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Chng V: Phn khc th trung - La chn th

trng mc tiu - nh v trong th trng

1.Phn khc th trng (Market segmentation)


1.1. Khi nim:
Phn khc th trng: L vic chia th trng
thnh nhng nhm khch hng khc nhau theo
nhng tiu ch nht nh nhm tm ra th trng
ph hp nht p ng tt nht nhu cu ca
h.

Phn khc th trng l cng vic ti cn thit i vi


mi doanh nghip.
Doanh nghip cn xc nh cc tiu ch da vo
phn khc th trng.
Mi phn khc u c th i hi cc sn phm v
hot ng marketing khc nhau.
Li ch: Tr li c cc cu hi:
- Ai l khch hng ca doanh nghip ?
- Khch hng c c im g?.
- H cn p ng nhu cu g?
- Hot ng marketing cn tp trung vo vn g? .

Hnh 5.1. Minh ho v phn khc th trng


++ - - + - ++ +- +
--+
Th trng
cha phn
khc.(Thnh
th (+),nng
thn( - )

+++

---

++

----

+++

Th trng
phn khc
(Thnh th (+),
nng thn ( - )

+a+ a
+a
+c+ c
+c+ c
+c+ c

+b+ b
+b+ b
+d+ d
+d+ d

Th trng phn khc


theo 4 mc thu nhp
(a-giu, b-kh, c-trung
bnh,d-ngho ) ca
thnh th.

1.2. Yu cu ca phn khc th trng

1.3. Cc tiu thc phn khc th trng.


1.3.1. Cc tiu thc phn khc khch hng c nhn.
Phn khc theo a l:
Phn khc theo a l l vic phn chia th trng theo
cc khu vc a l khc nhau nh: cc quc gia, cc vng,
cc min, cc khu vc, cc thnh ph,
ngha:

Phn khc theo dn s.


Phn khc theo dn s l vic chia th trng
thnh cc nhm ngi tiu dng c cc tiu thc
khc nhau t mong tm c nhu cu ging
nhau ca h v hng ho, dch v no .
Cc tiu thc thng dng l:
tui.
Gii tnh.

Quy m gia nh.

Chu kz sng ca gia nh.


Thu nhp.

Ngnh ngh.
Hc vn.

Tn gio.
Quc tch.

Tuz theo yu cu tm hiu ca mi DN m la


chon tiu thc ph hp nht.

Phn khc theo tm l:


L vic chi th trng thnh cc nhm khch
hng theo theo cc yu t tm l khc nhau.

Cc tiu thc thng dng l:


- Cc tng lp x hi:

- Li sng:
- C tnh:

Phn khc theo hnh vi mua hng.

L vic phn chia khch hng thnh cc nhm lin quan


n hnh vi mua hng ging nhau ca h.
Cc tiu thc thng dng:
- Dp mua:
- Mua theo li ch hng ho.
- Mc s dng:
- Mc trung thnh vi nhn hiu:

1.3.2. Cc tiu thc phn khc khch hng t chc:


Cc tiu thc thng dng:

a im.
Loi hnh ca t chc: Nh SX, nh PP, c quan Nh
nc..

Mc mua: Khng mua, mua t, mua trung bnh, mua


nhiu...
Thi im mua: Thng xuyn, mua theo t, mua theo
ngy quy nh...
Trung thnh vi nhn hiu.

Li ch tm kim: Cht lng, tnh kinh t...

1.4. Cc bc phn khc:

Bc mt: Xc nh th trng ph hp vi sn phm


dch v ca doanh nghip s hng ti nhm tho mn nhu
cu.Th trng ny bao gm nhiu nhm khch hng khng
ng nht. VD: Sn phm sa cho tr em, ngi gi, ngi
mang thai...
Bc hai: Xc nh tiu thc phn khc th trng ph
hp nht chia th trng thnh cc nhm khch hng
ng nht.( tui, thu nhp, li ch mong i)
Bc ba: Tin hnh phn khc ( VD: phn khc th trng
sa tr em 0-6 thng, t 6-12 thng...)

Bng 5.1. Cc tiu thc chnh phn khc th


trng ngi tiu dng.
TIU THC

CCH PHN KHC TIU BIU

A L
Nc

- Vit Nam, Nht Bn, M, Nga..

Min

- Min Bc, Trung, Nam...

Vng
Quy m th

- Vng ng bng, trung du, thnh


th , ngoi , nng thn.
Hng 1,2,3,4 (th x),5 (th trn)

Kh hu

4 ma, 2 ma...

( Cn tip)

DN S
S lng
(ngi)
Mt
(ngi/ Km2)
Gii tnh

< 500.000 ; 500.001 1000.000


300-500; 501-700; 701-1.000...
Nam, n

tui (tui) <6; 6-18; 19-34; 35-49; 50-64;>65


Quy m gia
nh (ngi)

nh (1-2); TB (3-4); Ln (>= 5 )


Cn tip

Chu k sng
ca gia nh

Thu nhp
(Triu/ n/ th )
Ngnh ngh

Gia nh tr: c thn gia nh


cha c con c con < 6 tui; c
con 6-18 tui; c con > 18 tui.
Gia nh gi: 2 ngi; c thn
<0,5; 0,5 1; 1 2; > 2.
Chuyn mn, k thut, bn hng...

Hc vn

Tiu hc; trung hc; i hc...

Dn tc

Kinh, Mng, H Mng...

Tn gio

o Thin Cha, o pht...


Cn tip

TM L
Tng lp XH
Li sng
C tnh

-Bnh dn; trung lu; thng lu;


Cn b vin chc Nh nc...
- An phn; cu tin; thnh t...
- Bc ng; hng ni; hng
ngoi; ho ng; nng ny.

Hnh vi
Dp mua

- Thng xuyn; dp c bit

Yu cu v
li ch

- Cht lng; kiu dng; cng


sut...
Cn tip

Loi khch hng - Khng dng; cha dng; dng


ln u; thng xuyn
Mc s dng - Nhiu; va phi; t

trung thnh

- Km; va phi; kh; tuyt i.

Mc sn sng

-Cha bit; c bit; sn sng


mua.
-Nng nhit; tch cc; th ;
tiu cc; th ght.

Thi i vi
hng ho

2. La chn th trng mc tiu.


2.1. Khi nim:
Th trng mc tiu l khc th trng, bao gm cc
khch hng c cng nhu cu mong mun m doanh
nghip hng ti v c li th cnh tranh p ng tt
nht nhu cu ca h so vi i th .

2.2. Cc tiu ch nh gi khc th trng:


Quy m v mc tng trng:
Doanh s hin ti v d kin tng lai.

Mc tng trng.
Ph hp vi kh nng ca DN.

Mc hp dn ca khc th trng:
Mi e do ca i th cnh tranh hin hu v cnh
tranh tim n

Mi e do ca sn phm thay th.


Quyn lc khch hng.
Quyn lc ca nh cung cp.
Mc tiu v ngun lc ca doanh nghip.
Mc tiu ca DN c th t c khng?
Cc ngun lc p ng yu cu ca khch hng c
khng?

2.3. Cc chin lc la chn th trng mc tiu.


Marketing khng phn bit:
Doanh nghip b qua mi khc bit gia cc khc th trung,
nh hnh mt chng loi sn phm v mt chng trnh
Marketing hng ti i a s khch hng mua. p dng
Marketing kiu Tiu chun ho v sn xut i tr.
u im:

-Tit kim chi ph, do c li th cnh tranh v gi.


Nhc im:

- Kh c th tho mn mi khch hng.


- Nhiu ri ro khi mi trung Marketing thay i

Marketing phn bit:


Doanh nghip tham gia vo mt s khc th trng v
son tho nhng chng trnh Marketing ring bit cho
tng on.
u im:
- p ng nhu cu a dng ca th trng.
- C kh nng xm nhp vo nhiu khc th trng.
Nhc im:

- Gia tng chi ph.


- Pha c chn la tt mi hiu qu.

Marketing tp trung:
Doanh nghip theo ui v tm cch chim t phn ln
trong mt hoc vi khc th trng nh.
u im:
- To c th c quyn nh hiu r nhu cu, mong
mun ca khch hng.

- Khai thc c li th CMH.


Nhc im:

- Gp ri ro nu khc th trng mc tiu c thay i nhu


cu.

Hnh 5.2. Ba chin lc p ng th trng


Marketing khng phn bit.

Marketing MIX

Th trng

Marketing phn bit


Marketing MIX 1

Khc th trng 1

Marketing MIX 2

Khc th trng 2

Marketing MIX 3

Khc th trng 3

Marketing tp trung
Khc th trng 1

Marketing MIX

Khc th trng 2
Khc th trng 3

2.4. Cc cn c xc nh cch la chn th trng:

Ngun lc ca DN:
Tnh ng nht ca sn phm:

Chu kz sng ca sn phm:


Nu sn phm ang giai on u ca chu kz
sng nn chn chin luc Marketing tp trung.
Nu giai on pht trin nn chn chin lc
khng phn bit

Nu giai on bo ho nn chn chin lc


phn bit s to c li th cnh tranh hn.

Tnh ng nht ca th trng:.


Chin luc ca i th cnh tranh:

3. nh v th trng.

3.1. Khi nim:


nh v th trng l xc nh v tr ca sn trn
th trng bng cch to ra s khc bit ph hp
vi mong i ca khch hng so vi sn phm
cng loi ca i th cnh tranh.

Thc cht ca nh v th trng l nh v hng


ho ca doanh nghip trong tm tr khch hng,
c khch hng nh gi nh th no so vi
hng ho ca i th cnh tranh.

3.2. Cc mc nh v.

nh v xut x hng ho: Quc gia, vng, min,


lnh th, thnh ph (VD: Hng Thng Hi)
nh v ngnh: Mt loi sn phm ca doanh
nghip thuc cc chuyn ngnh khc nhau thng
nh gi khc nhau.

nh v cng ty: Mi cng ty u c nh v


trong tm tr khch hng.
nh v sn phm: Mt sn phm vi li ch,
cht lng...u c khch hng nh gi.

3.3. Chin lc nh v sn phm.


3.3.1.Chin lc cnh tranh vi sn phm hin c.
C th nh v da bng cch lm ni bt :
Thuc tnh sn phm.( trng nh Tide)
Li ch ca sn phm. ( Colgate: Nga su
rng)
Lp ngi s dng. ( Sa Enfa Mama A+ cho
pht trin tr no tr )

Cht lng vt tri so vi i th.

Gi c c s khc bit.
Cung cch phc v khc bit.

3.3.2. Chim lnh mt v tr mi.


Doanh nghip tm mt ch trng trn th
trng v nh v sn phm trong phn th trng
trng ny.
Phi phn tch th trng tm ch trng v c
kh nng p ng nhu cu.
Sn phm phi ph hp nhu cu th trng.

Hnh 5.3. Chim lnh v tr mi cho sn phm


Nhanh
B

Cng ty mi
Nh

Ln

Chm

(V d: V tr sn phm ca 4 cng ty SX xe ti)

3.4. Cc bc ca qu trnh nh v

Bc 1: Xc nh cc mc nh v:
Xut x (a im ).
Ngnh sn xut.
Cng ty.
Sn phm.

Bc 2: Xc nh c im ct li ca cc khc th
trng.

c im quan trng?
Nhu cu quan trng nht?

Bc 3: Xc nh cc thuc tnh quan trng trn


bn nh v.
Bn nh v c th 2 chiu hay nhiu chiu.

Bc 4: nh gi vic la chn nh v.
nh gi cn tr li cc cu hi:

Nhng khc bit ln gia cng ty so vi i


th?
Nhng yu t ni bt no ang b i th chim
gi?

Nhng yu t no c gi tr nht i vi khc


th trng mc tiu?
Nhng yu t chung cc i th ang c?

Nhng yu t no khng thuc i th cnh


tranh.
Nhng th hin quan trng no cho tng tiu
ch nh v?

Bng 5.2.La chn cc chin luc nh v


nh v

Dn u thi phn

Th hin c th

Doanh s ln nht

Dn u cht lng Cht lng tt nht


Dn u dch v

Chm sc KH tt nht

Dn u cng ngh C CN mi u tin

Cn tip

Dn u v i mi
Dn u v nng ng

Sng to nht trong


p dng CN mi
Thch ng nht.

Dn u v mi quan h Gn lin s thnh


cng vi khch hng.
Dn u v s knh
Hon ho nht
trng
Dn u v s hiu bit Chuyn nghip nht

Cn tip

Dn u ton cu

V tr kinh doanh ton


cu

Dn u chi ph thp

Cnh tranh v gi
nht

Dn u v gi tr

Sn phm c gi tr
ln nht.

Bc 5: Thc hin nh v v Marketing MIX


nh v cn thng tin ti khch hng.

Marketing MIX l cha kho thnh cng chin


lc nh v.

Cu hi n tp
1. Ti sao cc doanh nghip phi phn khc th trng?
2. Trnh by cc tiu thc phn khc th trng?

3. Lm th no la chn th trung mc tiu?


4. C my chin lc p ng th trng?
5. Cc cn c xc nh cch la chn th trng mc
tiu?
6. nh v th trng v cc bc nh v th trng cho
sn phm?