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SALES Course Outline First Semester SY 2009-2010 Karen V. Jimeno I. General Concepts A. Definition of Sales

Article 1458, Civil Code Sales by Araceli Baviera (2005) (“Baviera”), pp. 1-4 B. Nature of obligations created Article 1458, Civil Code Article 1165, Civil Code C. Sales distinguished from other transactions a. Contract for a piece of work

Article 1713, Civil Code Celestino Co. & Co. v. Collector 92 Phil 841 (1956) Baviera, pp. 10-12 b. Lease of things

Article 1643, Civil Code Jose v. Barrueco, 67 Phil 747 (1939) Baviera, p. 12 c. Agency to buy or sell

Article 1868, Civil Code Article 1466, Civil Code Ker & Co., Ltd v. Lingad, 38 SCRA 524 (1971) Baviera, pp. 13-14 d. Barter or exchange

Article 1638, Civil Code Article 1468, Civil Code Baviera, pp. 14-15 e. Dacio en Pago

Article 1245, Civil Code

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Sonny Lo v. KJS Eco-Formwork System Phil., Inc., G.R. No. 149420 (2003) Baviera, pp. 15-16 f. Chattel Mortgage

Section 3, Chattel Mortgage Law Article 2140, Civil Code Baviera, p. 16 g. Donation

Articles 725-726, Civil Code Articles 745-749, Civil Code Article 1471, Civil Code D. Contracts and rights related to Sales a. Optional Contract

Article 1479, Civil Code JMA House Inc. v. Sta. Monica Industrial and Development Corp., G.R. No. 154156 (2006) Baviera, pp. 4-5 b. Contract to Sell or Executory Contract of Sale

Heirs of Antonio Bernabe v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 154402 (2008) Spouses Reyes v. Salvador, G.R. No. 139047 (2008) Baviera, p. 7 c. Right of First Refusal

Ang Yu Asuncion v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 109125 (1994) Rosencor Dev. Corp. v. Inquing, 354 SCRA 119 (2001) Polytechnic University of the Philippines v. Court of Appeals, 368 SCRA 691 (2001) Baviera, pp. 5-6 d. Earnest Money

Article 1482, Civil Code Romero v. Court of Appeals, 250 SCRA 223 (1995) Baviera, p. 6
Note: SC’s ruling in Platinum Plans Phil. Inc. et al. v. Cucueco (G.R. No. 147405, 2006)“It was error for the appellate court to rely upon Article 1482 of the Civil Code in concluding that the earnest money given ‘would be considered as part of the purchase price and proof of the perfection of the contract.’ This Court has emphasized that it is the proof of the concurrence of all the essential elements of the contract of sale, and not the giving of earnest money, which establishes the existence of a perfected sale.”

E.

Definition of Terms

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Article 1636, Civil Code Baviera pp. 7-10 II. A. Formation of the Contract Capacity of the parties Article 1489, Civil Code Article 234, Family Code Articles 44 and 46, Civil Code Article 36(6), Corporation Code a. Absolute Incapacity

Articles 1327-1328, Civil Code Articles 1390, 1393, 1397 and 1399, Civil Code Article 1489, Civil Code Article 194, Family Code Labagala v. Santiago, 371 SCRA 360 (2001) Baviera, p. 17 b. Relative Incapacity

Articles 1490 and 1492, Civil Code Article 73, Family Code Article 96, Family Code Medina v. Collector of Internal Revenue, 1 SCRA 302 (1961) Calimlim-Canullas v. Fortun, 129 SCRA 675 (1984) Baviera, p. 17 c. Specific Incapacity

Article 1491, Civil Code Distajo v. Court of Appeals, 339 SCRA 52 (2002) Baviera, pp. 17-22 B. Offer and Acceptance a. In general

Article 1475, Civil Code Spouses Firme v. Bukal Enterprises & Development Corporation, G.R. No. 146608 (2003) Dizon v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 122544 (1999) Baviera, pp. 22-24 b. Form of offer

Article 1319, Civil Code

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Articles 1325-1326, Civil Code Spouses Navarra v. Planters Development Bank, G.R. No. 172674 (2007) Baviera, p. 24 c. Form of acceptance

Article 1319, Civil Code Villanueva v. Philippine National Bank, G.R. No. 154493 (2006) Baviera, pp. 24-25 d. Vices vitiating consent

Articles 1330-1334, Civil Code Article 1338, Civil Code Article 1390(2), Civil Code Pineda v. Santos, 56 Phil 583 (1932) Spouses Theis v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 126013 (1997) Baviera, pp. 25-26 C. Formalities of the Contract a. In general

Article 1483, Civil Code Province of Cebu v. Heirs of Morales, G.R. No. 170115 (2008) Baviera, pp. 26-27 b. Statute of Frauds

Article 1403, Civil Code Article 1405, Civil Code Cebu v. Heirs of Rubi, 304 SCRA 408 (1999) Baviera, pp. 27-29 c. Sale of realty by an agent Article 1874, Civil Code Rizalino v. Paraiso Development Corporation, G.R. No. 157493 (2007) Baviera, p. 29 d. Secondary Evidence

Section 5 and 9, Rule 130, Rules of Court Baviera, p. 29 e. Electronic Commerce Act

Sections 7, 8 and 11, Republic Act No. 8792, Electronic Commerce Act MCC Industrial Sales Corporation v. Ssangyong Corporation, G.R. No. 170633 (2007) Baviera, p. 30

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D.

Legality of the Sale

Article 1409, Civil Code Article 1411, Civil Code Article 1416, Civil Code Article XII, Sections 2-3, 1987 Constitution Article XIII, Sections 7-8, 1987 Constitution Spouses Fidel v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 168263 (2008) Silagan v. Intermediate Appellate Court, G.R. No. 68743 (1991) Frenzel v. Catito, G.R. No. 143958 (2003) Baviera, pp. 30-36 III. A. Subject Matter of Sale Must be licit

Article 1459, Civil Code Article 1347, Civil Code Martinez v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. L-31271 (1974) Heirs of Arturo Reyes v. Socco-Beltran, G.R. No. 176474 (2008) Baviera, pp. 37-38 B. Must be determinate

Article 1349, Civil Code Article 1460, Civil Code Camacho v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 127520 (2007) Heirs of Juan San Andres v. Rodriguez, G.R. No. 135634 (2000) Baviera, pp. 38-39 C. Particular kinds a. Future goods

Articles 1461-1462, Civil Code Mananzala v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 115101 (1998) Heirs of Amparo Del Rosario v. Santos, G.R. No. L-46892 (1981) Baviera, p. 40 b. Sale of undivided interest or share

Articles 1463-1464, Civil Code Yturralde v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. L-31586 (1972) Baviera, pp. 40-41 c. Sale of things in litigation

Article 1381(4), Civil Code

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Article 1385, par. 2, Civil Code Santos v. Intermediate Appellate Court, G.R. No. 75384 (1990) Tirado v. Sevilla, G.R. No. 84201 (1990) Baviera, p. 41 d. Things subject to resolutory condition

Article 1465, Civil Code Baviera, pp. 41-42 D. Obligation of the vendor to transfer ownership a. Sale by a person not the owner

Article 1505, Civil Code Article 1434, Civil Code Heirs of Severina San Miguel v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 136054 (2001) Spouses Raymundo v. Spouses Bandong, G.R. No. 171250 (2007) Chua v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 119255 (2003) Baviera, pp. 42-43 b. Exceptions

Article 1431, Civil Code Article 1505, Civil Code Article 1911, Civil Code Article 1898, Civil Code Article 559, Civil Code Article 1506, Civil Code Article 1390, Civil Code Article 1636, Civil Code Navarro and Fortea v. Second Laguna Development Bank, G.R. No. 129428 (2003) Chua Hai v. Kapunan, G.R. No. L-11108 (1958) Manila Memorial Park Cemetery, Inc. v. Linsangan, G.R. No. 151319 (2004) Ledesma v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 86051 (1992) Baviera, pp. 43-48 IV. A. Price In general a. Necessity of a price

Article 1318, Civil Code Article 1353, Civil Code Article 1471, Civil Code Ting Ho v. Teng Gui, G.R. No. 130115 (2008) Labagala v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 132305 (2001) Baviera p. 49

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b.

Inadequacy of price

Article 1355, Civil Code Article 1470, Civil Code Development Bank of the Philippines v. Moll, 43 SCRA 82 (1972) Spouses Buenaventura v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 126376 (2003) Philippine Free Press, Inc. v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 132864 (2005) Baviera, pp. 49-50 c. Definiteness and certainty

Articles 1472-1474, Civil Code Article 1469, Civil Code Article 1171, Civil Code Tan Tiah v. Yu Jose, G.R. No. 45969 (1939) Baviera, pp. 51-52 B. Medium of payment

Article 1245, Civil Code Article 1468, Civil Code Article 1482, Civil Code Spouses Serrano and Herrera v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 139173 (2007) Topacio v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 102606 (1992) Baviera, pp. 52-54 V. Perfection of the Contract

Article 1305, Civil Code A. Effect of perfection

Article 1475, Civil Code Spouses Jimenez v. Jordana, G.R. No. 152526 (2004) Bautista v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 123655 (2000) Pagco v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 109236 (1994) Baviera, p. 55 B. Sale by Auction

Article 1476, Civil Code Dizon v. Dizon, G.R. No. 156539 (2007) Baviera, pp. 55-56 C. Bilateral promise to buy and sell

Article 1479, Civil Code Vazquez v. Ayala Corporation, G.R. No. 149734 (2004)

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Baviera, pp. 56-57 D. Options

Article 1479, Civil Code Nool v. Court of Appeasl, G.R. No. 116635 (1997) Bible Baptist Church v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 126454 (2004) Navotas Industrial Corporation v. Cruz, G.R. No. 159212 (2005) Baviera, pp. 57-59 E. Assignment of Credits or Incorporeal Rights

Articles 1624-1625, Civil Code Philippine National Bank v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 118357 (1997) Project Builders, Inc. v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 99433 (2001) Baviera, pp. 59-62

VI. A.

Transfer of ownership How effected

Article 1477, Civil Code Escueta v. Lim, G.R. No. 137162 (2007) Mascunana v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 158646 (2005) Vallarta v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. L-40195 (1987) Baviera, p.63 B. Exceptions

Article 1502, Civil Code Article 1478, Civil Code Article 1503, par.1, Civil Code Industrial Textile Manufacturing Company of the Philippines, Inc. v. LPJ Enterprises, Inc., G.R. No. 66140 (1993) EDCA Publishing and Distributing Corporation v. Spouses Leonor, G.R. No. 80298 (1990) Baviera, pp. 63-65 C. Kinds of Delivery a. Real delivery

Article 1497, Civil Code Ten Forty Realty and Development Corp. v. Cruz, G.R. No. 151212 (2003) Visayan Sawmill Company, Inc. v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 83851 (1993) Baviera, pp. 65-66 b. Symbolic delivery

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Article 1498, Civil Code Philippine Suburban Development Corporation v. Auditor General, 63 SCRA 397 (1975) Norkis Distributors, Inc. v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 91029 (1991) Pineda v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 114172 (2003) Caoibes v. Caoibes-Pantoja, G.R. No. 162873 (2006) Baviera, p. 66-67 c. Tradition Longa Manu

Articles 1498-1499, Civil Code San Lorenzo Development Corp. v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 124242 (2005) Board of Liquidators v. Floro, G.R. No. L-15155 (1960) Baviera, p. 68 d. Tradition Brevi Manu Article 1499, Civil Code Baviera, pp. 68-69 e. Tradition Constitutum Possessorium

Carbonell v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. L-29972 (1976) Baviera, p. 69 f. Delivery to a common carrier

Article 1503, Civil Code Article 1523, Civil Code Butuan Sawmill, Inc. v. Court of Tax Appeals, G.R. No. L-20601 (1966) Mobil Oil Philippines, Inc. v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 103052 (1997) Filipino Merchants Insurance Co., Inc. v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 85141 (1989) Baviera, pp. 69-73 D. Double or Multiple Sales

Baviera, pp. 73-74 a. Sale of Movables

Article 1544, Civil Code Tomassi v. Villa-Abrille, G.R. No. L-7047 (1958) Baviera, p. 75 b. Sale of Immovables

Article 1544, Civil Code Spouses Tanglao v. Spouses Parungao, G.R. No. 166913 (2007) Spouses Bernardez v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 165888 (2007) Fudot v. Cattleya Land, Inc., G.R. No. 171008 (2007)

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Spouses Salera v. Spouses Celedonio and Rodaje, G.R. No. 135900 (2007) Baviera, pp. 75-82 VII. A. Risk of loss or deterioration Upon perfection of contract

Articles 1493-1494, Civil Code McCullough v. Berger, G.R. No. L-19009 (1922) Baviera, p. 83 B. After perfection of contract, before delivery Article 1504, Civil Code Article 1496, Civil Code Article 1452, Civil Code Article 1538, Civil Code Chrysler Philippines Corporation v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 55684 (1984) Baviera, pp. 83-86 C. When ownership is transferred

Article 1504, Civil Code Article 1502, Civil Code Article 1262, Civil Code Gaisano Cagayan, Inc. v. Insurance Company of North America, G.R. No. 147839 (2006) Baviera, pp. 86-90 VIII. Documents of Title

Article 1636(1), Civil Code Baviera, p. 91 A. Negotiable Documents of Title

Articles 1507-1509, Civil Code Articles 1512-1513, Civil Code Article 1516-1520, Civil Code Article 1535, par.2, Civil Code Baviera, pp. 91-95 B. Non-negotiable Documents of Title

Article 1507, Civil Code Article 1514, par. 3, Civil Code Baviera, pp.95-96 IX. Remedies of an unpaid seller

Article 1525, Civil Code

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Articles 1533-1534, Civil Code Baviera, pp.97-98 A. By Lien

Article 1527-1529, Civil Code Bachrach Motor Co., Inc. v. Mendoza, G.R. No. L-17551 (1922) Baviera, pp. 98-99 B. Stoppage in Transitu

Article 1531, Civil Code Article 1535, Civil Code Article 1532, par. 2, Civil Code Baviera, pp. 100-102 C. Resale

Article 1533, Civil Code Baviera, pp. 102-104 D. Rescission

Article 1534, Civil Code Article 1385, Civil Code Article 1596, Civil Code Rivera v. Del Rosario, G.R. No. 144934 (2004) Yaneza v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 149322 (2008) Macasaet v. R. Transport Corporation, G.R. No. 172446 (2007) Baviera, pp. 104-106 X. A. Performance of Contract Delivery of the thing of sold a. In general

Article 1524, Civil Code Article 1169, Civil Code Article 1521, Civil Code Article 1523, Civil Code Article 1537, Civil Code Article 1164, Civil Code Article 443, Civil Code Article 1536, Civil Code Article 1198, Civil Code Baviera, pp. 107-112 b. Sales of goods

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Article 1522, Civil Code Article 1583, Civil Code Chrysler Philippines Corporation v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 55684 (1984) Baviera, pp. 113-120 c. Sales of immovables

Article 1539, Civil Code Article 1391, Civil Code Article 1540-1543, Civil Code Lietz, Inc. v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 122463 (2005) Baviera, pp. 120-122 d. Inspection and acceptance

Article 1584, par. 2, Civil Code Articles 1585-1588, Civil Code Article 1599, par. 4, Civil Code Grageda and Montilla v. Intermediate Appellate Court, G.R. No. 67929 (1987) Baviera, pp. 122-128 B. Payment of price a. In general

Article 1582, Civil Code Articles 1589-1590, Civil Code Article 1560, Civil Code Central Bank of the Philippines v. Spouses Alfonso, G.R. No. 131074 (2000) Arra Realty Corporation v. Guarantee Development Corporation and Insurance Agency, G.R. No. 142310 (2004) Baviera, pp. 128-129 b. Sale of real property

Article 1191, Civil Code Article 1592, Civil Code Blas v. Angeles-Hutalla, G.R. No. 155594 (2004) Baviera, pp. 130-132 XI. A. Warranties Express Warranties

Article 1545, Civil Code Where the obligation of either party to a contract of sale is subectto any condition which is not performed Article 1546, Civil Code

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Carrascoso, Jr. v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 123672 (2005) Moles v. Intermediate Appellate Court, G.R. No. 73913 (1989) Baviera, pp. 133-136 B. Implied Warranties a. Implied warranty of title

Article 1547(1) Articles 1548-1558, Civil Code Ang v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 177874 (2008) Republic of the Philippines v. Alto Surety & Insurance Co. Inc., G.R. No. L-12375 (1958) Power Commercial and Industrial Corporation v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 119745 (1997) Baviera, pp. 136-138 b. Implied warranty against hidden encumbrances or defects

Article 1547(2), Civil Code Articles 1560-1561, Civil Code Articles 1566-1571, Civil Code • Waivable EXCEPT when vendor acted in bad faith (what does this waiver pertain to?) Goodyear Philippines, Inc. v Sy, G.R. No. 154554 (2005) Nutrimix Feeds Corporation v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 152219 (2004) – 3 requisites. It took three months before they discovered the hidden defect (3rd requisite not proved) Baviera, pp. 138-140 c. Implied warranty of quality

Articles 1562-1564, Civil Code Moles v. Intermediate Appellate Court, G.R. No. 73913 (1989) Baviera, pp. 143-144 C. Warranties in sales of animals

Article 1572 Article 1573 Article 1574 Article 1575 Article 1576 Article 1577 Article 1578 Article 1579

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Article 1580 Article 1581, Civil Code Baviera, pp. 140-141 • • • D. What is a redibutory (sp?) defect? Expert knowledge insufficient to discover them Remedies of buyer in case of defects in animal sold? Before the animal dies. What are the general remedies? When will the hidden defects in sale of animal not apply? Ans: Animal bought in livestock sold as condemned. Sale by sample or description

Article 1481, Civil Code Article 1562(2), Civil Code Article 1565, Civil Code Mendoza v. David, G.R. No. 147575 (2004) Baviera, pp. 141-143 E. Additional warranties in sale of consumer products

Section 68, Republic Act No. 7394, Consumer Act of the Philippines F. Breach of warranties

Article 1599, Civil Code Supercars Management & Development Corporation v. the late Filemon Flores, G.R. No. 148173 (2004) Harrison Motors Corporation v. Navarro, G.R. No. 132269 (2000) • Why was question of fraud relevant here? It’s more of annulment, fraud is not relevant in warranties, except where there is waiver of warranty is void because of bad faith • Relevant if your practice Corpo Law, due diligence esp in this case where the primary consideration in buying all the shares is the ownership of the pantranco property which is a high market value property so the obligation of the lawyer of the buyer is to do due diligence on the shares and not the properties. Found a defect but didn’t raise it as a very important contract in lawyer. Competent lawyers have the selle warrant that all the titles are clean even if you are buying only the shares. Company by itself is not really valuable. It is more of the buyer’s lawyer’s faul. They could have ensured that any defect in the property, the buyer would have had an easier remedy. Easier in due diligence cases, warn the buyer or reduce the price. Or stipulated that in case of breach, use liquidated damages as a remedy. • Since it involved real property, do you remembers that in sale of real property, description of boundaries all within the area. Court here decided or ruled in favor of the buyer and directed proportional reduction in price, following sale by sated area would the buyer have remedy for rescinding contract for lack in area or proportional reduction? Philippine National Bank v. Mega Prime Realty and Holdings Corporation, G.R. No. 173454 (2008)

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XII.

Breach of contract

Article 1191, Civil Code Article 1192, Civil Code Article 1545, Civil Code A. Sale of goods a. Remedies of the seller

Article 1595, Civil Code Article 1596, Civil Code Article 1597, Civil Code Article 1593, Civil Code Velarde v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 108346 (2001) Visayan Sawmill Company, Inc. v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 83851 (1993) Baviera, pp. 145-152 b. Remedies of the buyer

Article 1598, Civil Code Article 1599, Civil Code Gonzales v. Lim, G.R. No. 130403 (2007) Baviera, pp. 152-156 B. Sale of immovables and things other than goods

Article 1385, Civil Code Article 1591, Civil Code Article 1592, Civil Code • • • Limited cases where you can ask for specific performance and rescission Sale is for acquiring very unique type of goods. But for property, it takes into account the fact that every property is distinct, unique and different. You always have remedy of specific performance or damages. Except when performance becomes impossible. Take into account that’s why you have that exception for movables, very specific movables you can ask for specific performance.

Spouses Benos v. Spouses Lawilao, G.R. No. 172259 (2006) Province of Cebu v. Heirs of Morales, G.R. No. 170115 (2008) Baviera, pp. 156-157

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C.

Sale of movables on installment

Article 1484 Article 1485 Article 1486, Civil Code Act No. 4122, Installment Sales Law or the Recto Law Magna Financial Services Group, Inc. v. Colarina, G.R. No. 158635 (2005) Hermanos, Inc. v. Gervacio, G.R. No. 46306 (1939) Baviera, pp. 157-160 D. Sale of immovables on installment

Republic Act No. 6552, Realty Installment Buyer Protection Act Cordero et al. v. F.S. Management & Development Corporation, G.R. No. 167213 (2006) Spouses Ramos v. Spouses Santiago, G.R. No. 145330 (2005) Section 23, Presidential Decree No. 957, The Subdivision and Condominium Buyers’ Protective Decree Section 24, Presidential Decree No. 957, The Subdivision and Condominium Buyers’ Protective Decree Relucio v. Brillante-Garfin, G.R. No. 76518 (1990) Gold Loop Properties, Inc. v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 122088 (2001) E. Barter

Articles 1639-1641, Civil Code Baviera, pp. 160-161 F. Assignment of credit and other incorporeal rights

Articles 1628-1635, Civil Code Philippine National Bank v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 118357 (1997) Project Builders, Inc. v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 99433 (2001) Baviera, pp. 161-162 XIII. Extinguishment of sale A. In general

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Article 1600, Civil Code Article 1231, Civil Code Baviera, p. 163 B. Conventional Redemption

Articles 1601-1618, Civil Code Article 1144, Civil Code Article 1677, Civil Code Misterio v. Cebu State College of Science and Technology, G.R. No. 152199 (2005) Gajudo v. Traders Royal Bank, G.R. No. 151098 (2006) Agan v. Spouses Nueva, G.R. No. 155018 (2003) Dapiton v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 107259 (1997) Molina v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 125755 (2003) Baviera, pp. 163-175 C. Legal Redemption a. Under the Civil Code

Articles 1619-1623, Civil Code Article 1088, Civil Code Fernandez v. Spouses Tarun, G.R. No. 143868 (2002) Villegas v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 111495 (2006) Baviera, pp. 175-182 b. Under the Public Land Act

Section 12, Commonwealth Act No. 141 or the Public Land Act
Any citizen of the Philippines over the age of eighteen years, or the head of a family, who does not own more than twenty-four hectares of land in the Philippines or has not had the benefit of any gratuitous allotment of more than twenty-four hectares of land since the occupation of the Philippines by the United States, may enter a homestead of not exceeding twenty-four hectares of agricultural land of the public domain.

Section 44, Commonwealth Act No. 141 or the Public Land Act Section 118, Commonwealth Act No. 141 or the Public Land Act Section 119, Commonwealth Act No. 141 or the Public Land Act Development Bank of the Philippines v. Gagarani, G.R. No. 172248 (2008) Baviera, pp. 182-184 c. Under special laws i. Foreclosure and execution sales

Section 6, Act No. 3135, as amended

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Section 2, Rule 68, Rules of Court Section 3, Rule 68, Rules of Court Section 7, Rule 68, Rules of Court Section 47, Republic Act No. 8791 or the General Banking Law of 2000 Spouses Landrito and Edgalani v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 133079 (2005) Spouses Rosales v. Spouses Alfonso, G.R. No. 137792 (2003) Metrobank v. Spouses Tan, G.R. No. 178449 (2008) Banco Filipino Savings and Mortgage Bank v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 143896 (2005) Baviera, pp. 184-185 ii. Under the Agrarian Land Reform Code

Section 11, Republic Act No. 6389 or the Agricultural Land Reform Code, as amended Section 12, Republic Act No. 6389 or the Agricultural Land Reform Code, as amended Baviera, pp. 185-187

XIV.Bulk Sales Law
Act No. 3952, as amended, Bulk Sales Law People v. Mapoy, G.R. No. L-48336 (1942) Baviera, pp. 188-222

XV. Retail Trade Liberalization Act
Republic Act No. 8762, Retail Trade Liberalization Act of 2000

XVI.

Consumer Act of the Philippines

Articles 50-60, Chapter I, Title III, Republic Act No. 7394, Consumer Act of the Philippines