tbe Queen

ts

;-.'..

'i111.:!

,J *!gt

LEOPAfRA
THE

QUEEN

OF

KINCS

:,.

A,,114,.,, n,ousrnd:.i

flc(.r!l

slass drif

k!.e.trn

.l;,

LEOPA|RA
THE

QUEEN

OF

Vritten by
FroNl MncDoNALD
Illustrated by

CHnrs

MouN

A Dorling Kin dcrslel. Book

KINCS

Dorling

Contents

Kindersley

LONDON NEW YoRK SYDNEY, DELHI,

MU\lCIl

PARIS

and IOHANNESB LIRG

P.oj..1 Editor 5ue lldacloush
Art Fditor Cathcr ne Cddnnnh
Senior Edltd n.ic (,reen\ood
Sen,or Art Editor Carole

6
Clropnrna's

l)liv{

P(bhhing Manager layre |aLons

Cul]l'*
N.n,azle
lladoth
DTP Designcr

Manasins Art Editor iacqrLe

lla,lits
I).
,
|i.e
lacket Desisi..
Production Kak O lr.r,l.dnI la.oby
Consulta.i Dr Sa ) ,\fn Aslnot
Specialphotosrapiy 14\,\lcu er AIL{:tr Dun.
Pi.ture Rese!(hc. Frf!6ka

EGYPT

B

Fm,trv AT \(/AR
r

ird Nl.k Ni.hoL Irerei Hayam. J!hn Hr\. t..
D}e Kins Srrph.n O nc' L LEn.e l\rd* Tonl i,utd

Chrini Crah.nr

Arl(l

tl,na r lLr r.ofr

l6t

bv

prbltrhed rr loo

Ll! D!r]lns K'nder\ley
8r:

l.hr

aDe\

I

llrirll.d

Srrdil Lntri.,, \I'CrR

oRL

1.1{rlll09:il
(-urrrirht O 2Oal Dorli.g Krfd.rlc-v
All nsht!

ies d \. r)rn.t

Lrd , London

tlin p(bl.ation

be repr lced, rorcd ,n a tc eral slste.l
(irrntted ln inv t.rnr or b-v any mean!
.Lc.tor,. nuchDl.a nhoarcoovLng recorl;ng
.r orher{be, r"ltlhul t}. nn.
D.rnrisio. ot rhe (lprriqhl or!.r

m:]
or

A CIP .fulosue
trom

ie.o ior thl\ h..k rs av
dr lhrsh l,t,nl-r

lsB\

0 75

rr

rr91

l

Reprorluo,l by ( olourscu Sngaport
Pnilea a'id )on.d b-v L I C O lill

10

TUE suN GoD's
DAUCHTER

lible

12

TrrNacr

eUEEN

14

www.dk.com

I-trr tN cT-EOPATRA'S
ECYPT

16
INro rxrr-r

34
1B
CITvER AND CHARMINC

20
Rovar- BEAUTY

22
A povrRrul PRoTECToR

QurrN oF KINCS
36

Wan vzrru RoME
3B
THr elrrr-E oF

ACTIUT

40

Dnrgar AND DrsHoNouR

24

To carsan's RoME
26
Tnouslrs AT HoME

42

Tur otalu

on

CLEOPATRA

Arrrn

44
cLEoPATM

46

CleopatRa's sroRY
FACT AND FICTION

2B
AnRrvrNc IN srYLE

32
ANroNv aNo
CLEOPATRA

4B
INnrx

f

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1

CI,FOPATRA

S ECYI]'I

Flvrr-v

AT \rAR

FRov nN EARLY AGE, CLEOPATRA
knew that her family was at war
- with the people it ruled, and

with itself. The people suffered under
the cruelty of Cleopatra's father Ptolemy XII - and they resented his

Pirnp.y i lOij 18 ll I wa!
oic of rhe n,.st brillianr
gc.crk of h s tlnre By
helpine Ptoleny Xllhe
hoped r0 in.reas. Ronrin

alliance with Rome. In 58 BC, the citizens
of Alexandria rioted, and chased Ptolemy out
of Egypt. Ptolemy fled to Rome,and Cleopatra's older sister, Berenice,
became queen. In 55 BC, Ptolemy returned to Egypt. Helped by Roman
general Pompe-r. he snatched back power from Bcrenicc, and ruled as pharoah
once more. Ptolemy then gave orders for Berenice to be executed
RIVALS FOR PO\(/ER
All Ptolemy XII's childrer hoped to rule, and this nlade
them rivals Cleopn!-as older si+er, llerenice IV, rulcd
mvst€rioudy
tsercnice

had

1

1

{:nr\ri

hn

e

h(

lrth fu ht

,i' Irl.,r,l idtrih',o1r j liihJ -lir.,"rr
larr oor,irnJ Lou Ior,t;l,r rorl/ ra",i*

)urdered her

Ptoh,D XlI tr,,5 t h,,0,, ol

iwhq

At

1.r.,.," L " t." .-\pl-.-1. J,d
around this time drc tumour \ras thal

fu)rr

r$i aa-5ttt .!rl is 11ltt
ue, J,rlr[r] ly,, rrl,lrcts

th.

Ptolrnr

ia.,d

i,r.oli..tui l&r1y !,r.!

ielalLr tri

ri,ry ro Rori.
tl,t ll.

lirDI?dr IrDl.J

Ronar lraJrs

r

l-,rJ

Ptohflr

XIII

Ptol.

r XIY

CL.a]l lTR,\ s BRoTHERS
aildt;riri l,J t0o ro!,r0 briirs lori
ihJ Ptol.hr ,..r rrJ?,! ror,,'t !trno,

Tkr tut
n

Prol0r.)

rubt rJ Eql'l
Xlll rrJ Ptol.,yXIt'

i,ath ta b@1n

Buttt

Cbattt

TrylLro$

.46n,0.

Ptokry- hdt Jon ldrllrtr: Clr.t,rr1 ! ,nt,tr
un ,:altl Lnru l\/ Ckrttt Trytl,rdd Yl.
I lNror ll' 8r ri rr al$llntnt hatr ub'
dn. ,ntrr nili r lir lhro(,!dr, Aar,tu

Symbols of power
CTFeI,rrR,

Related Interests

i rt rttt. drc Prolcmics introrlLrccd many changes
ro Eg-vpt One ol the mort rnrponant rr.ar thc usc oi c,:lrns
ior tradc Beiore the Ptolemles. coin\ r'ere almost unkno\r,n:
[gl ptian nrerchanrs ba.tered ierchanged goorls lnstcarl
( oins also carriccl a political nressage lrrages on rhc
Ptolrmics .orrs shorued Lherr as rich and porverlul

)

Portralt of Ptolcmr XII

lLd !r hav. r1,.,, f.,n n.incd
rn.ir.i Eg]fLran str"! crcrthrnghtrc. rerc
:tum Ih..riof,i rorthorC,ecre Th.r rarLeLl
r rlr th. 9 .a: F:ra,.rh- .L
:. linl Lh.ms.lv.i
lg!!ri trir 'lh..trr'.! r t|e Ten:FJe oL
I L.,rs rt idau !ro\- f'lolenrr \ll ..n!!.,if!

The I'toiennes

r.

Tf ' rert lni rrrrait sfor' a
l):,1era r qreen lle,enie
\i\rer rrd {,i. oi I\ol.Jri lll
11

,l

THI
\'hlr

r,

ROMAN ENlPIRE

Lle PLolemlcs trccd problcms
,- FeypL the Ronar enplrc connqu.d
t! r\pard B-v 5t H( ihc Romar arm-r'
hrrl conruered lard rr norJrtrr ard
lL Lhen Flropc lr rorth .\trrca aLrd

,r

Lhe

r h,rn ore,lLr,:ng
an.lgrirf lllrtrlor

co, rL,cop

th trurr

realrh;rd ]ms]{,,o

Ir,. Nr",:',,r,,1 r.,... 1,,,
'i.iri,ir
1,r1.r,,r,.,:ir;,,,,r r rri,.,,il,
,fti
;.i.t
,
r,;;.r
.h,i
i,ri
.i
.1,.,
i,".1; lr Rrr
l,.,rtir,, ,r',:

-i

',r,r

i:n*.f
,4,

.;*.Ll

hlirldlc Ea.t

\
. ;/'

I
\

ii:f ,,.r , i,"i ti,r \ir. i)rril
'ri "r r ilr a ti, ia,i
li,iiri,j;!i i.rlN,I,i r. li,.l rl..
,,1 ,,, , ;i^.t.lr,i iri r,!,r

CLEOPA I RA'S ECYPT

Tur suN GoD

DAUCHTER

Ho,res for the sods
Trnrpl(s

Related Interests

.r. bu,lr a\ h.nnes I0 the
gods Thc rr.*s ntr.le ollernss ol

i.rod drifl aid f.enr t. the I0l!
*arucs.YeN di! The n,ort imfon.nt
rEn,rler \.ei e lrei[]!! por..hLl
D,saii:a1rcn\ Th.y own.d iams

or.hrAs librri.s afd (..rksh.rr.
rnd c,nrl.ved mr.r' s.,1,an.

CLrop,qtRA \rAS No\r PToLEMY XII's
i oldest suryiving child. When he dled
she would become queen, as the wife
of her younger brother, Ptolemy XIII. This
was exciting, but also terrifying. Cleopatra
remembered what had happened to her sisters,
and feared that enemies might try to kill her
too. But Cleopatra lr.as clever. She made friends
with powerful courtiers. She prepared
herr.l[ [or governr])ent b1 learning nrany
languages including Egyptian (al1 the
other members of her family only spoke
Creek). She also rrsed rcligion to support her
claim to the throne. Clcopatra called herself
tl.re Sun Cod's daughter,

l,hich

u,as an

an.ient roval title
Tre

sacred bull of Buchis

Esyprians Lreli.!.d !1,at !h. srcrcd bulls ,n a temp e
r1 ll!.his wir.rh.nrn godAnri Re,r animal ilnr
Soon after she becane queen Cleop:Ln Lri'(llcd
dou the N,le $Lh a ne[l!.ho!!. BLr.1r6 hu]l
T. the Eljr pr,a. proplc rl. Lrulls n.rc a.ds trnd b!
ralinr. parr L. rh...r.n,.nr ( lc.ftrnr vas sh.

Related Interests

ins
are peoDle rlul sh. r.$..r.d th.i, !.d\

Orly mcn

crs oi rhc ro-r,rl irnrl-r or
rn.srs and rne(esss.oul.l
ente, rhe Llark innerJ,rne ol cach
lemple

Related Interests

hcre 1lr s!rl!. ,n rh. g.d

q,i.r

Cods and goddesses
I tKF AIt rHE Ptolcnics and their queens betore
her (.leopatra said praycrs and nade ollerrngs

o .,\,rl-",.1.

.1

j,.r'rc'.".oJrr.r-

.

Fgypt Traditlonally. lsis and HaLhor protectecl
Fgyptran queens irorr harm.

10

Ifujin i! rrl ,

,a,; l,,f.0J

l.llrfri irr r.,,

,,1,,1.

THF SllN

.,a)l)

S r)Aria,HrFR

6Th. Q.,..n, th.

Lady of the Two
Lands, the father-

loving goddess,
rowed the Bull in
the barge of Amon
to Hermonthis.g

PO\(/ERFUL

l ranslat.d

Cleoparra needed their
who belorged to r;ch, i
All priesrs .ecerved a sh
madc to rhc gods, and ot

l\sr+ l

tL-- 1j:

ir IPL[-

Fi

r.nrp c lr rds llrrsrspcnt
Lhcir templts and many served
oliicrals al court So CIeopaLra
!enerors slhs to the most lsrporrint
tcmplcs, to cncouragc thcir pri(sts.o
help her stay in power

l..r \rrr( FN_r He\IrDRrss
l,ii. Dtl,.r Pi.lln.i.,liid j
t ,,f.nn' t\rc r tdllLMSS.!;
.,l.toil li,ntr! i,rft,ol oJrL.

r.J1,r,,1,*,.r,,,liJlt

,r.1, t,,rofLd/,. a:/nl,olr d
rh adl,1,,ns lLnL.rrnJ I,nl

S0 t

ton,

a

*ele

. G!n,e nal]] at Henn.nthis
'j,l.
Gu. .oD.,l A",o..i.
'\l
ul

nrlliij rr qflr

,rmJ

1,,;:
11

a, an ofrri,o to tLr qoJs

utrem
A

NCIENT RECORDS INDICATE THAT CLEOPATRA RULED

A*uh

her lather lor a short time. And after his
death in 51 BC, 18-year-old Cleopatra was determined

:1:J;i;YJ;-' of the time, she married her 12-year-old brother,
Ptolemy XIII (Llke all the Ptolemies before her, she did not want
to marry outside the royal family, because that might weaken its
power.) In law, Ptolemy now had the right to rule, but his sister
said that he was too young. Cleopatra wanted to rule - alone.
However, Cleopatra knew that many nobles and royal officials
supported her brother's right to rule. And Ceneral Pompey,
her dead father's powerful ally,
had plans to govern Egypt for
66lf cl.oputra's nose
Rome. The young Cleopatra knew
had been shorter,
she would need to use all her charm
the whole face of the
intelligence to remain queen.
world would have
been chansed.

11

Blaise Pas.al (French

philosopher, conmeniinc
on Cleopat.a's legendary

A .arued relief in trndidonal Egyptia.
sryle at the Temple of liathor at Dendeia

beaury.Iron iis Pensies

tW
ts

,il,
\
\

h

:r.:

R')) \L

f(

)RTRllr

('lof ah a clearly

.

':' '

hdd,a
d1ttl

Pou,erJul

fdsctltititq

Persordlity, eou
vbet youtt1.
Throughout histot'y,
sbe hds ttlu,rtys beeu
Portrtr1'ed as ltea iJtl,
,ts h lhis nLarble heal
Howurer, noboly krcu.s Jor
stue what sltt actually looked like

TEENAGL

QUEEN

Lrru rx
CLEOPATRA,S ECYPT
Clgopnru

AND HER FAMILY LIVED IN

Alexandria, Egypt's splendid capital city.
The city had been founded by Alexander
the Great in 331 BC, and it had grown and
prospered over 300 years of rule by the
Ptolemies. Alexandria was one of the most
important ports in the ancient world, and
it was home to an exciting multicultr-rral
civilization, which blended Creek, Egyptian,

fhis be Ltii!l{all fa,ntifs slnr*\ i.
harn.s,.Ll lo a nr[;:D"i, ia rL.odcn
wa!(. rheelr As die or walk.d rouid,
lhc a h€el turned liln.swatcrhonthe
Nile !o the f el,ls Ox.. st,ll full \ttel
$lr.ek in lsrpr lodrv

!r

and Middle Eastern ideas and beliefs. But to most
ordinary Egyptians, Alexandria seemed strange and
foreign - just like the Ptolemies themselves. In the
tirst t$.o years of Cleopatra's reign the Nilc failed to llood.
There rvere crop failures and farnines, and many ordinary
people starved. As mler of Egypt, Cleoparra nceded to
help the people and win their support
but she also needcd to please the

66 ro. by nature
the land produces
more fruit than do
other lands, and
still more when

,

watered...

))
I

conhisticated cirizens of Alexandtia
i
i

TRAVELLINC
BY BOAT
modcl oi a
Thrs
"ooder
boar $,ar iood in a tomb

L$ptrans volrld ha!e

ur and doirn Lhe
Nil. to tike.rops ro

sarled

Frcr

file

. Thc N,le is are.vorkl's loisc*
ivcr k !trn! Ior 6.69! kn, il 160

D,lesj froh *r. highlafds ol Cedrral
AiriLa 10 the \l.dite,E.ean Sea
. T.day the Nile i\ darnncd at

A$! i. hrt

in Cleopahs nnre lt
fl.o.leLl n lunc bccause.f ,aintr ater
ir. ried lrom thc hiehlands The
lanll beside rhc ivcr rernained
NLle,n€Gr unnlAueust or S€pt rber
. Alrer th. tloods, the lanLltras
Love(n rn d,,ck. fertile dud It was
tlry cnousl, to ploq.jh b Novcn,ber,
thc sra,t of rhe Enptian fame$'r,e

\.,,i,rar

.!l,rr ti,. , ({, u,,

lot,ir .uJ .tooJ, . r rii ir
rnil5h,r,:i,;,ilvl,!ru

ri,,r t.

tlir

l1

I-]II]

Th n ir

.

dt

is i la.g. ir.. ,rf l.\ lrnrg land in rh. d.rlrt oi
f.trh.m Fglpi, $rro,dr.g a ii!+ wa!!r lah! Th. ro:l ,s
ieriile aid rhc Iak! frcvrLl!-s qir.r ior growng c,ors Llfd.i
rhe ,uE of the l\olem,es nafy (-,,..k sc(].,s n,.'.d th.(
add ,r Nis a brsy id pn)sfen$ rretr

Th. lavun,

'1:,'

i.,.

nu \ihd

'!-t:

,

',-..'..;' :
!: ]

Ir.igation wnternrg the Iand
lisr'flu iannG ilsc lsed r.l,,l I a bu.leL iiren !r a l!,rs
r!oden trnn, t. l,ft nit.i i,. n th! riv.i r. inr!rre rh.,r
lanLl The fuleoles introdLr.ed a n,ichine n, lifti,rs va(er

,

...

S ICYI''I

bdty;tlreh bn
ta hait
"at
tn:6d ut hN tk Elri'titti
n.4r. ft rllooJi
-

r.r::- _Jl :
t)ii]l

A

crcP:

IN CLEOPATRA

-;

.,:..:-i.€ri

C.

Fl

More winel
.

Br.FL)lir. THE

.

t
i

BESIDE THE NILE
Nlosr Es)Trlaf families Llved in
country tov'ns and \.illa8es beside
rhe swrling watcrs ot thc Rlver
Nilc Thq. \,orked as iariners
builders, traciers, ard crahworkers,
as thelr anceston had done lor

T1LLLL

of thc

Ptolemies wine l,as rare
and expensile, and nost

Igyptians drank beer The
(,rccks prelcrrcd r'.rne so
they brought neri, ri-inemakirg skills io Fgl,pr

P{.,0, s , r.ra! .,rl ,r?tdl!n,r]r,,iitr,imin. .l,oir.'
u,IrnJ,li0,., ldlPl .

l

'l
Thr. rall pa,nrinrr \l,Ns l.uh NorkeLs
hirrnms irtrl (cadns !nD.s

TEENACE

QUI]EN

Ixro EXrLE
FOR THE FIRST

T\/O

YEARS OF HER REICN

Cleopatra managed to keep control of
Egypt, but she had many enemies. One
of the most powerful was Pothinr-rs, her brother
Ptolemy's chief advisor. He did not like the way
Cleopatra made many important government
decisions without consulting him. Also Ptolemy
XIII was nearly 16 years old, and was demanding his
share ol power. ln 48 rr . Cleoparra d:*g*ygisdd&

Youns PLolcmy Xlll relie,l
heivrl) oi a.lYi.e sivrn bt n4)
.ffl.hl Porhinus and l

Related Interests

adeE oi
r

nal sroips .i.oLles at

Ptolemy and Porhinu* were plotting Lo tend.oldiers to
kidnap her, and guessed that they plannedto ki1l her.
Cleopatra knew that she must leave Egypt. She set sail

dre

ior Syria. There, Cleopatra hoped to rccruit an army,
to help hcr rvin back her throne from her
broLhe,' r, ho had nor' .erzed .hc thtorte
SEEKINC SUPPORT
Lo go to Syria becatrsc
rhe Prolemrcs had once,uled thcrc Thc

Cleolatra chose
Clc.ntrrra ancertd
his {pporLets urth

l't,rl.n\

XIII tr.Ll

d,snl a ol ier

our po,rcr,l,kc ths bLon:c corn,
sLnrck

culv ,n

her rergn It

curcs

h.r po,.ait ai.ld0es no! shoa her

aholiiin,

fir,

r'i.

looii

kins ol S)na $.as also an enem| oi Rome
Llkc (ileopaLra, he fearcd that hrs orvn
country v,ou d be taken over by Lhe
nighLy Roman cniprre

inrr lI sr"'i,,i,r, !,n, .1.,d.
irr Tin u;5l,ni] r. rri..t

d,rL

l,. l,n,i l'tol.n ), u,l frtL'ur;
nrFil,ar./ r. jhl ttrnor

.l , r ,ao

irlnr.r

t

N

o

x

L

BATTLE FOR PO\TER
,lulius Cae*r and Ponpev had
once betn clc,se comrades but
rn .1S N{ rhey becanre rilals
Ior suprene porier rn Rome
Then clash led to irshtine

belveen rival Ronan
arnies, enr1rns *rth the
llittle of Pliai\al!r at
*ttch lulius Caesar

MED]TERRANGAN

Ph'rdls:, Palnt.y sdtd

l'$tly

ta

Elytt

C.esdr

A TREACHEROUS ACT
Cleopatra sought help
'4. V'hile
rn Syria, hrr guardran lronpe!

hunrrd to EgypL where he
KLPL\L v,\Tc i
td.ld(r! l.rrrit.lJDr

ii,Jt, rl, r,,J.J,f,lj

hoped

lhnr Plolemv and Cleopalr-a would
olier hr more-v ard soldiers Bur
Ptolenrl's supporters murdered Pompey
as qoon:s hc lardcd ln Alcx:rrlrla

po,rne!

fEEN]\CE

QUF, I]N

ClrvrR AND

-

-

voice
.

CHARIVIINC

voice. As if her
CAESNR ARRIVED IN ECYPT IN 48 BC,
just four days after Pompey was killed.
was an instrument of .
many strings, she could When Caesar landed at Alexandria,
pass from one language
ptolemy XIII,s supporters offered him
to another ... and she
rl

--i;t,

.

" {f

' ,,, -":;;::":1,' /

Ee
-"...
"r{ :' '"'-!d'

iil;ll';;l,llii; a
l:li:i i:ili,, ftr
il,,lri

1
rr
However, Lhe wantedl
by this brutal1 murder.
to keep the peace - he had come to Egypt to
collect a huge sum of money that he claimed

"

Cleopatra's father had orved hrm. So he ordered
Cleopatra and Ptolemy to meet rvith him to discuss
a peace treaty. Cleopatra did not trust her brother,
and knew that there was a real dar]ger that she would be
killed if she came face to face t ith any of his advisors.
She knew that she needed Caesar's protection.
Onc night (ileopatra had herself smrrggled into
(laesar's

roorr

she rtas about to use all her-

charm and intelligence to $,in his support.

HtDDtN

r: \r\ \

Courase and lo-valry
A oerchanr called Apollodonts ms
FeruarleLlb! Clcopurr t ,i;k his
l,le 1. nnusgl. h.r ift., the
heallr :uarrlcd ralace

A C]FT FOR CAESAR
oltcn scnt rich grits
to powrrlul people So Cacsar u.ould not
hrvc btn nrLprised x,her Clcopatras
RLrlcrs Lke Cleoparra

scnrnr brouehL hin a beaurltul .arpct
(llcoprtra q!rcklr' ga,red Caesars
qtPpon bur she il1 had erenri.s in

Alcxandria CarsaL wfo had arivcd
wrth onlr a sna I army ol mcn was
happy Lo f,nd ar ally in such a hostile c,Ly

8

(. I FVFR

\N1)

CHAR

IIN.,

I.ri ,,tri,?r. ri..r,r,
.1,ir ii.r r,t J. ri,r r'l]'
r

/\.r,,i,, triL,li i,,r,

PLOT ACAINST CAESAR
Irothinus Irto enrrs .fi.t advlsri iound c,rL Lhat C'leopalla
ror Caesars surrport he flottcd asaLrsr him Cae\ars l,arb.r

\Y hcn
hacl

hcrrcl Porhrnus. plars ard Pothlnus v,as txccurtLl \ltanlhrle
\srnoe csc;ped r,om rhc .lry ro toin lorccs uiLli Crntra Achillas
and rLe Eq'pLran

aml arairsr

Cacsar

C eopatra rsed l,er krorlrdgc md
lnrell,red.r L! !1a! ,f !o

Related Interests

!, l'h.I\.1e., es
helped ro rk. Al.\aidrii ,nnr a grear Lrntrt
oilc:m,rg lr Clcopams t ne the j,bnr. ras

l,ir,ri!ii i,r rli,.!rr,;,,
-,i,rr il lit;; l;rnl
,n;ili,) lnr
... Lf ri ni,,l.r

th grc:tcst,r

rhe

Nrld

!i rhe rhtt hnlurgls
rsrJ,n E$f r,n Cl.ofatras
rnlr.ad be ie.n on t1,.
Ii.t!rta Sr,rr. h,crogh fh\
!s!d in, ,oril de.iees aid
Texr.

ir'rG de!.ti.
rr tter s mnl,lieLl iotr
h,eilsh pl,sr and a,(.t

r.lrgr.us
a
01

rongnei Cleopx,a ws
fin,oo. n)r her kn.r ledcc
ol thev l:rsuages dd

Iir lcrii Strt ii,, ilrb

PTOLLNlY'S FURY
\']len

Prolcm-v

Xlll

hea,d

LhaL

(ileoparra was wrth Cresar he ran
out.t rbe palac. and thir\ dow
hrs crol\r in a tcrriblr iagc
The paLace tas nou
E€r1?tlan ann)

I\olemy to lea',t thr

ci.,

an.1 oin htr sisrer

4..1r".,.,1 C,...ral

Ach,llas Divs aiter
the *,ar rn Alerandria
rnded Plolemys l,ody
was tound rn the harbour

Roval

BEAUTY

Clropnru

m,f..s \fere nade
0{ hishly polbhed erals
so

The handle ol tlrtr drnror
shap.d l,k. a sc[iir si,l
wc ii€ i lotus ilo\.er

s

KNE\(/ THAT LooKINC

good was important. An impressive
appearance helped her to get her own
way - with Caesar, and with the Egyptian
people too. She chose what she wore for
each occasion with care. It is thought that
for official public duties, Cleopatra wore
Egyptian costume - a long, pleated linen shift
decorated with beads and embroidery. In the
privacy of her palace, Cleopatra probably preferred
Creek-style robes of soft linen or smooth silk.
Vhatever the occasiolr, Cleopatra knen that
she must appear impressive,

powerful, and in control.

KFEPINC CI,FAN
A1l Lgyprans Iiked to feclclcan and
fresh Vcalthy EgypLrans, likc

CleopatLa woulcl have had
baths, *,hilc orclina,r'
the Rive. Nile

lnd mincrls Nlalacl,ite

ilea.lorel and iron or e
lLeie lround uD a.d n,rcd

w,rh waler !o nak. colourings
for cvcs lps ard chceks

Fragrances and flovers
The lgypt;ans valued the
*.rnl |.tr,K il.\rr f.n

ROYAI

BEAUTY

LOOKINC L]KE A QUEEN

Images of Cleopatra

tore

Wr oo Not knorv ruhat Cleoparra looked like

Vrirh her rraditional Eglprian sosn CIeopalra

a heavy wig. She also wore rhick make-up,
eyeLlds vere coloured.

Eetpran st),le Her

all the portraiis that have suwir.ed look very
different The fearures and hairstl,le of this Roman
head rratch her coin portraits, bu! Cleopatra rn,oLrld

her eyes were outlined, and her

cheels uere rcL,oed

t)$t

i.rtl

a'.a1.1-a,, u,,'n ".1'"u

1' .r ,r-

lglPL

a_

poftraits sho\{ Cleopatra as a goddcss, and rvcre
not lntr.ndcd to he lile like

Traditio.al Egyptiar

FINISHINC TOUCHES

(ilcopatra ivore beautituI lerveLlery,
elaborate make rp and rich pertume
Somctimes, her nails and the palms

of hcr hands v,ere de.orared

wirh patte.ns in lrenna

ftr!,r.J A R,i. r
Jair, tldd,Jrid
fu Ril$l.'llf hillh,l d n
1;rr

!lol,r]t,

striking that it stunned
the onlooker, but she
made an inescapable
impression on people
around her ... the

intelligence of all that
she said and did,

4oJJ.sr 11/,,lld uLo tr!tr

W::W
ww,ru ru

W:

w;:m W,,,,w* w;:^h;w;:m'w:
OR THE FIRST TIME IN YEARS, CLEOPATRA

felt secure. Her enemy Ptolemy XIII and

Jur-rr-rs Clr.srn
Laesrtr was a

brilliant artny
commander and
anbitious nLler
oJ

his advisors were dead, and Caesar promised
to protect her and her new husband - her
surwiving brother, 1 1-year-old Ptolemy XlV.
Vith Caesar, she sailed down the Nile, to
meet her subjects and impress them with her
power. Rumours said that Cleopatra was
pregnant with Caesar's child. When Caesar
returned to Rome, he left 15,000 men
to guard her.

Ronc.

Th

aalls were decorated
witb cdruel relieJs. Hu4e po*raits
oJ (,leopatrd antr ber sor
C,tesarion (Caesar s cbild)
temple

were later c,troed here.

Ptolemy's sons beiri
dead, Caesar settled
the kingdom Lrpon the
youngest, in conjunction-"
with Cleopatra, the elder
of the two sisters, who
always continued
' had
under his protection

guardianship.)
\i/ritcf
The temple ol Hatho., Dd,dera CleopatR
maI have lniied rhc tmple on her Nile
.ruise witir Cacsar to nrake offeinlrs t.

bv one

oflL'tu

otli.cL, from Tl,e
i,._4lsx d"m vr r7 Bc l
Caesar s

l

A POVERFUL

PRO'IECTOR

To CAESAR,S

ROME
Arren

TAKTNG coNTRoL IN ECYPT,

Caesar returned to Rome in 46 BC where
he was welcomed as a hero. Cleopatra
soon hurried to join him. She claimed that
she was negotiating a peace treaty between
Egypt and Rome, but she also wanted to
make sure of Caesar's protection. Cleopatra
brought her son Caesarion and teenage
pharoah Ptolemy XIV with her. She did not
want her brother or his advisors to try to seize
power in Egypt rvhile she rvas away. Many Romans
were shocked by the relationship between Caesar
and Clcopatra. They wer.e afraid that Caesar rvould
name Cacsarion as his heir that
Cleopatra's son n ould become
rurler of Rome.
A',i'
!1

o.r. r art]Jli iivo,rl,

.x r.lr,,, i, tdlr.l.,

tl,

iL,r,

rd..ni,',t. 41,6,r!
fnro,n!,r r, d Lrr tt,i.rl r/ltr.

t,!hi

,rai. ,mt

{r

rr. rr,J Tr':irI

Th it.r.,,, l..r,l. ri.oLtriir,r rd!,!. t. i,iMij,ir,1.rn ii. rr]'

lJ tl,1r,:r,i,lri io rr tit'.
!l:;r, i. i(l 11,,, ,r,r' .r,tri L,.i
CAESARS
TRIUNTPH

Cacsar cclcbrared hrs
vicrorics bv paradrns his
.aprivcs rhtuuglr the ill..ts
ot l{omr Cleopirn-as ristcr.

Anrroe. r'ho fad

Lcd drc
EAyDrlar aftnv aeainst Ciesar
was draggcd through rhe sLreeLs
harefcadcd and ,n chans IL uas a
disgracc lor a rcman to appear rn
pub|c rhls wa-r' ir r.a, rhc (ulron lor
Ron,ar rorer ro ircar a long cloak and
!erl oulside rheir homcs. Ho*,cvcL ALsin,:,e
iras 1uc[-v urlikc othcr crpto,cs, she vas not
ki led Cacsar icarcd LhrL rhe Romans mlg)rt
dor if rhcv law a prin.ess publlcl-v trccurcd.

Tl,rs sccnc. irom a I lollyrrrd nlm callen
I-i.oliri! nade if r96i, shora Cle!patri

Irlavcd b) El,uaheth Taylo,) ari..ins ro
Rome w th he, \on C.esar(rn

TRtLt1.H

Li..ih,r I.$i,o, r, ll iil.
i0,'i J to Ro,ri,l
J,n,s I a i,rr1L d|mrl ,,,1tr,r.(l
Ui. ,rrJ,ri,*il)

CAESAR S RoN1 E

'.ik

"#r'].r.fl{6( t t.,,ut. the queen ...
although the gifts
she promised me were
of a literary nature
and not beneath
my dignitv

Temples and tributes
To

for his victory a! the baitle
built a nev remple
in Rome dedrcated to Venus Cenctrix iVenus
the 'Crra! Nlother"l Caesar also paid for a
Lreautiflrl sta!ue c,l Cleopatra ro be prrt on
drspla), in the tenple it shorved her as a
morher holding Caesarion in her arms.
(-,IVE TH.\NKS

c,l Pharsalus,.lrrlius (laesar

11

R. ,an \Ldte' Cice,o, altcr
aleopatrr off.rcd htu bools
tne ]\lcra"d"a library hofi
l-etr.i{

\:

ro

Ati.us, at

Bc

-

l

Thb

Cle.pah nay.d in oi..f aae*rs splendtl vrlhs
n Ro r. Sh. hcld..uii theie idy,tL.g l.adiis

.llen !j thlm i.h s,fr!
$n theii liie.LlJnp and iuflnir

f,.ru!

sh.lrs thc ,oins oi the

Romrn forun inu,leL square and
neer nc pl..el qh.i! Ca.sir built
his renplt 1,r V..us ai.ncriir

The goddess oi love
ll,lnc Caeirs iamil!.l.imcd
.le\.rdl i.om V(nus So ii \rs

gr.at h.n.ui ior CkopaLr. o
|av. hei ( r. in rhe !.mp].
a

Ro,nans nr vtr,t her an,l

Sh. hop.d to

THE DEATH OF CAESAR
As a rovarcl ior his vrctorics the SeDale made
'sole rulcrl tor the ntrL ten
Caesar drctalor
years rn.16 u(: Tivo |cars latcr, he.uas
nra.1e dr.tator lor liic tluL some Ronars
iearecl that (lacsar was be.onnns roo
poeerturl and that he $.anled to be

kinS Abour slxty con\pirarcrs
dc.ldcd he nnbt be killed

I,ri!, L;rrr tr/\,i,1,hJ r, J,,ri.
lal!! r l;!.t, naiiri t 1t-J'

A POVI,RIUI-

PROTIICTOR

TnousLES AT

HOME

AprEn Cnesnn vAS N4URDERED
in 44 BC, the shocking news spread
like wildfire round the Roman world.
Cleopatra - who was in Rome when
the murder happened - lost no time in
hurrying back to Egypt. Now that Caesar
,

,

1 /

her prot.ecLor. wat dead. her kingdom
was once more in danger. Manv
hostile countries saw Egypt as a rich
prize, and hoped to conquer it. Cleopatra

kept her son Caesarion close by her side,
because she feared that he might be murdered
by Caesar's enemies. Ptolemy XIV disappeared
Lile ba.L in Es!pt $as nol rasy l,i Cleoparia
Sie r,1ed ro $i. {ppon l.om Al.rrndian
.obles br oilen.s thern ri.h r.\r.rds Sh.

.!rp.a..d ,n a qindoir oi .udicicc

rlal

Nalacc and

thr.(

n

drc

eiirs to the c,or.d

O,!'jon ral.rrrr,r,

But nmy people stillsaw her as a rnitor
becarse oihe, l,ie.Ll\hip rilh Ca.qi i.d

her

mystcriously, and pcoplc said that Cleopatra had
poisoned her br.other, so that she could ru1e Egypt
ruith hcr young son.
r_l;dr, rhl) r,,,']i ln l
,1,5r.r,

ntr irh,ai ri 1r i,,

IL lula,, r(,,ir i+r h.rr,
."..t,,, L,r i,rr!.r ro;ri,lr

lons\i!i1to R.m.

Rich rewards
TRADITIoNALIy, tHAR(lAHs AND qucens ol
Egypt rervarded loyal scrvicc with rich gifts of
necklaccs madc lrc,nl gold Like earlier

r' ,/ 't r.)val nrlcrs thc Ptolemv dvnasLv
h",l r-,.-.,, ,rg,.l irL'.
''..!.
and othcr treasures rvhich had bccn

given to past pharoahr as tribute honl
cc,nqucrcd pc,,p1cs, or paid as taxcs
Th,s nc.klac. i, .all.d

a.d s mad. f.dn

a

ors

.ollar oi honoor
oi gol.lring!

Thousrnds oi-vcars reo nlas grv.. to n.
afcicfr l s-vfnan fobli N a Evaid

26

\

i. t.*1,1,,r.'

"",r,4

r.t,,,

'I ROtJBl. l,S

r\l

HOMI]

FAN,IINE AND DISEASE

Iior two ) ears dlo lns Cleopatra s rersn, thc Nilc floods
iailed Therc vas not rnough $,aler in rhc rivci to sPread
Lrch md ovcr the frclds or 1rl iraisar. them As a
resulL farmer c,ops and arrmals dlcd and
many ordirarl fanrlies suiiered fron,

Ihe l..l,le tlood rvr<r {ere veo i poita.!
to Lh! l$"tians mnivali th.y m.Nued
$c kvcls careiLLll] e!e4 y(ir l_h.-! baill
nrersrri.!j de!,.cs .allcd Nilonrerers along
rhe bankr ol rh. fler, n, rhat rle-'.ould
.hr.l. ho{ frst t|. il.od \atets ('er. ri!ins
or Llrrinnrg rqav The sreps and drr'mar*s
on Ll c rvalls oi the Nllouct.E vcre Lsed nl

m.ir r( the nire, le'tls \ l,cn the iloorls
iar'et the ilelds Lrakcd fard,n nre hot *r
an,1 ,Lo na,s could srov

r

IooJ
r'

.I-R,OUBLENlAKERSI

r\ij ( j.ir.

i'ril.,i rl {.rt

.,i

lo0,.l

,nir,

rilii,l

rldr I,,,,1,6

r,! r r.,,r lir
rJa.,

On rer rerLrn ro [g-r'pL, Cleopatra tound ouL
rhar her !lster Arsrnor wa\ plottin8 q.!rh
Cae,ars enemics, ancl h,:,ped ro scizc conlrol
ol F rylt wldr therL hell lvianv nobles rr
Cle.paoas court supportccl Arsinoe ard

ioin.d Li hrr.ontpiraq asainst Cleopatra

,ri,r"1

tl,ns.uj ol.,ri,

,rrrlr tiirr

l.li

aioli,!,IJ

a*
ror

rL.-1,,,( n.rn,s ln,i,,

frrrtio. ni 1r'ri/
rii,,nr,". rh Row,,,,!il
Il,n r,. rcdxtr.lv r.

l.n

I i,

a'd Caesarion
Cleopalras r.,n atresarlon ras r r.ddle,
rh.n shc hi.ll.! n him ba.k to lgyfr hr
Cleopat.a

Clc.p E pa,Ll ior Ll,6 caning

tu

E,e

nnJ.

of them Loselhcr Shc rvanttrl to remnd
rll Es],pr ot drcir roval Forer

A PO!(ERf

UI

PRO'IEC'IOR

AnruvrNG rN
STYLE
CAESAn,S MURDER LED

To

THREE

terrible years of civil war in Rome,
as different groups of Roman
senators and members of leading
Roman families struggled to take
control. The rival armies were led by
three powerful men, and each hoped to
take Caesar's place as ruler. Their names
were Octavian (Caesar's nephew), Marcus

Ro.rars Iighting Ronans
O.1a!ian Ad1..r' and l.pid!s.a.I
hid rh.i, .\n larse trrni€s ni l.rval

Antonius (Antony), and Marcus Lepidus. Finally,
in 42 BC the Roman lands were divided among
them. Antony took control of the whole eastern
Mediterranean region, which included Egypt.

x.llr,ained nrldieL They :ll ioushL
aga,.sL ea.h.rher,n a tinet of b,n..
bardrs L.arl..s ot dr.

ai.nr

fl.t

ro kill

alto f,ruglr!,n tlris sttugsl.
for rhr rght to rulc Ron,c

rl.m'r.r

LU,

.rrrorr

,*s&

ii'+

rorr, r,J

THREE RULERS
FOR ROME
In order to win thc struggle for

powcr Octavran, AnLony, and
Lepiclus agrecd to Iisht logrlher
asainst Lhe arnlrrs lcd br BruLus
ard Cas,us iLhe leader rn the
p or ro murder Caesarl

h

.12

N(

Arionr.s army, deleated Brrtus
in.] (lassus ar rh. llattle oi
Irhil!pp! Octavrar Antony,
ancl Leprrlus thcr dr* up a
prace

treatl agrtlng

Lo

ur,,ui.i,.lt,

th

al.ri,in, lL trd!, rorrll
,rtl,lr;;,oirl,r,r,i i,, l,a,i ur,
trr,,1 ,r,01 r, ,r,ttri lol R.rr

mle

Romc lo,ntly for fivc vears
ljecause Antony had won a grcat
lictory at lrhllippi he was able
to claim a grcater share of the

I{onan enprre. and the lrsht to
conlrol Eg!p1 $a\ a rch pri:e

28

..1ih,r.loi Od,rr(,
l'. r l,f;,, .h,il

Cleopatra
Lrp the river Cydnus in
a barge with a gilded
poop, its sails spread
purple, its rowers urging
it on with silver oars to
the sound of the flute
blended with pipes
*',u.,", and lute

))

ftr,r L o* r.r|..l,rl! a rrr ll
I1r,, r-1,,, Prti 4, (..
o rr it Lu;0L rrlu,'r tl.$ lrii

nxit.iDJ,

AN URCENT

SUN1N1ONS

Antonv had conLrol ol Esrnt bur hc nccdcd CleopaLras
s!Fpor1, and he feared iliar shc might strlc $ith hrs

- p..:'

io keef conrrol oi his,hare oi the empire, and E$prs
Braln to ic.d his mcn AnLonl vrote to (ileopatra and
rvher she did not rcplr he sunl oted her to orc.t him

NO HURRY TO

'.:,i
:lr,

REPLY

Cleopata *.as rr no hurr-r'to

An!.rI Instcad she
dcliberatelv took her timc She
rcspond 1o

kneu

Lhar

Arror-r'nccded LgypLs

sold and lr renm shc planned
lcl ask ior his frotcction She
also varred hls hclp to krll
her enenrlcs including
h.r si*e, Arnn.e

ANTONY
\(/AITS
As

Antonr v,artcd iol

nev.s oi laLge cr,:,wds

sarhe ns ro {ltness
an ama:rns

sishr

r

,",..

...1
.'

29

"

.'{.

f!:il.

Mystery and Majesty
Antony had summoned Cleopatra to meet him in Tarsus
(in Turkey), where he was getting ready to fight the warlike
Parthians who lived to the east of Roman lands. Cleopatra
knew that this meeting would decide Egypt's future. She had heard
that Antony was a tough soldier, who loved pretty women and
exotic luxuries. So Cleopatra planned a dramatic arrival, in a richly
decorated boat, to impress him with her mystery, majesty, and chatm.

Lhol,rtrl nrrl la,:.;, r|
iiijr r rl?r,dt tr,.i,] 0r]r
,,;rllrJ pru1 ir rrsrJ iLri

ARRIVING IN TARSUS
Thc story of ClcopaLras arrlval in Tarsrrs has rnspucd
atisrs drroushoul historr This painting by Claudc
Lorrarn shows Cleopatra bcins srceted by Anron)
-l'he

r]l 4./1,,,

.11i,tu1,

r,

dLJ

.k iry ot q aui: i:ttt,tii.

buildinss and ships are shown as Lhey would havc
loolied ii rhe 17rh ccoturr nor as rh€y a,orld halc
been in Cleopatra\ tinre.

Music and dance
Nr F(i pr.rr

(rri ( rLL( .elcbialr.n \.as .onrplcrc u'itlrout nmn.
Harps and lLrtcs wcre favourtes for banqucts and part es, but
palace nnri.iars al!. fla\ed ly,res obocs .fd tanrb(tuines
CleopatLa and ho guests tould havc bccn

ert.!taincd

Lrv

sifse( re*ers,

dances

N4ACICAt, L]GHTS
Alrer Cleopana

s specra.rlar
arrival rn Tarsu\, Anton-v in\.irccl
her Lo drne $,irh him Brt (ilcopatra
relused Instead she insistcd that he
come to her ro-r'al bargc She took

great care !drh hcr preparanons
she irantcd Antony to be rLLghLed
astoni5lred, and nrosr imporlantl!
lmpressed Shc arranged for hel
b,arge to bc dccorrtcd urth
thousands ot trny oillanps

in slrtkriog, ili.lerrns

30

ARRT

Related Interests

]\C

$..

]\

,

i tE nra u .u.ou)

.,t

spread that
Aphrodite had
come to revel with
Dionysr-rs for the
happiness of Asia.

]

l.r
:j,

:.

L]KE A CODDESS

(
Trrsus

Lo discuss thc tcrns oi Lhtir all,anct CltopaLra ch,:,rt
ro Jress Lkc,\phroriLtt thc C,tk godLlts oi loit She
lr Lreece hororred
otirrtrl llLonr crowns oi
'rnt lea'es
gur.Ls tet oiLer q rcr garlan,ls
oi ilur ers llLtlrr lcavcs

a'o.

ahii.,i,., ! iri( ,i:,i u.,,.i
iir.rrii...i I ,.i ifrl .1rrl, ,r
ta'r rr,lJ i ri,ir, r,,ii.

F,.mlrd Arront $ar rccorilrgro ltgcnrl' Irrus ras Ll,e
plecc rht,c Dion-r'sus d,\phrodrtc mcr ancl irli rr lore

A PO\I'IRI]UL

AxroxY

PRC)

AND

CLEOPATRA
CLEOplrRq's DARINC PLAN \(/ORKED.
Her dramatic visit to Tarsus had won
Antony's slrpport in her strrrggle to
remain ruler of Egypt. Antony forgot his
war against the Parthians and hLrrried
to Egypt. Antony and Cleopatra
spent the wrnter of ,11 uC together
in Alexandria, and Cleopatra hardly
left Antony's side. Shc rvatched
Antony exercise r'vith his iroops and
took him on splendid boat trips dorvn
the Nile. Shc ilatLered him, listencd to l.ris
battle sLories, and cnteltained him at iabulous
fcasts Cle,-rpaLra also became pregnant \-i!h
L\,ins. Anton)'u,as their iatlrcr', but tre clid not ,see them born. Earl-v in .10 Bt-. Antony had
to rctul n to Ronre bccausc his
rvile. Frrlvia, rlas leading a
rebell ion against f)ctavian

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FABLILOUS FEASTS
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ro rrrtrLarr AuLou Crcck and

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orc artcr rhc oLl,rr o thar onc oi
rlcm rrould br ready ar rhe rlmc
Arto,ry chosc Lo caL Thel a <r

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drcsscil up as selanLs ard thcn r'tnt
our iiLo rhe \Lre.rs ot 41.\andria
ailer dirl flating fli(k, on Fciple

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ANTONY
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ab.u.l aFour Cleopatr.s
Thi! 18th c.nu-a
p.inLmg ras ntsptr.d |y rhe {.r1
Snn es

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