Elevations

CHAPTER

Objectives

Key Terms

After com pie/illg tllis c/tapter, YOZl will be able fo:

elevation





g rade line

Lis t fea tures that should be included on an
exterior e levation.
Describe the placement of walls, windows,
and doors on an elevation.
Explain how to s how roof features on an
elevation.
Id entify the d imensions commonly shown
on eleva tions.
Draw an exterior elevation that
demonstra tes proper techniques.

An elev atiol/ is an orthographic projection
dr<lwing that shows one side of the building. The
pu rpose of an elevation is to show the fini shed
appearance of a given side of the building. When
the teml elevatiOIl is used in connection with a
set of construction draw ings, it typically refers
to an exterior elevation. A va riety of interior
elevations may be drawn, but they are usually
considered to be details.
Eleva tions s upply height information about
basic features of the house that canno t be show n
clearly on o the r d raw ings. They also indicate

the exterior materials, such as siding and roof
covering. Figure 22·1 shows a rendering of a
residence and its main floor plan. Figure 22-2

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shows the front elevation of the house. Compare
the features shown on the floor plan and elevation.

Required Information
Severa l fea tures s hould be included on
elevations. These include an identification of the
specific side o f the house that the elevation
represents; grade lines; fin ished floor and ceiling
levels; location of exterior wall comers; windows
and doors; roof features; vertical dimensions of
important fea tures; porches, decks and patios;
and ma terial symbols.

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'"

Section 4

Construction Systems and Supplemental Drawings

A

--

M"'IN~P~N

---

..,....

~

B
Figure 22-1. A-This rendering shows a typical residence. B-The main floor plan for the same house.
The front elevation for the house is shown in Figure 22-2. (Martill Draflillg alld Desigll, Tllc.)

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Chapter 22

Ell;'vations

533

[III
~ II
,I

[Iii

z

()
I-

~

-l

w
IZ
()

Ii

"

•'.~

IL

-""

Figure 22-2. This front elevation is for the house shown in Figure 22-L (Martin Draftillg (lnd Design, Inc.)

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Seclion 4

,

Construction Systems and Supplemental Drawings

,

Figure 22·3. Elevations are typically created for all fouT sides of a house. Each elevation is clearly labeled
to show which side it represents.

Elevation Identification
Four elevations are customarily drawn---one
for each side of the house. See Figure 22-3. In
some instan ces, more than four elevations may
be requ ired to describe the structure. Each
elevation mu st identify w hich wall orsideof the
house is represented. The two methods commonly
used to identify the elevation are by structure
side (front. rear, right side, and left side) and by
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compass poin ts (north, south, east, and west).
The first method is preferred by most designers
b ecause there is a possibility of confusion when
compass points are specified . The right and left
sides of the structure are determined by facing the
front of the build ing. The right-side elevation is
then on the right side. Identify each elevation
immedia tely below the drawing to avoid
confu sion .

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Chapte r 22

Ell;'vations

Grade Line, Floors,
and Ceilings
The reference point for most elevations is
t~e grade tille. See Figure 22-4. Study the plot or
site p lan to determine the existing grade along
each exterior wall of the house. If the existing
grade is not acceptable, a final grade line should
also be indicated on each elevation that requires
grading. It is often helpful to designate the
desired elevation height of the g rade at each
comer of the house. This information is recorded
on the plot plan, as well as the elevation d rawing,
if the site is not comparatively level.
All features that are below grade should be
d rawn as hidden lines, as shown in Figure 22-4.
Examples of below-grade features include
foundation walls, footings, and window wells.
. Two methods of representing floor- t()--(:Ciling
height are commonly used. The first is to indicate
the distance from the finished floor to the finished
ceiling. The floor and ceiling are represented
using a centerline. The usual distance from the
fin ished floor to the finished ceiling is 8'-0" fo r
the first floor and 7'-6" or 8'-0" for the second
fl oor.

535

The second method is to show the
construction dimension. This is measured from
the top of the subfloor to the top of the wall
plate. In this case, the construction dimension
for the first floor is 8'-11/2"; the second floor
dimension is 7'-7 1/2" or 8'-1 1/2"_ Carpenters
usually prefer the latter method because it does
not require them to do any calcu lation .
TIle minimum recommended heigh t for
garage ceilings is 8'-0". Basements m u st have a
clear headroom space of at least 6'-2". All beams
and heating ducts must be above this height. A
full-he ight basement ceil ing is more desirable
and should be specified where practical.
Most building codes require that the top
of the foundation wall be at least 8" above the
grade to p rotect the framing members from
moisture. This requirement should be kept in
mind when drawing elevations. The garage
floor may be slightly higher than the grade, but
should be at least 4" lower than an interior floor
when the garage is attached to the house.

Walls, Windows, and Doors
All visible wall corners are shown on the
elevation using object lines. In rare ins tances,
it may be desirable to show hidden walls. The

~RON1 EI..EyATION
l5C""-l'!. 114' • I'"·",'

~igure 22-4. In.th is enlargement of the front elevation from Figure 22-3, you can see the finished grade
lme and other Important features given on an elevation.

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Section 4

exact wall height should be determined by
d rawing a wall section through the wall and
locating the grade, sill, floor joists, and top plate.
The section is helpful because the overhang
will extend below the top of the wall in most
instances. In other words, the exact wall height
will be located above the line of the overhang in
an eleva tion. Section drawings are discussed in
Chapter 21. The basic steps for drawing a wall
section are illustrated in Figu re 22·5.
Windows and doors that are located on an
exterior wall must be included on the elevation.
Placement along the wall may be projected from
the floor plan, but the vertical height is shown
only on the elevation drawing. It is customary
to place tops of windows the same height as the

Construction Systems and Supplemental Drawings

tops of doors, although this may vary in more
complex designs. The lower face of the head
jamb is considered the height of the opening.
This dimension is usually 6'-10" from the top of
th e subfloor.
Show sufficient detail on windows and doors
to accurately indicate the window or door. If
windows are hinged, show the swing using the
proper symbol. See Chapter 20. if the windows or
doors have brick mold or other trim, then show
this on the elevation. The glass material symbol
(hatch pa ttern) for an elevation may be used if
desired. In some cases, you may want to show
th e window and door identification symbols or
codes on the elevation, as well as on the floor
p lan. See Figure 22·6.

"
112" DRYWAll

"'"
,,-

SIDI NG

RF INSUL

I

~314-T&G

PLYWOOD

GRADE EL

224 2'
24'TRUSS

"'Me

PROOFING

\.4' SAND

~

~

( ' TILE

WALL SECTION
SCALE: 112" = 1"if

A

B

c

D

Figure 22·5. The basic process for drawing a typical wall section. A- The footing, basement floor,
and basement wall are first constructed. B-The first floor joists, first floor wall, and roof features are
added. C-The grade line, drain tile, and material symbols (hatch patterns) are added. D-Notes and
dimensions are added to complete the wall section.

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Chapter 22

Elevations

537

If.I jll

ci
tL ~
~ Ji·::'"

---"

Ir--n~~~rl ' - - - ,.

"

Figure 22-6. In this home remodeling project, all of the windows will be replaced. Since the windows
are an important part of the project, the part number for each window is given with the window in the
elevations. (Rob Potts)

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Section 4

538

Green
Architecture
Sustainable Exteriors
Exterior finishes for residential use are being
developed with sustainability in mind. For example,
one manufacturer has developed an eoo-friendly
stucco. Made entirely from natural limestone, it

provides a green alternative 10 cements and even
wood products thai are highly processed. II can
be used as is or colored with nalural mineral
pigments. It never needs painting . and it lasts for

decades. This cuts down on maintenance, but more
importantly. it eliminates the need for potentially

harmful paints and other non-green materials.
Not all paint is toxic, however. New processes
and technologies have enabled the manufacture
of paint that is completely nontoxic and not

petroleum-based, yet durable. Some of these
paints are also biodegradable.
Many sustainable alternatives for exterior
finishe s seem expensive. In the long run, however,
they can not only save money, but also help
preserve the environment.

Roof Features
Showing roof features on a n eleva tion
drawing is important. It is here tha t the roof style
and pitch are s hown, as w ell as the chimney
height and s ize. The roof pitch may be indicated
us ing the fract ional pitch or s lope triangle. The
slope tri,mgle is usually preferred and it is placed
on an elevation that shows the angle of the roof.
Gable ends must be drawn first to dete rmine
roof height. Lf more than one roof height is
expected , the highest section should be drawn
first. When a roof is complex, an elevation drawing
ca nnot be completed without first cons tructing
several details to determine va rious heights and
termination points. The procedure (or drawing
a gable end is:

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Construction Systems and Supplemental Drawings

1. Locate the top of the upper wa ll plate and
the centerline of the proposed ridge location.
The ridge is usually in the center between
the exterior walls.
2. Layout the desired slope starting from the
top-ins ide comer of the wall plate. A line
from this point to the ridge will d etermine
the underside. Note: A variation of th is
procedure is necessary for certain roof
trusses.
3. Measure the width of the rafte r perpendicular
to the bottom edge and draw the top edge
parallel to the bottom edge of the ra fte r.
4. Measure the amount of desired overhang.
Do not forget to add the thickness o f roof
sheathing.
5. Re pea t the procedure for the othe r s ide of
the roof.
Chimneys that intersect the roof u sually
require more tha n one view to determine the
points where they pass through the roof. First
draw the view where the roof slope is shown. This
view w ill indicate where the chimney passes
throug h the roof. These points may the n be
projected to other views.
The chimney height above the hig hes t roof
point must be dimensioned. A minimum height
above the highest roof point is us ua lly 2'-0".
Refer again to Figure 22-2.
Chimney fla shing, roof covering materia l,
and ga ble ven tilators are also s hown on the
eleva tion . Use proper symbols and adequate
dimensions and notes on the drawings to
d escribe these features. Other features, su ch as
roof ventilators, vent pipes, and gutters, may be
show n if desired .

Di.,,,e1J.sions, Notes,
and Symbols
The dimensions that are located on the
elevation are mainly height dimensions. Features
that mus t be d imensioned include the thic kness
of the footing, dis tance from the footing to the
grade, dis tances from ftnished floors to finished
ceilings, overhang w idth, height of the top of
windows and doors, a nd height of the chimney
above the roof. Other dimensions may be required
for features such as deck railing, retaining walls,
and plante rs.

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Chap ter 22

Eleva tions

539

Employability

C oping with Stress
Stress affects all of us at one point or another
in our lives. Changes in fam ily structure, getting
married, having children, and deaths of loved ones
all cause tremendous stress. All of these can
affect your work performance. On the other hand ,
stress on the job can affect your family life. Therefore,
one very important employability skill is the ability
to handle stress.
The first step in handling stress-personal or
professional-is to understand what triggers your
stress. If you understand the cause, it is easier to

Notes should be included where additiona l
information is needed or would be helpful to the
builder. Some of the typica l notes fo und on an
e le vation d rawing provide grade information,
exte rior wall materia l notation, roof covering
m a terial identifica tio n, fascia materia l identification, and flashing material identification.
Other notes may be required for specific situations.
Seve ra l symbols are freq uently used on
elevations. The roof pitch symbol is always shown
and the ex terior wall coveri ng is u suall y a
material symbol (hatch pa tte rn). Ma ny designers
s how material symbol s extensively o n the fro n t
e levation, bu t sparingly on the remainingviews.
Window swing symbols and cu tting-plane lines
are also draw n if needed.

Drawing Elevations
There are several accepted procedures for
drawing elevatio ns . The p rocedure presented
in this chapter is a logical approach that yield s
fast a nd accurate res ults, if foll o wed carefully.

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deal with the result. For example, are you stressed
at work because your workload seems too heavy?
If you identify this as a stress trigger, you can
then think about ways 10 handle it. For example,
you could take a course or seminar to improve
your work or time management skills. If your
workload is completely unrealistic, you might
want to talk with your manager about selling
priorities that are agreeable to the company, yet
remove some of the pressure Irom you. If you
cannot find a way to reduce the stress at your
job, you may even conside r changing jobs.
Activity
Keep a log for one week. Every time you leel
stressed, whether at school, work, or home, make
an entry in your log . Describe what triggered the
stress and how you handled the situation. At the
end of the week, review your entries. What stress
triggers can you identify? How might yo u avoid
these triggers or reduce their impact in the future?

Drawing an Elevation
Follow these s teps to cons truct a fron t
e levation us ing manua l drafting techniques.
1. Draw a section through the wa II to be
represented by the elevation . Th is section
shou ld be the same scale (1/ 4" = 1'-0") as
the Ooor plan and the proposed e leva tion.
The wall section draw ing must be very
a ccurate because it w ill be used to project
the heigh t of the wall and roof elements
to the elevatio n . If all the exterio r wa lls of
the ho use are the same height and ty pe
of construction, the n only o ne section is
requ ired. Ho wever, if some of the wa lls are
different, a section fo r each type of wall
will be needed. These section drawings
may be discarded after the elevations are
com plete. Similar dra wings w ill be made
at a large r scale for the formal set of plans.
Steps 1 and 2 are s hown in Fi g ure 22-7.

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Section 4

540

GARAGE

Construction Systems and Supplemental Drawings

C::!l
CL

LIVING ROOM

DRIVE

'""
~

BEDROOM

CL)

Floor plan

Elevation will be drawn here

Wal l section

Figure 22-7. Draw the floor plan and a wall section around the area in which the elevation is to be drawn.

2. Place the fl oor plan directly above the
space where the elevation is to be drawn.
The exterior wa lls to be represented by the
elevation should be facing down toward
the elevation. Some d rafters prefer to draw
the elevation on top of the fl oor p lan rather
than be]ow it. Either method is acceptable.
3. Project the height of the grade line, depth
and thickness of footings, w indow and door
heights, height of the eaves line, and foof
height across from the section drawing
to the space reserved for the elevation.
These horizontal lines should be very light
construction lines. Steps 3 and 4 are shown
in Figure 22-8.

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4. Project the horizontal length of exterior
walls, windows, doors, and other elements
down from the floor plan. These vertical
lines may be d rawn dark since their proper
length will already have been determined .
5. Darken each featu re and remove the
construction lines. At this point, the elevation
is complete enough to determi ne whether
changes are desired in the overall design.
Make any changes before proceeding.
Steps 5 and 6 are shown in Figure 22-9.
6. Add features such as railings, window
muntins, trim, window wells, and gable
ventilators. Information on many of these
features must be secured from reference
sources such as Sweets Network.

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Chapte r 22

Elevations

54]

I
DRivE

,

-----

j:

.,"""

!i

: I

----

u

L

.'"

-

,i
I I

"""
i:

i

'r

:

Figure 22-8. Basic features of the house have been projected from the floor plan and wall section with
light construction lines to the location where the elevation is to be drawn. Vertical lines can be darkened
<II Ihis point.

7. Add d imensions, notes, and material
symbols. Tt is good practice to draw material
symbols last since they may interfere with
other information if drawn earlier.
8. Add the title and scale. Check the drawing
to be sure that all features are shown as
desired. Figure 22-10 shows the finished
elevation.
Repeat these steps for eadl elevation that needs to
be drawn. It is customary todraw hvoelevations
on a single sheet if s pace permits. For example,
you may draw the front and rear elevations on
the same sheet. See Figure 22-11 .

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The procedure for d rawing an elevation
using CADD is essentially the same as for manua]
d ra fting, but there are some unique considerations. CADD packages vary in their ability to
generate views automatically. With some CADD
software programs, the drafter mus t draft every
sin gle line in an exterior elevation much in the
5<1.me manner as when using a mechanical pencil.
The following steps can be used to draw an
elevation using a basic CADD program.

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Section 4

542

Construction Systems and Supplemental Drawings

DI NING ROOM

GARAGE

cc,

~~::

STOR.

RIDGE

EAVE LINE

BEDROOM

LINE

LIVING ROOM

UN.

DR IVE

BEDROOM

,
--------------------

~

&p'

ttl

,-

I

!HD

ffiD

;

;

i, i:

,;,I

~;

Figure 22-9. Each feature has been darkened and construction lines removed. Note that some of the
required dimensions could not be projected from the floor plan or the section. These must be secured
from other sources.

/

r

235' ASPHALT SHINGLES WITH

/

ADHESIVE TASS ON 15. FELT J

346.2'

FRONT ELEVATION
SCALE -1I4- .1'{)-

Figure 22·10. Add dimensions, notes, and material symbols to complete the elevation.

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Chapte r 22

Ell;'vations

543

/'"": 2350 ASPHALT SHINGLES

,.-- WITH ...:>HE~VETAas 00 15.f FELT/

FRONT ELEVATlON
SCALE - 1/4" • 1'-{/'

_ ROQFVENTS

o


' - FACE BRICK---...

REAR ELEVATION
SCALE - 1/4" • 1'-{/'

Figure 22-11. Two elevations may be placed on a single sheet when space permits. Notice that material
symbols are used less extensively on the rear elevation.

1. Draw a typical wall section to provide
height measurements. Figure 22-12 shows
a typical wall section with sufficient
in formation to construct a front elevation.
Remember to draw all objects for the section
at their actu al s ize.
2. Place a copy of the floor plan above the
space where the elevation is to be d rawn.
Place the side of the fl oor plan that will
be shown in the elevation facing the area
where the elevation will be drawn. Note:
Only the information needed to d raw the
elevation is included on the floor plan copy.
3. Project features to be drawn on the elevation
from the floo r plan. See Figure 22-13. Use
th e software's construction line command,

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such as RAY or XLiNE. You can p roject each
line as it is needed, but it is usually more
efficient to project them all at once. Projection
lines should be placed on a separate layer
to facilitate their removal when you are
fini shed wi th them.
4. Locate the foundation wall, footings, and
grade line heights on the elevation. All of
these lines will be dashed (hidden) lines
excep t the grade line. You may want to
place these lines on two separate layers,
because the hidden lines and grade line
will be plotted at differen t wid ths than the
projection lines. Figure 22-14 sh ows the
fou ndation completed up to the grade line.

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544

Section 4

Construction Systems and Supplemental Drawings

7. Add dimensions and notes.
8. Add the material symbols (hatch patterns).
Avoid hatching areas tha t contain text.
9. Add the sca le and title last.
10. Hide or turn off the layer(s) con tai ning the
floor plan copy and wall section. Figure 22·17
shows the completed front elevation.
11. Follow the same procedure to create
elevations fo r the remaining sides of the
house. Genera lly, material hatch patterns
are used less on the other elevations,
especially if the same material is used on
all sides.

Figure 22·12. This typical wall section was drawn
w ith CADD and will be used to construct the
front elevation.

5. Locate the wall height and roof lines on
the elevation. The exterior walls above the
g rade can now be d rawn, as well as the
roof. The ex terior wa ll lines s hould have
a layer o f their own because they will be
a different width than any of the previous
lines. See Figure 22-]5.

6. Locate the height of windows, doors,
and any other features. Wind ows are
time-con suming to draw one at a time, so
they should be developed and stored in
the symbol library for use w hen needed.
Remember, some CA DD packages include
manufacturers' door and window elevations
and details. You can also get elevations from
some of the major w indow manufacturers.
Figure 22-16 shows the windows completed .

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As mentioned earlier, CAOO programs vary
in their ability to construct views automatically
lIsing data already in a drawing file database.
Many CADD programs offer 3D drawing capa·
bilities. When you dra w in three·dimensional
(3D) space, X, Y, and Z coord inates arc required
for each object. Therefore, when you draw a
fl oor plan in 3D, you are not only drawing the
" top view" of the walls, you are also providing
the height of the walls. You cannot see the wall
height in the view used to crea te the floo r plan,
but the 3D informa tion is then used by the
program to generate any view desired, induding
the e lev" tion views. However, the process of
creating a floor plan using 3D coord inates is slow
and time-consuming.
In othe r, more advanced CAO O packages,
the software may draft the basic lines of the
ex terior elevation automatically. The drafter
then completes the d rawing by adding materia l
symbols, notes, and required dimensions.
Examples of CA DD packages that offer this o r
a simi lar function include SoftPlan, Rev il, and
Chief Architect, among others. See Figure 22·18.
There is one important rule to remember
if you use 3D coord inates or advanced CADD
features to create elevations. Before adding your
dimensions, notes, and other fini shing touches,
be sure to d isplay each elevation view as an
orthographic view o r projection. Turn off perspective projection, which can cause misleading
visual distances.

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Chapter 22

Elevations

545

Figure 22-13. The floor plan has been properly positioned to draw the front elevation, and p rojection
lines have been d rawn. Note: The ty pical wall section is off the screen at this point because of the zoom
f,lcto r used to show d etails of the floor plan more dearly.

.. _-_ .. _"'---

L

,
........ ... ~

Figure 22·14. The footings. basement floor. and basement walls have been added to the elevation.

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546

Section 4

Construction Systems and Supplemental Drawings

Figure 22-15. The above-grade walls afC added next. Notice how the floor plan overlaps the elevation.
This is not a problem because the layer on which the floor p lan copy resides will be turned off for p lotting.

Figure 22-16. All of the exterior features have now been added .

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Chapter 22

Ell;'vations

547

"
''-''

/

r235f ASPHALT SH ING LES WITH
/
ADHESIVETABSON1S.FELTY

,

1 ,,6 REDWOOD FASC IA

l'

RED'NOOD
SID ING

I
I
I
I
I

I
I
I
I
I

b -

II
I I
II
I
II

BASEMENT FLOOR

~-COt>IC_ON 4' SAND

I I
I I
I I
I I
II

.e-

"
" "

9

J

I I
I
I I
I
I

~

~~

,\

[5~_=~_=~~-=~~J_'f::=-~~~-:;~;~~~~:;~~~-=--Lr~~~~~~~1~~-L:J.:==±~
SCAL E : 1 14'~ 1 '-<l"

Figure 22·] 7. The completed front elevation.

Figure 22·]8. This front elevation was generated automatically by a CADD program. The drafter now
needs to add only the dimensions, notes, title, and scale to complete the d rawing.

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Chapter 22

Review

Summary

[n the context of a set of construction
drawings, an elevation is an orthographic
projection drawlng that shows one side of
the s tructure to be built.

The two methods conunonly used to
identify an elevation are by s tructure side
(front, rear, right side, and left side) and
by com pass points (north, sou th, east,
and west).
The refe rence point for most elevations is

Chapter Activities
Ir
5V\...

Go to tlte compallioll website to complete
tlte Chapter Activities.
.

www.g-wlearning.comJarchilectureJ

Review Questions
Write your answers 011 a separate sheet of papt'r. Do
IlOt write ill tllis book.

eco s tu cco '~
All-natural stucco exterior fini shes

1. What is the primary purpose of an
elevation drawing?
2. Lis t five features that should be included
on an elevation.
3. How many exterior elevations are usua lly
required for a home? Name them.
4. What is the most important reference point
for most e levations?
5. What type of line is used to represent
features below g rade in an elevation
drawing?
6. Why do most building codes require tha t
the top of the foundation wall be at least
8" above grade?
7. How is a typical wall section helpful for
constructing the eleva tion?
8. Where is the slope triangle located on an
elevation drawing?
9. What should you do before adding the
roof features to an elevation drawing?
10. From what two views can you obta in the
horizontal and vertical measurements or
line pJncements fo r an elevation?

Marvi n Win dows and Doo rs
Manufacturer of windows and doors

Suggested Activities


the grade line.
All features that are below g rade shou ld be
drawn as hjdden lines.
The dimensions placed on an elevation are
mainly height dimensions.
Elevations can be drawn manually using
traditional techniques; they can also be
drawn using one of several CADD methods,

depending on the software.

Internet Resources
Andersen Win dows a nd Doo rs
Manufacturer of windows and doors
A utod esk, Inc.
Genera l and architectural CADD software
CAD Block Exchange Network
Architectural CADD symbols and blocks

Pell a Corpo ration
Manufacturer of windows and doors
SoftPla n Systems
Architectural CADD software

P548
rinted for:

1. Draw four elevations (front, rear, right
side, and left side) for one of the floo r
plans you created in Chapter 13. Follow
the procedure presented in this chapter.
Add all necessary dimensions and notes.
Submit the elevations with the floor plan.

erikaaraujo@bisd.us (c) 2014 Goodheart-Willcox Publisher. All Rights rese

Chapter 22

Elevations

2. Select a home from a newspaper or
magazine that shows a photo and the floor
plan. Using CADD, d raft a fro nt elevation
of the home using a different style roof
and exterior materials. Do not change the
floor plan . Present your revision along
with the originals.
3. Visit your local Habitat for Humanity
location and request a copy of a floor
pl an the organization used to construct a
home. Draft four new exterior elevations
for the home illustrated on this fl oor plan .
e ive copies of your work to Habitat for
Humanity and make an oral presentation
to your class with your work.
4. Using CADD, draw a front elevation of
the house shown in the photo below. The
width of the house is 26'-0". TIle windows
and door are 3'-0" wide. The ceiling height
on the first floor is 12'-0" and the ceiling
height on the second floor is 8'-0". Dimension
the appropriate features.

549

A client has come to your office because,
although she loves her house on the inside, she
is tired of the outside look. She says her house
looks "old and tired" next to her neighbors'
newer houses. She wants a complete exterior
renovation that does not affect the inside spaces
of the home. She has provided the photograph
shown below. She will come back in one week
to see your ideas for making her home look
more up-to-date. Her only requirement is that
it look nothing like it does right now.
Because you are only generating initial ideas,
you do not yet need precise measurements.
Estimate the necessary dimensions and create a
front elevation to show an entirely new "look" for
the client's home. Use your imagination to create
an entirely different look. Use CADD software
so that you can easily adjust the dimensions later,
after the client approves the initial elevation.

(Robert Crum/SI11Itterstock.com)

Printed for:

erikaaraujo@bisd.us (c) 2014 Goodheart-Willcox Publisher. All Rights rese

5,.

Section 4

Construction Systems and Supplemental Drawings

Certification Prep
Tile followillg questiolls are presented ill ti,e style
used ill ti,e American Desigl/ Draftillg Association
(ADDA) Drafter Certification Test. Write YOlir
(ll/ swers all a separate sllcet of paper.
1. Which of the following statements are true
about elevations?
A. The minimum recommended height
for garage ceilings is S'_Off,
B.

Elevations provide height information

about basic features of the house that
cannot be shown very well on other
drawings.

C. The roof pitch can be indicated using
the fractional pitch or slope triangle.
D. Windows and doors located on an
exterior wall are typically not included
on the elevation.
2. Which o f the following s tatements are false?
A. The purpose of an elevation is to show
the finished appearance of a given side
of t he building and to furnis h vertical
height dimensions.
B. The left and right side of a house are
iden tified by standing inside the house
and looking out.
e. Most building codes require that the
top of the foundation wall be at least
20" above grade to protect the framing
members from mois ture.
D. Chim neys that intersect the roof
us ually require more than one view to
determine the points where they pass
through the roof.
3. Which o f the following sta tements a re true
about drawing architectural e levations?
A. You shou ld show sufficien t detail
on windows and doors to accurately
ind ica te the window.
B. The garage floor should be lower than
the fin ished. grade.
C. The chimney height above the highest
roof point mus t be dimensioned..
D. Elevations drawn using manual
techniques should be at the same scale
as the floor plan.

Printed for:

1. Social Science. The external appearance of
a home Ciln say a lot about the people who
live there. Preferred exterior milterials vary
from culture to culture, however. Conduct
research to find out more about the
preferred exterior finish materia ls (brick
venccr, sid ing, stucco, etc.) in at least three
countries, or at least three different areas o f
the United States. Determine whethe r the
preferred m<lterials can be obtained loc<llly
or must be imported. Write a s ummary
of il ny correl<ltion you find between the
p referred materials and their costs.
2. Language Arts. Creative writing ca n help
exercise your creativity, which in turn
can help you think of creative sol utions
to architectural design problems. Look
around your neighborhO<X:l or town to
find a house that interests you. It could
be an old or historic house, an abandoned
property, or a brand-new house-whatever
c<l tches your interest, as long <IS you do not
know the people who live there (or lived
there). Write a fictional story abou t the
house and its occupa nts. Be sure to include
a plot, and develop the cha racters in the
s tory usi ng descriptive details.

1. Techno logy. Investigate the features o f

the various arch itectu ral CA DD programs
that are now avaiJable. Create a table that
shows each p rogmm and the features it
has that could be used to crea te elevations
and other plans for a set of architectural
working drawings. Include a column for
the price of each program.

erikaaraujo@bisd.us (c) 2014 Goodheart-Willcox Publisher. All Rights rese