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AISC Design Guides

Making Life a Little Easier

By Sergio Zoruba, Ph.D.

For many structural steel design challenges, AISC has a design guide to help you through.

he AISC Steel Solutions Center washers, and excellent recommendations ceilings, partitions, and equipment. The

T answers thousands of technical

questions every year concern-
ing structural steel design and
construction. For the most part,
the questions are based on AISC Specifica-
tion provisions or design recommenda-
tions found in the AISC Manual. But then,
from the experts.
A second edition of Design Guide 1 is
scheduled to be published later in 2005. It
will address the new OSHA erection
requirements that distinguish between
posts and columns, as well as discuss base
plate details pertaining to analysis
guide also presents the latest revision to
existing vibration information due to
human activity and machines as it relates
to modal damping (a good supplement
to Design Guide 11: Floor Vibrations Due to
Human Activity). The guide contains
information on cambering beams and
there are a variety of questions with assumptions of pin and fixed column how deflection issues relate to the con-
answers that can’t be found in those two anchorage, anchor rod pretension, contract struction of concrete slabs. Roof ponding
important publications. documents, double-nutted anchorage con- cladding-structure interaction and mem-
Fortunately, AISC’s Design Guide pub- figurations without grout and their design, brane and metal roofs are also addressed.
lications offer an abundance of design regular and shear holes, fatigue, high-seis-
Design Guide 4:
information on topics too broad for the mic design, applicable limit states, and
Extended End-Plate Moment
Specification or Manual. Common design base plate design examples.
Connections, 2nd Edition
questions, such as how to account for
Design Guide 2: This second edition now addresses
shear in column anchorages, or when to
Steel and Composite Beams with Web seismic and wind applications. It
use slip-critical bolted joints, are
Openings includes design procedures and exam-
addressed in AISC design guides.
Design Guide 2 offers thorough guid- ples for the four-bolt extended stiffened
AISC design guides provide compre-
ance for the design of beams with circular and unstiffened, as well as the eight-bolt
hensive guidance on specialized technical
or rectangular openings in their webs. extended stiffened, end-plate moment
topics relevant to structural steel design,
Included in the design guide are LRFD connections. Users will find that the
and they are authored by recognized indus-
and ASD design procedures for the guide contains a clarified design
try experts. They can be ordered through
effects of holes subjected to moment approach to seismic end-plate connection
the AISC web site at
and/or shear. Most importantly, the design compared to the recommenda-
store, or by calling 800.644.2400. All AISC
guide covers design cases for both com- tions found in FEMA 350. The basis for
members have free access to AISC’s
posite and non-composite steel beams, each design recommendation is outlined
ePubs web site,,
and includes a step-by-step procedure for in detail and presented as a step-by-step
where they can instantly download elec-
checking, proportioning, and detailing procedure. Connection limit states are
tronic copies of AISC design guides any
beam web openings and reinforcement. discussed in the guide to help designers
time, anywhere. A brief summary of each
understand the principles behind the
design guide follows. Design Guide 3:
behavior of extended end-plate moment
Serviceability Design Considerations
Design Guide 1: connections.
for Steel Buildings, 2nd Edition
Column Base Plates
Did you know that the recommended Design Guide 5:
The AISC LRFD Manual of Steel Con-
maximum vertical deflection for an Low- and Medium-Rise Steel Buildings
struction addresses the most common
underhung crane runway beam is L/450? A great primer for designers involved in
case for column anchorage design— axial
Recommended maximum serviceability multi-story designs, Design Guide 5
compression. What to do if you also need
values and considerations for a wide addresses many of the most common ques-
to design for uplift, overturning moment,
range of building applications are dis- tions regarding the design of buildings. The
or shear? That’s where Design Guide 1
cussed in detail in Design Guide 3. This guide includes design rules for economy,
comes to the rescue. The guide discusses
guide contains several tables with recom- live load and bay size selection, composite
proper methods for column base shear
mended maximum serviceability values floors, open web joist floors, wind load
resistance, suggestions for sizing plate
for roofing, skylight supports, cladding, design, and other associated design topics.

February 2005 • Modern Steel Construction

It also discusses floor load capacity cepts of torsion in open and closed cross- moment connections, including retrofit
enhancement, shored vs. unshored con- sections, this design guide facilitates calcu- solutions with a welded haunch, bolted
struction, and underfloor duct systems. lations of torsional stresses and establishes a bracket, or reduced beam section (RBS).
basis for design. For open-sections such as Based on experimental results, recommen-
Design Guide 6:
W-shapes, the normal and shear stresses dations for modification of pre-North-
Load and Resistance Factor Design of
due to both pure and warping torsion can ridge moment connections are presented
W-Shapes Encased in Concrete
be calculated using the guide. In addition, and discussed in detail. In addition, the
Design Guide 6 contains more than 300
channel and Z-shaped open cross-sections guide discusses practical considerations
pages of LRFD composite beam-column
are addressed, as well as closed cross-sec- for remedial work, such as removal and
design strength values. In addition, a
tions such as rectangular and round HSS restoration of building finishes.
thorough discussion of the use and
and steel pipe. Several examples and design
design of composite columns is pre- Design Guide 13:
curves are included in the guide.
sented, covering practical design consid- Stiffening of Wide-Flange Columns at
erations, fire resistance, longitudinal rein- Design Guide 10: Moment Connections: Wind and
forcing bar arrangement, ties, Erection Bracing of Low-Rise Seismic Applications
longitudinal reinforcing bar splices, con- Structural Steel Buildings Do you need guidance in designing
nection of steel beams to encased wide- Design Guide 10 addresses both per- column stiffening for strong- and weak-
flange columns, shear connectors, base manent and temporary erection bracing, axis moment connections? Design Guide
plates, erection, and temporary wind including an important chapter on con- 13 contains this information and much
bracing during composite frame con- struction phase loads. Topics addressed more. The guide offers multiple exam-
struction. include column and column base (with ples for the proper design of transverse
extensive discussions of potential failure stiffeners, web doubler plates and diago-
Design Guide 7:
modes, including fracture of fillet welds nal stiffeners. Detailed discussions are
Industrial Buildings, Roofs to Column
between the two, bending failure of base included on topics such as unreinforced
plates, anchor rod rupture, buckling, columns, stiffness considerations, force
Design Guide 7 addresses all facets of
pull, push-through, and push-out), dis- transfer and the economical selection of
industrial building design and includes a
cussions of tie members, beam to column columns. Also covered are detailing rec-
comprehensive section on crane runway
connections, and diaphragms. In addi- ommendations for special cases, such as
design. Part I covers owner-established
tion, wire rope diagonal bracing and con- column stiffening for beams of differing
design criteria, roof systems, roof trusses,
nections are covered, as well as design of depth and beam framing over columns.
wall systems, framing schemes, bracing
deadmen. The appendix includes design recom-
systems, column anchorage, and service-
mendations for weak-axis moment con-
ability criteria. Part II concentrates on the Design Guide 11:
nections, including research findings.
complete design of industrial buildings Floor Vibrations Due to Human Activity
with cranes and addresses fatigue, roof, Did you know that people in offices Design Guide 14:
wall, framing and bracing systems, crane and residences do not like distinctly per- Staggered Truss Framing Systems
runway girder design, crane runway fab- ceptible vibration, whereas people taking Originally developed in the 1960s,
rication/erection tolerances, and column part in an activity will accept vibrations staggered truss framing continues to be a
design. Stepped column design is also approximately 10 times greater? Design competitive framing configuration for
discussed. A second edition of Design Guide 11 has an entire chapter devoted to mid-rise structures. Topics addressed in
Guide 7 will be published later in 2005. human response to floor motion, and Design Guide 14 include diaphragm
addresses both walking and rhythmic action using hollow-core precast plank
Design Guide 8:
excitations. There is also a chapter that floor slabs and the design of truss mem-
Partially Restrained Composite
addresses design for the effects of vibra- bers and connections in wind and low-
tion on sensitive equipment. Special con- seismic applications (R = 3). Special
Based on extensive research domesti-
sideration for determining the natural topics such as mechanical design consid-
cally and abroad, Design Guide 8 intro-
frequency of open-web steel joists and erations, plank leveling, erection, coordi-
duces design criteria for designing with
joist girders is included. Several design nation with subcontractors, foundation
PR-CC connections. This approach
examples are given, including interior overturning and sliding, and balcony
affords the designer the ability to econo-
office bays, footbridges, and mezzanines. design are also covered.
mize beam sizes for gravity loading or to
Remedial measures are discussed in
resist lateral loads in unbraced frames. Design Guide 15:
The guide contains several sections, AISC Rehabilitation and Retrofit Guide
including an introduction to PR-CC con- Design Guide 12: If you periodically work in retrofitting
nections, covers analysis, moment-rota- Modification of Existing Welded Steel old structural steel buildings, then you
tion curves, design procedures, and Moment Frames Connections for definitely need Design Guide 15 and its
examples. As a bonus, the appendix con- Seismic Design included CD companion, the Shapes Data-
tains a short but detailed discussion of Where would you look to find infor- base v3.1H. Design Guide 15 contains over
story sway calculations. mation for upgrading existing seismic 300 pages of historical information,
moment connections? Simple. FEMA including dimensional and geometrical
Design Guide 9:
351/352 and Design Guide 12. This design properties of structural steel and
Torsional Analysis of Structural Steel
guide discusses strategies and solutions wrought iron sections. The yield and ten-
for the upgrade of existing pre-Northridge sile strengths of structural steels, includ-
An excellent introduction to the con-

February 2005 • Modern Steel Construction

ing ASTM A7 and A9, are tabulated over Design Guide 19:
the past 100 years. Allowable stress infor- Fire Resistance of Structural Steel
mation for bolts, rivets, and welds over Framing
the past several decades are tabulated Have you ever been confused by fire
There are chapters dedicated to the eval- protection requirements and systems?
uation and enhancement of existing This new design guide covers all facets of
structural systems and an appendix that structural steel fire resistance, including
outlines historical changes to the AISC building code requirements, thermal
specifications since their inception. restraint, rated designs, the standard fire
test and fire protection materials. There is
Design Guide 16:
ample fire design information for steel
Flush and Extended Multiple-Row
columns and associated fire protection
Moment End-Plate Connections
systems and enclosures. In addition, steel
This design guide covers two- and
roof and floor systems, including steel
four-bolted flush unstiffened, and four-
trusses, are discussed and examples
bolt stiffened moment end-plate connec-
given for determining the required thick-
tions. This design guide includes design
ness of protection coatings. There is also a
examples for multiple row ½ and 1/3
chapter on spray-applied fire resistive
extended unstiffened moment end-plate
material testing and inspection, as well as
connections, as well as the 1/3 stiffened ver-
one on engineered fire protection. ★
sion. For pre-engineered metal buildings,
there is a chapter dedicated to gable-frame
Sergio Zoruba is a senior engineer in
panel-zone design. In addition, design
AISC’s Steel Solutions Center in Chicago.
procedures for using snug-tightened and
pretensioned bolts are addressed.
Design Guide 17:
High Strength Bolts – A Primer for
Structural Engineers
A must-have design guide on struc-
tural bolting, this primer assists engi-
neers in understanding the basis of the
requirements in the RCSC Specification for
Structural Joints Using ASTM A325 or
A490 Bolts. The guide also includes a
chapter dedicated to the static strength of
rivets, which can be invaluable for retro-
fit work. The guide addresses bolt instal-
lation, inspection, behavior, and design.
In addition, specialized topics are cov-
ered, including the proper use of wash-
ers, galvanized bolts, reuse of high-
strength bolts, joints with combined bolts
and weld, and surface coatings.
Design Guide 18:
Steel-Framed Open-Deck Parking
Design Guide 18 addresses the design
of steel parking structures using five
unique types of deck systems: cast-in-
place reinforced concrete, cast-in-place
post-tensioned slabs, precast double tees,
filigree systems, and hollow-core plank.
Deck system design parameters and
framing systems are discussed in detail,
including design examples in LRFD and
ASD. In addition, there are several chap-
ters that examine mixed-use structures,
fire protection requirements, barriers and
facades, stairs and elevators, and corro-
sion protection for exposed steel in open-
deck parking structures.

February 2005 • Modern Steel Construction