools, transfer
sea ts, or lifts for use in bathtubs or s howers are
available. See Figure 8-25. Bathtubs arc available with a built-in bath seat or p latform on the
Printed for:

Figure 8-24. Notice the height of this toilet,
which is fully equipped for use by people wi th
va rious disabilities. The grab bar on the left
swings up out of the way when not in use, but
can be lowered to provide support when nct.'CIcd.
(Kevill Penlmllow/Slwtlerstock.comJ

opposite end of the tub from the drain. Walk-in
b athtubs with built-in seats can make it easier
for people with limi ted mobility to bathe.
Walk-in or " roll-in" shower stalls are also
available for wheelchair users. In addition, special bathing wheelchai rs that can be wheeled
right into the shower area arc ava ilable. See
Figure 8-26. Some s hower designs include a
waU-mounted seat that allows people to transfer from a wheelchair to the sea t. The sea t
fold s against the wall when not in use. Placing
a shower head over the cen ter of the sh ower
m akes it more accessible for wheelchair u~rs.

erikaaraujo@bisd.us (c) 2013 Goodheart-Willcox Publisher. All Rights rese

Chapler 8

[,lanning the Sleeping Area

211

<- - - ......


A

Figure 8-25. Adjustable bath chairs like this
one allow people with limited mobility to use a
bathtub without worrying a~u t how to get in and
out of the tub. The chair is placed in the tub, and
the person slides from a wheelchair or the side of
the tub onto the bath chair. The nonskid tips on
the chair legs pl'e\.ent the chair from slipping.
(B. 5,X'Ckilrl/Sillll lerslock.com)

Specin l safety prov isions should be made
for an yone of limited mobility who might use
the ba throom. This may include a specially
designed s hower or tub, as described earlier.
In addition, grab ba rs s hould be provided,
especially in the areas where the toilet, tub,
and s hower are located. Horizontnl bars are
designed for pus hing up, while vertical bars are
designed for pulling up. Grab bars must be well
anchored. They s hou ld be 1-1/4" to 2" in diameter with a profile that can be easily g rasped
and contains no sharp edges. G rab bars should
be no further than 1-1/2" away from the wall.
Refer aga in to Figure 8-24.
Printed for:

Figure 8-26. A-This shower stall was designed
for a wheelchair to be rolled in. The bench swings
up out of the way if the person is in a shower
wheelchair. Othenvisc, the person transfers to the
bench and the wheelchair is removed.
(B BrowlI/Sllllllerstock.com) B-A shower
wheelchair that can remain in the shower while
the water is running. (dnSM/ord/Silllllerstock.com)

erikaaraujo@bisd.us (c) 2013 Goodheart-Willcox Publisher. All Rights rese

Chapter 8

Review

Summary

The sleeping area includes bedrooms,
bathrooms. and accessory rooms such as
dressing rooms or s.' unas.
The size o f the family that will live in the
house u sually determines the number o f
bedrooms needed.
When possible, closets should be located
along inte rior walls.
Ideally, bedrooms should have windows
on two wa lls for cross ventilation.
All homes require at least one bathroom,

but most homes have two or more.
All bathrooms must be ventilated by either


a window or an exhaust fan.
The primary bathroom fixtures are the
sink (lavatory), toi let (water closet), and
bathtub or shower.
Safety is a prime consideration w hen
planning a bathroom.

Internet Resources
Accessib ility Design
Ocsign ideas for accesSibility for seniors and
people w ith disabilities
Accessible S hower Design
Accessible designs for showers, bathtubs
American s with Disabilities Act (ADA)
ADA Standa rds for Accessib le Design
Home & Garden Television (HGTV)
Home design idea s
Internation al Code Council (I CC)
Published building codes and s tandards
Jacuzzi
Bath fixture s
Kohler Company
Plumbing fixtures
Moen
Plumbing fixtures

Printed for:

C

Chapter Activities
Go to tile COII/pallioll website to complete
flEe Clwpter Activities.

.

www.g-wlearnlng.comlarchlleclurel

Pfis ter
Plumbing fixtures
Sterling Plumbing
P lumbing fixtures

Review Questions
Write your nllswers 011 fI sepnrate slleet of !,flper. Do
llOt write ill tllis book.
1. Explain why it is better to desib"" and build a
house that has at least two bedrooms, even if
only one of the bedrooms iscurrentJy needed.
2. Describe the characteris tics of a split
bedroom plan.
3. Wha t is the minim um acceptable size for
a bedroom according to the International
Residential Code?
4. Explain the d ifference between a 3/ 4 ba th
and a fu ll bath.
5. What is the minimum number of
bathrooms needed for a two-story house
if all of the bedrooms a re upstairs? How
many ba throoms are needed for a large
ranch house?
6. Describe the ven tilation required for a
bathroom.
7. List two electrical safety concerns that
mus t always be addressed in a bathroom.
S. What is a com fort-height toilet, and w hen
shou ld you consider specifying one?
9. List at least th ree s.:"1fety featu res that
should be included in a bathroom.
10. What are the specifica tions for a g rab ba r?

Suggested Activities
1. Design a s mall bathroom (5' x 10'). Show the
location and size of each fixture in a plan view.

erikaaraujo@bisd.us (c) 2013 Goodheart-Willcox Publisher. All Rights rese

Chapter 8

Planning the Sleeping Area

213

2. Design and draft a plan view for a clothes
closet that is 3' deep and 8' in length. Show
the maximum door access, clothes rod, and
shelf storage area . Refer to the illustrations
in this chapter for examples.
3. Design and draft an average·size bedroom.
Make a plan view drawing of the room.
Include the bed, a dresser, a chest of
drawers, and other furniture to meet the
needs of your own activities. You may
want to include a study or reading area.
4. l.cH::Ik through a number of home design and
planning magazines for closet arrangements.
Prepare a display of clippings that illustrates
maximum use of closet space for clothes,
shoes, and other apparel.
5. Locate agencies and organizations that
specify requirements for bath faci lities to
be handicapped accessible. Enlist the help
of your local librarian or the Internet to
find at least two different sources. Then,
obtain a list of these requirements from
each source. Fina lly, design and draft a
bathroom for a disabled person that meets
all of the requirements.

D

6. Using CADD, design and draft bedroom
and bathroom symbols and add them to
your symbol library for future use.
7. Select a floor plan of a house from a
newspaper, magazine, or other literature.
Using CADD, recreate the basic floor plan.
Use the symbols in your symbol library
to furnish the bedrooms. If you want to
include something that is not in your
symbol library, create a new symbol and
add it to your symbol library.

Mrs. Wilson has asked you to prepare a
simple sketch of a proposed bathr(X)m remodel.
Her parents are moving in with her. Her mother
is confined to a wheelchair, and her father walks
with a cane. Mrs. Wilson has a room available
with a private bath, shown in Figure A, but the
bath needs to be remodeled to make it accessible
for her parents. Consider the following questions:
1. Is this bathroom large enough to accommodate
the necessary changes for wheelchair use?

D

BEDROOM
12'x13'

Figure A. Use this plan to complete the Problem Solving Case Study.
Printed for:

erikaaraujo@bisd.us (c) 2013 Goodheart-Willcox Publisher. All Rights rese

Section 2

214

Architectural Planning

2. Specifically, what changes wou ld need to
be made?

Make a sketch or a CADD drawing to show
the changes you would make.

Certification Prep
TlteJollowillg questions are presented ill tile style
used ill the American Desigll Drafting Associatioll
(ADDA) Drafter Certificatioll Test. Write your

anstllers 011 a separnte s/lcet of paper.

1. La ng uage A rts. Research and compose
a report on the history of the Americans
with Disabilities Act (ADA) and give
examples of accessibility requirements
provided in the ADA Standards for
Accessible Design. Give a five-minute oral
presentation of your findings to the class.

1. Which of the following rooms arc considered

part of the sleeping area of a home?
A. Master bedroom
B. Fam ily room
C. Bathroom
D. Guest bedroom
E. Sauna
F. Dressing room
2. Which of the following statements are true?
A. The largest bedroom is generally
considered to be the master bedroom.
B. All homes require at least one
bathroom.
C. The International Residential Code
recommends 90 square feet as the
minimum size of a bed room.
D. A minimum size bathroom is 10' x 10'.
E. All bathrooms are required to have
ventilation.
3. Which of the fo lJowing statements are/alse?
A. TIle minimum depth of a clothes
closet is 24".
B. A home with only one bedroom is
easy to sell.
C. Comfort-height toilets have seats that
are 22" to 24" from the floor.
D. Safety is a prime consideration w he n
planning a bath .

Printed for:

1. Math. In recent years, major improvem ents
have been made in the design of the flush
toilet. High-efficiency toilets use only 1.6
gallons of water per flush. Standard toilets
use approximately 5 gallons per flush. A
typical family of four flushes the toilet an
average of 20 times per day. If a family of
four replaced all of its toilets with highefficiency toilets, how much water would
the family save in one year?
2. Technology. In recent years, several new
types of bathtubs and showers have been
d eveloped, including roll-in showers and
walk-in bathtubs. Conduct research to find
various bathtubs and showers designed
specifically for people with phys ical
challenges or limited mobility. Choose one
that interests you and find out how it works
and what requirements it has for s pace and
ins tallation. Write a report describing the
specific model you investigated. Explain
the advantages and dis.,dvantages of using
this fix ture in a residence.

erikaaraujo@bisd.us (c) 2013 Goodheart-Willcox Publisher. All Rights rese

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