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Cornell University Library

UA646 .K78 1890
Armies of Euroj

3 1924 030 725 836


archive. http://www.y Cornell University Library °?J The original of this book is in the Cornell University Library. There are no known copyright restrictions in the United States on the use of the .


Eng Printed by Q. Fuertji Bavaria . LihveneoJm.

.and. |. Ld . Published ly William Clowes & Bam. London.




. . o}<Ko Contents .'CONTENTS. .


when war-clouds are darkening the horizon. Roman days." Thus runs the proverb which sums up the experiences and history of the most powerful Empire of old. and organisation of the armed for it is to all who take an J in military become acquainted with the strength forces of the different only by a study of these Armies that relative value of our own. it. all reorganising their Armies to a high state of efficiency in accordance with experience taught them by the great wars of the the last thirty years. para bellum ! desirous of peace prepare himself for war. get to know the . A. interest we European Powers." PREFACE. however. how much more If this applicable is maxim held good it in the old to the present time. \ It is ^therefore (necessary for matters. or in foreign politics. and are There ! and the governments of still. and threaten to burst in ruin and devastation on are. few who have nations all who have nations have been for and bringing them some not heeded the warning not heeded time. o»}> " Si vis ET I him who is pacem.


etc. although applied to other than For their meaning.TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE. taken place during the progress of this work through the press. in text. November. " The German Army. Russia. at the alterations that have France. 1890." the translation. v. 21. A few words of the original have been retained German p. . G. such as " Landwehr " and " Ersatz. to and date. oW«o I^HE matter contained up -*- Italy. countries. the in following pages has been The Corrigenda refer to the corrected end of Germany." There are no corresponding English words.



(Iagvee Bpg&s). LBwmtokn. Fuertli Bavaria Off'iace of Ro^al Hopge Sptillep^. .Engla i j imi Stuff Off'iocr Off'iaep of Rij^le BpigacLe. Printed by 0.

. Published by William Clowes & Bom. II.d. London. L.


is but then she powerful on enemies her it by and threatened is eastern an island. 57. able-bodied single Army forms Taken it. who or Native. of of contains. to fit it. which chiefly concerns the British taxpayer western frontiers.. however. and with which we have This being so. help. 1 true. so we will defence. 864.000. To European other over versal conscription. however. the Cape.000 Volunteers . Germany's proportion 1 is some people say that it is That. and shoals of other includes colonies in every quarter of the globe. large enough. in the British Yeomanry Great Britain and Ireland alone do not altogether. This a large proportion.°°° . inhabitants.— ARMY OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE. however. 11.000 Army Indian Native 152. and 2nd Class Reserves Militia and Militia Reserve countries over . alto- J average of about — combatant to 350 non-combatants not The first thing that strikes us about the Army is that. roughly as follows of Imperial roughly. like It is ho other army in the world. it a large proportion.. . square Strength Army. Australia. This apparently large number. every Canada.000 world like the British Empire. . with a large reserve of * This article has been entirely re-written by the Translator. to build it up. small Army.* oXKo THE British Army constructed on a is purely original system.000 Colonial Forces 84. and need not moderately a ourselves to contemplating its confine actuaj The Empire 9. 134. that we have an Army which numbers we should Regular Forces 1st and miles.000 uni- / follow the principle which under- the military systems of whether their 202. all absolutely necessary. composed of This principle is that of keeping a small number of troops under arms in peace-time.. and for its defence all we must have an Imperial Army constructed Let us see what we have got. this an gives man. — in fact.000 326. British has been trained bear arms :{*the Regular to not quite a quarter of gether.000 men at the outside^ India.000 —namely. we can do with nothing to do at this moment. whereas We are as 'the first line of to our Navy and look and his pocket.000 these (yet) size. are all countries. is nothing like is not by any means too large is a question to 99. that there is no empire The Empire. although of a decent size. defend { It is lies : . and for this very good reason.000. constitute the Empire. 224. have recourse to the system of armies conscripts or not.

the Militia. It is not generally known that there exists Colonial. in . the small number In under arms the Active to be called out in case in peace-time Army. a great way. the Yeomanry. are the only country in Europe whose soldiers are thus enlisted. —This the" Em- Bgbodiment of *o with ^T\ ||the . like ment is one that 1815.* and the large reserve by the 1st and 2nd Class Army Reserves. on the other hand. between the may be but taken here with the Mounted (Tropical Irz|anti?}?. The Militia Ballot Act. those to be more Recruiting * need be soldiers who want Militia. with a slight as sketch of his history. force). mode must not be confounded enlist- only be This Act has." hereafter.) Active Army. as far other all they do not like I is liable be enrolled liable to army whether they Army. both represented by is British. advisers. an Act* which has to be suspended annually the Militia Reserve. and sufficed hardly a matter for con- this is gratulation. mode it would be as well to give necessary and terms enlistment of of the country may service of the British soldier.B. the system has till us hope we never have shall it.) . of recruitment throughout of voluntary that is As mentioned we above. the Recruit- ment. not been enforced since advantage for us in may In other words. the strength • Army of our chiefly is dependent on the number of men who happen to fancy soldier- * The Colonial forces really form a 'class two. Fieia Kit. men ready trained of war.ARMY OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE. of raising troops N. however. (Tropical Fieia Kit. Indian. of which but. our case. The system the Army ment. and by Parliament (or else it would now be in the Volunteers. and ing. it empowered to conscription. voluntary as be determined by the Crown's or not. for the is many men CaValpO. enlist- The subjects of European countries are jn the and. This it. let : to change Up now. as a rule. by which the Crown Before starting on the details of these to raise by ballot as different forces.

* and branches of one or two other the Service. 5 t{) (j^opfjjamBerlancl) Fugiliei??!. have the alternative of the usual term. Malta Artillery. Recruits. Formerly. ( The terms of service are. of would-be are annually rejected by the doctors.ARMY OF THE is carried out by paid BRITISH EMPIRE. at the date of their enlistment. recruits' . " Queen's Shilling " done away with. been recruit has now expe'nse. recruit usually got drunk. to men join- ing the House- hold Oj^ieei?." and is then considered as enlisted. Cavalry. ancl laigljt Sulgetflancl Infant*^ an3. f Re-engagements up to seven or twelve * I. etc. must be at least 5 ft. and the to get drunk at his own on The however. Officer?. recruiters (non-com- missioned officers) in the different districts. and must have a minimum chest- measurement of 33 inches.* Rpg$\ of Higl)lan3. 4 in.e. or three years with the colours in the Reserve . West India Regiment. as a rule. high. must have the physical equivalent of 19 years of age. the recruiting-sergeant used to clinch the bargain with the would-be reciuit by presenting him with a which the shilling. the recruit signs his "attestation-paper. Colonial smaller Corps.. Higl)lancl. has. After going through certain formalities and answering certain questions before a magistrate. enlist men for twelve years with the colours for the Royal Engineers or Foot Guards . whilst the and nine years Army Service Corps and Medical Staff Corps men and a few others serve for only three years with the colours and a varying term of years in the Reserve.e:£% t More than 40 per cent. seven years with the colours and five years thereafter in the Reserve. / Th ere are a few exceptions this .

3.. . They views on the subject. in changes able I. only own army is Parliament has fact. to proportion rapidly increasing. a ) The Feudal Levy was abolished. years with the colours are permitted in " raising or most. tenants.. upset the in war.. recruits better class of reign. a similar force. however. The Regular Army consists of Cavalry. the cases. 1660. i. took 2. was in force. The Honourable Artillery composed of a very good class of men. consider- the foundations were laid of the present It men The Active Army Standing Army. sion of arms. in his a to civil to a standing would cease This county. i. against' its consent otherwise the Army ' to exist.e. if from the criminal classes (as some people . Company. in order to keep the The abroad. were trained and exercised in the profes.- Voluntary enlistment dates* improving. 1.'s Civil and no National to improvements 1.. Organisation. Artillery. and for we find in the last century that debtors: vassals of every knight were required to and criminals were obliged to serve attend their master ranks. in the Army up The pressgang was to' also in force when he went to till 1780. was raised about drawn chiefly from the labouring and not this time. the retainers. General Levy became the Militia. take up arms in war or liable to serve force thus the event of He invasion. by means of army.— ARMY OF. hire additional mercenary seem soldiers to assist him and these educated were paid War. bound if he went to fight knights in their turn were strength. the general military system. but it apparently has not During the Middle Ages the feudal system always been sufficiently productive of men^. a. to look upon the Army as a end of the sixteenth century. the Standing has gradually been increasing and.besides non-combatant branches. by in Charles On the Restoration. THE BRITISH EMPIRE. and is still decreasing. the knights and their followers. The Army is now Trained Bands. the imagine). formed was called the General Levy. was Towards the grandfathers. Engineers. law. and absurdly is is divided into The Regular Army The Native Indian Army and The Colonial Forces. They need be under called the Feudal Levy. The Sovereign could. for - The Parliament. and that they still hold of the General Levy were told off for the extraordinary and utterly unreasonable service and defence of the Crown. members sink of iniquity. Since Charles was. these are the and Infantry . and some time there was Army. Army . It is hardly astonishing then and thus a very respectable that some. great many. and may be news CThe small as compared with that of twenty years ago. ( is military crime of to-day place. nay. from his reign. . This people have been taught. and up to twenty-one years in special. I I. .'s time. ill-educatecL army was formed for the time being. however. some people that the of is now enlisting. traditions handed down from their greatto attend the king fight apprehension about letting their sons and received the name of and relations enlist." but At Sketch of keeping a standing army within kingdom in such is time of peace the a very early period of English history every year to specially notify man was bound ever y able-bodied tory ofOur Army. necessary.

the Dragoon Guards (Blues) (Household Cavalry). 7th. wear steel or they probably behind leave -: 1 < to 7th). and by their offer forage-cap yds. or yellow stripes. and a few The Cavalry Cavalry. active service. on the contrary. brass Dragoons 3 Regiments^of " 2nd. the Ordnance Store Corps. blue pantaloons overalls. and * Blue in the 16th. and white Lancers. and + Crimson in the nth Hussars and brickred in the le've'e dress of the officers of the 10th Hussars.The Hussars wear the of their tunics. " plastron " . and is in. and they have also six rows of yellow braid British Cavalry the world. as good . are and carbine regiments a red and white pennon. and the Household Cavalry has in addition thus white leather breeches and jackboots for France.quartered abroad. 1st and 2nd The Household Cavalry. is the smartest in In the Cavalry of nearly foreign armies. Medical. Dragoon Guards (except the 6th). nth. Lancers wear the well-known Lancer cap. Cavalry. 4th. is sword Lancer the Cavalry carbine brilliant riding Cavalry a addition carry the lance of male bamboo. who wear bearskins). in riding. . it is a first-rate in the 17th British divided into Heavy. The in The regiment. 1 6th. sequence selves in by the The The Cavalry full dress* ear... their natural qualities arms . -including blue. of the across the All the tunic. f or with red. colour according to the and with scarlet * the 17th). 12th. 9th.— . The 2 Regiments of Life Guards (Household Life Guards and Blues are the only regiments who wear and these cuirasses. busby. Chaplains. busby-bag with front in plume and of different colours according to the regiment . and do not need to have their horses so thoroughly trained. and the Dragoons (except the 2nd Scots 7 Regiments of Dragoon Guards (1st Greys. consisting • of the ARMY OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE. ' Hussars are never . 13th to (3rd. the horses are trained to a degree that is their unheard of in the English arm men require but and may be described horseback. -all the rest are medium TheLife Guards. little skill soldiers on Ours. ' 6th). tunics. Dragoons. would on Regiment of Royal Horse Guards. are born horsemen. and Veterinary Departments. are heavy.throughout stand them in good stead. and light. the the remainder of the Cavalry dark scarlet. and 18th to 2 1 st inclusive). front. They. Regiments of Hussars 8th.. white. the Pay. . and 16th Lancers wear more. (5th. the Medical are Staff Corps. Army Service Corps. The The of the Martini-Henry a bore of -450 and dash they turn to good sighted up to i. Cavalry wear dark. Dragoons. 13 glumes varying • Regiments of Lancers 5 with Germany all and for instance.0oo account a situation which might otherwise little weapon. with is in difficulties. Light. according to the size and weight of the men. 15th. pattern. Cavalry). Their that when our men find thema predicament not provided for and with Regulations. and always worn over the right con. helmets. Medium. consists of 31 regiments. and (1st. 10th. is serious is small round one.

and 6 other officers. adjutant. drivers). and 2 " vets. 3 majors. 10 Mountain Batteries. and details altogether 114 2. men. 16 subalterns. 6 ammunition same.—— - ARMY OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE. including draught-horses. The into chiefly for tactical reasons. : O. O. wagons. 666 rank and 614 file. Field Artillery. The Artillery forms one ment. 16 non-commissioned officers. and 7 other wagons.'s. 1 captain. 122 rank and whom of file. paymaster. use are at present of four different patterns Regiment (4 squadrons) (of which 73 are 193 horses. A Cavalry Division numbers 2 brigades (6 regiments). C. 6 guns. C. tillery. surgeon. and 96 Garrison Batteries. 6 captains. but with 9 144 horses. officers. 1 battalion Mounted altogether 325 officers. 21 subalterns. N. and 6. and 160 men 26 are dis- A The guns in composed is of:— I lieutenant-colonel. and 2. The establishment of a Cavalry Squadron (2 troops) in the field 6 is 1 major.600 men.500 horses.280 officers. and details 6. in- quartermaster. Horse and Field Batteries are formed groups of 2 or 3 batteries."" consisting of "Royal Regi- : 20 Batteries of Royal Horse 80 „ „ Artillery. Infantry." cluding 75 N. and A 3 : — . with several dep6ts and for their 3 dep6t batteries maintenance and supply.200 horses. 2 batteries Horse Artillery. A Cavalry Brigade numbers 3 regiments. A Horse Artillery Battery consists of men and much 52 horses the less.'s. and horses. called Brigade Divisions. each under a Heutenant-colonel. Field Artillery Battery of and mounted.

(between 350 and 400) serve and Al S ). Sergeant . in officers India. scattered every quarter of the globe. plume and and scarlet. their and especially those of the officers. and the Brigades attached are not neces- Militia sarily Eastern. and Maltese Men in officers for the and men. round. battalions. in. and black felt helmets with a brass ball instead Ofj\azr?. and brimless one. employed either at home or in a colony on staff work. South ern (42). and the rest in India.: ARMY OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE. (29 is corps of Royal Engineers as far as possible. each gun and gun-carriage being 5 One mules. the] wagons The by- bullocks. others are divi- sions are divided Enginee connection with Native Engineer troops though these of is which are given below units. of the Horse Artillery are dressed dark-blue Hussar-like busbies with a white busby-bag in is composed of is . one in battery carried in pieces on is in England (New- South Africa. by of corresponding with the different points of the compass in Great the batteries composing in dep6ts. port). jackets. in . way As will be seen. The Mountain and Western Artillery ones. number with their Western! (2 a small. according to their branch of the elephants. public works. The Royal Malta Artillery defence of that island. are and armed with Martini- either swcrd or sword- bayonet. are extremely various. them. armed with is 2^-inch 7-pounder jointed guns. f| Henry carbines. (£olcUtr>e:am Gruapcb!. . batter ies). officers A are employed sometimes men and sometimes large apart from number of R. The rison 1 e r into Artil- duties. E. The 3 divisions the Eastern.' arm. the remainder of the Artillery dark-blue tunics with red facings. 6tj) Dpagoon dmapcU (CapBlneepg). Southern.Dpummep. with a band of orange braid. guns o which are] drawn by] They of a spike. is y a forage-cap and other Gar- grouped The them are Britain.

proportion of the company.'s. number (about 40) of independent consisting of one dep6t and split up and quartered through. making These companies. happen Formerly the Corps was composed of a to be. of The companies however their independence 4 still 1. employed. sapping. their work. The and A 1st Battalion consists of the 38. C. 184 sappers. 32. all (c. whole consisting sections).and 8 other wagons. allels. the Ordnance -Military Militia and Volunteers. In Nos.) (g. 27. and 42). M.'s. officers. and 13 Company O.duties too numerous to mention. 25. O. and the 2nd of Nos. each troop num- ployed in defensive of 3 divisions. 39. recruits. 21. 15 22 C. i2o yards of pontoon- bridge. 6. 17. 26. 20. 29. C. 11. 37.16. 41. 24. forming the bulk of them. A military telegraphy and railways. service 22. and are nearly file well-educated men.— ARMY OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE.'s.) Submarine Mining Battalion. 70 horses. and 190 horses. all em- on the sea- works coast. in digging. troops. employed are • as their the Engineers form the Scientific Corps of field-works. and other battalions tbey have been and formed into collated together different now is composed as all ranks. 35. 8 Survey. with 2o pontoon. and all work connected with either former the attack or defence of fortresses. (b. 36. 330 men in all. which the repair and keeping a great up of fortresses. Field 2 companies. 13. In war-time they would extent. parpreserve to according to requirements. each Battalions.) 4 Survey Companies (Nos. In.) A Coast Battalion of altogether about 240 : (a. 3. and blowing up places. Corps follows and 30. are numerous. are employed in 2. and 23 independent peace-time they number altogether about companies. companies. being quartered in widely divergent design arid execute siege-batteries. A (d. divisions war. bering the officers.) 17 Fortress Companies. etc. . fact. 1 2. engaged in the Each troop carries Ordnance and other official Surveys. 5. S material for 28 N.) (in . and the rank the R. and 183 (f. on active Army. 18. of varying strengths (Nos. O. 7. 14.) Bridging 2 pontoon of 760 of 40). The officers are trained in the Academy at Woolwich. vehicles. from oneto one-third. men. work relating They number 820 men. of mechanics and trained workmen of 6 -skilled large service. Now out the Empire. the 4 N.) Field 26 N. ranks. Dep6t 8 employed in Companies. The duties in laying lines of field telegraphs.. 15. 4. 28. localities. and making themselves generally useful in gallantry their branch of science wherever they may their a field. 34. II according to according to the locality in which they are units. 31. and 19). (h. A numbering about Thejr strength varies (e.companies (the old Nos. 9. worth as consist many been shown on their A Telegraph Battalion of 2. consists of 7 officers. consisting Battalion. is name implies. 171 Their vehicles. 33. work does not soldiers has That interfere with their and individual instances of and horses. 224 men. and a host of other . Engineer fifth Schools. and which are the training and drilling of in to the Corps. mounted. 1600 men.

I it. unfortunately.300 men. years ago a distinguished Russian general said to an in of respectively. day but. with yellow edging. wear a black and gold pOuch a "of sash. Highlanders) consists of Corps and Rifle Brigade) of 4 battalions we and 1 two' (60th King's Royal Rifle . Windsor and Dublin velvet.1885 : " No one but English soldiers 'could repairing of railway lines on service. bearskin. total of Royal Engineers in The therefore about 7. with white or red has certainly not deteriorated since his respectively. "It is the best infantry in the is . Are your men or affirmative. 420 more men The Grenadier -peace-time Officers The Coldstream Guards. worn on the top of the head. v. The forage. are' distributed in different Scots Guards. sorts. The Brigade of Guards consists of three 400 men. had more Total 141 battalions. Infantry. and equipped verysimilarly to the Infantry of Line (q.. The Officers belt instead facings are of dark-blue The British Infantry The Brigade is West At home. have . Guards took rule has its exceptions. which is employed in a great variety of duties too numerous to regiments — mention.) than enough of them in And the Crimea. Coldstream is and dice well-known plumes for respectively. . 2 Railway Companies (Nos. with bands of for the three regiments The armament and equip- precisely that of the Infantry of the Line.prospective campaign in Canada in 1864. parts of the world and in military schools of different Guajds. round.— : • ARMY OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE." io). luckily. The late campaigns and by the Royal in Egypt. armed. however (1882 and 1885). of which there. more numerous now than " much not are the shape of the facings and in the headgear. there battalions five of the Guards differs from Line. in the if Of the 69 Regiments of the Line. Napoleon the Great said of the British Grenadiers Infantry: usually that of the Infantry of the Line chiefly in of Guards (3 regiments). which number 140 men together.are 3 battalions. the India Regiment. They may. The grand which there of which there are 2 battalions. one (Cameron battalion . said : "I English Guardsman am sorry for ever have to fight you again. and the other two in The uniform composed of 69 Regiments of Infantry 1 part.done what they did." not is it it The red. is of. of. . 8 and (i. be "the These three regiments form the SoveBody-Guard. ones with a broad yellow band and no -brim. and men are dressed. and Moltke said of the late Nile Expedition in would be employed in the laying and . the remainder of 2 battalions each. and do not usually reign's by the broad red serve out of Europe." (k.) A Supernumerary Staff of nearly Such remarks speak for themselves. however. are 2 battalions.). the It . Two it. as fine a lot as they were '54?" and on receiving an answer is being the latter forage-cap much ment was then. world go to prove that every quartered in London. and the Arms in front of the helmet. white. caps of the rank-and-file are small round in all of which two or more battalions of readily distinguished on their •stripe trousers.



The regiments




now .called

after their







are drawn,

their recruits

which their dep6t







now known by


county or part of the. country



recruits in,

with occasionally the addition of a few









Light Infantry.

„ Infantry



Watch (Royal




of course, clothed

in scarlet tunics, with facings of





dark blue,







English, Scottish, or Irish one.


head-dress of the

busby of rough


Cameron, and


and a few other

details differ

of the Infantry, whether

Light Infantry or not, wear* black






Their forage-cap



the "Glen-


The West

India Regiment consists of

two battalions



negroes, officered


battalions are quartered,



West Indies
on the West Coast

and in our possessions
shaped similarly of Africa. The men are dressed
in white





a red and white


turn and turn about, in the


to the Guards' bearskin, but


Seaforth, the Gordon, the

helmets with brass spike and fixings, the

four Rifle regiments,


Highland regiments are the

The remainder

Infantry, with the exception of the






at present black,




be exchanged for a black-

will shortly

sporran, hose,



in the various regiments.



The helmet

They wear the feather-bonnet and wellknown Highland dress plaid, kilt, hose,
white gaiters, and shoes.
The tartan,


9 Regiments of

head-gear used to be

Rifle regiments


such as "Borderers," "King's the

" Loyal," etc., etc.

Of the 69






In that Astrakhan fatigue-cap, with plume for

to 109.

system was changed,

year, however, the

and a regiment




and the

a Hussar-like black busby.

of 109 regiments, mostly of

numbered up



to 1881, the Infantry of the Line consisted

each, and

wear round forage-caps,


plume, the


jackets, with a red vest over them, loose

wear blue Zouave knickerbockers,
and yellow
remainder gaiters. The head-dress
is a turban.


The Infantry, whose weapon for the last
regiments are clothed in a
seventeen years has been the Martini-Henry
very dark green, almost black, uniform.
rifle, will very shortly be all armed with the
The Rifle Brigade facings are black, those new magazine rifle,
which has already been
of the 60th K. R. R. red, and those of the



other two,- Scottish and Irish Rifles, dark to England after Waterloo, and their uniform
and light green respectively. The first two was so greatly admired that the 60th and 95th,
mentioned are historically connected with who were in process of being changed from
Hussar regiments,* and consequently the Light Infantry to Rifle regiments, adapted
their Hussar uniform to the Infantry pattern.
* The Black Brunswick Hussars came over
* With one or two exceptions.









The new

considerable number.



may be





expected that each


be able to carry

A battalion



however, and







50 rounds.

composed of
which is a black tin box, holding eight 8 companies, each company numbering 3
cartridges, and suspended immediately in officers, 10 N. C. O.'s, and III men on a
either singly or

by means of

the magazine,

The bore

front of the trigger-guard.



being only



coated -with a hard metal


composition, for

if it

were of

lead, it

by degrees choke





300 yards, and










blank up to

sighted on the back sight

to 2,000 yards.





4 majors,



have been tried with

It shoots point



numbers above 90 men


The powder


definitely fixed

great success.




peace-time, the






would consists therefore of—

" strip " in the grooves of the barrel,



303 inches.

of Infantry

a hanging foresight


6 subalterns,

etc., etc.),

91 N.C.O.'s,

975 men,



16 carts.

These horses and carts belong for the
yards nearly two miles
The cartridges most part to the Regimental Transport,
are so small and light that more than twice which has been issued to each battalion
the amount of ammunition can now be forming part of the 1st Army Corps (of


can be sighted up to 3,500

carried than

was possible

in the

case of which more hereafter).


the late weapon.

The new bayonet
implement than the
like a large




Infantry Brigade

shorter battalions

late one, looking

knife than a bayonet.


more war-time 130



of four





4,350 men, and 530


An Infantry Division consists of 2
name of the new rifle is the Burton-Lee.
The equipment consists of a valise and brigades, 3 batteries Field Artillery, I
canteen, suspended by leather braces to squ&dron of Cavalry and details total,

the belt, a havresack, wooden water-bottle,



10,060 men, and 2000 horses.

An Army Corps is
and bayonet-frog. Inside the valise is carried
of Infantry,
the great-coat (under the valise flap), and

articles as are

being, such




A new equipment, slightly different from
the above,


now being







Engineers, Cavalry squadron and




all, etc.




necessary for the time and

as"' boots,







men, and

10,000 horses.

The Medical

Staff Corps consists of 17 Medical

pouches are attached to the belt Divisions, distributed throughout
and numbering altoin front, holding twenty rounds Martini- Britain and Ireland,
"officers and
Henry ammunition each. Thirty more gether about 400.
rounds are carried in the valise and havre- 2,000 N. C. O.'s and men. The
With the and
sack, making seventy in all.







Army Medical School at Netley. This changing from station to station in accordCorps does not include the Indian Medical ance with different rosters and requirements.
Staff Corps.
The whole of the Regular Forces, with




The Army Service Corps
r corresponds to
the former Commissariat and Transport




deals with the issue

and general


transport, duty.


and Brigade of Guards, take
of rations their turn at foreign service in India and
is divided the Colonies. .As a rule," one battalion

into 37 companies, distributed throughout

.Great Britain, and Ireland,' and numbering



3,363 N.



regiment of the Line

of each

for sixteen years, arid is




" fed " with

Chaplains' Department consists of



hardly be called a good one, but

a regiment are sent abroad, can








There are four







it is


For foreign service

denomi- to suggest another.






and, soldiers








probably only

a hot climate.







as "

send them out as full-grown men.

Church of England."







and Pay,


remaining for




Of the Regular



and need regiments

of the





of Artillery, most




duty thoroughly, and theo


It is








be so with the

battalion, but if the complaint-makers

were to journey to the Colonies and see
battalion, they

would soon


Great Britain their opinion.

Great Britain



and 73 battalions of the other


Infantry are



" beardless boys."

Forces, 21 regiments of





Vete- often seen in the newspapers that certain

not be detailed here.





necessary to keep and train the

prevalent in England are officially entered

it is

England, no use having the youngest and unmatured


other of the numerous sects of religion



and men, and from the other battalion at home. This
system, by which all the best and soundest


1,300. horses ,and mules..

Heavy Cavalry

the exception of the five




sometimes occurs that both battalions

are abroad together, in which case the
3, and the Channel
Districts, each under the com- depdt of the regiment is largely increased;

into ir, Ireland into

Islands into



of a major-general.



are sub-divided into Regimental Districts,

in order to feed the two.


each of these latter comprising the recruiting twelve to


fifteen years,

stay abroad from
and are fed by their

ground, depdt, and Volunteer battalions of depdt.
a Territorial




Line Infantry) Regiment

of two Regular and two or more Militia


both Regular,



more than two years

in the


one of the main


of recruiting by.

and Engineers, conscription.

Of the Regular Forces abroad, 9 Cavalry
The* regiments, 88 batteries of Artillery, 3 com-

and Volunteer, are


apportioned to each

Regular Corps of

This foreign service



arms rarely remain panies R.


the same quarters,


are in India;

and 53 battalions of Infantry
and I, Cavalry regiment, 27


e.such as guard mbunting. and a Bombay Medical Department. the badge on his helmet and shoulderstraps in- service. a force of Marines having served up the Nile with the Camel Corps. ing on shore under and in all climates. E.e/igal.. Per Mare. 4 Regiments Sikh Infantry. Infantry (8 companies). Their uniform and equipment is very similar to those of the corresponding may Cavalry. batteries Artillery. Cavalry (6 troops). Infantry. The Army Army 1 composed Cavalry.000 Volunteers. 3. i. Corps of Bengal Sappers. Madras Infantry.. 7 Infantry. are strictly three i? divided into the Armies of the Madras. 5 Punjab Mountain —a globe with the thoroughly ap- posite motto of " Native Indian Army. 4 batteries F. troops enlist for nine or fifteen Most of the years. forming of Bengal numbers cluding 7 Lancer regiments. and The English in the Colonies. Medical Corps.. 13 companies R. officers are Corps of those Presidencies. 4 Regiments Punjab Cavalry. including Natives enlist for any period of service. Several Irregular Corps. The 'Marines have done well wherever they have been. Artillery. Corps of Bombay Sappers. although not coming which they have entered after serving forat under the head of the Army.— — ' ARMY OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE. 45 Regiments Bengal Infantry. Engineers. ' Madras numbers Lancer regiments. and numbering altogether of 4 Regiments Cavalry. 33 Regiments The Army of Bombay numbers a. They enlist for twelve -years' ship drawn from the 19 Regiments of Bengal sea in every single campaign since their divisions. chiefly no doubt owing to' their long service. The Native Corps of Guides. etc. . In garrison they perform the sarhe wdrk of a and on board part of armed force on boat service. A Marine always be told from a Linesman by Central India Horse.000 men. 2 Bengal Mountain Batteries. . service.. and 6 regiments. 2 of which are 2 'Mountain Batteries. etc. 20 battalions of Infantry are The Royal Marines. 2 of which are Lancer regiments. etc. 4 regiments Cavalry. military character. partly It is E. 5 of Native Hyderabad Contingent. some of our steadiest troops on branches of the Regular Army. fight- of conditions development not a Horse-. working big guns. Corps of Madras Sappers. and Bombay Presidencies. 30 Regiments Bombay Infantry. per Terram.. from three years to thirty. Artillery. one year with their English regiments. is by Englishmen. and Madras Medical Department. Least yet soldiers in the widest sense of the word. of the Marine is all sorts The latest qr.. and still form. for nine years duties as the Regular army. Light Infantry (48 companies)." Indian Batteries. and may re-engage more. They consist of two Artillery (16 companies) and formation in 1755. about 152. chiefly Englishmen.000 men. — Regiments Cavalry. They.. in all nearly 14. The Army have been engaged by land and for they Staff Marines. . etc. and. but a Camel- Marine.. and a Medicals Department. officered Regiments Goorkha Light Infantry. 6 Regiments Punjab Infantry.

000 more than 45. the Batteries varies according to locality. called out for about Native twelve days' training in the year. most the for very keen part BRITISH EMPIRE. a very small permanent of are troops. West Provinces and Punjab. to of costume vary Artillery.may be especially those that except Empire are hundred there permanent forces under arms. mental Divisions. in in Infantry. A Native Infantry Regiment consists I battalion of 8 companies. They mostly correspond to our Militia. A is Native Reserve is amount to over 600. of West Indies and that said one every of our number a certain trained service almost every colony. The system of enlistment and varies in With protection. The uniforms of the Indian Cavalry. according to them are In very few of some requirements. with an 2 battery Mountain Artillery. —even islands in the ments. and an consist of with troops. for native wear uniform. officers. The country country would Mountain men being formed.'s. Native about Total. . own its soldiers. „ Independent companies. but the other is Canada are 4 regiments of Dragoons. 2 companies. native forces of is the Martini-Henry being exchanged for rifle. in establishment of time of war. „ 4 Independent troops. and drab head-dress details The green. C.000 of these however are regularly trained. usual much too The English some regiments the officers Garrison Artillery. Engineers. and are candidates waiting for admission. O. The etc. The Infantry is armed and equipped called out for an annual training only. about 820 is number remainder the There universal liability to service in the Militia Each Infantry regiment is linked Reserve for all men between 18 and 60. 74 battalions of Infantry. and Medical Staff Corps. A Native Brigades and 13 batteries 5 4- description. O. others an English one. it men for home defence.. few of the smaller of a has Colonies accoutre- horses.— ARMY OF THE 14 must be physically and fit physically They equivalent to a full-grown man. In many regiments the men have to find everything firearms for the exception come from the North. establishment of 10 English officers. Militia. one of them supplying the that in case of war the armed levy of the other two with men. S troops each. so with two others. establishment of 9 English N. and these again into Brigade and Regi- not yet completely organised. Colonial Forces. 19 batteries Field Artillery. officers.'s. 540 Of the above privates. in Pacific. there is a Royal and Royal Schools of . and food. 21 Cavalry regiment consists of 4 squadrons of N.500. of Rifles. popular regiments there are several the British similarly to rifle of "the is Snider and pattern. ranging from scarlet to yellow. on their pay of about eighteenpence a day and yet . privates. The Their Infantry. strength 38. The raised Colonial Forces consist of those by each Colony of the British Besides Military this force. the turban. officers. but is ! Not divided into twelve Military Districts. C. of Hussars. 5 Army are very variegated. College..

Mounted Infantry 160 4 Regiments Let us now turn to the Reserve Forces at home. altogether. or eight served years with Reserve.500 men.600 men. Infantry. „ Defence" men. and Artillery Corps.— ARMY OF THE Instruction for Cavalry. all Infantry.100 men. Tasmania has a small force of Artillery Natal possesses a paid Volunteer Cavalry. about 1. Militia Reserve. besides a Reserve. total 930 of all ranks. consisting of Corps of 1st Class —"Permanent (practically a 3rd Police Force). Artillery. Cape Colony has a force of about 4.300). and classes. I Field and 2 Garrison Batteries.350 men. and numerous Rifle Garrison Volunteer Corps. . possesses a force of Volun- Victoria has a force of several Cavalry and Military Police (370). about 84. —640 altogether. Militia. composed of besides case of Engineers. New more Rifle A total of 7. and a „ Corps of Cadets. 2nd Class Cape Mounted Riflemen 15 every male between 18 and 60. Class — "Volunteers" — about 1. will . account either the Native Indian Reserves. Jamaica possesses a force of Volunteer Mounted Infantry. all ) Engineers. " " 4 Lines of Reserves in national danger. Artillery. consisting of— Artillery) Regular b of } 940 Volunteer „ . and inextricably mixed up with the Colonial besides a Forces already described. 1. Hong Kong including Volunteers. 4 battalions Rifles.500 men. and numerous Mounted Rifle Ceylon possesses a force of about 900 Corps.700 men.000). Infantry.500 and 2 regiments of Rifles. Naval Brigade and Naval Artillery Volunteers numbering nearly 500 men. Mounted teer Artillery 8. or the Colonial Militia or Reserves. not take into ranks. Volunteer Light Infantry. have raised small in the West forces for their defence.000 altogether. and Artillery Trinidad and other islands Volunteer Artillery. and Militia.800 men Volunteer Artillery. numbering altogether over 4. Total Rifles. — 135 — Defence —2. South Australia has 2 troops of Lancers. ranks. 2 bat- talions Rifles. 200 of all We and Volunteers. composed of the two classes of Army Reserves. and Rifles. as they are Reserve Force of Cavalry. „ Infantry.100 of all ranks. BRITISH EMPIRE. Singapore possesses a paid Volunteer Volunteer. Total Colonial Forces. Artillery (1. Artillery. Engineer Corps.300 men. Field Artillery. Force Indies of Militia Infantry. and Military Police (1. consists their three. of ranks. numbering altogether 2. . created in Army men who have seven. South Wales has a force of 6. Yeomanry. 2. batteries 13 Western Australia has a small force of battalions. and 7 or Infantry. Mounted Infantry.700 of all ranks . New Light Zealand possesses a Corps of paid Horse Volunteers. 2.400 men. as they are not yet fully formed. Army of Reserve. Queensland has a Defence Force of three The 1st Class 1877.

the The dep6t of the regimental district. and 6 of Infantry The. '' from the for These annual of Artillery. the having they discovered then that in the Mediterranean. other battalions. and have subse- out. every year's service in Militia. and a Militia officer the letter in have never yet been so called" out. or upward'at the end of the training. En- Militia Reserve to complete their service to twelve gineers. The Channel re- Islands have 4 regiments. are liable to . for. the to 3 1 Infantry of the Line as their 3rd and 4th or there are not quite 3. liable danger. men. quently to undergo only twenty-eight days'* training a year with their corps when called Militia the*- numbers altogether. in . 1 regiments different composed regimental districts.000. Le. The then pass to this comprises Artillery. separate corps. and BRITISH EMPIRE. . engage for periods "of four years up. and belonging to the of Some serve out of same regiments have only one Militia battalion attached. before Sevastopol. paid advance. their Militia- to an embodiment in Army war The Reserve. trained for six months or less at. forty-five years of age.000 entered the Regulars and fought join is a pecuniary one.4 ARMY OF THE I« who the Colours.160 men. we had . Infantry consists of This class numbers over attached their old one. be called out ' for M The men Militia consists of voluntarily- power to enlisted for six years. £ 1 It to bounty.000 men. - . They are then dismissed In cases Militia may . case of or national created embodied. They do not classes of men. Militia is Both classes are liable to the only distinction being that a Militia an annual training. The men would then either join to the Eastern. ten battalions of Militia were garrisoning our possessions . Great Britain. 1866 of body temporary a uneasiness to our absolutely no reserves whatever. twenty-eight days the " receive regular pay. The inducement i. for to * Though liable to . in which is and served twelve years battalions. and no fewer than in case we went to war. be Militia attached to a regiment or corps other than The or. an extreme authorities for 1867 as in for men consists' of Militia remainder the engagements. The Engineer their own regiments or be formed into the Western . or Reserve Militia enlisted emergency. others The a few other special of. equipped.. with their consent. men During these.e.30. and Infantry. armed five. of those numbers 7 companies. of Militia years Eeserve six are. •3 2. Militia. the was national numbers altogether 103. and 9 to Division. The 2nd Class ' Army men who have Reserve. clothed. with addition on his shoulder-straps. of be till next year. during the caused for instance. attached to the regular happen only in case of war or national Garrison Artillery Divisions as follows :-— danger.500 men. but private wears the number -of his battalion. This has occurred four Austro-Prussiah times already in this century Crimean War. recruits are Malta has 1 regiment of the latter. for active service. and identically with the Regular Army. with a " bounty of ioj. They years. 21 to the Southern. fifty-six days. 54. The called out.service at The home Artillery consists of 34 brigades of and abroad when called out this would Garrison Artillery." expedient . with the Colours' and then choose to enter as many" as this Reserve.


Printed by O.«n R.£«>n3. Iaon&on Rifle Brigade. V. . V. Sergeant. konclon Seottial) Ppivate. Fuerth Bavaria <j p 3. LVwetuohn. Ro^al Buck?. (i6tg Miaaiese* R.). YeomanP}?. Fidel Offiece.Eng Private.

Iaonloa Ipi^ (i6t§ M. III.. . Hptilkpj? Company ^. x P t.. D.e.. v.aaie*e* r.).md.?b (aoig Miaaiw* Ro^al Hptillepy.. ife Kent Bvtfflerg E. Lf London. Infantry ani Tpoopep. Majop.. r. Ppivate (fall Mapef)ing Op3.p)'ana Offiatr?. Hon. ^H tea*"** v. v.) Publiahed by William Clowes & Son*.->m '% Ppivate.


and Medical Staff Corps. Volunteers are liable to be called out for from the Government but have There is no to find their own horses. The Corps were The rifle of the Volunteers is either the Martini-Henry or the Snider. for service in part of Great Britain in case of threatened invasion. and may be considered as coming under this is though of course such a not to be dreamt Artillery Volunteers are divided into 9 Divisions according their to locality. 35J. a every and £2 year to efficient 10s. The catastrophe companies the 8 Infantry). and to the regular regimental districts. that all Corps It will in is. of. 10. Volunteers are exempt from service in a certain number of head. otherwise of different sorts they are not con- sidered efficient. The number of Volunteers is unlimited. arms. on the eve of the invasion. but strenuous efforts of Engineers. The organisation of the Volunteer Corps . 6 troops Light Cavalry. The Volunteers forming 62 Corps. expected time present a similar Volunteer Brigades have now been formed. appearance to the Regular Forces. and has gone on steadily increasing. The Infantry comprises no and and public I battalions. Yeomanry in Ireland. It however. any gives a Capitation Grant of called out. Auxiliary Forces. Engineers. the Government. and forms finding themselves in everything except Now. 17 The Yeomanry is composed of 39 originally intended to be self-supporting. an allowance their arms. are being made in this direction by private Railway Staff-Corps. The Yeomanry numbered. both Artillery. for and a . place. county regiments of Cavalry. military They and cannot be employed as a body in aid of the receive no pay. out annually for only one having awoke to their importance as a They are liable to be great national reserve for home defence. main distinction of silver or white-metal and each commanded by a colonel of embroidery and buttons instead of the gold or brass of the Regulars. however.! ARMY OF THE Yeomanry. more and sergeant who obtains certificate of proficiency. Mounted be out of of 1 The Honourable Artillery Company (composed of I battery Field Artillery. is. and have to attend drills year. distributed and attached less than 211 enterprise. throughout Great from green or scarlet to drab or grey. Britain. a species of Cavalry Militia or Volunteers. in case of a threatened invasion. 9 Divisions Submarine Miners. BRITISH EMPIRE. different 31 Infantry in appearance. the Volunteers might. clothing.739 men The Volunteers consist of a large num- Corps different allowances and pay during their for every receive training. They are called week's training. Militia. in addition. every Civil Power. however. in 1889. although not strictly Volunteers. all disappear within fourteen days ber of Corps. the active military service in Great Britain. teers. or suppress a to They Volunteer on riot. with 2 A Corps of Light Horse and Rifles. if they chose. Their uniforms vary greatly in colour. with the each consisting of five or more battalions. since their formation in 1859. are not yet thoroughly The Engineer Volunteers form 16 Corps equipped for service. a fact that. by simply giving notice of their wish to retire little legislation on this point might not Infantry. - Volnn- their officer for lists.

than that which he belongs 216. The there.e.999 efficient Volunteers. identical with that of the corresponding attached for two months each officer. Machine-guns. spend two years examinations Woolwich. entrance.e. etc. School (b. and then enter his gunnery. the those out passing Establishinents. ' • — The mode jf Officers ' candidate. and Infantry 1 battalions company at the . through the was considered much the there is not much easiest.) instruction of officers officer. " final " then pass an examination equivalent to the Formerly Sandhurst "final. rifles by means of use on horseback) to the Army a competitive examination. to choose latter this Militia. a force served five years at least with his regiment. two branches of the to the Regular Forces. formed of volunteers from the different quartered there.s. a ( -) and of.. where experiments are carried out or Infantry has two routes open to him. List. where officers and N. Sandhurst. of : Staff College near Sandhurst. entitled to put p..) Gunnery of at Shoebury- wishing to enter the Cavalry ness. non-efficients and then to. either pass a competitive "pre- liminary" and "further" examination for gunnery College Artillery (c. the Veterinary School at of their raison join.) School of Military Engineering at regiment direct (if successful in passing the the examination). etc.. C." mode of. 1890. concerning. undergo two annual trainings.. and the others the out of place here. etc. after his of entrance Army Army the Regular is to of officers follows as : —The is then name in the he .) in tried. the is a force that Infantry with be of the greatest will in case of war.— ARMY OF THE i8 is " BRITISH EMPIRE. if total 224. being trained. examination. at the latest accessories to the in the shape of Mounted Infantry.c.'s in the and experiments details in Schools of (f. etc. For the past two or three years 2 companies at Aldershot. small arms. which Army Medical and the School of Music at Hounslow. School of Musketry at Hythe. but now between the A candidate for the Artillery or Engineers has two pass to M. whose titles sufficiently explain Aldershot. A glance high up Other Military establishments are Military at Gymnasium and School at Netley. battalion. remain there one year. and Cyclists. besides 7. O. Entrance other service There were on the 1st January. R. for (e. Here he remains instructed in the for two years. at — Instiuction. i.) Artillery. in the higher branches of Royal Military College. Army cFitre. and new inventions He may etc. and experiments in engineering tried. after he has ingly. The an the Aldershot. little. . Academy. or else' he may be Chatham. and higher branches Having passed the of final is acquirements various necessary for a good Staff the Signal- may not be Engineers.'s of appointed as 2nd lieutenant to a Militia different Corps are put through a course.021.022 rejoins his own regiment . O. " final determines which branch they are to a the in merit in which the cadets pass the As use ling two. (d. and N. C. and then order join rule. his and in profession. Accordlittle by which would be available to act as such on active service. officer may enter The authorities consider Mounted Infantry (i..

On the conclusion come on the follow- into Serious Corps. we shall not in the following be found wanting. attached to it. and the Colonies. to till assist the Army Corps at the field has. for. pages. or to perform a hundred other horses. The duty act as of this force on service will take the Infantry. It is The above gives a tolerably fair idea of the strength and constitution of the Army proposed that every battalion of In. the men are sent back regiments. but enough.ARMY OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE. it ing winter. however. to be formed into battalions when required. also lately been started. chiefly Volunteer. and a fresh lot Army of Army to their culties have matter. 19 mention must be made of the Army been trained during the winter months to act recent apportioning of the British Regular as Mounted Infantry. as fantry and regiment of Cavalry should in future wars have a Machine-gun Detach.of the British Empire. to transport from one place to attainable they by ordinary may be pushed village. Cyclists. but Army has also been shown to be barely there are at this detachments Corps of moment but few complete It is. The Navy. Curragh. worked by I officer although the best in the world. arisen regiments are since diffi- organising in this always These companies are intended on the move from point to point at home. is it but ment of 2 machine-guns. consisting of 50 1 men each. seems very everything needful. doubly Army a high at fully supplied with we ever in order that if into collision with one of the colossal questionable whether they would ever be come of any use in a hostile country except to European powers detailed carry messages to and fro along good roads. Thus It forward to attack a the 1st hold a defensive position to notice. but with a rapidity of that even one Corps is should be ready shortest possible been done. it is not yet and 12 men. large it have pitch of efficiency. though as yet it is badly off for Cavalry. . Our Regular of men have been trained in this work. and an accomplished is on the high road to completion. is still our first line of defence. India. A large number large enough for our needs. it true. Army The 2nd fact. task indeed to arrange so difficult Infantry. and therefore. or between home.has been for hundreds of years . duties of Infantry far in front of the real Infantry. necessary to keep the in existence. have Finally. the course. supported by other Infantry. is a very another un.

and faithful and loyal internal hostility was frequently the result. and each small principalities. The interests States. and on the 18th Franco-German War. Ger- title the of William forces of I.tions. have. At the same time the different States many consisted of a were combined.U Coupi |ull- . peace In of these war ranging as Ger- present own man Army Army is and United this under the they did from command of the kingdoms down to Emperor. own by was to see them means of special all united into one military convenEmpire. the each with its Government and its own Army. whilst keep- King ing their William of Prussia troops. ctae??. attached fended Army. that the January. drapcle: 3. oXKo The Empire. The great aim of one service. is the result.. Pptiggian Coppst. William of Prussia was preliminary arrangements were made for declared Emperor of Germany with the -* was the the forthcoming consolidation of the Ger- man Empire. by one themselves Aided by their forces and still the genius of Bis- closer to the chief marck. the negotia- military tions were brought the power of Empire. Ppujsjsian te Husjsap of <auap3. Several of the States. TT in the autumn of 1870. and multitude of States. man is bound by were extremely oath to render him conflicting.THE GERMAN ARMY... 1871. Up to that time. and de. during to a successful conclusion.


(Mapefjing Opclep. Fuertli Bavaria (Fiel3.-3. LSwensohn.a£ OpIcp. ) Pp&ggian Offiez* of Housjsapa.) Ei .?.. Infantry.German Qpumm<zp Ppu&sian of (auap3. Printed by O.

L . Published by William Clowes & Sons.npire. I. London- .


SaxeT and interior out.Landwehr Reserve divisions. On namely.Weimar. which have concluded conventions with her : Saxe. — THE GERMAN ARMY. Landwehr is divided into and these are formed into Reserve Divisions for the Active Army. f " Beurlaubtenstand. touches to it. 1.third year. The February. Organisa- man service. Lippe. The The Army may •. Wiirttembergers . period of service is as follows : 3 years with the Colours. finishing of bound complete the and serve when required to Army in the field. or for garrison duty at Lippe. Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. tenburg.This body can only be called out in case litz.are enrolled in the 1st Class Landsturm. rule. it was amended by weeks in the second." re- . Prussia. Part of this Reserve undergoes a Introduced on September training of ten weeks in the first. Lubeck. first of all. thirty-first On year. 1 8 14.— . Oldenburg. deck. as a- fortresses. and per. and four weeks in the These are considered as the law of the 16th April. and Grand of national invasion. Army Corps Wiirttemberg 4. Bremen.the Ersatz Reserve) or in the Landwehr. Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt. * Or in the Navy and Naval Reserve spectively as required. lenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Stre. holds sway completion of their to this law. recent edict of the Ilth has so that put it the now throughout the whole Empire. four groups bound is a 7 years in the 2nd Class Landwehr. for 1st Class complete units. the the According men are sent to the Landwehr and 2nd German who is physicapable and who is in the enjoyment civil rights.serving in either the Active Army (including Hamburg. Schaumburg. six of the Army. Grand Duchies of Meck. of Baden. the other hand. • with his 21st year.* 4 years in the Reserve of the Active Army. Saxe-Al. 6 years in the 2nd Class Landsturm. the light-blue its have red piping round still A . Duchy of Hesse. but have.e. The Ersatz (i. and acts. the two principalities of Reuss. the Bavarian In- and the double-breasted tion. fantry has kept Saxons skirts. every cally Men " t to serve as a soldier. if called reserve for the above-mentioned Meiningen. escaped being sent to serve in the Regular Army.who are fit to bear the ages of 17 and 45 arms and who are not burg-Sondershausen. of those owing to surplus numbers or other causes.. their chief visible sign thereof is seen in the variations of uniform from the Prussian pattern. 1871. 3rd. Wal. The — — (one) Universal Conscription is the keystone home. as their tunic. Supply) Reserve consists men who are physically fit. coats. The Saxon Army Corps (two) Corps Army Bavarian The 3. fected by subsequent laws passed in 1 874 belonging to the so-called "Furlough and 1881. 1888.* 5 years in the 1st Class Landwehr. (one). The commence to 1 his Terms of Service. is class. a few of the larger States have reserved themselves a certain independence management of outward and in the The armies. All men between Schwarz. 2. Grand Duchy. wear By and grey great- tunics be roughly divided into time the soldier this is in his 45th year. strict Thus. Brunswick. : The combined forces of Prussia and The 2nd Class Landwehr garrisons the the following States.

during two trainings is of several weeks each. if Officors. officers in the following they have behaved well and If have subsequently. . knowledge for his daily task. they bout of compulsory service.. forty-fifth the untrained portion of the Ersatz it due order. be open to reference every to educated social man. and even to the highest ranks. lies time in the higher schools in order to fit himself for the profession he has chosen. period time. men of their i. in case of war. and there they remain till the termination of their liability to service. and for this privilege they have including officers and one-year volunteers). . it would be of the higher schools or else passed an impossible for the State to support such examination before a commission appointed a huge Army. After one year with the Colours they This gives the are sent respectable peace-strength the 468. to enter the service as of the constitution has the peace Army is laid cent. and that furlough " to and food during the period of may become manner as recruits. however. The road to the the young man who requires to spend some higher. 22 Class Landsturm. to complete the For the labourer.409 down not to exceed one per year. shown themselves professionally and It stands to reason that with a three-years' socially qualified to become officers. about 156. is on the Active to find themselves in uniform. : their service.e. this interruption of business is of small strength. they the studies which are to prepare them for are commissioned by his Majesty and and that at a become full-blown officers of the Reserve. who needs but little active establishment of officers to war- their particular professions. It is far otherwise. industrial or scientific. whilst attached to a the one which allows of One-year Volunteers. If the ballot is favourable.. with cream of the Army.000 annually enter the ranks They There " of Reserve. If every single able-bodied were to be taken for the young man Regular Army. and for those handicraftsmen whose work demands but little brain capacity or culture of any sort. a large portion of are balloted for by the officers of their the youth of the country are interrupted in district. and their represents the people officers represent the moment. PFor this reason the law for the purpose. Army that men (not volunteers on completing their seventeenth Of these numbers a supplementary clause to the law of universal conscription. of the conscription law This disadvantage makes itself felt in proportion to the progress in education and general culture made in the country. The German Army under arms. equipment. Reserve remain available The for service up to and then pass over their thirty-second year. THE GERMAN ARMY. when they can least afford to' lose the These have. two disadvantages would accrue to the State intricacies of soldiering as one who is less intelligent. For Government allows this reason the on the one hand an immense amount of young men who have either received a industrial labour would be lost to the certificate of educational efficiency from one country. At the same time man who has the obvious that a it is assistance of a well- and 2nd Classes of the Landsturm educated and well-trained mind does not require so long a period to master the to the 1st in year. Corps. or in the have to fill vacancies as officers Landwehr. without standing or birth. and on the other. of the population.

such as Roon. either by the rient " possession of an " Abitu- by or certificate. will carry up to 2. "). the Service..* in qualifications service. a point-blank range of over 300 yards. head college). Cassel. Bensberg. the three great branches of the German service are Infantry. becomes he ("Porte-epee Fahnrich sent to a military college There he passes a final military knowledge. The German Infantry is * armed with a This Corps is chiefly composed of the sons . in Prussia that may arise.the cadets are many who bear celebrated mission must possess soldiers' names. An military for satisfied the authorities subjects. of which the candidate must give satisfactory proof. Physical on the whole chiefly a military one. both in and Artillery. lieutenant. A in of officers. etc. and. Steinmetz. at Lichterfelde (near Berlin. they are enabled Berlin. Although the training in the Cadet Corps stem thereto. * Or rather. is Fahnrichs of are called an is Mention avantageur. and Munich. Thus that of a first-class civilian college. Neisse. It is. with a bore of "315 The inches. and on receiving branches of military science are pursued a certificate of satisfactory service from in the United Artillery and Engineer his superior ensign officers. Metz.. and capital magazine-rifle." he undergoes an examination may also be made establishments in which the the " here of the " Porte-dpee (ensigns) are instructed military colleges . and the military education As much College. Hanover. of they : Potsdam. which is called the " Train. for examination in if balloted for officers of the regi- he joins as second School. Staff akademie). A good general education. generally with the At the end regiment he intends to enter. 1. Infantry. As in all large armies. including 3. and Munich in Bavaria. the candidate now on these serves as a private for five months. as officers are Kulm. with * Corresponding somewhat to our University Degree. new for use either at a long range or in close college will shortly open in Karlsruhe. excellent who training receive a cheap and education. Infantry is intended which is distributed amongst establishments to go anywhere and fight anywhere. Engers." As everybody knows. therefore. and is all contingencies armed with a weapon Dresden Saxony. will be.— — -THE he only have the necessary GERMAN ARMY. Tr. which. an and is a year. to pursue a civilian greater ease than their if education had been purely military. Anklam. The higher in military duties. Plon and Oranienstein. the latter of 40 to 45 per cent. Having have calling with good eyes. in the near future. during which he this time. and The training entire of the country are managed by an InspectionGeneral. qualifications 23 proverb that " the apple falls close to the " is well exemplified here. Glogau. Potsdam. " left when they in after-life.400 yards. honourable character. yet an the cadets receive an education equal to passing examination before a commission held 2. hand-to-hand fighting. Cavalry. for amongst Every candidate for an officer's com. (Kriegs- Berlin. . etc. etc. successfully ment of his by the choice. equipped for Wahlstatt. Canstein. besides the En- gineers and Transport Corps. of the drawn from the Cadet Corps.

in company . is and fastened a small spade). lish . The bayo- r net " Grenadiers indicates. same amount - pngjsian of these troops . each battalion received a Grenadier comGrenadiers were now introduced into every civilised army. moment's notice. the knapsack braces. which com- pressed the man's chest considerably. These pouches hold. and three pouches. spend somewhat more time and pains on and holds their musketry than the other troops. both march and in action. on the of Frederick the Great were the flower of consists of a knapsack with large mess-tin his Army. name powerful France. great coat. the whole of identically receive exactly the equipped. particularly bayonet. The old division of the Infantry into Grenadiers. XIV. four Grenadiers were new Eng. they were given name. and Fusiliers has now no significance. under at first subsequently.. sword- men were Tor Louis. were originally intended to very simito sprang into existence in the seventeenth century a throw hand-grenades amongst the enemy's is lar WiifttemBepg. 1 50 rounds. and thus the foot-sol.applied own equipment. a the German i§e Train. This new arrangement also obviates to a great extent the discomfort caused by the older pattern of equipment. they short ranks. and remained Grenadiers only in name came to be to particularly fine bodies of troops The Prussian Grenadier battalions dier has to carry his only. two in front and one behind. altogether. Sepgeani as their this object. " first of their weapon. 24 The magazine de- is training. the they Infantry being all from a historical Nowadays. The equipment special muskets. with the sole and of instruction exception that the Rifle battalions..THE GERMAN ARMY.pany. except point of view. oj> and selected. cart- 8 id ge s. attached to each the bayo- As rule. or out of. water-bottle. and in memory attached. whole thing can be put on or taken The off at a by simply buckling or unbuckling the waist-belt and slipping the arms into. (Jager) tachable. bayonet and scabbard (to which latter havresack. Musketeers. but as there was seldom an opportunity for the employment net.

the Rifles were marching past arms their predecessors bore. nature regiments of 3 total S 34 battalions. you scoundrels the first contradistinction to represented The seventeenth century. the numbered and battalions each. the musket him in close order. 119 and 123). the now Later. the old king shook his and the rifle (fusil). . and there pmemory of the old Grenadiers. distinction only remembered through the old is the chaffing of the heavy Musketeer. branch receiving ceased. to US)- and marksmen. of which there exist several. 100 and 101). and 86 of the Line). in "Fusiliers" come from the different fire. The On Infantry good Light Infantry have been developed par their recruits The Guard are and' Grenadier 12 Prussian 1-12). well Guard Grenadiers. Baden Grenadier regiments (Nos. get out of that. Bavarian Body-Guard regiment. 89)." a large knife (lit. and they have studied in the school short.— — —"" THE GERMAN ARMY. and the Fusilier songs. when one day. i. Frederick the Great was the make regiment 2 2 . they can find their way about a strange country.ager as Light Infantry. excellence in the Prussian Rifle battalions. 25 Infantry regiments received in 1861. Regiments of proportion of very large forester class of the country. his Vive le influence roi et is ses Guard Fusilier regiment. the Regiment motto engraved on Foot-Guard Prussian 1st wears the old sugar-loaf brass helmet still on big The of "Grenadier Regi- title ments. however. and made them march the Fusiliers. the attainments required for that branch of — 21 Rifle battalions : 4.. and it is the watchword of the Prussian Rifle- still men Frederick recognised that of to-day. in the skirmishers and Rifle (Schutzen) : first and " 12 Prussian Fusilier regiments (composed to train the J. who order. 80. they are the very men 1 of I Saxon Grenadier regiments (Nos." which the first Prussian twelve their " hirschfanger " stag-sticker. and whose burden out of that. Such men are. still worn special by keepers for the purpose of giving the and other review days occasions. of 1. only bestowed in order to keep' green the the true method of employing Riflemen was to extend them as skirmishers.Potsdam. Infantry. 33was the 40/73. Hessian Body-Guard regiment (No. the Infantry.a German 4 Regiments of Foot-Guards. seen to this chasseurs " day. They with firearms and can shoot 2 Wiirttemberg acquainted they can put up with considerable hardships..e. . 109 in and no). The Fusilier on outpost or element their in and are Regiments are patrol duty. 1 from the gamekeepers and have of necessity been already trained in Regiments Grenadier regiments (Nos. peculiar qualities necessary for These draw 171 ! past in extended the 1st of April. names of "Musketeers" and a story which tells how. Grenadier Mecklenburg (No. 1890. on same it is Light the each firearm. was stag his coup de grdce) in his day. first introduced into crutch-stick at them and shouted: "Get The France Musketeers were at in Heavy Infantry. into Grenadier regiments (Nos. and Nos.

93 „ Brunswick.and 139. No. 134. though weapon. Nos. of Rifles .. 111-114. distinguished by throughout Rudolstadt. order. man and fore be reserved for this Of battalions Rifles (numbered apart).e. latter dismount and Total. Rifles. 14 battalions. THE GERMAN ARMY.Weimar. Cavalry. Nos. 135-138. i. Six belong to the 3rd group. The 4th The Hussars. Wiirttem- weapon chief sword. are Baden. 41-72. The main Nos. and I they are . best powers of impetus of the charge. 95 „ Saxe-Meiningen No. 91 is Oldenburg. that the use firearms on all carbine (Mauser. 12. 8[-8s. 102-107. Cuirassiers differ from the others in being Cavalry Nos. the old significance.. . the is may happen Nos. and 140-143 No.— . the Dragoons.. 116-118 are Hessian. pace till at the supreme moment an (Jager) battalions are thus irresistible mass is hurled with crushing Line. 1871 pattern) officers foot. Saxony. No.e. which are of the from the The rest Rifle divided : force Prussia 1 : battalion Rifles of the Guard of the Guard Schiitzen battalion II battalions (Nos.e. g6 training. Schwarzburg- that of Besides the group. the armed with a long of Reuss. 128-132. and 144. the This dates from the time of Frederick the Great The Cavalry ground. 81 are Prussian.97-99. Bavaria. i. is between them its different No. the Lancers. Bavaria 1) battalion the Line Mecklenburg 4 and 15).. Of generally confined to the attack in close the remaining Line regiments. commissioned i. 13-32. open Seydlitz. whilst curved. first group. 13. i. 26 i Mecklenburg I Saxon Fusilier regiment (No. 95 regiments of the shock. : I . and it is a fact that the turning-point of an action has often been decided by the mere the Prussian whole German arm has the best Cavalry record. receive an identical the 108). The Cavalry of German Army and Saxe- and equipment and arms Saxe-Altenburg.e. who made use offensive tactics of bold which led to . the whole of the this is Nine belong to the 2nd group. 1-1 Saxony : (Nos. 87-88. slightly is As it men may have to being armed with lances. the Cuirassiers. 120-122 and 124-126. is divided into four groups. at The horse must there- moment. Coburg-Gotha. has 1 8 regiments the straight sword. 133. chiefly on the ranks of the enemy. Although both branches of the Cavalry. and the two principalities berg. „ Anhalt. yet the distinction has not yet entirely lost close is intended quarters for and fighting on and his celebrated Cavalry leaders Zieten. 74-79. Total. This must numbered apart be the result of gradually quickening the of the Army. at useful the non- and trumpeters wear a revolver instead. 94 „ Saxe. point in a Cavalry fight the is the moment when they come into contact with the enemy. and go). and Their use on the battle-field is and clever others. 92 No. armed with a present they are . Rifle (Schiitzen) regiment (No. Heavy and the Light. and without any 3 battalions Rifles of the Line use whatever of cold steel.


.ep. Liheenxrfm. fuerth Bavaria Iaaneef. (Review OpJerC) i 1 v k-'-^'d&m^ > SaXoti Iai^e-druapcUman (Review Printed by O. arccl 0p3.) OlclenBapg Bpagoore ancl Bpunswick Hujsgap. §aj(ort ^^> Hop?e-Spl!llepV' Tpumpetep.) German E jfiw^ Saxon Rifleman. (Mapeljing Opclep.

) mpire. h . ® uap ^* man (Full E>p***0 - Bpagoon. (Irpenacliep >/. ^alen II. Published by William Climes & Aptillcpjj. London . {csklercBupg-Segwepin & Oji|iee:p oj> Kesxian Bpagoon _g (Bismoantecl.ip\p ' Sergeant oj? WiiptemEepg (M&pefjing Opclep. ) Sons. in Jsivouae. Wcipl«:mBa«gfclhfan. (auap&gmart (auapclss.) (Mapping Op&ep.


The Prussian Regiment of Corps. by few.yet with the lance. Although it. still the regitraining. battle of where the Although enemy. " What do you think of Dragoon. . the Prussian soldier is groom.THE GERMAN ARMY. and capable of con- endurance. from which they take their of the day Frederick the Great was with name. and service in consequence of its weight and said anxiously to Colonel von Wacknitz the knights of the Middle Ages. just introduced a dorf. WiipiiemEetfg. with thorough discipline and tactical forms a Royal body-guard. is is Gardes-du- ex-officio the King equipped and armed in the_ same way as the Cuirassiers. 1758). whose chief of Prussia. 2^ grand results at Rossbach. : inability to keep off the enemy's bullets. and other actions. at the outward appearance most resemble Zorndorf (25th August. it ? My idea is . Zorn. In so that addition. siderable fast. conjunction These a capital in to take its place. The Cuirassiers their in saying of the are the troops who from Commander of the regiment. the Russians. have brought the German Cavalry ment has seen a considerable amount of to a height of excellence that is surpassed service. Colonel von Wacknitz. Prussian horses genuine knightly weapon has been brought are powerful. they are particularly suited to military service. History tells of a memorable qualities. the Gardes-du-Corps. has lately been abolished for field his regiment. were getting the best the cuirass. Leuthen.

the which they caused such con- among the French. although it had been the most popular weapon of the The Dragoons were Middle Ages." said the fortune : as Frederick the Great unparalleled in history. 28 we shall get the worst of the action. action. a sort of tribe. " It is a feat that said my " : Your Majesty. and terror amongst the enemy 1870-71.THE GERMAN ARMY. however. of the results of shooting when mounted. was that of the regiment of Anspach. the took them for a wild Kirghiz of the the war of in as far as their hail. besides a large hoof. 1745)." in the language of that region. battle "Very good. and jn the year 1800 they than 20 battalions of Infantry. with sternation mounted infantry. the inconvenience of foreign element about them." This regiment was. The uncer- tainty.500 * The word Uhlan means " belonging to the prisoners and 66 standards. from European armies on the introduction Cavalry pure and of at the present time they are horse-soldiers.* For Turcos. is. and many are the songs to combine the fire-action of Infantry with which record their successes in camp and the rapidity of movement of Cavalry. the " Hussar-father. no " is lost. or the African The name that the idea of an intermediate arm. during and could and however. Activity. The was won. brought to perfection. the only mode German. and the The country saved. fight The raged on foot or on lance. in where the Gardes-du-Corps opinion. battle the Prussian Dragoons. boldness. many a of Zieten. Queen's and is now 2nd Cuirassiers (Pomeranians). with a The Uhlans (Lancers) who spread such Cuirassiers. and in spond to the Prussian cheeriness are the attributes which make a good Hussar." Hohenfriedberg (4th June. showed plainly as time went on goes. from Tartary. weapon of the Uhlan. and In Bavaria the two regiments of Cavalry. not yet be the eighteenth gradually formed into simple. therefore. The Bavarian Chevau-legers correspond of the day was decided by the brilliant and successful attack made by this regi- to ment and record testifies to their gallantry in action. and field.German Empire. took 2." spirit Heavy and of old Blucher. disappeared almost entirely century. were therefore armed. firearms." Bayreuth Dragoons in the battle of Consisting at first of only 1 "company. Frederick the Great One of the most celebrated Cavalry attacks armed a body of Light Horse with lances. and Polish After the second 1745. the . In this their strength was increased afterwards to regiment rode down no fewer 10 companies. for their dismounting or mounting according as to of fighting whether the name this reason. corre.and gave them the name of "Bosniaks." still lives in the Hussars of the of Horse Guards and Carbineers." number of guns Von Wacknitz lowered his sword and said. The Dragoons were light burg originally intended musket and bayonet." the king. Steppes. the Russian Cavalry alone retaining Silesian war in it. French such as the essentially is chief horseback. turned a Cuirassier into known as the regiment. Dragoons of the Frederick William came The BrandenElector great greatly to the fore in this double capacity at the battles of Warsaw and Fehrbellin. on horseback." And then charge. have not charged. "Field Marshal Saxony the regiments Forwards. at a later period. horse-soldiers only.

" les caused distant. one ment being ordered on Uhlans. the to a high state of readiness Frenchmen was good men when a the active part of the regiment at district „ regiments." and the corps was divided into of the squadrons remains behind as supply- several regiments. 18 and 19).on 1 1 1870. ulans! les 8 Prussian Cuirassier regiments. . 29 were founded into a regiment under the altogether of 93 regiments of 5 squadrons name of "Towarczys. experienced in each total. duty to is In 1870 the replace the partially-trained or unserviceFrench peasantry called the whole of the able horses by good ones. efficiency. and 1 Saxon regiment of Carbineers.) By enemy that the Bavarian HalEercliep. and 2 Saxon „ regiments (Nos. e. Saxon Horse Guards regiment. number whose was squadron for the Its rest. also to fill German Cavalry "ulans. namely : Body-Guard Hussar regiment. 1 th August.. 16 Prussian Dragoon regiments (Nos. 2 Wurttemberg Dragoon (Nos. 34 Regiments of Dragoons. 1 7 and fort- sur- to a Baden Dragoon regiments (Nos.. including The Garde-du. Nancy the . and regiments 6 Bavarian Chevau-leger Regiments. and the small ress of . : 2 Bavarian at once. appearance of a few of their horsemen a in time when flat- tered themselves far still this and gains greatly are in is means.e. 3 I Empire regiments Oldenburg Dragoon regiment (No." and the sudden up the ranks of the other squadrons with increased at a later period. 20- 19). On the regi- — war.— THE GERMAN ARMY. (Fall-a«a«s. the name was changed to active service. ulans!" uni- shouts Of versal conster- nation. 20 Regiments of Hussars. 1 Brunswick „ regiment. and. Uhlans. 2 Hessian Dragoon regiments (Nos. 465 squadrons.. More than one action.g. opened their gates at their approach. namely 2 Regiments of Dragoon Guards. and im- mediate flight. 25 and 26). 2 Mecklenberg (Nos. brought for There : 14 regiments of Cuirassiers. The German Uhlans were everywhere populous town.: : 1-16). required. 16 Prussian consists 18)." i. mere handful of The Cavalry of the German Dragoon 1 Vitry le frangais rendered Heavy Cavalry regiments. The Guard Cuirassier regiment. 23 and 24).Corps regiment. 22). " In 1808.

or battle. mode led to as taking of action from de corps which. . has results in the past. enemy from a long distance off. The Field Artillery is intended. An important step has been made in this the rest of the Artillery has but one r61e to play on the battle-field. 17 formed Empress's Body-Guard. blue tunic. and the abolition of their dis- them. 2 uniforms. no intention whatever on the part The German arm is divided into Field -direction of the authorities to carry out the idea to Artillery and Garrison Artillery. away Such their particular the deathblow of as measures all esprit we know. direction. 3° 25 Regiments of Uhlans. though There can be no doubt as a rule not more than four in peace-time amalgamation of the four have teams (4 to 6 horses each) to draw attribute account. form of which fly into about 180 Shrapnel shells (each containing shell sabre-work of Hussars. 19 and 20). during the visit of the Emperor of Their uniform is the usual darkAustria. such The shock brilliant of Cuirassiers the Horse Artillery guns having a bore of 2-95. the pieces). regiments They were first put on duty in August. The guns Dragoons and Chevau-legers.: THE GERMAN ARMY. 73). (Nos. The whole of the Field Artillery It is obvious that such measures would be is armed with Krupp cast-steel guns (c. with cerise cloth and of talk about reorganising the present force The into a so-called " General " Cavalry. like Guard Corps. and each with great accuracy up to about four miles. " (a inches. would more harm Saxon Uhlan regiments and 18). regiments mention ought to be made of the lately- 1-16). for action on the field of the different branches of the Cavalry. One particular branch of it forms giving them all exactly the same uniform. (Nos. distinctive serious that A must be taken into Battery is formed of six guns. with cerise collar and cuffs. namely 3 tinctive Guard-Uhlan regiments. and 1889. as its name implies. the Horse Artillery. and big knee-boots equally and thoroughly equipped. implies that all Cavalry could be called on to take part. They and the others a bore of 3-43 carry " double-ring shells on their big horses. like those of the Cuirassiers complete the and trained for any service in which costume. armed. mounted. 2 Wiirttemberg 2 Of late years there has been a good deal besides a full-dress white Cuirassier tunic. each has its themselves are handy to work. much Before closing the subject of Cavalry. There is. in which all the men are would never be entertained for a moment. and the mobility cf 240 bullets). extremities. Artillery. a total branches. two sergeants. The breeches branches of the Cavalry arm should be are of white leather. Uhlan (Nos. however. the charge of Uhlans segment with their fluttering lance-pennons. and carry particular effect on the enemy. Uhlan 16 Prussian in the produce end than good. and that is to come into action by the recent arming of the whole and do as much harm as possible to the of the Cavalry with lances. and 24 men. Bavarian Uhlan regiments. and case-shot. composed of one officer. fastened back with hooks. would be distinctly a The term move and this in the right cuffs skirts are lined Both collar and have white braid-lace on them.

latter (1 Guard 10 and 11) and 2 independent battalions (No. fortresses. There remain yet the Engineers and the is also proposed to introduce a common Train. It 3 F. — Saxony has regiments (Nos. 3i There are altogether 318 batteries of Horse Artillery. 2 talions Baden (Nos. Bavaria but ac- circum- to These stances. It 1 to 8. 25) is companies each. Of Bavarian Offiazp of Ijianeeps the next few years 4 alto- ments Artillery the Field undergo considerable changes well as in intended to give each in organisation. In the course of the each. A. The Artillery. 364 the 29 sian " are " Prus- regiments. be- belong to battalions. regi- ment of 6 batteries. and Bavaria has 2 regiments. and 1 (No. 34Field-and 6Horse gunners go by the Artillery batteries. 14 and 30). teriel as 14 regiments of 2 bat- and No. and also a common projecand 46 batteries of Horse Artillery. tile which would combine the advantages the whole forming 27 regiments. 24. and 1 3 forming 18 29). their simply ^work the big guns \ Field batteries. 12 and 2 28) forming 21 Field- The men of and 2 Horse Artillery employed batteries. is regiments. own. of gether 31 battalions. of the Siege-train or the has fortresses. Guard " cannon- They are armed with the Mauser carbine of batteries. 13). 27. Wiirttemberg has 1 12). Army Corps ma. of common shell and shrapnel. will each. ." the 2 1 87 1 pattern. name Grand Total. belonging to Baden. cording 4 forming regiments. Garrison Ar- 24 (Nos. each of 2 divisions of 3 batteries Thus each of the two Army Corps divisions of would have one F. The calibre of gun for the whole. Saxony has 1 regiment (No. 14). force. and the 3rd regiment would be available as Corps Artillery. sides 3 independent Hessian. in the Garrison Artillery are the attack and defence of They have no guns of Wiirttemberg has 2 regiments (Nos. Of of iers.regiment and Nos. .and 38 Horse simplify both the action and the supply of Artillery batteries total 283 batteries. 1— 11. forming 245 Field. the this Prussia has 11 regi- (AicLe-le-Camjp. The introField- To the Prussian group belong 29 regi- duction of this latter would tend greatly to ments. the gun. 15and 26. both Field and officers of the corps of Engineers are Engineer*.) THE GERMAN ARMY. tillery consists of 31) are Prussian. 9 A. battalion (No.

" To i. there is a it by the company).hospitals 1 bakery field bearers. in Prussia. 14-16). and Bavarian officers are not Hesse either with the " fortification branch.000 Railway that of a squadron is men . O. so divided. The above account gives a general Tactical resume of the fighting force of Germany. the construction of military railways the one hand. 12) . Besides these. the battalion (except in the case of the inde2nd and 3rd are Sapper companies i. Field Engineers. a battalion is. one in and 2 the dep6t of each battalion belong dep6t. : 14 others (Nos. on . and.'s and men." is a of these the 1st is a Pontoon company. and Army. and 12 wagons and men in proportion. 1. 32 divided into the Engineer Staff Corps 14 battalions. each of 2 to 3 companies. where the unit is battalion . including I battalion (No.e. and The war Artillery a battery. and Nos. and war-material The also. peace-strength of each unit is dependent. drivers : stored in Train depdts. : for sap-work. battalion). and the wagons are 4 captains. Engineer officers are employed Wurttemberg (No. Saxony. requsite for its efficiency. represented and Cavalry field-works. 1 1 adjutant (usually a lieutenant).. thus divided : provision sections. 559 N. repair. {i. and field . 12 lieutenants and 2nd lieutenants. on Railway Regiment are the Field-Telegraph the other hand. The Army " Train " (corresponding Service Corps) is to our for the transport of supplies. on the amount of training and Balloon sections. of fortresses. a is squadron. it is dependent on the state of the Treasury. In a less degree for . on the numbers required for Included in the its full strength in time of war and railway-bridges. and 1 Train company in " Wurttemberg. that branch which superintends the con- 5 struction.e. 2 battalions to Bavaria. The I Bavarian Railway battalion of 2 companies. This is in the Prussian group. 15 and 16). 12). There are 19 Train battalions and company. or with with the " Pioneers. ammunition.^* 8** It now remains to give the tactical organisation of the different branches of the In the Infantry. The Saxon. i-ii. 14). . etc." There are German Army nineteen Guard battalion and I— II.. generals and field officers) and 4 Engineer. pendent Rifle battalions.. in the Pioneer battalions. (No. Mining company.. Wurttemberg (No.and a dep6t (the Guard battalion. 13). distributed thus 1 one (No. and . 1 battalion to 1 battalion to Saxony (No. for and the 4th is a laying mines and subterranean galleries in siege-work. or " tactical unit. one Inspections " (captains and lieutenants). i. 3 medical detachments 18). construction of siege-batteries.e..— : THE GERMAN ARMY. The peace-strength of a Prussian Line and men of the battalion (4 companies) is of corps are trained in peace-time in the 1 major (commanding the Train battalions. in Baden. all sorts. Each in' in Bavaria. with Saxon and I Wurttemberg company).e. about 150 mounted Regiment of 4 battalions (including 1 men and that of a battery is 6 guns. In the in the strength of at the outside. section. etc. to Prussia. C. Baden 13). 1 and remount5 sections of transport. the smallest indepen- numbers 4 companies dent body of troops.


LiSv-ensohn.German Bavarian Aptilki?^ (Review Printed by G. E . Offiazr?. Inj>antpV of Ige h'me. Op3.) Fuerth Bavaria Bavarian Rifleman<..

pire. ana U.nZ*c$%). LJ London. Bluejaekefe (Fall (Fall R*« B«« an3 WoAing Rig). . Published by William Clowes & Sons. 111.


so that in calculating a rule. surgeons. has in addition 6 batteries of Artillery and 686 N. The Guard those in Alsace-Lorraine stronger. 667 horses. \%: Praggian 0||lee:p ancl Trumpetei? of Aftillei5 ^. or Wurttemberg. C. 7 others (paymaster. —A Regiment assistants. and brigade (2 three. Saxony 33 much is regiments and are somewhat the same. general as brigadier. form a Brigade. in strength. regi- should be The That of a Prussian Cavalry Regiment of arms squadrons 25 is (8 to 10 is first unit composed the Infantry division. assistant-paymaster. lieutenant-colonel.B. taken into account.— THE GERMAN ARMY. and. and troops the of Engineers. . peace-strength of the corresponding in company always. Corps. Infantry Divisions.). the regimental (6 battalions). with a regiments) of Field Artillery. of Infantry consists As of three battalions. I and men. mental-adjutant. 14 others (paymasters. . armourers. two regiments of Infantry Formation the strength of a regiment. in the field. veterinary surgeons. of all It consists of usually two brigades of Infantry and : one regiment of Cavalry officers. etc. or staff squadrons). etc. The ™' 1 Jjj three 2 or 3 surgeons.'s Brigades. the whole under command of a lieutenant-general.). medical assistants.. O. A but has one or two batteries of Horse Artillery attached. N. etc. Cavalry Division varies if possible. 4 privates trained as medical and I armourer-sergeant). five two of Cavalry Bavaria. under a Major- (colonel. Two.



Engineers and Train, constitute an Armjythe command
The Army Cor-ps








branches of the service, and


thoroughly independent.



2th (Saxon) and 13th (Wurttem-






Infantry, 2 Cavalry

Brigades (each







Field Artillery


brigade consisting



regiments), besides one battalion of Field

Engineers and one of the Train.

Corps also

from any
Size of




The Guard

constituted rather differently




German Army




Corps, quartered as follows

The Guard











Charlottenburg, and Spandau (with




Regiment, which




4th Guard Grenadier
quartered at Coblenz).


P. 25.

The German

173 regiments and


538 battalions of Infantry,
465 squadrons of Cavalry,

now numbers

19 Rifle battalions


total 538 battalions.
P. 31.





1700 guns.


increased to 387 batteries of Field, and 47
batteries of Horse Artillery, the whole

batteries of Artillery, with over


at war-strength,

Reserve, and

forming 43 regiments.

German Army
Active Army, Active

latest estimate of the




P. 32.

The Engineers number 20



2,253,841 men,


Army now numbers
P. 34.


peace strength of the


445,104 horses,
3,982 guns.



for the preservation of her very we have just been describing. and behind national proverb has it these again come the Ersatz Reserve and to come to grief in war had better try a : the Landsturm. Behind the existence. The Although this tremendous Army of close on two million of well-trained and well- on the armed men resources of 35 menace may at first sight appear a to the peace of the world. fall with Germany. who and that she has no intention of using compose the Active Army. on the plan of campaign. and strength of the enemy. As an old " He who wants 1st and 2nd Class Landwehr." . however. men doing their seven years of service. and strength will necessarily depend on the theatre in which they are to be utilised. to keep up these huge forces. come those of the them except for that purpose. still we the Empire will not. come to an must remember that Germany is absolutely end with the 20 Army Corps whose strength obliged.THE GERMAN ARMY.

and with him rests the and Royal are not taken for those who in the Active Reserve. carried out in the military system.000. is now abolished.000 its ranks.Army. 1868.). v. and for The reorganisation division of the is Empire into Cis- and Trans- five years more to the 2nd Class Landsturm. on conscription. divided into fifteen Territorial December.reasons. and on her southern Austria-Hun.. All by the iron bands of discipline into the " Imperial Army. i. The whole Empire is. young men who into the Standing or Active is and seven years Active the Austrian Army was entirely reorganised. THE next on the list Germany's purchase. that side. the true- able-bodied onion-eating Croat.e. is only partially same manner as in Germany (q. so that . of which Those Czech. There Army Austro-Hungarian in the is a varied assemblage of different races honest smart Hungarian. universal conscription is Districts these are of various sizes. the soldier is sent for five as one of the foremost in the world. the Hungarian. the the homeless gipsy. this side. now the Hungarian rule ) in the Empire. for military Leithania i. and the Landsturm.. After the Landpleted. are Army. the are yearly ad- fiery Tyrolese. . gary. the : recruits and proud the Austrian.The forces are divided into the Standing is powerful neighbour. ally. the hearted etc. the Ersatz Reserve. the whole Organisation. Service in the " Army for ten years to the Ersatz Reserve. as in inforcements for the Active Army. Landwehr is for two years have served ten years in the Army and Reserve or in the Ersatz Reserve. formerly alio wed. and the Army now takes its place wehr service. frontier. the thin Wallachian. Corps are not all of the In case of war. for various now almost com. of the Leitha. and for twelve years for those have been sent straight who thither. According to the conscription law of purposes. these have been welded together etc.. are sent which to provide re- Service in the latter is for three years with the Colours decision for peace or war. intended. The one-year Volunteers are enlisted in the a tributary of the Danube. hot-blooded nomad Slowak. and By this time he is forty-two years of age. The Emperor is Commander-in-Chief. represented in all mitted into the Standing Cis-Leithania contributes 54. and whole Austro- exemption the Austrian by same Army strength. the Landwehr. After the disastrous campaign of 1866 Germany. the Austrian.e. friend./ The years to the 1st Class Landsturm.— ' AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. . About 103.

they are com- pletely separated from their regiments. 10 and Active 2 Ersatz and 32 independent battalions of Rifles. the latter being regiments Hungarian ornamented with embroidery and fitting The Hungarian regiments like tights. The Rifles comprise the Tyrolese Rifle Regiment of battalions." a corre- sponding to our lieutenant-general. Herzegovina. have mostly a stronger peace- establishment than the others. Sanjak of Novi-Bazar . The 4th Field battalions. The Infantry. Officer of Infanlfg (Mailing OpcLzp). each The of 2 brigades. the and light blue trousers. each army consisting of three or more Army Corps. each of 4 Field and I Ersatz companies. The Army Corps consists of 2 Infantry Divisions. and the brigade by a major-general. on great occasions. in has historical white uniform. (2 to batteries of Field Artillery). wear lace-boots.e. / The . prises 1 Infantry of the Active Army com- 102 regiments. the shako. under one supreme command. and 1 3 company of Engineers. Cavalry Offices (UncLpegg). i. The usual head-dress is the fatigue-cap." A USTRIA-HUNGAR Y. by division is commanded " field-marshal-licutenant. each Division has in addition 2 to 4 squadrons of Cavalry. each of 4 Field and Ersatz battalions . Rifles are dressed in blue-grey. "Imperial and grouped into 37 Royal" Army would be three armies. and are used and the to garrison Bosnia. 1 battery division. The aside now Infantry its (since 1868) laid and is clothed in dark blue tunics or loose jackets. the remainder Wellingtons. so-called " Mobile battalions. Each Infantry brigade has and i battalion as a rule 2 regiments. the latter is in peace- time represented by a cadre only. Rifles. Besides the 2 Infantry of brigades. and.

weapon. their tunic of peculiar cut. 41 Reserve. soon renown equal to that of their Hungarian cousins. and Bohemians).A USTRIA-HUNGARY. 38 After 1866 the Austrian Infantry was and armed with an excellent breech-loader. Since the German Infantry Ersatz 41 The Cavalry Regiments have attained a certain moral superiority according by being armed with a magazine. and facturing expected that they and will have called Mannlicher. The away a question of Each regiment consists of 6 squadrons the re-introduction of this old Polish and a depot-cadre. and 11 afterwards increased to ten in number. other the headquarters of Corps and at Field- armies will soon follow. is Cavalry. 16 Regiments of Hussars (Hungarians). is done alike. . the the latter develops squadron (in which are trained the Ersatz Cavalry will. which will have been Reserve squadron for supply purposes. until Frederick II. fire the German after is its inventor. is armed carbine. — TV.consists of 14 regiments of Corps Artillery. and. Austria in the others. The Cavalry of the Active Army consists of— under celebrated leaders 14 Regiments of Dragoons (Austrians won for themselves like Zieten. it is said. the and the the latter as So quickly has the work of manu. The Hungarian The new Austrian magazine. be thus armed. These Hussars (from a 30 to 40 shots in the minute. The whole Cavalry wear red by the autumn of this year (1890) it is breeches. which nent in the Austrian Army and were long composed of men accustomed from their held to be pre-eminent in their mode of youth up to the use of the rifle. The whole with of the Cavalry sword and Werndl Regiments of Lancers (with Polish Uhlans' lances have been with since 1884. rifle." meaning " Magyar twenty. These were Emperor's Rifles. and the war. regiments after their pattern. the Werndl rifle. Hussars the jacket and clothed are nationality. The peace establishment of The Artillery comprises Field and Austro-Hungarian Cavalry the accordingly Garrison Artillery. on their small swift horses. are a peculiarly national Colonel institution. They are fighting. one repeating-carbines. and served out by next spring (1891). formed some recruited in the Tyrol and Vorarlberg.but Infantry. After the Infantry has been into one Ersatz fully armed with the magazine-rifle. but there Reserve). Uhlans to their wear a light-blue The tunic. loose will all overtaken excellent Rifle Tyrolese. * Turkey set this example long ago. tight in the Hussar regiments. Artillery. In case of mobilisatron. establishment to 246 Field. attila. the authorities have introduced a magazine-rifle for the Infantry and Rifles. and can Regiment possesses the in an Hussars. of '315-inch bore.* Supply stores. the so-called word " husz. This is two sections of Staff Cavalry for service at an example which. Staff Cavalry.Dragoons rifle. be armed with men and the extra horses required). that shoulder.a rule suspended by yellow cords from the and issuing them proceeded. the besides squadrons." from the fact that every twenty houses in Hungary had one horseman to provide in days gone by) have always been particularly promi- mentioned above. it is to be hoped. The Field Artillery comes to 246 squadrons.

pendent Heavy Battery Divisions. Dep6t-cadre companies. . so several bodies of troops have been The Corps Artillery Regiments are to formed for the honour of protecting the have their number of batteries increased Emperor's person and guarding his palaces. the squadron of the shape of the 2-95- that of the 343-inch bronze gun for the heavy Krupp batteries. which have been which has but recently been formed. found most useful peace-time. and An The former officers have each batteries in war-time exception to in the are guns. 3 Regiments have Horse Artillery Artillery a couple of in addition Mountain Batteries. talions each. Their 1 German model. its jectiles. fire-shells. which are in warthe amount of money in hand. Corps Several batteries. by one each. The* Railway and Telegraph Regiment. each of The Corps of Engineers is composed of Engineers. Batteries. and battalion has 4 bat- 5 Field. ministry of defence. The Austrian excellent weapon inch Uchatius Field Artillery has in steel an Trabanten Body-Guard. after consists of 2 Field and Dep6t-cadre battalions. The Train consists of 3 regiments of 5 guns can be dismounted and packed on the squadrons each and a Dep6t-cadre. and also of the Guard. only I strong company per and 1 strong squadron per battalions. both equal The Horse-Guards. the Hungarian Body-Guard. only the cadres exist of 92 into which are also quite bodies.These are the Arcieren squadron of Lifetransported along narrow mountain-paths. and high-angle shells. the Bosnia and Herzegovina. In Trans-Leithania the Landwehr forms brown. consists of 5 considered as battalions. Guards. each of 5 Regiment are kept up. campaigns in Dalmatia. the pleted before 1892. not Horse Engineers. 39 numbered according to their Army Corps and revolver. are carried with the battery. Field and I Depot. those of the Garrison Artillery and each of 5 batteries and of 28 inde. The Landwehr is formed worth to the German shells are of the the Active than the German ones. There is no Guard Corps in the Austrian backs of mules. pattern. but this will barely be com. The Mountain 8.time increased by ten Reserve battalions. case-shot. that Infantry battalions and 6 Cavalry regiments (24 squadrons) of Cis-Leithanian Landwehr.A USTRIA-HUNGARY. for bursting among troops so-called behind cover. Artillery batteries. and will be formed in Tyrol and Vorarlberg consist of 10 batthe the course of the next few years according talions in time of peace. Eighteen more battalions Cavalry The Native Rifles (Landesschiitzen) of have been projected. cadre companies.carrying the Werndl rifle instead. The 4. 1 The Pioneer Regiment. that In peace-time is to say. are a peculiar feature of the Austrian Artillery. or a Battery. The men are armed with sword I00V B - . fully-horsed this in the battery. and in this way they can be Army. in dressed in peculiar uniforms. guns the Engineer Staff and Engineer troops. but the shrapnel have fewer bullets Besides these pro- Company These troops are richly . 1 exclusively composed of Each Reserve. gun. The Garrison Artillery numbers 12 own Army two distinct Reserve distinct from each Landwehr is under .battalion to The uniform of the Artillery is dark. in is the latter of 2 regiments of . and the Infantry bronze gun. similarly which always have 6 constituted to the Engineer battalions.

Honved Army. that the pride of fs this Army whose predecessors Hungary rests.000 men. The 1 5 the cadres regiments of of officers for 92 battalions Honved Hussars this are force of (60 squad- trained in the Honved Ludovica Academy at Buda Pesth. the Queen. only to the commander-in. It is on this Army. On the 2 j st of September. is Maria jurisdiction. whose standards and badges are of the Hungarian colours. her newly peace-time only to the Royal with in Hungarian subject Theresa. the Empress Hun^afian Palace (auapcL . the Ministry of Defence and the Landwehr Ministry. Ro^al Hungarian Bocly . 1741. It become Joseph born son (destined to II.e. war-time chief. and which in time of war reaches nearly 200.) in her arms.draapcL forms in peace-time Infantry and rons). which so-called in and came to her Parliament at Presburg in dire distress.Dressed in the national Hungarian dress.A USTRIA-HUNGAR Y. i. pain and courage depicted on her noble countenance. 40 a peculiar national Hungarian Army. The Honved. It saved the Austro- Hungarian Monarchy from destruction a century and a half ago.


s""** Hungarian Kassaf of ifyz HonvecL (J^ewj Printed by <?.wef)*' Ii*fanip]j (HonvecL). Lifteeimkn. Fwerth Bavaria Infant*)? Equipment). . p (aenepal in Hungapian tlm^opm (Review Ot=clep).Austria-Ht Hungarian laanci.

. ijgi &a#s. London. Published by William Clowes <£• Sons.ngary. ||. L .



she advanced towards the Hungarian nobles, (on a war establishment) of the Austro-



a powerful Latin speech asked for


the National

to be called out, to

protect her and her country from her

that the Cis-Leiinferior in warlike











Line, and


Maria to

the help of her brave

their brethren

on the

far side

of the

come to the conclusion
the Austrian Army, with its excellent



Prussia, Corps of officers and excellent material in
numerous the shape of men and horses, any State in
Europe would find either a powerful
If we consider that the total strength adversary or a most desirable ally.




that inheritance of their forefathers,


Hungarians, Maria Theresa, after making that in



one million of trained

of which 778,889 belong to the 1st

we remember

Then the Hungarian magnates

clashed them wildly together, and shouted

included, exceeds

many men,

crooked swords from their scabbards, thanians are in no way



Army, Line and Landwehr






off her




Italy we have the
who have formed

third of the

Powers Standing Army (three with the Colours and

the Triple Alliance


in the


four years in the


Europe Landwehr, and seven years in the Landand to make common cause against any sturm. Those who have been exempted
disturber thereof.
The history of this from service by ballot are sent straight to
country has been very similar to that of the Landsturm for nineteen years.
in order to maintain the peace of


young men attain the age
King Victor Emmanuel
them liable to serve, those
of Sardinia (died 1878), supported by an physically unfit are "cast," and some
active statesman, Count Cavour, placed are put back who are ill or excused for
himself at the head of the national move- domestic reasons.
The remainder of
ment in favour of unity, and formed the the men draw lots and are placed

In this instance also, an ener-



various States of the Peninsula into one

according to their



in the

1st or 2nd class, those excused being
kingdom under his rule.
The kingdom of Italy appears thence- placed in the 3rd class. The 1st class
forth as the last formed among the European conscripts are distributed throughout the
Powers, and it has raised an excellent Army Standing Army. The 2nd class go through

in order to maintain its position as such.

three months' training, to form an Ersatz

The development of the

(or reinforcing) Reserve,





has since


especially so during the last decade,



and the 3rd


are called out every four years for a

when few days

at a time for instruction in the

use and manipulation of their arms.
a distinct advance has been apparent.
The Standing Army consists accordingly
Constituted on the principle of Universal
Conscription, the land forces of Italy are

formed, similarly to those of the


of eight yearly batches of the 1st class and
eight of the 2nd class
the Landwehr of

Empire, into a Standing Army, a Landwehr four yearly batches of men who have
(Milizia mobile), and a Landsturm (Milizia served their time in the Standing Army,
and four batches of the 2nd class and the

The liability to

Terms of



commences with the Landsturm comprises seven batches of the

wen tieth year, and continues





the thirty-

of eight years in the


seven of the 2nd, and nineteen of the

3rd class.

movements good — from and the Alpini (Alpine 3 battalions Light the ings. in 12 regiments. The mountain possible to the particular mountain passes object can put It that of acting in defence of 3 54-inch breech-loaders mountain Their duty ments. 5 of 2 parts including a Railway and Telegraph tactics.— ITALY. familiar with every footpath in and hearing. feathers." exceedingly other European armies. quick of sight shots. The the original r61e their of field although battle. never fatigued. of the Italian Army. are and the mountainous character of the land. there are also . each of all weak is comparison with the Cavalry of in at the "double. Ersatz company. their passes. Besides these. the large hats of which are of 24 regiments. are calibre. game- and the Alps. is carried out with a particular view. the Vitali. and excellent In addition to these weapons. any soldier on furlough d' Elite. Meetings at stated times. 1 execute trained to Infantry. whole of the Italian Infantry The this moment armed batteries. breech-loading carbine. The Alpine Troops (forming ^companies). war-time 1. also considered Corps The Light Cavalry consist of 7 regiments Particular atten- for.. The Garrison regiments . herdsmen of armed with a are are long curved sword. constant mostly in patrolling. in the field in Artillery. and looking very smart It in their neat uniforms. with his Service Rifles). account of the scarcity of useful horses. 10 consists squadrons ornamented with a waving bunch of cock's Lancer regiments and 14 regiments of Light Cavalry (Cavalleggieri). each of 6 and an Ersafz-cadre'.Horse Artillery batteries with summer as near as breech-loaders. on Cavalry. the alteration The Artillery and Engineers provide of their former weapon. 12 Commissariat companies are told Vetterli. a Pontoon and a Bridging Troop. At these meet- Corps there are the special ("marksmen" Bersaglieri =a target). Bersaglieri. for the transport of each of which three horses or mules are provided. keepers. over mountain paths. off Enginaer . wooden carriages. The Infantry of the regiments 96 of consists Army Standing 2 (including 43 tion is paid to musketry instruction. of steel-bronze. The heavy and in minor armed with the Light and batteries are . and consists skirmishing. each of 8 batteries • is rifled Field Artillery consists of 24 regi- they are 6 Horse Artillery and 9 Mountain equally valuable in reconnoitring work or on armed with a is. The Alpine com. the single-loader their own Train. is completed) with an excellent repeating rifle. compete. The Cavalry is allowed to rifle. Infantry. reconnaissance duty and guns. service in the dep6ts. 75 to Composed These are lance.196 marches each of 200 guns. the - of 2 95-inch and mounted on Artillery consists Siege-train of The Engineers consist of 4 regiments. each of 3 battalions couraged by the holding of National Rifle and I Ersatz company. is Com- at pany. panies are placed in whose defence is assigned to them. in shooting. i.e. and are stationed for only half the year the in towns as winter quarters. and shooting are given and en- facilities for Grenadier regiments). (until 2* 76-inch guns. and the Lancers with a which attached 9 mountain batteries. The bersaglia and shots. the whole of the Cavalry d' Elite.

In war-time a battalion of them with each Army Corps. 44 The men of Engineers sword the Field Artillery and carry a revolver besides a Garrison Artillerymen are armed . namely. both the robbers banditti. with a breech-loading carbine. and the present Carabinieri Reali form an excellent Corps. ITALY. The whole kingdom twelve Army is Corps In peace-time the vary Army Corps strength. and an In- Artillery Di- vision of 3 bat- Besides teries. BepgagVre o_f tge Kfnean Contingent 4 Organisation. as well to act as Military Police. these. each Corps consists of 2 Di- visions. is sent They have then provide orderlies for the Staff. and II legions of Mounted Gendarmes. In war. each Corps has regiment Bersaglieri. the Division Brigades (each numbering brigade con- sisting of 2 regi- ments of fantry).. <qfe* Army 1 N. of 1 2 Artillery visions. or " Carabinieri whose strength amounts to 543 22. There with the is also a Corps closely connected Army which deserves mention. whose duty tain peace and good order it is to main- in the country. in Army 2 divided into Districts. or Di- each of batteries. fights between the Carabinieri and the Nowadays.487 Foot Gendarmes. the Gendarmes." officers. Formerly many a story was told of the Reali. and the old Carabinieri have disappeared. 1 .

3 Battalion African Bersaglieri. oj<«o P. Massowah. Squadron Native Cavalry. have lately 1 service in Africa.— ADDENDUM TO ITALY. . 43. They 1 Additional troops been raised for consist of 1 1 Regiment African Rifles (4 battalions). Regiment Native African Infantry (4 battalions). Batteries African Mountain These are all for service at Artillery.


however being made In this manner is organised the Army been lost in their descendants. resulting from Park. and and he will find that the cry of " Evviva 100 companies of Foot Artillery of the Re Umberto " sounds Landsturm. I of troops.000 45 drill of the Infantry. 5 or 6 squadrons and 2 companies of Engineers. Engineer companies. to the side German European war. about 29. such as the Brigade of Guards in bat- 27 battalions of Infantry.. miss will the upright bearing. regiment of Cavalry. with their and 35 companies of Engineers. It is waving green plumes. or the peculiarity of included in the He race. companies 2 Engineers.ITALY. are not The Landwehr of Infantry. of Cavalry. 30 battalions. movements of the Bersaglieri. with bridging-train. and powerful bearing of the Alpini. strong here as our for garrison purpose. The men and Alpini etc. Milirie. Hyde forming altogether at Potsdam. — total. of victory in some future . and talion of Carabinieri. and that the which has now for about ten years proudly young kingdom of Italy is well prepared taken its place alongside the proved and to throw her Army as a decisive weight on for instituting Concln- ' war-tried armies of the Anyone accustomed senior to English or Powers.the Queen. 22 the picturesque uniforms of the Army. and with the. the and active extremely smart appearance Alpine Companies. and the well-groomed and glossy horses of the Cavalry but he will be pleased with ." The impression that he will sturm are not organised preparations are take away with him will be that the war: like spirit of the ancient Romans has not them. Corps organisation. 1 will find on seeing the the German Foot-Guards much that is strange Italian Army. In peace- just as own English loud " God il and save time dep6ts for the Landwehr and Land. consists of 48 regiments 8 battalions of Bersaglieri.with Besides the above. 61 batteries of Artillery. 12 to 16 batteries of Artillery. there are 342 their upright plumes in their head-dress . the regular move- ments and the steady 112 guns. martial formed into twelve divisions in time of war.

with a view to this object. The laws her of 1872 and 1873 were passed European Military Powers. The institution of one-year Volunteers much larger area than in the German Army. •*- who thorough revision and reorganisation of Army. and educational from such candidates in Germany are quite a secondary consideration in France. all making the most strenuous exertions to able-bodied conscripts were divided into regain something of her old strength by two classes.FRANCE. and by them astrous war of 1870 she lost this position Universal Conscription was introduced. and the Territorial years. the German model when she re-constituted . The main point looked to covers a would-be one-year Volunteer is whether he can pay his 1. and the Terri- Reserve for a subsequent six making twenty years in all. and the second only one year. In the dis. The Active Army and its Reserve form the Army of the 1st Line. years with the Colours. our nearest continental neighbour. certificates required France was not content with following Officer? of- Mountain Kptilkp^. the first of which serves five entirely. as for a long time was the foremost of ( and has ever since then been in Germany. as the case may (or Terms of be) the soldier goes for four (or eight) years to the Active Reserve. Army and its Army Reserve the of the 2nd Line. On economical grounds. Thereafter he enters the Terri- Army Army torial torial for five years. oi<«o ' I "HE next on the list is France.500 francs the scientific in a . After his five years' active service one year.


.Franc Offiezp of (Sulrasglees wii§ Stan3.ar3. In^antr^ of Printed by 0. (aenCTal. Si3..e-Carr.e-3. Liiwensohn.p. Fuerth Bavaria ilje Iaine.

. London.e. tttgtne&t Published by William Glowet & Sons. i. Ppivaie ancl Ofjjisep of Ri|kg. (Zljaggeup a eijeval. L . Tpanspopi Coppg. .


they may eldest sons of orphans. they have not service even the only sons of widows. and may be sent away at its dates for higher the professions and theological students will have to serve for one year. The war-strength of France was. but endeavoured 47 to organise a system whereby an enormous number of trained soldiers should be turned out in the shortest possible time —something like the " levee en masse " which took place at the time of the French Revolution in 1793. It seems to have been New Law. brought to a conclusive issue by the law of the 15th July. 1889. points of this law are as : Extension of liability to service from twenty to twenty-five years. and an extra one by those who are unfit for service. brothers are already serving. the given satisfaction in the ranks. This has been the aim of successive war ministers since 1 87 1. which for severity and harshness appears military sacrifices to any surpass and duties ever demanded of any people. Change from five years' to three years' Offiazp of Mountain Rifle?. One-year Volunteers 4. to be drawn exclusively from students of science. must serve one year. however. . before w*rStrength. and by any who are con scribed for 5. Abolition of all . Payment of a military tax by all. less A than three years. . and from a few moderately high schools.— FRANCE. Candi3. final point is stating that no one mental given to this law by is to accept a govern- departmental or having previously served either Army office without for five years in or Navy. service with the Colours. the latter to serve as bearers during active service. her Army. and those whose be kept on for another two years. The main follows 1. and during two of these years to have served in the capacity of either officer or non-commissioned officer. exemptions from conclusion if. Hospital OpSerl^ >uP2Con. 2.



L&weiiaohn. Fuerth Bavaria \ .Franc* Printed by 0.

PvMhlied by William Cloives & Horn. L^.Marine inj'anipj? (Tpopieal SFiop2 Rig) Marine Kptillew (Tpopiea! S/jor-e Rig). Full ]9p£#g).3. (tln3. Limdmu .sg


or white. They garrison Infantry. characters different districts in Algeria. civilised or otherwise. is excepting by a bounty of similar to that of the that knicker- their bockers are blue. and though formerly never employed in Europe. At the ^present time. these long as there is troops are Han and courage. dress shako and double-breasted dark- is The blue tunic. forced whom picturesque. their head-gear being a red fez with or without a white turban. pure and simple. induced to enlist £16. and white gaiters. Their dress Zouaves. battalions wear Rifle blue-grey trousers. there are but few Africans amongst them. but a much of their spirit out of full defeat takes of them. they consist of Zouaves. their stalking As a prospect of victory. as a rule the most unpleasant ones. Another peculiar body of troops are the five battalions of Z6phyrs Light African They consist of very bad who are sent to the Corps as a punishment for their crimes. and Spahis. Foreign Legion. loose red knickerbockers. Turcos. The Turcos are natives of Algeria and Tunis. now be 28 49 . red sash. consisting of an dress is open blue jacket. Arab French conquered and the pay to originally an Their tribute. The foreign troops. form a remarkable feature in the French Army . instead of red. The Zouaves were tribe. former are renowned for their energy and activity in the attack. and the latter for and crawling powers.FRANCE. chiefly African. and take the French the troops against field with any Power. Both Zouaves and Turcos have many The attributes of good Light Infantry. the greater portion being Frenchmen. will allowed to do so in future wars.

FRANCE. but only in case of need. has 12. would be formed into as Field Divisions of military police as would be required of the in for keeping order in rear The Garde-Republicaine of Army. battalions. Paris (Cavalry and Infantry). Corps has 23 batteries.) gun. and the Regiment of Sapeurs-Pompiers. battery has 6 guns. rate Engineers. tain batteries are going to be formed. The Garrison Artillery. numbering Trumpeted o. The Train consists of 19 squadrons of 5 companies each. It was is armed with an excellent De Bange system.000 is more or less connected with the Army. . though militarily organised. including the other between them consists 3 batteries of Army Horse Artillery. 16 battalions of 6 batteries each. 5° as many men. a and horse straining every muscle to be first Cyclist Corps. The Artillery (3'53-in. and a Dog-training Corps. 5 Railway Regiment has lately been formed. as 25. on the entirely re-armed with these after the 1870-71 campaign. so that each Each Army of 19 Corps). a branch is of the Gendarmerie. and at an enormous cost. above troops. and not of the Army. fully-horsed even Besides these. is in reality only the Fire Brigade. The Artillery. Besides the military corps Telegraph Hallway Troop.f (aapcle i§z Papig Mounted RepuBlieaine. each One of these regiments n batteries. for though peace-time in it is war-time many it employed on police-duty. Field Artillery brigades (one to each of 2 regiments. also a Balloon Corps. there are organised for Postal and service in the field . new of also armed with first- there are 4 regiments. The Corps of Gendarmerie. in the race. An independent Of Engineers each is guns. some moun- in peace-time. a Carrier-pigeon Corps.

besides a battalion of Rifles. them ceedingly numerous. after a competitive ex. / There are numerous schools in France intended either for military education or further military instruction. Military Schools. and a brigade of up her reviewing the size and organisation of the French Army. and the course lasts for two years. is into 18 Regions. same the very large pro- all portion of them he come from the same source. each of 2 brigades of 2 regiments numerous proofs each. The soldier called is " Piou-piou.FRANCE. a country in which the spirit of order and subjection.' p 1 u c k i 1 y through a mur- Sfrigae: ministrative and organising purposes each of which an in The an active on the divided for ad- quartered. about with his In the time of k^pi Napoleon the back of his great the a I. with we now come an Army thought of danger or little to the question why.. both as regards physique and uniform. Army. many of and his hands deep officers. well armed." as the Infantry by his fellow-countrymen. One cannot form 2nd extremely slack and unsmart appearance . The amination. Cyr. On in we cannot help being fact that. derous Army alarm. struck by the prestige. famous mar- does shals. the answer not in the morale of the Artillery. and endowed with a proper " Although not spirit. the best in Frenchman the world. who Artillery lounges and Engineers." as every will tell which 400 candidates are admitted every you. into is Sf it is well organised. but in that of France herself. Chief amongst warlike the Military School of St. in- some on well head of cluding in most baggy trouser-pockets. his and now certainly present a soldier-like ap- a but pearance. besides being ex- is of its to be found. 19th Corps is Corps is in Algeria. and field of battle advances is Cfjaggeup 3. a brigade valour and excellence. The whole and handy man of France on service. cadets are then lieutenants to the The sent Infantry and as Cavalry. stern devotion to duty which is and that the founda- .many excellent and soldier-like qualities. which has given many campaigns such Divisions. rose from not his the ranks even Total Forces. France has not kept of Cavalry (2 regiments). Polytechnic School in Paris sends 250 cadets annually under like conditions to the one's judgment by the of the men. Each Army Corps comprises 2 Infantry If with fire. the French soldier is possessed of year as cadets.

nor even this vast defensive system is the huge success even under the heaviest blows of covered This feeling misfortune. secret of victory. however. . simply because he has learned to subject his On one. War material forces . The central point of the whole of years'. Without these main features even universal than a The conscription itself will not be successful. on the right fortress. the French character. lie bring forth vast masses of the leaders to the death feeling of to follow which is so is more like a fortified province fortress. glorious deeds. "It is which forms the body " and brings in vast spirit into subjection the material powers for own objects. of the Army and faith in ite final and fifty miles apart. and reaching from There are. spirit now Toul and Verdun. can be raised a from Belfort. all and for defence by means of a defensive system and are certainly not wanton a vast scale. fore. but in the striving after a characteristic of nations in . a strong Behind this firs. man which keeps a all hardships and for his own gain or without a thought loss. if it is not in- of Paris. with her circle of fortress grained and actually born in the national protecting forts surrounding her on a fifteep- character and national system of education. Higher than the outer line of which consists of frontierhowever. stands the feeling of duty fortresses and stop-gap forts from the Swiss form the motive-power of many great and during peace-time . ing in these. discipline. into the enemy's country at the first more complete development of warlike skill. which. nor five twenty-five years' service. theremilitary spirit is thoroughly implanted. discipline through to the Belgian his post at perils. will not produce that combined action and willingness their France. but roads few into France which are not by the fire of some fortress or cannot be learnt other. is it is its not only a combat of in a higher sense a whom the combat of cultured forces. in a three years'. which permits of no loosening of consisting of entrenched camps between the bonds of training and order even in forty times of disaster. Let us. 52 have never taken declaration of war. and which keeps up the Langres to Rheims.t line of defence a second one has been built. higher bank of the Meuse. this foundation will to a frontier.FRANCE. by means of the striving to over-reach another in material as defence great armed masses which she can throw and brute force. in fact. does not armaments like these. and the Draconian recent although it may law in armed men. remember that the best preparation for France is well-armed for attack as well trial by combat does not lie in continual for attack. over the Vosges ridge to Epinal. mile radius. in conjunction with the Ambition and desire of conquest troops she has had stationed on her frontier of tion root.

12 Algeria.000 of 8 „ „ Chasseurs dAfrique. ! — The war-strength of over 4. seven-tenths As of the annual contingent of recruits have to serve for 3 years. and 4 regiments of Spahis of 6 squadrons each They — total. „ „ Chasseurs a Cheval. 312. 46. ever received any men.000. come that the new law has and young. 49. a for man 1 Active Reserve for 7 (or 9) years. composed of 92 regiments of 5 squadrons. these only 174. are required for colour-service. then the Territorial Army for 6 years. are. .000 is strength.790.500. <*®ioc Now Pp. and after Reserve for 9 years that the Territorial more —total 25 years. old numbers 12 Mountain Batteries are being There given. The Cavalry is now. 34 22 . and three-tenths After his colour-service. 484 squadrons. July 1890. all men. be that by 19 15 A. formed. » Dragoons.B. the terms of have been entirely changed. in addition to batteries in the Corsica.000 P.000 4 „ „ Spahis.D. 49. 96 regiments. new law of the trained added N.000 on page 47 includes Total. therefore hardly French fighting- a just estimate of the year. there will be no fewer than 3. and Tunis. consist of 14 Regiments of Cuirassiers.ADDENDUM TO FRANCE. joins the and military training. Frenchmen properly trained as soldiers and ready to take the field. who have into force. and 60. given men to the will per army annum will The effect have been P. service the law now stands. 14 „ „ Hussars. or be will very shortly. 47.. put it The latest trustworthy estimates at 2.000 youths reach the military age Of (20) every year.


up in can be called so. and will The the Opoltschenie. from which. Russian Army. large finger in the European pie. Many alterations in the uniform have Infantry. . and the requiquarter lies in Europe. comes to about 800. This quarter. consists There mostly untrained. often mix herself The Regular Army is divided into four European politics.000.. there- latter of a huge mass of men. 164 S4i » The Guard privileges officers Line. that the soldier is The are exempt. and many their rank one step higher in the Army. after sent for nine years more to the Reserve. it is site number for the Army are selected from true. which can be called out to reinforce the Standing rest of his time. if it bodies. „ Infantry of the Line.. but contains only a third it of the population. how- the Local Forces. body of men German Landsturm.e. according to the respective duties in the future. another continent. chiefly ever. the nobility.— RUSSIA. „ » Regiments denied to the enjoy rest. 16 Grenadiers. and classes. Western questions is in eventually to bring her to try to influence such a manner as Slav races under all on an European and footing.e. „ 4 Rifle Battalions of the Guard. Russia has had a pretty body of men. as follows 58^ Rifle : 12 Regiments of the Guard. Russia has therefore organised her They required from them. The Army are the Field Forces. Her policy. first similar to Field Forces are intended to be the to take the field in case of war. German model. and rule. service Opoltschenie Army. is larger.000 are conscribed. for of the whole Russian Empire only about a only 225. is from a military point of view. quite differently to The number of able-bodied young men who annually attain the requisite age. battalions battalions. Reserve Forces. in the no doubt. the In 1874 she brought in upper the clergy. year of —a During the up to his twentieth he belongs to the i. 21 years. i. of 4 and each. like the is no middle German Landwehr. *«o T) USSIA I\ situated. Their Infantry consists of 192 regiments on the Universal Conscription. Of these any other European country. actual Colour service lasts six years . than the rest of all Europe these by lot the remainder are sent to . but fore. far greater lies part Although by of her dominions the in body. Ersatz Forces. put together. officials.

little it is to do true. on the system of the American the General question Government has of Regarding Berdan. present dark green colour has been preserved. The head- a round fur-cap. in but the eye misses the accustomed glint which one usually associates with a miliThe Regiments of the tary uniform. 54 been made by the The Czar. . gear is and with no buttons. Guard and Grenadiers have special dis- tinguishing marks on their uniform.RUSSIA. the still way The soldier has of metal-polishing. magazine-rifles. but the cut of the tunic has been altered from that of the Prussian tunic to a loose double-breasted jacket fastened with hook and eye. not yet made up Infant^ (5 eaV ^ mapel)mg ot=ckp) the its Cossaek of Cogsaek of ifje ijjet (auapcL Caueagu?. The Infantry rifle is a useful breech- loader with bayonet. white in the case of Generals and Staff-officers. and black in all others.

The front- ranks of the Cuirassiers and Lancers carry Siege-parks. wounds. the " Shashka "-scabbard To the Local forces belong 50^ battalions regiments carry the Berdan carbine.. above. and otherwise. Instruction which practise new regulations.— RUSSIA. mobility Army no Train taking Hence . so that. troops. 3 Brigades of Guard Field 4 Brigades of the fortresses of the country. only of which are horsed Guard Cavalry 4 Regiments of 23 Horse Artillery of the Line batteries of 4 A peace-time. in : Horse Artillery 2 „ „ Dragoons. (including Battalion). are only other Cavalry represented by dep6t-cadres. works Krupp's from in Essen. and on full-dress which would have to complete the Army occasions. whose duty it would be somewhat shorter than that of the to fill up gaps caused by death. they may. necessary. if Artillery. be 44 Brigades of Field Artillery of the To Line. etc. The uniform of the Guard Cavalry. consists employed on Active these forces also belong the . 2 „ „ Hussars. 55 Brigade Guard of and Artillery. the Ersatz forces. there are two The Cavalry of the of:— Field Forces consists Mountain The . during the war. The has 6 always Battery Cuirassiers. as parks. called a " Shashka. distributed amongst The Field Artillery consists of :— lances on garrison-duty . the a Division (2 squadrons) of Grenadier consist of 17 battalions Engineers. Russia is for the present at all rather behindhand in the matter. it is formed men from it in war- the Cavalry would appear that the and manoeuvring power of the in the field would not be very During peace-time the Reserve great. besides the above. The whole Cavalry is armed with a light and slightly-curved sabre. Infantry. 6 Fieldexpanded in case -of war to a regiment. Mounted Batteries. The materiel consists of excellent steel- mostly guns. forces. of Garrison Artillery. Cuirassier regiments have is The Engineers Besides the of Sappers remainder 6 squadrons each. 2 „ „ Lancers. there 4. Guard and I and a few I inde- Crimean Tartar Cavalry. 16 Military Telegraph-parks. and that of the light ones 3"39 inches. being 4' 16 inches. Artillery. Cavalry. The Dragoons carry a rifle. but these would not be taken on to war strength on its taking the field. Field Batteries have 8 guns. as they are brought and experimentalise with new arms tactical batteries. besides 32 Artillery. Grenadier Line battalions. quartered in Asiatic Russia Field for garrison duties ." which is worn on a narrow band over the right shoulder. " Service. the bayonet of which is worn on disease. 9 Railway battalions. There is time by Reserves. the bore of the heavy field-guns of Dragoons of the Line. 8 battalions of Pontonniers. which would be pendent companies. and service. is very brilliant compared with that of the Dragoons of the Line. events. and 2 can be seen by our plates. and 46 regiments fully-horsed guns. however. mind ." Each brigade numbering 6 The Horse Artillery of 1 out.

" with a woollen consists in a shirt. ment. disciplined. are descended from tribes of horsemen. Every three years they used to "Hetman" as chief. tiers. instead of wandering their wildness has mixed down.the government on the different fron- 'Russian. the Cossacks. In addition to this enormous number bound there are the Irregular troops peculiar to Russia The Cossacks. and good shots. or Cossacks of Great Russia have their " polks.RUSSIA." to Don elect with a council of assist him. " Narschines. Turkish.'/ Their . form an The to 3 Army Corps.000 men and 3. the Cos- in neither their of religion. —a force quite —namely. and trained. Mexico in for adventure and for the great results that flowed from his successes.260 guns. on the shores of the Azov. each of 2 regiments and A of Field Artillery. 1 with their Artillery. every Cossack They soldier.800. born hospitable. in the after the Mongol invasion in the thirteenth Crimea. k»g-boots. ingly interesting. elders. and a fur-cap. and with a horse. led forces. spurs.000 men and horsemen. a and Tatar blood.* Cossacks are Now that insubordination. The Field Forces are in peace-time divided into 19 Army Corps and the Grenadier Corps) Infantry Divisions. Corps (including the Guard the Ural mountains 2 Russian the carrying in of the settlement of these tribes in Siberia. of tribes down to stay in settled districts. Branches of these Cossacks have settled on Each man has to provide himself with Sea of clothing and equipment according to reguthe Volga. along the Ural.538 field-guns. The peace-strength of the in exceed- His conquering that oi the Spaniards progress equalled under Cortez is 1758 with a following of only 840 Cossacks. nor customs. Kasak. and keep them western Caucasus and in Siberia. in Siberia. Ever up during his time of service." or a long one. The further into Asia. " no beshmet.lation. warriors. been somewhat toned are of inestimable value to They Russia in her service on the Chinese frontier. to Russia. "kasakin. I Cavalry Division batteries by the Cossack chief Jermac. Cavalry Division. and they they have been all over the country. 56 The Corps have and equipment when necessary. and . " tcherkesska. they are yet 1. Although attached sacks are Russian ordinarily Regular Army history This bold leader crossed and sharp language." loose trousers. They are gradually being more and more definitely organised. and the war-strength to difficult to govern. who in the Ural. and on the Seas of Azov or of In return for lands granted by century settled on the Don and Dnieper Aral. and inclined somewhat to 1. Infantry Division numbers 2 Infantry Brigades. in the Kuban. The uniform since they * From became subject the which means to Russia they Turco-Tataric word and in Turkish a robber. Artillery. in the Kuban North. and established their own forms of govern. a free lightly-armed warrior. " papasha. numbers same way in the regiments each Horse brigade 2 brigades of 2 2 besides . excellent comes to something like 700." head-quarters north of the Sea of in the mountainous Azov and districts of that region. The and is bound to serve as a have a military organisation are divided into Cavalry regiments. in Tatar short coat. Gifted with extra- senses. Total assisted good-humoured. of Gendarmes and the Frontier Guards may dominion also be said to form part of the Local Forces.



" kin- knives. Offieo? of Hz FieU weapon chief is 57 Fielcl Poliee (fall a«wi). cularly partifit the . high saddle.RUSSIA. and 1." short and stirrup. case of Cossacks of the Caucasus. a long pennonless lance.. endur- cleverness their hardiness is mo- a n c e. teristics. a of some sort. pistol. toes small down horse looking horses of his are not to be and treats beaten kindly. extraordi- nary. all and the obstacles of ground. Cogjsaek of if)£ ^moup. very is for enand speed A durance. long A Cossack rides in the Oriental manner.e. GkncLapme: (gepvlee kit). worst forage possible does not come amiss with sabre ("shashka").. or in the to them. much them for him ordinary of twenty hours is he fond insignificant- day's . Their with a loose t. . Their extra- bility. rein. z ha finally. journey not too and in over getting . rifle Cossack Charac- .

fight near or in the distant pro and of the con to the news- The time may come. the inhabitants of the Caucasus. universal conscription has also acted powerful Germany seems to future . Schiller and die sleep.RUSSIA. need the not be taken into account by the Europe of field. in peace-time. and the whole Cossack Army to respect Russia as a powerful adversary. saddles. Irregular mistaken troops. is not. but all we know about the matter is that Germany is fully prepared and. appeared during the Wars of the it Liberation (1806-1815). and 7 batteries of the Line. is papers. This gipsy-like nation of horsemen. is well for Army in plunder. who as their ally against the power of Napoleon eat. Since that period Russia has but in the organisation and arming of her as a . though need some of the other foreign found amongst the Russian Irregulars. so that an invasion by these ploying them in war would leave the regular Asiatic races. Although rapid raids and bold these people render Russia most valuable outpost surprises. for and recon. 15 battery of Guard- 1 Cossacks. and in the beginning of this century she 136 regiments Cavalry." his swift horse are On the whole. eager precede the Regular selves where to it. not only in her culture. In the aside of these question ^ sions. . would amount to 14 battalions Infantry. Laying J a the Cossack peculiarities of character and organisation which numbers Bodyguard Don that of the is Cossacks. it I. 58 Cossack troops for naissance duty. of Austria and Prussia. drink. respecting her the Cossacks are universal will will leave the discussion than as friends. be the fate of the Cossacks to be regarded here Still made important progress. theTchcrkesses. : " One mightsay with The rider and fearsome guests. Army afraid of her. possible Conclu- adversary. live and. besides the Regiment regiments of Cavalry. as well as for the pursuit of the What enemy. and 40 Horse brought a heavy weight to bear in favour increased. and one which prepared for war. still she also by no means their can hardly count on their services in an is that this mode of em- European war. and fought valiantly Batteries (236 guns). Russia possesses we cannot deny that a well-disciplined Army. than tribes such as the Tatars of the Crimea. discipline to Russia a matter that does not concern us we probabilities amenable to the in with feelings of greater respect as enemies less assistant Whether education. is idea to It is a Russian imagine the soldier to be half a barbarian and a foe to Frederick the Great learnt war-time these numbers can be considerably higher culture. of Cossacks. is advantage least service in her Asiatic possessions. their either or attach them- known in Germany.the Bashkirs and the Tunguses. The Cossack Army which best shows to-day. like what happened in the Russian Cavalry free for actual combat in times of Tamerlane or Jengiz-Khan.

— — ADDENDUM TO RUSSIA. 53. 20 „ „ Rifles (2 battalions each) 4 38 Rifle Battalions of the Line. „ alto- . The Russian Infantry now num- bers Pp. The Cossacks form gether 32 Regiments Regular Cavalry. 164 „ „ the Line. 136 Squadrons Irregular 7 Battalions of Infantry. Rifle Battalions of the Guard. 56-58. 1 2 Batteries of Artillery. 10 Regiments of the Guard. >:*k° P. 18 „ „ Grenadiers.



1 rinted by 0.Switzerland. LBweruohn. OffiazT of Kpiilleev. Office? o| In|antp^. Fuerth Bavaria .

Published by William Qlnw* & Sont. L . London- .Denmark.


four in the Reserve. . Foot Guards. to step in in her favour. or rather to their Army on new lines.—— DENMARK. in She has now made an important step in by introducing universal line the military conscription. and eight in England. Russia and the terms of which are four years with the The Colours. possession of the Duchies of SchleswigAfter this war Denmark made use of Holstein. Battalion of Regiments of the Line. In the year 1848-49 means given up the idea of being a Power the small Danish making such a Army succeeded in gallant stand against the might of Prussia. with which the men separated the Duchies from Powers of Europe have served as gave them of or twice been obliged foreign intervention honourable had gone. of its independence and secure the vindication of and its rights. In Denmark and The resolution however. In 1863-64. each of 3 battalions Active and 1 battalion Reinforcement Reserve. T HE military organisations of the Great patterns to the smaller Powers. size. bear most testimony to the excellence to have recourse to arms. in spite of the loss of her lands. for even the smallest State must have an own wherewith to defend its Army actual or imaginary. a proof that she had. forming 5 brigades . when Prussia and Austria took in hand the German rights in the Infantry I Duchies. 10 Infantry. and the Island of Alsen. other great Powers. strength would Its geographical situation. recent times Denmark has once the small State to and courage. that time was gained for the North of Europe. fortifications at withstood the of the other two determined opposition vastly superior forces more especially in their Danewirke. to the right of attaching which her bitter experience in reorganising her to the Danish crown. in order to keep and courage of the Danish troops. which once and for all altered. until their last hope of historical associations of the State. Prussia. absorption into the Danish commonwealth. circumstances were considerably. and the war. depend on the Historical. namely. of the tiny Danish Army Powers. was brought at last to a close by the Treaty of Vienna. by no Prussia objected. with 4 battalions Reinforcement Reserve. and which they the offered. follows : two Duchies. which lasted a whole year.. Terms of was that Prussia was obliged to the " Reinforcement " Reserve. Duppel. The Danish Army is now constituted stay her hand from taking under her result protection the German inhabitants of the r as Organisation.

but rifle. 6 Line and 4 Reinforcement Reserve Companies. The Infantry loading is still armed with a the Remington. for the capital. which now is The Cavalry Remington is in course of preparation. ingly made breed. Jutland.—— DENMARK. Artillery —2 Regiments of 2 — 12 Line and Field Artillery sions each divi- total. Cavalry. The is total strength of the Danish Army reckoned at about 50. (2 for The Reinforcement Reserve batta- -•— v„ of the . Engineers. each of 4 squadrons. offensive action based on this characteristic. 6o and lions batteries only exist depdt- as cadres. is such as holding a fortified position to the last extremity. Cavalry 1 Regiment Hussars of the Guard and 4 regiments of Dragoons. Artillery. with 128 guns. Foot dmapcUman.000 men. better adapted endurance than and the Army accord- better fitted for a defensive r61e. Train —4 Sections. Recently large purchases of horses have been in Germany to improve the The Danish character is for stout resistance and for daring courage. which would be of 2 regiments each. animals. Garrison Artillery — 2 Battalions — total. single- it is in- tended to shortly arm them with a magazinerifle. armed with the sabre and Their Jutland horses carbine. 2 Seeland and 1 garrisoned Danish is going to be turned into a by the Army larger portion in case of war. 4 Reinforcement Reserve Batteries. but enduring. Engineers — 1 Regiment of 5 Line and 3 Reserve Companies. is Funen) great entrenched camp. are clumsy. than and bold The attack. general plan of national defence Copenhagen.


Dragoon -druapcU. .y-(suap3. Printed by O..Sweden. tf)e Bo3. LBwensohn. Fuerili Bavaria Officer of Artillery. Engineer*. aval Offieep.

Op&er). Ld . Itrfantpj? (Maying Office? of Engineers. Pvblithed by William Clowes & Som. (suapcU. London.Norway. .


" in return for their 1 taxes. and may re-engage for further service. This man Infantry 2 serves for as long as his physical powers last. 2 Regiments of the Body-Guard. The which consists of all men between their military system of Sweden is a peculiar twenty-first and twenty-sixth years of age. definite Infantry. " small many Rote " or Divisions. farm. Cavalry are provided in a Each regiment consists of 2 battalions and 3 in war-time this would in peace- : very similar manner with their horses by give 48 and 69 battalions respectively. divisions of 2 batteries each. represented part of the greater during the are. the larger landowners or " Rusthalters. keeps looking after their farms. from two 15 squadrons. Artillery. actually with the Colours. » » Infantry. These troops are called consists Cavalry. on furlough.—— — SWEDEN AND NORWAY. men. oi*?o QWEDEN. *"-* which once. first Military Power in Europe. whilst the latter in the the Thirty Years' War. year. 2 Regiments of Dragoons with altogether 1 Corps of Light Horse of 2 squadrons. Army men of the " Varfvade. time of Corps. 47 squadrons. Men „ 17 sisting of house. the . The second " Indelta " portion of the Swedish enlist voluntarily for to six years' service. pay as long for the 2 Battalions of Body-Grenadiers. each of the Military which has to supply one able-bodied man of the right age for the Army. He receives a small property. one." enough for the needs of the country. the other two portions." the which body of of Life-Guards of 4 4 Regiments of Hussars with altogether 26 squadrons. and entirely different from that of In case of war they would have to reinforce other States. con- „ Body-Grenadiers. The Varfvade men can be trained more thoroughly than those of the for the Regiment squadrons. and and ploughland. Cavalry exemption from certain much Indelta. and as he 4 is Rifle battalions. Artillery of 5 — 3 Regiments of Field Artillery. OrganisaThe whole land is divided into a great The Swedish A'rmy consists of tion. up now only a small Army. just large The third portion is the "Bewaring. former are continually with their Total.

" to serve five Land- years in the Line. | constitutes the only Corps under time of peace ." and Horse-Artillery. "Landwehr" and four in the " Landsturm.000 men. Every able-bodied man of twenty-two years old is sent to the so-called " armament.— : SWEDEN AND NOR WA Y. batteries. of the arms ' in Offleee remaining troops j (StancLapcl-Beape:)?) of ige (auaPcU (KncLpa larfgapclet). skirmishers have to keep and exactly in line drills rifle Infantry out of date. 1 1 squadrons the Artillery of 5 Foot of 3 . 62 regiment consisting of 10 6 (2 " Driving. is shortly be replaced by a magazine- something are by a directed sergeant in the centre with uplifted rifle. Train batteries with new magazine-rifle will. total. Military System. in 66 guns about 18." The conscripts remain but very few weeks With the Colours. Engineers. hife. which 1 brigade of 3 Corps of Light Dragoons gives a total number of 234 field-guns. in the firing-line snaps he shouts out "Piff-paff!" The introduction of a Grand . The Swedish Infantry drill is somewhat The quiet and leisurely way which a battalion astonishing. of five companies. the total. Engineers — Pontoon 1 battalions =11 battalion. battalion of Sappers. conj sisting entirely of voluntarily-enlisted men. I — 1 The battalion of 2 companies. who are bound to stay four in the | for six years. The is Every time a man his rifle. probably cause some fatigue to the throats of the Swedish Infantry. Organisation. each total. the Line 2 Reserve Artillery consist of brigades 5 In the Infantry would of 4 battalions — and 6 Driving-batteries. The Rifle Corps. . however. and Engineers of a small division. including a Field-Telegraph Company. besides the there are only cadres in existence. which. still her military system entirely from differs that of the latter. therefore. "Foot") event of war. 20 battalions. NORWAY. Although Norway is united under the same Crown with Sweden. will of the Swedish and Norwegian the Remington. The Cavalry of Each battery has about 6 guns. The main portion of the Army consists of men voluntarily enlisted. of which one forms a Guard-Company.

and there Army its defence would true and of the . rifle invented by Colonel Jarman of their Army. It is strange to find here..e. and partly in the Swedish cast-steel works. The Norwegian Rifleman wears an almost identical hat with the Italian Bersagliere. unassuming. are tough fighters and good campaigners. use i. sturdy and is every reason to believe that the Scandinavian be in any case fully equal to Iaig§t Cavalpj?. being re-armed with new guns. destined country. partly in the Krupp works at Essen. The men. the and abstemious enduring. (Jemilancbs §asijagai»eeoifp2. a head-dress similar to that south of the Alps. in the north of Europe. 63 The Cavalry carbine made addition to the in Artillery is the carries Remington The sabre. The idea of having their Army organised for a foreign campaign does not appear to have been entertained by the Norwegian- Swedish government.— ) SWEDEN AND NORWAY. however.

and 1 Dep6t battalions. 1 Reserve.e. SPAIN N I most European States the Army is belong to certain named professions are worked by the Sovereign or Govern. which serves in Cuba. are only remainder form 60 Line regiments . could not be the case. Of the remaining able-bodied men Crown and the nation. for during even this century revolution. Alfonso XII." AND PORTUGAL. the six These are again divided into 140 now Military Zones. which would system of universal conscription. These irregularities. each under a colonel. experienced making himself the chief of the instituted a military system by which he hoped to put an end to the earlier The Army Disponible 2nd Reserve. for twelve years rule. impossible for the including call or three. of Spain and the Philippine Terms of as such. latter two battalions are in peace-time founded on the represented only by cadres. or are passed with the Colours. the of 2 infantry. was for enter the Active Army. each under a Captain- is therefore is the ballot which decides which are to holding of the Law. who divided into the Peninsular Army. Of the The his Peninsular twentieth Organisaoa" general. training and are called out to reinforce who ascended the Spanish throne in 1874 Army in case of necessity only. forms intervals it is succeeded remainder of a man's service has revolution and Service of which six years. and 1885). This. a long time not the case portion of Europe. and for the up. The All those is passed in who are not taken by lot to serve with the Colours. exempted by law and those classed are " these receive " as Disponible only a very short The energetic young king. however. at rapidly-recurring have made Army to be always at the beck and of purchase. less. and the Colonial details. which is responsible for mobilisation and supply serves in Spain itself. as a Recruits . . the head of the State for the time being. in the south-western the Iberian Peninsula. to which be expanded into either Field or 2nd Line every Spaniard becomes liable on attaining battalions in case of mobilisation. Puerto Rico. Army. After (and died in necessity of Army. and those who battalions each. the different government introduced even on the whole..allowed to buy exemptions from service for ment of the country for the defence of the £60. of the Active Reserve. OrganisaHon. years' service " the Army year. Each Zone comprises 1 Active. is Those who are 140 active battalions 20 are Rifles exempted by law from the Army called out in time of war. The kingdom of Spain is divided up into recruits enter the 14 Military Districts. It i.


Fuerth Havana ) kanea?. R.Spain. ) Offiee? of Offhzp of Mounted Rifle?. Iaine InjWtpj.s. (Mapping OpcUp. (Mapping OpScp Printed % <?. GrencUpmepie.i|leman. Luwensohn. Hopjse Sptillep^. . Ofjucep o| Ppineesg' Hw»ap.

Portugal. Ld .ipain. London- . Published by William Chives & Sons.


battalions . and guns. is no Train in peace-strength Army amounts 1 time of peace. regi- 5 ments of Corps Artillery of 4 batteries each. of k§z Hal6ei?clie:i? peace-time no in than divisions. or Frontier Force. and squadron of Life-Guards.000 men. each of 4 squadrons. altogether 20 batteries with 1 20 guns . of the Spanish : Regiments 14 of Regiments of Cazaderos (Light Horse). 4 batteries of 4 guns Total there- each. and Civil). 1 (srencpal (|ull ctaejfg).Engineers. Besides these there are 16 regiments of Gendarmes 15. 1 S Reserve regiments. 9 battalions Fortress Artillery. 6 batteries each. 72 guns. army and corps would be formed only in case of war. altogether lery. Palaee. 2 Regiments of Hussars. There are higher units brigades. Telegraph battalion. and 1 regiment of Siege and Position Artillery. of the Peninsular to 116. 4 Regiments of Dragoons. 11. The remainder Army consists of Cavalry —8 Lancers.— SPAIN AND PORTUGAL. 388 fore. of which only cadres exist in peace-time. Engineers way and There The — Pioneer regiments. altogether 16 guns. there are 28 Besides these Reserve regi- ments. 2 regiments of Mountain Artil- each of 6 batteries.000 (Guardia men. 5 battalion. numbering men of the . Artillery — 5 65 Regiments of Divisional Ar- Artillery. Rail. altogether tillery of 30 batteries with 1 80 guns .000 Carabineros.

. it Navy than to the seems unlikely that the engaged to appears to be paid in come. are the only ones who wear the the — old Spanish dress. Army. and the remainder hot blood of the southerner with the Light Dragoons (Cacadores a Cavallo). Total. their land and freedom. in the Infantry consists of 24 Line and Organisa- The however. the actual strength is formed by voluntary enlistment. 1 amenable to dis. the best soldiers in Europe if it were not Artillery 3 Regiments of Field Artil- The Spaniard combines the and liveliness first — that. Terms of Portugal of Colonial at the beginning of this century. and four 2nd Class Reserves. If an instance is 32 Active and 10 Reserve batteries with in the country.600 is now armed Kropatschek repeating-rifle had the Enfield inch steel chiefly is chiefly Krupp with the quite till . the Colours. they Portugal as well as in most other countries. each of 2 Active altered to Colonel Placentia's system. 1 and Dep6t battalions. Service.000.Mountain Brigade of 6 batteries. . all. of service are three years with The terms cast- 12 Rifle regiments. 66 The Armament. Cavalry 10 regiments. determination and endurance of the Each regiment consists of 3 Active and 1 northerner.. latter will in war. Three sections* strength of 37. 3*15 the Mountain Artillery with those of 2-95 The guns inches. been have. a this men. and would now count as one of Dep6t squadrons. The armed with 3 • 54- guns. so that the does not by any means comprise as many men as The Infantry is armed the would appear from the strength as laid with Remington rifle. Dep6t battalions being skeleton ones. Colonial Army. is of each squadron of Lancers lance. The two Royal Household Companies. — fighting for what Spaniards can do when 132 guns.000 men in Army exchequer). and battalions. two are Lancers. steel The Artillery Krupp guns of is carry the only about 18. 2 Regiments of he had Garrison Artillery of 12 companies each. 9. . plucky campaigners —2 (in order to save the national * Out of four. at all events for be some time tion. is in The Force of Infantry Army.000. about 33. to their assistance. 1 Field Artillery the rule and Active natives. altogether 72 battalions. the Cavalry with sword down on paper. recently.SPAIN AND PORTUGAL. rifle. More attention but there are numerous exemptions and Portugal to the sendings on " unlimited furlough with the and " besides has. in consequence of the long and disturbances wars lery of 12 batteries each. armed with inches calibre. Universal Conscription „ . With a nominal peace and Remington carbine. of which the Halberdiers. we Engineers have only to required' of look at the guerilla mountain warfare waged by nation the against Napoleon old this and before the English troops came PORTUGAL. five years in the 1st Class. Colours Reserve 1 Torpedo Company. become somewhat cipline than civil less formerly.

so that she now. surrounded Great Powers. that the neutrality time. in she is obliged neutrality very strictly. this system. whose Armies time purposes.." All able-bodied from any men between the ages of 17 to 50 who are guard her not employed in either of the above branches This object she belong to the " Landsturm. naturally of a warlike tendency. however. —98 Fusilier and 8 Cavalry— 8 Regiments (24 system the conscript Infantry This system certainly allows of universal service in the widest sense Rifle Bat- talions.— SWITZERLAND. Being." is adapted to the exigencies of the country on from the may and by a military system which rests liable to service " seeks to accomplish by universal conscrip- and is an European twenty-five years of her territories traverse quarter. of Switzerland was recognised. to the Of these service. or rather the in the four " At time of war. Unterwalden. is to all and intents excluded from taking part war. after the downfall of Napoleon tribution of in Confederation of twenty-two time. so-called "Militia is not fine as to serve has fit Anyone who pay a small to a sort of compensation. upon which. and every Uri. Artillery — 24 of the word. had ning Army large the present dis- I. In case of war the " Auszug " would provide the Army as follows : System. it would require that It the treaties of 1815. the same begin- of any use. was by man to be thoroughly accustomed to the use of a rifle in fine. and also gives a small State Artillery. — <voi*. in order to be small Republics (Cantons). and is subsequently called out for only a few weeks annually during peace-time.o THEFree Swiss Republic. would require the people to be Forest " towns of Schwyz. Regiments and 1 of Field of Mountain Artil- each of 2 batteries of 6 guns Organisa- . its and Glarus. there should always be a nucleus of thoroughly-trained troops. tion Every Swiss 20th to the 44th year of his age." According to this has to pass only a few weeks or months in being trained. thirteen are " by three spent in the Auszug (Active Army) and at any twelve in the "Landwehr. the power of calling out a proportionally lery. however. of Dragoons and 12 squadrons) Companies of Guides. even in peace- a great extent remains. Powers was founded and still to .

each 8 the com- the light - soldier is comprising 2 Cavalry. 68 each — total. not to be considered on the is Brigade of Artillery. 1 and Hospital Company. short similar —8 Battalions. troops are 1 of Train.SWITZERLAND. Infantry repeating Vetterli batteries of Position Artillery.Battalion' of Engineers. 300 guns. the The Field Artillery has three patterns of guns The Strength Army. " on garrison education arms." a' with his Thereafter he appears yearly for a short training. trained for is Administration short time and then sent 1 as the Auszug. in. Dragoons with a repeating-carbine. not As for as as the the Swiss Cavalry of other The Swiss Militiaman 1 uniform and consists of nearly as to serve for behindhand with other home keep his eye is. . being feeble. but the former are only called on . the Swiss rifle. —9 Battalions. 1 1 Company of Guides. and and Gymnastic clubs. Staff and It consists of Divisions. 10 besides Engineers Train The nations. greatly helped by the numerous Cadet divisions by Volunteer Rifle in the schools.. 3-28-in. Army Army comes strength of the Field to a jj OUt IOOOO o men.. and repeating-rifle. prising 2 Infantry Brigades^ each Brigade Regiments of Infantry. and the mountain 2 92-inch guns. Rifle Battalion. The Landwehr many men duty at home. Field it Regiment of Dragoons. : in order to This sketchy military however. same footing 1 The Swiss more of a Light Infantry man anything else than 1 the heavy 3-93-^. . armed with the is the Rifles with a rifle. nations.


Fuertii Bavaria . Printed by G.Holland. LSweneohn.

Lcmdtm* . L . drcticle.Belgium. Engineers. Published by William Clowes CapaB.iniep. & Sons.


of filling Volunteer vacancies by MilitiaThe total strength of the Active Army men. after the revolt of the southern the troops are not always kept up to their divided into two kingdoms.000 matter nine or even six I Companies. of fact (comprising gether 42 batteries with 252 guns Every systems. who bind themselves to six Corps of Mar^chaussee. Strength . and this leads to the disadvantage approaches 64. Powers of Europe. have so exempted them from keeping up standing of far large much as it was Militia is a com- years of age number is of' bound 2 of Rifles). which corresponds and partly of Militiamen. and Scheldt. recognised by the other Great establishment. oJ»io HTHE -*- Kingdom " instituted of the Netherlands. one Horse Dep6t Artillery.000 men and 270 guns. to the Gendarmerie in other States. 373 Gaps are often caused by the impossibility men. shortened Field 5 of battalions. Maas. and the latter from these mouths to the north-eastern of frontier The France. The years' service. regiments to enter the Militia these not to exceed The and 3 25 months. Holland and Belgium. Regiments of 5 — Grand 45 Regiments Cavalry — 3 each Artillery of 3 — 1 - of and Corps of Field Hussars. enlisted Line Regi- Rifle battalions able- man between 20 and men. and the men. and Dep6t Company. nominally one year. military system bodied young annually. consists partly of voluntarily- Company. and also that it In 1815. Organisa- squadrons. Artillery. Army Depdt 3 Railway and Telegraph 1 Instruction Besides the above there The Army and battalions and 4 regiments of Garrison Fortress. total. that their organisation The Dutch the — ment each remains very and Infantry — of tion. : HOLLAND AND BELGIUM. The Standing Dutch Army consists is and- a Colonial of three companies." that the training of the Militiamen by the Vienna Congress so thorough as not is might be. Rhine. 8 in 1830. was. alto- Artil- lery. the former extending from the mouth of the Ems to those of the full provinces. Grenadiers neutrality these two States. Engineers 1 —3 length of service of these to is as a Field 1.. bination of the old Voluntary Enlistment the Grenadier and 1 armies.

sluices offer canals. already happened that the country by letting in the sea through the sluices and forming a general has been saved inundation. has called duly however. would be which would of great assistance in case of war.) . In case a necessity should arise for re- been always dependence on the Her Army is is. obstacles The numerous numerous to an invading army. Belgium also is not one of the warlike She has. 7o devoted to the furthering of her commercial interests. recruited entirely comes enlistment. the " Schutterij. to by volun. inforcing the been not She must therefore possess an Army. chiefly Officer? of How will of considerably behindhand both in organisation and training. for this members only are forty to fifty The Landsturm and Rifle hours annually. in fact. men another body of formed. BELGIUM. not Dutch Army." of men between their 20th Dutch- all and 30th years not included in the Active No Army the or Militia.prevent her total about 30. however.HOLLAND AND BELGIUM. often served as a theatre of war for other nations. the chief duty of the and colonial Army national and L • probably be confined to that of will defence.000 other Powers. and to Infinity of i§z Seljuitcpij. numerous. Since Holland has been declared a neutral and her energy is State. great expectations can be formed of trained for body. and her States. Sptllkifg. (HolW. neutrality Colonial Army. Clubs are also destined to increase the strength of the Army in case of emergency. and men. if only to watch her frontiers. It has. tary has respected.

8 regi- Active and 8 Depdt squadrons.s Conscripts are chosen by ballot at the Terms of Service. dti?e:nacl. Oj>jnee:p oj^ CafZmCe:f$. 1 1 The Carbineer Regiment Active and 2 Dep6t battalions consists of . in consideration of which the Government provides a substitute of its own finding.: — : ) HOLLAND AND BELGIUM. Artillery —4 Regiments Field Artillery. batteries are skeleton ones and have no guns. o| The The Belgian Army is formed as follows Infantry numbers 4 Divisions. The Cavalry numbers 2 Divisions of 2 brigades of 2 regiments each. the latter being only skeleton battalions. of . (Bdgiam. 4 Horse and 6 The Reserve Reserve batteries. battalions." this is either paying a substitute. i. Regiment of Grenadiers. Regiments 3 14 Regiments of Infantry of the Line. : 2 Regiments of Light Dragoons. 4 the remain- der of 3 Active and 1 Dep6t battalions. 7i This makes altogether 58 Active and 20 Dep6t. or 9 Brigades of 2 or 3 regiments each. forming 32 total. The remainder have 6 guns each total. 2 Regiments of Guides to (similar Hussars). by by paying an exemption of £64.e Regiment of Carbineers.. of Rifles.e. 34 batteries with — 204 0||iee:p besides 3 regiments turn. easily evaded or Organisation. yearly so-called but "Appels. and 4 Regiments of Lancers. i. each regiment numbering 4 Active and 1 Dep6t squadrons— Grand ments. consisting of 30 Field.

e. pyrotechnic and general trades. the rifles rifles..HOLLAND AND BELGIUM. pontooning. . 4 ^ 000 menj w j t 1 2Q^ guns j}^ Y) utch and Belgian Infantry are armed with single ] breech-loaders. Both Holland and Belgium 1 strength of present intention of introducing magazine- will have to example of other nations strict universal conscription. 72 Siege Artillery. companies for special work. _ follow the adopting will . be only when this is in It accomplished that their Armies will represent the armed Beaumont and Albini strength of the nation and satisfy the and there seems no demands made en a National Army. Regiment of 3 battalions. I railway. chiefly the tall and Guides are striking. telegraph. Reserve. i. The whole peace-strength numbers about Army. The Belgian Army is clothed according to the French model bearskins of the Grenadiers peculiar and respectively. each of 16 Siege. and Engineers and — 5 1 1 Depdt batteries. Train — Battalion of 6 companies.

over Hungary and the Turks or Osmanli. Offizev of t§e Ro|ioi?i (un3. known itself From this point they empire further and further to the north-west. and this city it would undoubtedly have had not been for its heroic fallen if defence by Field-Marshal Riidiger von Starhemberg. the capital of the Eastern and set up This race< its Roman their Empire. government there under a Padishah or Sultan. as master of Constantinople. Offices? of l§& BoroBanje: (full clfe:^). and took possession of the Hungarian capital. had made intervening lands. I the inhabitants of Europe were several times alarmed by a common danger. . that of invasion of their territories by a foreign race.r>e:gs). Asiatic by extraction. or Ofen. o}®> N the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries Historical. Buda.TURKEY AND THE STATES OF THE BALKAN PENINSULA. and connected extended primarily with the Mongols. In 1683 they actually besieged Vienna. in 1453.

own confused system of military administration. The Turkish Empire payment of a fine. but she has her own administra. Servia. In this way arose the still The responsibility lies with the independent kingdoms of Greece. to wane. tion. 2 Cavalry Divisions. Army officer on a Corps altogether. One yet by no means equal to that of any of the in eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. sovereigns. Service in the " Nizam.000 men at later of 100." or Active lasts six years. since the disbanding of is divided Nizam is 1 supply exceptionally conto 6 have each in 1 Army troops. that it the fault of neither is by one the provinces of the Turkish Empire became detached from Turkish rule and the military system nor yet of the Turkish proclaimed their independence under their soldier. "Ordus" peace-time to of the others. who considers herself the champion of the Greek-Catholic Church in the East. Arabia. all of and equipment. great Powers. and.Mahomedan inhabitant of Turkey is bound Christians are once the terror to serve in the Army. 2 Infantry 1 Regiment ' . from 1835 to 1839. of 12. is The first. what foretell far- reaching consequences such a war would The whole Turkish Empire give a short account of her Army as well as stituted. " Ikhtiat. every able-bodied Roumelia is still in the hands of the Turks. and even with the feeding them during the present century. at the request of the then Sultan Austrian Empire. or three at the outside. According to the Law. Since. to two years. Russia. and The seventh Ordu only possesses 1 Army the Janissaries (who formed the Sultan's body-guard. who chiefly responsible for this organisation. and of other Powers has secured a life for on the and the four years with the Colours would by this time have undoubtedly seized remaining time the Army. the "Sick of if it Man" fleeting is determined not to let frail but subsequently six years the Landsturm or period go of her European of service with the Colours is usually reduced them. forces gradually declined in strength wars the with Russia Count Field-Marshal Moltke.000)." of which not skip her over.. which deals in the most hopeless and in and Roumania. is no less who held out till The Turkish power now began and its during than a personage of Poland. Eastern and pay of the Army. 1 of to 2 Army Corps of the Redif in case of necessity. Army Since his time." possessions without a entail. 74 he was succoured by Duke and who was sent for that purpose to Charles of Lorraine with the Army of the Turkey. of spends three and the Cavalry and Artillery- man lands Bosphorus.TURKEY AND THE STATES OF THE BALKAN PENINSULA. Turkey has now. however. the Turkish Though has is the improved after every war. besides Corps this. which the Infantry soldier Each Corps consists of Divisions. existence. exempted on of Christendom is now fighting for very Terms o£ — — and to retain her hold over the small remnants of her European possessions. and the principality of the worst possible way with the clothing Bulgaria (under Turkish suzerainty). but must the seventh. and John Sobieski. in As a matter of fact." in the were not that the ambition Landwehr or " Redif " for eight years. Turkey " Muhstafiz. organised her purely European footing. King Mahmoud II. the stiff fight for and since no one can we must Active Reserve or After this the soldier joins the him. Organisa- tion into 7 military districts or " Ordu.

" fashion. The Artillery Regiment numbers 14 to allow of the growth and alterations of batteries. the As for a discipline lines of great European Powers. of strong positions. and are armed with long shortly be armed altogether with a magazine.rifles. . respect. sparing 9 battalions of Cavalry — 12 squadrons. organised on the steel guns. The most . or Turkey. of which 1 is a Dep6t squadron. the numbers 5 battalions. and true to Artillery the death. as well as Gendarmerie) consists of about 30. six years' service. With the exception In vain does and Delhis on crooked swords.000 men. an their and a Ca- A regiment of Infantry fiery for the Spahis horses. and Rifles.512 guns. As The regards discipline and training. of the red fez. unruffled. and the "Redif" wear The 18 Army Corps of the Turkish jackets or sleeved waistcoats.e. 252 batteries 72 companies Engineers. but will looking dresses. altogether 10 batteries with 64 guns. Infantry. has faded. Greece has. 5 tinctly European cut. The " Nizam " wear squadrons. and love of country. in consequence of her Greece. of which 3 are Horse Artillery the body. which take place during their and 2 mountain batteries. — The Turkish soldier is easily satisfied.000 men . These feelings are. Army. with 1. quiet in his demeanour. which could be reinforced in war-time to 80. 432 Artillery. but rifle. is sadly deficient in good officers armed with a repeating carbine. —2 and of words.— — TURKEY AND THE STATES OF THE BALKAN PENINSULA. " lost heads "). compensated for to some extent by universal conscription Infantry 27 battalions of the Line and a religious fanaticism and a warlike spirit. Field. usually wide in the body. 2. of which 1 is a uniform of the Turkish troops has a disDep6t battalion a regiment of Cavalry.000 in peace-time. each of 6 guns.* (i. however. regiments. one now look of the Train. The Army (including Engineers and Train. and talions. a wild body of Irregular and these could be heavily reinforced by troops who carry on war in their own drawing on the " Muhstafiz. 1 2 Mountain Garrison bat- Artillery battalion. The guns and non-commissioned are good cast-steel breech-loaders from the Krupp have works. The Army is extremely plucky in Cavalry and Field Artillerymen are war. These wear bizarre and wildpatterns of rifles at this moment. We need therefore founded on feelings of hasty glance at them. his cast but a honour. of Field Artillery. Field (including Redif) comprise a adventurous-looking are the Bashi-Bazouks strength of 612. obedient. The romantic halo which endowed the Turks with unequalled fighting powers in the assault and formerly unconquerable stubbornness in the defence * Numbering 468 battalions squadrons Cavalry. and i A i battalion of Pioneers Division consists of 2 brigades Infantry brigade numbers valry 3. the Turks wots not of it. The mountain batteries armies of the smaller States of the Balkan Peninsula. with turbans and flashing 75 waving garments. will in future wars Turkish soldier cannot be compared on the probably only act as same grounds with officers. Tr. and who are little amenable to disThe Infantry is armed with three different cipline. a dark-blue coat. dignified. allies to either Russia European comrade.

of 72 companies altogether Infantry. into the ist Line Corps. The peace-strength of Roumania numbers over 30. battalions to the Bagf)i - as BTCall would be able to Army an is not at organisation of her principality field is Ba?oukg . Reserve Army — 65. The war-strength battalions Cavalry.000 men. war-strength Total men. 50. batteries of 1 120 80 squadrons of of 20 Engineers.000 men and iooguns. total. Engineers and besides batteries. although her constitution yet not definitely behindhand Army. into the Her peace strength consists of Infantry — 16 of the battalions Line. men and 200 guns. formed similarly to the above.000 men. Landsturm —60 30. (Hussars) and 54 squadrons of Kalaraschi total. : battalions. Bulgaria. Besides these there are 32 Local Militia and a body of men corresponding German Landsturm. 25 squadrons.— — — . TURKEY AND THE STATES OF THE BALKAN PENINSULA. and 2nd Line 4 more Divisions.000 of consists Artillery.000 ReSi|. Cavalry — 16 squadrons of Rosiori. Artillery— 54 batteries with 312 guns. well-drilled and well-armed (with repeating rifles and Krupp guns). Train— total. and men and 448 details guns.000 ID 1 30. species of (a Gendarmerie) 70 squadrons. 65. 76 Servia can put into the namely Field Army —45 25 field 5 Divisions. SEBVIA. the of over 30. 4 battalions of Rifles and 65 battalions of the Dorobanze (a Territorial Militia) — 85 battalions.000 comprising battalions. ^> The put into the Tupki?B Inf&nity of Roumania can bring 4 Army ilje in settled.


Fuertk Bavaria fe& .ep. LSwamhn. Fnnfed Jy (?.) Rour :. (Review 0p3.

of denaapmcptz.ania. (Ma*e§ing OrcleF.) (In (speai-eoate. m&*. Engineers {evie* OrcUp.) Transport. London. .) PubSthed % JP»W*oto CAhkk <6 $»>*. £ .


and their not very great. inhabitants They their country.400 men. the bag in which the rocks were those which remained fell split. well-trained men. the Balkan Peninsula. liberty- loving nation. Montenegro. his speech Prince him- to the less whose people he bravery merit much so admired. which would time amount to 64. When the a wild and craggy According to the inhabiCreator was walking over the earth. 77 a tiny country of only about 2. and 7. In the western portion of NEGRO. wild are as as are a small. Army numbers efficiency MONTE- is is a in war- The Standing only 3.300 square The miles.000 Landsturm. how who exercise a sovereignty. The Army species of of Eastern Roumelia Militia.e TURKEY AND THE STATES OF THE BALKAN PENINSULA. eastern LIA. over the came determined to grief when met by their 1862 the opposition. In inhabitants of Herzegovina rebelled against the sovereignty of the Crescent. the Czar. between the Dinaric Mountains and the Adriatic. its Turkey. called the Prince of Montenegro the best had friend he probably referred self and than the to determined on earth. and were Montenegro : supported Solcliep. though not touching the mountain tants. and When born warriors. This nation has for centuries known to preserve tried to people. the other day. independence. of great physical beauty. in Montenegrins. distributing rocks and plains.000 Landwehr thereupon revolt their recalled their best general. for the land of the Black Mountains (Montenegro or Tzernagora) is by the The Turkish Government Monienegpo : Jj°i 2 Omar . besides 24.000 men." There can certainly not have>been many rocks in the bag. lies land. " latter. and on to Monte- negro.

* of for very long. been trained to Army. stands whom however. therefore. so leasjt 35. Montenegro requires no law of universal ally. Pasha forced his way into conscription. Montenegro. from exile. men and could be put in the 50 a few mountain-guns field in case of war.TURKEY AND THE STATES OF THE BALKAN PENINSULA. Turkish losses were are mounted. only a Body-Guard for the Omar could not keep up their brave opposition Prince. their enemy that the former were the Montenegrins showed them- selves willing to treat for peace conditions.000 It is. in order to defend the country against an on easy invader from any quarter. but the so considerable." . for every able-bodied man Montenegro at the head of a powerful has. 78 Pasha. It has also no those of the Montenegrins that the latter Standing Army. as a matter of course. and gave him the chief to this day a rocky fortress and a bulwark command of the Herzegovina and her forces sent against against the advance of the Crescent. stated that at * "Peganicis. composed of 300 men. impossible to get glad when and at. His forces were so superior to arms from his youth up.

ew glance at the naval Torpedo-ships.. etc. service India may nations 259 Transports. to be reckoned with as well.. mine-layers.28 Australia 2 31 . .. ... altogether this 112 fighting- was but a small portion of England's Navy. the race with foreign nations account 33 Total however much other voices heard lately in Parliament anent the alleged 43 .. Men-of-war 25 Other ironclads 29 Cruisers Gunboats and avisos . armed country's does strength however.. the in The last naval late is development as to the strength and There were at that time.. ships . and turret- European States. appeared to disarm all hostile criticism ships.120 Torpedo-boats Auxiliary ocean steamers Total . .29 taken into August. Army .. sailing-vessels. \T A now 7"E have VV f the Armies of Europe. . Gun-sloops (small) 58 82 54 16 Torpedo. however. .. . 80 Sloops and gun-vessels Gunboats 23 702 . <*s#> SKETCH OF THE NAVIES OF EUROPE. There have certainly been standstill i. . Grand total 763 France possesses now . consist exclusively of her her We Navy has not. Despatch-vessels and survey-ships forces of the chief of the queen of the . therefore.. Various.. 37 .. . off Portsmouth... as : Ironclad corvettes and cruisers . will. several square miles of vessels. etc. ..vessels. try to overhaul her in ships and material. etc Torpedo-boats 136 Transports and sailing-ships Coast and harbour service. . 72 . . for the total English Fleet amounts follows to altogether 763 vessels. — England. .— — — APPENDIX. . 14 593 40 102 259 Besides over 200 small sailing-vessels and hulks.107 . FRANCE... South Africa when backsliding.. for coast and harbour The first place amongst Naval Powers is Auxiliary ocean steamers undoubtedly still held by Great Britain as seas. "Carried forward . . . Yet . efficiency of the British Fleet.e.. Brought forward finished with our bird's- e y e v . . Turreted and belted men-of-war 195 of great Naval Review.

Her biggest chiefly Navy should not be.." a Naval a Division Police Corps.. and the Naval Medical 19 26 Department. Cruisers Total AUSTRIA. ." admirals. been several details/ gained fleet. number is Marine Artillery at 2 companies of and Friedrichsort Men-of-war 19 Corvettes Wilhelmshaven. It now 26 314 Torpedo.. 15 The . . . 205 15 original in in plan for forming a 1872-73. .. and Torpedo-boats (old and new) Transports. . The men. . there haven. ." of great many of her ironclads and. The naval forces of Italy have increased very rapidly during the At present they last twelve years. flag-lieutenants. 33 120 sub-lieutenants. all The latest recruit to the boats are out of date. and not up to the organisation The requirements of modern naval warfare..vessels.Germany. German Navy consist helmshaven with 2 captains. So surgeons in 123 and engineers. when on shore.. which appear to Harbour and coast service be the fashion nowadays. 81 Brought forward Russia has of late years considerably increased her 56 spending her substance Torpedo-boats fleet. The Marine Reserve and " Seewehr " are 10 . etc. . for a The Russian . Coast and harbour service So Boat-flotilla. Torpedo-. . ITALY. at Kiel and Wilhelms- into 2 Divisions of Total 482 of Besides these. etc. Russian 5 . Transports. and her fleet. 8o RUSSIA.. 19 92 7 formed similarly to the Army Reserve and Landwehr. are formed seamen and 2 Divisions dockyard men. . 1 93 42 consists of Total Men-of-war and cruisers . . and cruisers 126 " last not least.. departed from the GER- MANY . . Besides these. has.. proportion. fleet 19 .. 3 vice- corvette- 17 post-captains.. and avisos Torpedo-boats Austria also has considerably increased 26 Various for harbour service . The materiel consists of— Men-of-war and other ironclads . 64 "captain-lieutenants. 21 started 51 from Carried forward . . we officers few will give a of the is whose naval details. of "ship-boys.. gunboats. the same. ..vessels and gunboats 21 Sailing-vessels. Torpedo-vessels and avisos Gunboats Torpedo-boats 122 Transports and survey-ships Harbour and coast service Auxiliary ocean steamers . 2 battalions of Marine Infantry at Kiel and Wilhelmshaven.. 21 . Total The ironclads are those in the Black Sea. . and avisos ..— — — APPENDIX. Torpedo-vessels and gunboats Corvettes.. Naval Powers of 2 "Station-Chiefs" at Kiel and Wil- numbers altogether Men-of-war Monitors. 44 .torpedo. considered as a very powerful one. on large ironclads. 33 . and 114 I40 lieutenants. paymasters. there are 1 00 naval cadets.

still gained.. flag respected in in a way which would not otherwise have been The Navy also be able possible. especially on those of other great naval powers on the the part of England. or in the more peaceful task of cementing friendly relations with other Powers. merchant service. and more attention has recently founded and is still founding was paid to increasing the torpedo-flotilla will increase its task and may lead to the for the defence of the coasts and ports.APPENDIX. will in thing successes.e. is certain. enabled to political one great object has been that the protection of trade and the i. enter Germany into relations with and to make the German all parts Of the world is commercial distant will also now One and countries. the matter. Although the Imperial Navy is not yet The recognition which the German Navy strong enough to compete successfully with has lately won on all sides. The building of huge ironclads Navy. for the colonies which the country was not persevered in. that its whether in the hoisting of the national flag in distant parts of the world. allows of the hope open sea. It is difficult to forecast the knowledge of German economy had also something to do with probable development of the German . in the future to defend the German coast-line and make it hand soon be considered as fit to go hand with the German Army. are followed with appreciation Empire the greatest interest and by the whole of the German . experience of other nations and from the 81 the foreign invasion of her coasts an im- requirements possibility. formation of a much larger fleet. arid that is.


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HISTORY 15J. By W.AD VERTISEMENTS. " Although it is primarily no doubt intended for medical officers. The British army never came out more brilliantly irom any trial than from this contest with the wilderness. and elucidates and explains them . I By of the. and its History to the Departure of the Desert Column from Korti. from the Departure of the Desert Column to the conclusion of the Campaign. E. and as his best reward may he find it. cloth. and this volume in the other. E. therefore. of the. ACTS OF PARLIAMENT. "Whatever may be thought of general history.B. Army Order 99 Staff Corps. and even to civilians who want a book of the kind for handy reference. 6d. is. or any information relating thereto. in "jd. and freely lays under tribute the regulations of every branch of the service. and Hydrographical Notices. LONDON. Grenadier Guards. SV. A TEXT-BOOK Royal Navy. Queen's Regulations. E. Maps. and the Relation of those Departments to each other and to the Treasury with Appendix. From Cairo to Khartoum is 1000 miles in a straight line. War Office."—'Manchester Guardian. cloth. J. Demy 8vo. Staff. like his predecessor. By Officers of the use at the in Issued by the Admiralty. Eyre & Spottiswoode. Colville. Prepared For the use of 4s. A INFANTRY Plates. to grope about for want of definite instructions with his new medical regulations in one pocket. and it is. Col. 3d. there is no doubt that military history is written with a definite object. The problem.Major. except Maps. NAVAL ARCHITECTURE. . J. of 1890. 1890). Part II. And AGENTS TO THE EAST HARDING STREET. For the soldier Colonel Colville's book isa mine of valuable information. with case of C. Gunnery Text Book. Welch. with alterations NAVAL AND MILITARY DEPARTMENTS. 1889 upon which it is based. IN the Intelligence Division of the Drawings of the Flags £2 iar.. yet it embraces such a range of important information as must render it of use to every branch of the service. Manual Medical Part II. The country affords no supplies. Musketry Instruction. and when at its destination may still have stores to las>t for some time. and all Official Military Books. contains the Events leading up to the Nile Expedition. Part I. . The official history shows how this problem was solved.G.. College. REGULATIONS FOR ARMY MEDICAL SERVICES. War Game. 6d. Riordan. (Reprinted from the Edition of 1889. Infaptry Drill. yet the result is no mere dry compilation of Army Acts and Orders. SOUDAN CAMPAIGN. Medical SERVICES. whether of the regular or the auxiliary forces. . NEW ZEALAND GOVERNMENT. Rifle Exercises. moreover. zd. 6d. — Crown 8vo. by post. It fills in the details which they handbook to all matters which affect the physical well- (corrected to July."— rmy and Navy Gazette. Government and General Publishers. The soldier studies a ?ast campaign in order the better to be able to conduct a future one. . In two parts. ts military lessons are summoned up in one word transport. Greenwich. Compiled in the Intelligence Division of the War Office. but a book full of original and collected matter of a most useful and interesting character. Historical Records of various Regiments.. The modern army medical officer has no longer. of. Wolfe Murray. . subsequently made by for the 2s. by DRILL. . . RUSSIAN ARMY ASIA. present time by various Nations."— The British Medical Journal. in the hands of every medical officer. . a comprehensive being of the soldier. is. Parliamentary Papers. in both DEPOSIT ACCOUNTS opened for Large or Small Sums. We "This useful volume is in the nature of a supplement to the War Office Regulations necessarily lack. is. was to move a small army to within a practicable distance of Khartoum in such a way that it may be fed during its advance. ARMY LISTS (Monthly and Quarterly). where it deserves to be. and all Government Publications. N. heartily congratulate Surgeon-Major Riordan on his really admirable book . Army Circulars and Orders..) is. Patent Specifications Mercantile Marine Forms. HANDBOOK By Major J. Preliminary and further Reports of the Royal Commissioners appointed to inquire into the Civil and Professional Administrations of the Naval and Military Departments. i2mo. R. sent on day of issue. Part I. and 1400 miles by the Nile. MANUAL FOR ARMY MEDICAL Surgeon. . Forty-seven post.. and how infinitely difficult it was. and Books and Papers of any Series . H. While he takes the official War Office regulations and manuals to build upon. he can safely take up any duty. FLAGS OF ALL NATIONS. Bills under discussion Houses of Parliament.

STRAND. PRICE SIXPENCE. The Broad Arrow ano & IBaval /BMlftars 0a3ette. (5a3CttC contains fully one-fourth more matter than the other Service Journals. earnest support of the by officers appear of rank and ordinary staff of writers. EVERY SATURDAY.". This results from the reputation it has acquired for early and exclusive intelligence. or have made the Naval and Military The its measures for the good of the Services. even with their frequent supplements. from the high character of its its articles. and other Governments. . and American true impression of facts and public opinion in Officers of Foreign Services. (SflcbtbUeheb 1833. Russian. weekly from week to week experience. especially of the Armies. Jg^jlbie Broao arrow ano IBaval a fllMUtarE <Ba3ette has by far the ^—* largest circulation of all the Military Papers. flMHtars (5a3ette throughout India and the Colonies. fflMIltar\> £be Broao arrow ano IRaval S.Ovid. It is supplied direct to the bureaux of the French. 6 affairs. W. French.AD VERTISEMENTS.C. and it by circulates largely Army and Marine is read extensively German. LANCASTER PLACE. all specially interesting subjects part independent course of issue affairs of written by men of note in and from on Articles for the literature most who of the country their special study. who desire to acquire a England regarding Military Offices:— No. Zl)C BrOaD HrrOW ailD IRaVal 8. "FIQITUR IN JUSSO NOSTRA SAGITTA LOCO.

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. . have passed from Mr. .. . 662 . . ' . 1877 „ 1879 .. •. . Trafalgar Square. have passed the competitive Examinations direct from Mr.. Greenwich. Society at home and abroad.. ' ' N. Lieut. WOOLWICH. Needham." 1888' „ 1889 . SOLE OBJECT OP THE SOCIETY— TO SPREAD THE SAVING KNOWLEDGE OF CHRIST. and. ./. • The Manor House. This' sum total has never been equalled by any tutor in or oiit of London. '/ Wolflram's Establishment up to the date. f atara— REV. 864 BIENNIAL TOTALS Who Army Candidates. . . and Commissionsthroueh the Militia :— 187a and r873 . of the Examinatioh.... .< 1st l89° ' »st place _. ..C.. Lee.. 2034 marks. „. Contributions in. . . AMONG OUR SOLDIERS..C.. •. . S.1882 „ 1883 . . One hundred and seven 107 One hundred and twenty-one I2r One hundred 'and twenty-two 122 . Charing Cross.' and by the 'I7j Whitehall Place. W. 6a- Eighty-oije 8t . - 1 WOLITRAM:. • '.. place Militia Officers first la'st .S.E. The Manor House. . . . . .Chaplains strengthenleci.. lne Mihtia Military n Competitive Classes areundcr the direction of Lieut-Colonel J. have passed from Mr.... „ 1876 1878 1880 . 4.NCEj K. Mr.. C. aid of the Society will be: thankfully received by the Treasurer. M.C. '. Total include only pupils . .. r --r . all : There are now 90 Scripture Readers on the lists of the. Wolffram for Woolwich.. . -. i . .. A Martyn 1760 marks. ..Six hundred and sixty-two. .-.... . Lieut.'.E.. H. . . Students only. . Piccadilly. R.B. SUCCESSFUL ARMY CANDIDATES. Fitzgerald Cox. Word of Life...'. who were reading in Mr. strive to lead. .. Trafalgar Square.the wishes of several clients.\ without the restraint unavoidable in the intercourse of different classes of Society j may commend to them the love of. question.them from the deceitful... . late Professor of Fortifica_ tion and Instructor of Tactics and Military Topography at the R. and at the National provincial Bank of 'England...• Eight 8 . In compliance with. Soldiers' own station in life. „.'FUNDS to THEmoral elevation of our Army at heart. >™_ *. . London. body of men of the.. . London. All applications to be addressed to.. at the Offices* 4. Turner .A. for Non-Resident'. . H. .. . . whq. by the assistance. S. Holt.. L . S. .. pleasures of sin to that peace which the world can neither give nor take away. .. have the religious and:see the hands. and formerly Garrison Instructor... -. Rev.- PRELIMI NARY ARMY EXAMINATION. Blake..M. . . J. read to them the.'.Thirty-eight 38 . Lee. of the Military . Lieut.•. Ap VERTlSEMEflTS. "' -. Sandhurst. Mr.. 1874 „ 1875 . . P.B. WITH A TEACHING STAFF OF TWENTY-THREE INSTRUCTORS.'-:•-"'' iFitty-six Sixty-two 56 67 . EDGHILL..1887 ~... College. . I 1st i88c. LA^RE.. . ftesttfottt -GENERAL SIR Dr. . . and the Royal military Academy.have passed the Preliminary from 1S72 to 1889 of Examinations in all subjects. Secretary. . . . 237 MILITIA MILITARY COMPETITIVE EXAMINATIONS. SANDHURST. Christ. a Branch Establishment of Classes for the Militia Military Competitive Examinations. W. . G.'. Charing Cross. „ 1881 . irovxcs. In addition to the above numbers. Esq..—The above Lists .N.. Sixty-seven.- . ' T.'„ 1884. and who 'would wish to who... Wolflram's Estahlishment. 1891.C. . and during the three years the place has been taken three times :— l8j8 place . 1929 marks. L.. . Direct Commissions.. . J AND 0OLDIERS' FRIEND jSOClETY. Wolffram will open in London in January. Wolffiram's Establishment into the Eoyal m-i^P" Candidates Military College.. . . William A. . WOLFFRAM.' 1885 1886 . Committee make' an EARNEST APPEAL FOR . and for Direct Commissions. of a.. . AND DIRECT COMMISSIONS. - . .. .. Sandhurst.. PREPARES CANDIDATES FOR ALL ARMY EXAMINATIONS. "Woolwich. A.

K. compact and comfortable. OJiA. CO. and stylish. His Royal Highness the Duke of Cambridge. HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN. S. * ****** x wn w.AD VERTISEMENTS. P r!hSS ' P for one horse. our by Hooper Private use. .. . His Imperial Majesty the German Emperor.iBht' for > Rubber '°aif^t hOT . . high.K-A-JjA. Also to the Embassies Of GERMANY.. His Royal Highness the Duke of Edinburgh. aiI speciality. His Royal Highness the Duke of Connaught. for a ! *»****•** JtvEPAIXvS tyres. LONDON. .JE own'*J^ Q" stylish carnage"V for gentlemen's driving... and under springs With perch. ? CARRIAGES OF BEST QUALITY "ONLY. on elliptidsprings.G. LANDAU'S i BIvO U GrH AIVLS. for Royalty and the Nobility. . new and ' The mist " ..e s MAIL.G. ESTABLISHED 1807. slightly used.. K. FINEST MATERIALS EXCLUSIVE DESIGNS/ v Wn Pat61" ^lf *" ing baIanl»d heads nHht strong. el!iplic s P rin S s a unique carriage S»Co.." RUSSIA. JTALY.W. «JT h a?d Spr aU a i?**. in various sues.. K. and-durabla Fpr one horse or for a pair* of hJS« - . arid all latest °n C one horse- . compact. His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales.* Her Royal Highness the Duchess of Fife^ Her Royal Highness the Duchess of Albany.G. OJVLJNXJjUSES as tuilt to F for a pair or a team.. large. . . Her Majesty the Queen Regent of the Netherlands. -VICTORIAS. . HIGHEST WORKMANSHIP. to let for * on hire with option of purchase.JN uO SOCIABLES.PHAETONS. Her Royal Highness the Princess Louise.G. COACHBUILDERS TO * His Royal Highness the Duke of Clarence atad Avondale. of all kinds. K. and SPAIN. VICTORIA STREET. at moderate prices CAB>XvIACrES improvements. ™aller >«»*« for the country. HOOPER & 107. . » estimates free.

HEAD DEPOT & LETTER OXFORD fP-igStSSS® T City Branch: 82. OVEBCOATS. r.J*./„ . BOOTS. ILLUSTRATED PRICE LIST. 11/9. etc.Cloths. 22/6 In Real West of England • p& Jn Black Diagonals^ .. . REAL WEST CLOTHS. &»<***' and *** SeK-Measure Forms.. UNDER & SSSk PRICES. 8/n. 12/11. Scotch Cheviots'.„ „.vy This favourite Suit. BAKER ETON JACKETS AND VESTS. . The Cash Sales at these Stores mm exceed a Quarter of a Million Sterlingper annum. 'Singlet. of age. Clo 8/ii. &c. 9/ii. Postal Orders.. ORDER DEPT. Trousers. Tritton & Co. 17/91025/9 Quality! .. SUITSv ' A Two-gaVment Suit for In super Black and Diagonal o and general wear. WITH EASY SELFMEASUREMENT FORMS. 14/" Nap— suits. ' 14/". 12/11. SCHOOL OUTFITS. it/9. TOTTENHAM COURT ROAD (puggggg of order any of the World on goods of _%innn-r. to be crossed PATTERNS POST-FREE. A GOOD STYL E AND FIT CAN these Departments. POST-FREE. their to -' Cloths.nrnT «-HAS BAKER & CO. rsady for immediate wear. &c.. '9/« ap'nnnwPTlili nniHrt nrniDTMCUTC BESPOKE TAILORING DEPARTMENTS 11/9. 'g. etc. & CO. 16/11. VICUNA Cheques.. loths. In Fine Worsted-. „/„ . 6/11. COYS'* YOUTHS' THE GENTLEMEN'S OPENED TO KEEP PAGE WITH SUPERIOR CLOTHING. AND COMPLETE UNIFORMS. Bev an. OVERCOATINGS. SHIBTS. BAKER & CO.: 271 & 272. BAKER . Cheviots. EXPORT DEPT. . Tweeds. ia/ii» 14/u. . 8/11. BE GUARANTEED. EATS..- iu/11 to '41/6 ! 19/11 14/u are open at each of OHAS..4i/6. 3 » - .' 4.i 137. mA'i *9/" SUITS.— . 14/11 boys' GIRLS' TAILOR-MADE 'REEFERS.. to .'af/6. HIGH HOLBORN d^it&n&tO GHAS.19/11. .'S DEPOT8. 19/n. . ' . 139 & 140. 33/?- part Post-free to receipt .. Jchool years from 7 to Boys thorougWwell cut and made! tor otage. 13/9. Lanyard and Whistle complete. ALL GOODS 25 PER GENT. 138. OHAS.-. J0/9. In Serges 8/11. r™J>Lm'«»i ^sts. years For Boys from 9 !> durable Tweeds and . 11/9. FLEET S -fe&s') West End Braneh: 192 & 194. LIMITED. m etc. TROUSERINGS."• 5/"' ' 67ii.. forward consignments any part of the Globe. 32/6 «o 31/6 a 8/|i. All Ooods Carriage Paid to any part of the United Kingdom. CLOTHING.. HIGH-CLASS CUTTERS BEING EMPLOYED. igA In YOUTHS' CAMBRIDGE royal n».'S BOYS' NORFOLK . HOSIERY..'S STORES. TOTTENHAM CT.. 4/ir. READY FOR IMMEDIATE WEAR.. CO. hocfefs. Purchasers OP are asked to inspect the extensive stocks of ENGLAND CLOTHS. Sailor Costumes. 27/6 41/6 In Scotch Cheviots.*. 11/9. 8/1 1. B D. CIVIL SERVICE STORES. In " • - ' %6/U.. TO ORDER OR WATEBPBOOFS. Limited. In Twe'e^4 */. showing " Bakclav. LIVERIES. consisting rf Blue Serge Blouse (with Badge on arm)' and Knicker- This style of Suit is kept in a large variety of m-iterialsi very My well made arid cut y10 ™'! "" 10/b. SERGES.

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