Aimi Nakazawa

Research Paper-Final
July 8, 2014
Considering Domestic Violence In Asia
Do you know about domestic violence? It is not somebody else’s problem. Perhaps,
you will be involved in a domestic violence situations. Domestic violence is a serious
problem all over the world. There are various types of a violence, causes and effects of
domestic violence, difference among each country, and the solutions of domestic violence.
First, the types of domestic violence are classified into physical, emotional, and
sexual. “Domestic violence is also called intimate partner violence and the term intimate
partner violence (IPV) describes physical, sexual, or psychological harm by a current or
former partner or spouse.” (Stewart, MacMillan, and Wathen, 2012, p 1). According to the
WHO (2013) “35% of women worldwide have experienced either intimate partner or
non-partner sexual violence in their lifetime.” Physically, examples of direct physical abuse
are “slapping or punching in the face or on partners’ body, choking or holding hand over their
mouth, pushing, grabbing, or shoving them, hitting them with an object, throwing things at
partners, kicking, and any physical abuse. Indirectly, yelling, shouting, or swearing at
partners, and threatening to beat or kill them. The emotional abuses which applied for IPV are
keeping partners short of money, terrifying by raising divorcing, preventing partners from
leaving the home, criticizing, humiliating, and any emotional abuses.” (Salari and Nakhaee

2008) The instance about sexual abuses are, according to the WHO(2013), “any sexual act,
attempt to obtain a sexual act, or other act directed against a person’s sexuality using coercion.
It includes rape, defined as the physically forced or otherwise coerced penetration of the
vulva or anus with a penis, other body part or object.” In the case of India, Salari, and
Nakhaee(2014, p 54)say that “unintended pregnancy was the most significant associated
factor for domestic violence.” Also, in Japan, parents hold sexual abuse to their children and
these cases leads next sexual abuses which the children who receive the violence abuse their
children. Sexual abuse can happen not only among an intimate partner, but also among
friends, parent and child, and stranger to stranger.
Next, the causes and effects of domestic violence are a considerable deal. Especially,
considering causes, traditions and lower education are significant factors for causing
domestic violence. For instance, Japan has a characteristic tradition family structure. “The
father is the leader whose authority is not questioned.” (Kozu, 1999, p 51). Japanese women
have to obey their husband. Husbands have authorities to decide everythings. In India,
“women are also expected to be obedient and men are viewed as the disciplinarians in the
family.” (Ragavan, Iyengar, and Wurtz, 2014, p, 457 ). These concepts lead people to treat
women as inferior than men and cause domestic violence easily. In addition, “women in India
whose education more than 7 years had 0.65 times the odds of experiencing domestic
violence as compared to women with no education.” (Madhivanan, Krupp, and Reingold,

2014, p, 175). In addition, “the most extensive number (55.4%) of abusive men is 7 years less
educated people. Men more than 7 years educated are 45.5%.” (Madhivanan, Krupp, and
Reingold, 2014, p 175) From these statistics, Education is deeply related to domestic violence.
Domestic violence lead some mentally and physically problems to women who receive
domestic violence. WHO (2013) defines that “Mentally; depression, post-traumatic stress,
disorder, sleep difficulties, eating disorders, emotional distress, and suicide attempts.”
Physically; “headaches, back pain, abdominal pain, fibromyalgia, gastrointestinal disorder,
limited mobility, poor over health, pregnancies, gynecological problems, and sexually
transmitted infections, including HIV.”
In particularly, India and Japan have a considerable number of domestic violence
problems. These two countries have characteristics and domestic violence is deeply related to
pregnant women. Kozu (1995, p 51) describes that “In Japan, 77% of the 796 respondents of
research experienced at least one type of physical, emotional, or sexual, and more than half
experienced all three. Japanese women will be absorbed into her husband’s family to take up
the role of “yome”. Moreover, Japanese people put importance on “totalitarian
regime,”(Okonogi 1994). So some people think it is allowed to use violence to keep group as
a mean of discipline or punishment. According to Kozu (1999, p 52) “for women, sexual acts
are often associated with shame and embarrassment.” Most women do not mention sexual
things. So if women suffer a sexual violence, they cannot consult their friends and parents. In

a social situation, women assume divorcing is shameful, so people stand domestic violence
even they are willing to divorce. According to Madhivanan,Krupp, Reingold, (2014, p
169-179) “In India, overall 50% of participants(898) reported some type of domestic violence.
Women who contributed some household income were at 2.39 times the odds of experiencing
domestic violence compared with women who contributed no income. However, women who
have a skilled occupation lowered the relative odds of experiencing domestic violence.” So,
improving women’s job skills would contribute to reduce domestic violence, though, they
should not provide too much income. According to Salari and Nakhaee(2008, p 51), women
who have given birth children are about four times more likely to take domestic violence than
women who have never given birth children. Salari and Nakhaee (2008, p 52) states that “the
violence toward pregnant women brings risk factors for pregnancy, such as hypertension,
diabetes, and smokings.” These issues are harmful not only for women, but also for her
Finally, many solutions are considered; founding shelters, wrestling in the society,
and improving education about domestic violence. Allen(2006, 1) suggests that “130 million
residents have only 40 designated domestic violence shelters. Most of these are in Tokyo,
Yokohama, and Osaka. As the government offers little funding for shelters, most operate as
NGOs, NPOs, or through Christian relief agencies.” Japan has to deal with extensive
problems of domestic violence, though there are not enough shelters. The government should

promote to solve this topic. In some shelters, Schumacher, Holt (2012, p, 192) state that
“women who had experienced physical abuse are more likely to use substances to cope with
their abuse.” This problems leads women to recover from domestic violence more difficulty.
In a shelter, they have to make some systems to avoid women from using drag or alcohol. In
society, WHO (2013) says that “address discrimination against women, promote gender
equality, support women, and help to move towards more peaceful cultural norms.” Japan
established to protect women’s rights or organization which people can counsel about abuse
from their intimate partners on the phone, called a “hot line”. In terms of education,
WHO(2013) is carrying out actions, such as effort to document and measure this violence and
its consequences, and advance women’s rights and the prevention of and response to violence
against women. Many countries try to teach gender equally and a harmful effects of domestic
violence. In Japan, high school students had a lecture about domestic violence held by lawyer.
This helped students to realize the existence of domestic violence. These kinds of classes,
which deal with gender and abuse, are gradually getting popular these days in Japan.
In conclusion, there are a great variety of domestic violence, the causes and effects
of violence, characteristics of Japan and India and the effects for pregnant women, and the
solutions for violence against women. Even if many countries’ customs, cultures, and life
styles change, it would not happen that domestic violence rate decrease. We have to learn
more about domestic violence and have to consider solutions fit for each country’s customs,

traditions, and religion.

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