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Soluble in ORGANIC SOLVENTS such as alcohol, ether, acetone and CCl4 3. Contains C-H-O-N-P 4. Yields fatty acids on hydrolysis or combine with fatty acids to form esters 5. Take part in animal and plant metabolism Physical Properties Of Lipids 1. Neutral fats have a greasy feel – When in contact with paper produces a TRANSLUCENT SPOT. 1. When pure, neutral fats are ODORLESS, TASTELESS and COLORLESS – If colored-it is due to pigments dissolved in them – Over a period of time, they become rancid giving unpleasant odors and taste 1. Insoluble in ordinary solvents, lighter in water but readily dissolve in organic solvents – Forms a temporary emulsion when shaken with water and made permanent by an emulsifying agent EMULSIFYING AGENT – lower surface tension of the aqueous phase; prevents coalescence of the fat droplets by absorbing it on their surfaces 1. Non-volatile 2. Produces characteristics crystals with definite melting point 3. Do not diffuse through a membrane Acrolein Test – test for the presence of glycerol – used as a test for fats or oils since all fats and oils contain glycerol – glycerol heated to a high temperature in the presence of dehydrating agent KHSO4 forms acrolein (2-propenal) – properties of acrolein a. strong, pungent odor b. yields a disagreeable odor – due to burned fats or oils at very high temperature Iodine Number – the number of grams of iodine that will react to the double bonds present in 100g of fat or oil; – unsaturated fats and oils readily combined with iodine ; have higher iodine number – saturated ones will not react readily ; have lower iodine number – the more unsaturated the fat or oil ; the more iodine will combine with it – the higher the iodine number ; the greater the degree of unsaturation SAPONIFICATION SOAP – produced by saponification of fats – they are salts of fatty acids Saponification Number – the number of milligrams of alkali required to neutralize the fatty acids contained in one gram of fat – used as an indicator of fatty acid chain length in triacylglycerols – triacylglycerols containing long fatty acids have lower saponification number than those with shorter fatty acids Uses Of Glycerol 1. preparation of hand lotions and cosmetics 2. to prevent dehydration in inks, tobacco products and plastic clays 3. constituent of glycerol suppositories
4. sweetening agent and solvent for medicines 5. lubricant especially in chemical laboratories FATS and OILS (COMPARISON) Source FATS OILS Animals Plants Hydrocarbons Saturated Unsaturated Form at temperature Solid Liquid room
The Cleansing Action of SOAP Soap molecules are composed of a non-polar hydrocarbon end (hydrophobic – repelled by water) and a carboxylate (hydrophilic – water soluble). When soap is added with water, the hydrophilic ends are attached to the water and dissolve in it but the hydrophobic ends are repelled by the water molecules forming a thin film (suds) on the surface of water lowering the surface tension of water. When the soap solution is brought into contact with grease or oil (most dirt is held to clothes by a thin film of grease), soap solution become reoriented. The hydrophobic portions dissolve in the grease or oil and the hydrophilic ends remain dissolved in the aqueous phase. Mechanical action such as scrubbing causes the oil or grease to disperse into tiny droplets and the soap molecules arrange themselves around the surface of the globules. Oil or grease droplets surrounded by soap molecules are example of micelle. Micelles are aggregation of molecules that contain both polar and nonpolar groups. Because the carboxylate ends of the soap molecules project outward, the surface of each drop is negatively charged so the drops repel one another and do not coalesce. The entire micelle becomes water-soluble and is able to be washed away by the stream of water. Advantages of Detergent over Soap a. works well in hard water as well as in soft water – Ca++ and Mg++ salts of detergents are soluble; do not precipitate out of solution b. are generally neutral compounds unlike soaps that are alkaline or basic substances c. used in silks and woolens but soaps cannot be used d. used in washing clothes; cleansing agents in toothpastes and toothpowders e. those containing straight chains are biodegradable and not cause water pollution f. those with branched chains are non-biodegradable and causes pollution
Cholesterol – is found in the human body 93% is found at cells 7% occurs in circulatory system Additional Chemical Tests for Cholesterol 1. ZAC reactions – (+) result: reddish violet color – Process involves oxidation initially and the oxidizing agent in Zac Reaction is Fe++ + to produce a final reddish brown color. The process stops after the addition of 4 double bonds to form tetraenes. 1. Precipitation of Digitonin, C56H94O21 – a glucoside belonging to the saponin group; occurs in digitalis’ leaves and seeds – Cholesterol is precipitated with digitonin, forming cholesterol digitonide – It is not only a qualitative test but it can be made as a basis for quantitative determination by weighing digitonide Principle: the combination of digitonin is possible only if the hydroxyl group in position 3 remains free – (+) result: a precipitate is formed (identified as clolesterol)
Clinical Importance of the Quantitative Determination of Cholesterol in the Blood 1. It indicates abnormalities in the gland’s function (specifically adrenal) 2. To know if the amount of cholesterol in the blood is normal 3. To aid physicians in coming out of preventive measure and proper treatment to reduce serum cholesterol level 4. To control intake of foods rich in cholesterol to prevent circulatory disease if we have to FOODS RICH IN CHOLESTEROL 1. EGGYOLKS 2. SPINAL FLUID TAKEN FROM CATTLES 3. FISH, SWEETBREADS 4. LOW CONCENTRATION OF CHOLESTEROL ARE CONTAINED IN: WHOLE MILK, CREAM. BUTTER, CHEESE AND MEAT 5. ORGAN MEATS LIKE BEEF LIVER, CALVE’S BRAIN, KIDNEY Nucleic Acid Tests for Nucleic Acids 1. Feulgen test – differentiates DNA from RNA – Done by subjecting nucleic acid to mild hydrolysis with HCl and treating with reduced fuchsin – (+) RESULT: if sugar is deoxyribose – red color is produced with the dye – Ribose sugar gives a negative result 1. DISCHE reaction – Heating DNA with diphenylamine in acid solution – (+) RESULT: DNA yields blue color 1. Bial’s Test or Aniline Acetate Test – for ribose – (+) RESULT: pink coloration on filter paper 1. With solutions of NH4Cl, ammonium molybdate and HNO3 – presence of phosphates – (+) RESULT: yellow precipitate 1. Murexide test for Purines – with HNO3 evaporated to dry – (+) RESULTS: light yellow residue – red color (with KOH) – purple (when heated) – red color was produced when evaporated to dry 1. Wheeler and Johnson test for Pyrimidines – Using bromine water and Ba(OH)2 – (+) RESULT: purple colored solution Hydrolytic Products Of RNA 1. H3PO4 2. Ribose 3. Adenine 4. Guanine 5. Cytosine 6. Uracil Hydrolytic Products Of DNA 1. H3PO4 2. Deoxyribose 3. Adenine 4. Guanine 5. Cytosine 6. Thymine 7. Methylcytosine 8. Hydroxymethylcytosine Importance of Nucleoproteins 1. Viruses are nucleoprotein reproducing in the cell causing common colds, influenza, measles, small pox and mumps
They can be grown & be multiplied in chick embryos, then properly purified – such can be injected in small amounts to confer immunity to man 1. They are closely associated with the chromosomes of the cells Inorganic Elements of Biological Materials Minerals elements needed by MAN 1. Calcium with (NH4)2C2O4 (+) RESULT: White Precipitate formation 2. Phosphorus PO4 3- + 12(NH4)2 MoO4 + 21 HNO3 9H2O + 3OH(+) RESULT: yellow precipitate 3. Magnesium Mg++ + PO43- + NH4+ MgNH4PO4 (+) RESULT: white precipitate 4. Chlorine Cl-+AgNO3 AgCl+ NO3 (+)Result: White precipitate 5. Sulfur SO4-2 +BaCl2 BaSo4 + Cl( + )Result: formation of white precipitate 6. Iron Fe3+ + 6CNS Fe(CNS)6-3 (+)Result: light red solution
(NH 4)3 PO4 12MoO3 + 21NH4NO3 +
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)-published by the Food and Nutrition Board or National Research Council -RDA is provided for individual variations among most normal persons living under their usual environmental conditions. -Diet must be based on a variety of food to: a. Cover for known requirements b. Provide other nutrients for which human requirements have been less well defined. -nutrition is concerned with both the qualitative and quantitative requirements of the diet -the diet must supply enough energy to power all body reactions requirements for energy EFFECT OF FOOD MATERIALS TAKEN IN ON THE ACID-BASE BALANCE OF THE BODY -pH balance of the body is influenced by the food eaten -some foods have: a) Acidifying effect b) Alkalizing effect c) Few are neutral -all foods when metabolized in the body leaves an ash-like residue. Ash is what is left after all useable nutrients have been removed. This ash has acidic alkaline or alkaline ash: a. needed to neutralize excess dietary acid b. is desired because our body must remain slightly alkaline c. made up of Na, Ca, K and Mg-these are stored to maintained Ph balance. Base-Forming Foods: a. Fruits & vegetable b. Milk has a high calcium content Acid ash: a. from foods high in S, Cl, N and P b. must be neutralized though the body can handle moderate amounts of acidifying foods but will continually pull alkalizing elements from its reserve and acidosis results.
EFFECTS OF ACIDOSIS: a. loss of calcium and weakening of the bones(osteoporosis) b. degeneration of joints(arthritis) c. precipitation of calcium in body tissues(kidney stones and gout) d. development of bone spur Acid-forming foods: a. met benzoic b. fish c. eggs d. cereals f. plums, prunes, cranberries(contain large amount of and quinic acid
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