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Hydrology of catchments,

rivers and deltas (CIE5450)


Dr. T. Bogaard

Lecture Flood routing

FLOOD PROPAGATION

Reservoir routing
Flood routing in natural channels

Reservoir routing
P

I
Q
S
A

dS
= I - Q + AP - AE
dt

Reservoir routing
P

E
S

dS
= I - Q + A (P - E)
dt

S1 = S0 + (I - Q + A(P-E)) * (t1 -t 0 )
A = A(H)

S=

AdH

H0

Q = K(H-Hc )c

A = A 0 + a(H-H0 )b

A = A 0 exp(b(H-H0 ))

Reservoir routing
Short term model, Flood routing:
Neglect P-E
Predictor-Corrector:
1. Initial condition:

H0 Hc

*
2. Predictor: S1 S 0 I Q( H 0 ) t

H
*
*
*
1 H0
Q K
H c
3. H1 H ( S1 )
->
2

*
4. Corrector: S1 S 0 I Q t

5. H1 H ( S1 )
6. Possible iteration
7. Next time step

Reservoir routing
When at t=0 water level is at the spillway crest:

Why dQ/dt = 0 at:


I = Q?
Because:
dS/dt = I Q
dS/dt = 0

Surfaces are equal

Reservoir routing

What happens when water level is NOT at the


spillway crest ?

Reservoir routing
Long term model, Reservoir yield analysis:

S1 = S0 + (I - Q + A(P-E)) * (t1 -t 0 )

Q is draft (regulated) and flood discharge (unregulated)


Main questions:
What is the safe yield?

Reservoir routing yield analysis


FRC

4 zones
3
URC
2
DSC

1
FRC = Flood Rule Curve
URC = Utility Rule Curve
DSC = Dead Storage Curve

Reservoir routing yield analysis


S1 = S0 + (I - Q + A(P-E)) * (t1 -t 0 )
Use operating rules:
1. Assume Q=D
2. Apply water balance with A(H0)
3. Check rule curves
4. Redo water balance, if rule curves apply
5. Next time step

Flood routing in natural channels

Flood routing in natural channels

So here there is no unequivocal relation between Q and S

Flood routing in natural channels


Muskingum equation:
S = K[x I+(1-x)Q]
Because dS/dt = I-Q:
dS
dQ
dI
IQ
K x 1 x
dt
dt
dt

If I = Q, then:
dQ
x

dQ

dt

dt
dI

dt

Flood routing in natural channels


Muskingum-Cunge equations:

x
K
c
dq
c
1.67v
dh

q
h
0.51 0.6

x 0.51
Sb x
Sbcx

Flood routing in natural channels


Conditions:
Courant number

ct t
C

1
x K
Physical boundaries of x

0 x 0.5

Flood routing in natural channels

Flood routing in natural channels


Muskingum routing equation:

Q2 c 0I2 c1I1 c 2 Q1
c0

Kx 0.5t
K Kx 0.5t

Kx 0.5t
c1
K Kx 0.5t
K Kx 0.5t
c2
K Kx 0.5t

c 0 c1 c 2 1

Flood routing in natural channels


Date Hour

I, m3/s

c0I2

c1I1

c2O1

O, m3/s

4/9

6 a.m.

1000

1000

Noon

2400

-408

530

640

762

6 p.m.

3900

-663

1272

488

1097

Midnight

5000

-850

2067

702

1919

4900

-833

2650

1228

3045

4000

-680

2597

1949

3866

4/10 6 a.m.
Noon

C0 =-0.17; c1 = 0.53; c2 = 0.64

Flood routing in natural channels


Local Inflow:
Four-point method:

Q2 c0 I 2 c1 I1 c2Q1 c3QL

2t / K
c3
2(1 x) t / K

is sum of c0 and c1

Three parameter Muskingum method:

dS
I (1 ) Q
dt

S K x(1 ) I (1 x)Q

Flood routing in natural channels


Kinematic routing:
Continuity equation

A
Q I L
t
Manning equation

Q KAR 2 3S1 2