You are on page 1of 20

# Hydrology of catchments,

Dr. T. Bogaard

## Lecture Flood routing

FLOOD PROPAGATION

Reservoir routing
Flood routing in natural channels

Reservoir routing
P

I
Q
S
A

dS
= I - Q + AP - AE
dt

Reservoir routing
P

E
S

dS
= I - Q + A (P - E)
dt

S1 = S0 + (I - Q + A(P-E)) * (t1 -t 0 )
A = A(H)

S=

H0

Q = K(H-Hc )c

A = A 0 + a(H-H0 )b

A = A 0 exp(b(H-H0 ))

Reservoir routing
Short term model, Flood routing:
Neglect P-E
Predictor-Corrector:
1. Initial condition:

H0 Hc

*
2. Predictor: S1 S 0 I Q( H 0 ) t

H
*
*
*
1 H0
Q K
H c
3. H1 H ( S1 )
->
2

*
4. Corrector: S1 S 0 I Q t

5. H1 H ( S1 )
6. Possible iteration
7. Next time step

Reservoir routing
When at t=0 water level is at the spillway crest:

I = Q?
Because:
dS/dt = I Q
dS/dt = 0

## Surfaces are equal

Reservoir routing

## What happens when water level is NOT at the

spillway crest ?

Reservoir routing
Long term model, Reservoir yield analysis:

S1 = S0 + (I - Q + A(P-E)) * (t1 -t 0 )

## Q is draft (regulated) and flood discharge (unregulated)

Main questions:
What is the safe yield?

## Reservoir routing yield analysis

FRC

4 zones
3
URC
2
DSC

1
FRC = Flood Rule Curve
URC = Utility Rule Curve

## Reservoir routing yield analysis

S1 = S0 + (I - Q + A(P-E)) * (t1 -t 0 )
Use operating rules:
1. Assume Q=D
2. Apply water balance with A(H0)
3. Check rule curves
4. Redo water balance, if rule curves apply
5. Next time step

## Flood routing in natural channels

Muskingum equation:
S = K[x I+(1-x)Q]
Because dS/dt = I-Q:
dS
dQ
dI
IQ
K x 1 x
dt
dt
dt

If I = Q, then:
dQ
x

dQ

dt

dt
dI

dt

## Flood routing in natural channels

Muskingum-Cunge equations:

x
K
c
dq
c
1.67v
dh

q
h
0.51 0.6

x 0.51
Sb x
Sbcx

## Flood routing in natural channels

Conditions:
Courant number

ct t
C

1
x K
Physical boundaries of x

0 x 0.5

## Flood routing in natural channels

Muskingum routing equation:

Q2 c 0I2 c1I1 c 2 Q1
c0

Kx 0.5t
K Kx 0.5t

Kx 0.5t
c1
K Kx 0.5t
K Kx 0.5t
c2
K Kx 0.5t

c 0 c1 c 2 1

Date Hour

I, m3/s

c0I2

c1I1

c2O1

O, m3/s

4/9

6 a.m.

1000

1000

Noon

2400

-408

530

640

762

6 p.m.

3900

-663

1272

488

1097

Midnight

5000

-850

2067

702

1919

4900

-833

2650

1228

3045

4000

-680

2597

1949

3866

4/10 6 a.m.
Noon

## Flood routing in natural channels

Local Inflow:
Four-point method:

Q2 c0 I 2 c1 I1 c2Q1 c3QL

2t / K
c3
2(1 x) t / K

is sum of c0 and c1

## Three parameter Muskingum method:

dS
I (1 ) Q
dt

S K x(1 ) I (1 x)Q

## Flood routing in natural channels

Kinematic routing:
Continuity equation

A
Q I L
t
Manning equation

Q KAR 2 3S1 2