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kozhikode 4

1185 [\p 16 ■ 1431 apl¿dw 14
31 Unkw_¿ 2009 hymgw

dmt¯mUv- tIkv: Iq«m-b
I-e-−dpw \-h-hÂ-k-c-hpw
{]-Xn-tcm-[w am{Xw ]cn-lmcw \m -sf ]p-Xn-sbm-cp h¿-
jw ]n-d-°p-I-bm-W-
t√m. tem-I-Øp ]-e-bn-S-ß-fn-
cm-{„-߃ X-Ωn¬ ]-c-kv-]-cw I-
®-h-S _-‘-߃ i-‡-am-b-t∏m-
gm-Wv F-√m {]-tZ-i-Øpw H-tc I- imkv{Xhpw kaq-lhpw
Xzm-_v-Zw F-∂ {]-tbm-Kw C-t∏m-
gpw ]-e-cpw D-]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂p-≠-
t√m. A-Xp Nn-e-t∏mƒ sX-‰n-≤m-
Ø-c-sam-cp I-e-≠¿ D-≠m-°p-
∂-Xv.
tI-c-f-Øn¬ ]-e-cpw, hn-ti-
epw, C-¥y-bn¬ hn-ti-jn-®p \-K- e-≠¿ D-]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂-Xv ku-I- c-W-bn-te-°p \-bn-°m-dp-≠v. jn-®p ]-g-a-°m¿, D-]-tbm-Kn-°p-
] -Xn-\m-ep-Im-cn-bm-b H-cp kv-Iqƒ hn-Zym¿-Yn-\n-
sb A-]-am-\n-°p-I-bpw am-\-`w-K-s∏-Sp-Øp-I-
bpw sN-bv-X ap≥ l-cn-bm-\ Un.-Pn.-]n F-kv ]n F-
c-ß-fn-epw, C-∂p cm-{Xn a-¬-k-cn-
®p-≈ B-tLm-j-ß-fp-≠m-hpw.
sS-en-hn-j≥ Nm-\-ep-I-fn¬ cm-
cy-am-bn tXm-∂n-b-Xv. Nn-e ]m-
›m-Xy-cm-{„-߃ tem-I-Øn-s‚
h-en-sbm-cp `m-Kw A-h-cp-sS km-
■ tUm. hn iin Ip-am¿
bm-Wp c-≠m-a-sØ am-k-Øn-\p

∂pw ]-I-cw H-tŒm-_¿ 15 sh-≈n-
tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp P-\n-® h¿-jw 0
B-Wv F-∂-Xm-Wv Cu sX-‰n-≤m-
c-W. A-ß-s\ H-cp h¿-jw \-Ωp-
∂-Xv a-e-bm-fw I-e-≠-sd-∂pw
sIm-√-h¿-jw F-∂p-sam-s° ]-
d-bp-∂ kw-hn-[m-\-am-W-t√m.
kv dm-tØm-Un-\p tIm-S-Xn sh-dpw B-dp-am-k-sØ {Xn 12 a-Wn h-sc a-¬-k-cn-®p-≈ {am-Py-am-°n-Øo¿-Ø-Xpw A-h-cp- t]-cn-´n-cn-°p-∂-Xv F-∂p I-cp-X- bm-gv-N B-bn-cn-°p-sa-∂pw A-t±- sS I-W-°n-en-√. "{In.-ap 1' F-∂ A-Xv s]m-Xp-bp-Kw ({In-kv-Xzm-
X-S-hp-in-£ \¬-In-b-Xp kw-_-‘n-® hn-hm-Zw Np-cp- ]-cn-]m-Sn-I-fp-≠m-hpw. A-t\-Iw ]-tbm-Kn-®n-cp-∂ I-e-≠¿ tem-I- s∏-Sp-∂p. lw {]-Jym-]n-®p. am-{X-a-√, \m- h¿-j-Øn-\p-ti-jw h-cp-∂-Xv –w) 825em-Wv Xp-S-ßn-b-Xv. Cu
t]¿ cm-{Xn ]-{¥-≠p-a-Wn-°v ]-c- Øn-s‚ s]m-Xp-I-e-≠-dm-bn-Øo- E-Xp-°ƒ am-dp-∂-Xn-t\m-Sv I- ep-h¿-j-Øn¬ H-cn-°¬ s^- "{In.-ti 1' F-∂ h¿-j-am-Wv. A- I-e-≠-dn-s‚ D-¬-∏-Øn-sb-∏-‰n
ßn-b-Xv D-Ø-tc-¥y-bn-se-¶n-epw Nq-Sp-]n-Sn-°p-I-bm- kv-]-cw ]p-Xp-h-¬-k-cm-iw-k- cm≥ Im-c-W-am-bn-´p-≠v. e-≠-dn-se Xn-ø-Xn-Iƒ tbm-Pn- {_p-h-cn-bn¬ H-cp Zn-h-kw Iq-Sp- Xp-sIm-≠v {In.-ap 10¬ P-\n-® H- ]-e A-`n-{]m-b-ß-fp-≠v. A-°m-
Wv. A-[n-Im-c-Øn-s‚ D-∂-X-t{i-Wn-bn-en-cn-°p-∂-h¿ Iƒ t\-cpw-. C-Xv F-√m h¿-j- C-∂p \-Ωƒ D-]-tbm-Kn-°p- °m-sX h-∂-t∏m-gm-Wv I-e-≠- X-ep-≠m-hp-sa-¶n-epw \q-‰m-≠p- cp hy-‡n-°v 20 h-b- v Xn-I-bp- e-Øp sIm-√w H-cp {]-[m-\ \-K-
sN-øp-∂ Ip-‰-߃-s°-Xn-tc \-S-]-Sn-sb-Sp-°m-\p-≈ hpw kw-`-hn-°p-∂-Xm-Wv. C- ∂ I-e-≠¿ D-Zv-`-hn-®-Xv tdm-a≥ dn¬ am-‰w h-cp-tØ-≠-Xp-s≠- Iƒ Xn-I-bp-∂ h¿-j-߃ ∂-Xv {In.-ti 11¬ -am-{X-am-Wv; c-am-bn-cp-∂p. sIm-√-sØ cm-Pm-
_p-≤n-ap-´-n-te-°m-Wp hn-hm-Zw Im-cy-am-bpw hn-c¬-Nq- t∏mƒ Po-hn-®n-cn-°p-∂ h-en-b- km-{am-Py-Øn-em-Wv. A-∂p ap- ∂p t_m-[y-am-b-Xv. C-ß-s\ ]- 400s‚ Kp-Wn-X-ß-fm-sW-¶n¬ {In.-ti ]-Øn-e-√. hm-bn-cp-∂ Ip-e-ti-J-c-h¿-a
i-X-am-\w a-\p-jy-cpw H-cp \q-‰m- X¬ C-∂p h-sc-bp-≈ Im-e-b-f- e-X-h-W C-∂-sØ s]m-Xp-I-e- am-{X-ta s^-{_p-h-cn-bn¬ 29 Zn-h- {Kn-tKm-dn-b≥ I-e-≠¿ D-]- 825¬ hn-fn-®p-tN¿-Ø a-lm-k-
≠p-∂-Xv. dm-tØm-Un-s‚ `o-j-Wn-bn-epw A-bm-fp-sS ≠v am-dn-b-Xn-\p km-£yw-h-ln- hn-\p-≈n¬ A-Xp ]-e am-‰-ß- ≠¿ Xn-cp-tØ-≠n-h-∂n-´p-≠v. G- kw th-≠q F-∂pw A-t±-lw \n- tbm-Kn-°p-tºmƒ-t]m-epw F-√m- tΩ-f-\-Øn-s‚ Hm¿-a-bv-°m-bn
\n¿-tZ-i-{]-Im-cw k-tlm-Z-c-\-S-°-ap-≈-h¿-s°-Xn-tc ®-h-cm-Wv. A-∂p tem-I-Øm-I- fn¬-°q-Sn I-S-∂p-t]m-bn. G-Xp ‰-hpw H-Sp-hn¬ A-Xn-\p Xo-cp-am- jv-I-¿-jn-®p. C-tXm-sS B-bn-c- bv-t∏m-gpw P-\p-h-cn H-∂n-\-√ h¿- ÿm-]n-®-Xm-Wp sIm-√-h¿-jw
t]m-en-kv I-≈-t°-sk-Sp-Ø-Xn-epw Zpx-Jn-X-bm-b cp- am-\w Kw-`o-c-am-b B-tLm-j-ap- am-k-Øn-em-Wv h¿-jw Xp-S-ßp- \-sa-Sp-Ø-Xv t]m-∏v {Kn-K-dn-bm- °-W-°n-\p h¿-j-߃ I-gn- jw Xp-S-ßp-∂-Xv. C-Xn-\v G-‰- F-∂-Xm-Wv H-cp A-`n-{]m-bw.
Nn-I Kn¬-tlm-{X aq-∂p-h¿-j-Øn-\p-ti-jw B-fl- ≠m-bn-cp-∂-Xv Hm¿-°p-a-t√m. F- {In-kv-Xym-\n I-®-h-S-°m¿ ]p-Xn-
l-Xy- sN-øp-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. ]Tn-®n-cp-∂ kv-Iq-fn¬-\n- ¥m-Wv Cu B-tLm-j-Øn-s‚ b ]-≈n ÿm-]n-®p Xp-S-ßn-b-
{]-k-‡n? C-∂p \-Ωƒ D-]-tbm- Xm-Wv sIm-√-h¿-jw F-∂-dn-b-
∂v kv-Iq-f-[n-Ir-X¿ sX-‰m-b Im-c-W-߃ ]-d-™p Kn-°p-∂ I-e-≠¿ F-ß-s\-bm- s∏-Sp-∂-Xv F-∂p-≈-Xn-\p Nn-e
]p-d-Øm-°n-b-Xpw l-X-`m-Ky-bm-b B s]¨-Ip-´n- Wv D-≠m-b-Xv? {Kn-tKm-dn-b³ I-e-−À D-]-tbm-Kn-¡p-t¼mÄ-t]m-epw F-Ãm-bv-t¸m-gpw P-\p-h-cn kq-N-\-I-fp-≠v. B-Zn-i-¶-cm-Nm-
km-aq-ln-I-tam a-X-]-c-tam I- cy-cm-Wv sIm-√-h¿-jw Xp-S-ßn-
°p Po-h-s\m-Sp-°m≥ t{]-c-W-bm-bn-´p-≠m-hpw.
cp-Nn-I-sb B-{I-an-®-Xn-s‚ {]-Xym-Lm-X-߃ X- ®-h-S-]-c-tam `-c-W-]-c-tam H-s° H-¶n-\-à hÀ-jw Xp-S-§p-¶-Xv. C-Xn-\v G-ä-hpw \-à D-Zm-l-c-Ww \-½p-sS kv-IqÄ I-e-−À b-Xv F-∂pw hn-iz-kn-°p-∂-h-cp-
S-bp-∂-Xn-\p dm-tØm-Uv t]m-en-kv ta-[m-hn-sb-∂ X- B-bn-´p-≈ B-h-iy-߃-°p-th-
≠n Zn-h-k-ß-sf {I-ao-I-cn-°p-∂-
X-s¶-bm-Wv. A-Xp Pq¬ H-¶n-\m-W-tÃm Xp-S-§p-¶-Xv. A-Xp-t]m-se a-säm-¶m-Wp ≠v. N-cn-{Xw F-gp-Xn-kq-£n-°p-
∂-Xn¬ `m-c-Xo-b¿ F-∂pw ]n-
s‚ kzm-[o-\w hym-]-I-am-bn D-]-tbm-Kn-®-Xn-s‚ ^-
e-am--Wv k¿-ho-kn¬-\n-∂p ]n-cn-™-ti-jw A-bmƒ-
Xn-\p-≈ kw-hn-[m-\-am-Wp I-e-
≠¿ F-∂p hn-°n-∏o-Un-b ]-d-bp-
km-¼-¯n-I-hÀ-jw. A-Xp \-ap-¡v G-{]n H-¶n-\m-W-tÃm Xp-S-§p-¶-Xv. Iq-Sm-sX ∂n-em-bn-cp-∂-t√m. A-Xp-sIm-
≠p-X-s∂ N-cn-{X-]-c-am-b tNm-
°p e-`n-® e-Lp-in-£. C-¥y-bn-se \o-Xn-\ym-b-hy- ∂p. hm-\-\n-co-£-Ww, tPym-Xn- _n-kn-\-kv B-h-iy-§Ä-¡m-bn Xn-I-¨pw hy-Xy-kv-X-am-b I-e-−-dp-IÄ Zy-߃-°p hy-‡-am-b D-Ø-cw
im-kv-{Xw, tPym-Xn-jw Xp-S-ßn- e-`n-°m≥ _p-≤n-ap-´m-Wv.
h-ÿ D-∂-X t]m-en-kp-tZym-K-ÿ-∑m-sc-bpw cm-{„o-
b-°m-sc-bpw kw-c-£n-°p-∂ hn-[-Øn-¬ s]-cp-am-dp-
b-h D-Zv-`-hn-®-Xp-X-s∂ E-Xp-°ƒ D-]-tbm-Kn-¡m-dp-−v. D-Zm-l-c-W-am-bn, bq-tdm-¸n-epw A-ta-cn-¡-bn-epw a-äpw 360 tI-c-fo-b¿-°p sIm-√-h¿-
∂p-sh-∂-Xv H-cp ]p-Xn-b hn-h-c-a-√. C-c-I-fm-°-s∏-Sp-
am-dn-h-cp-∂-Xpw a-‰pw ap≥-Iq-´n
A-dn-bm≥ th-≠n-bm-bn-cn-°-
Zn-h-k-ap-Å H-cp I-e-−À D-]-tbm-Kn-¡p-¶p-−-t{X. c-−p Zn-h-k-§Ä-¡n-S-bn-ep-Å jw, X-an-gv-\m-´p-Im¿-°v A-h-cp-
tS-Xm-b I-e-≠¿-˛ A-ß-s\ Hm-
∂-h¿ t]m-en-kv kv-t‰-j-\n¬ ]-cm-Xn-bp-am-bn sN-
∂m¬ A-Xv A-h-K-Wn-°-epw th-≠n-h-∂m¬ A-h¿-
Ww. I-e-≠-dn-s‚ B-h-iy-I-X-
bpw C-Xn¬-\n-∂p-X-s∂ B-bn-cn-
Im-em-h-[n I-W-¡m-¡m-\m-Wv Cu hy-Xy-kv-X I-e-−À. {Kn-tKm-dn-b³ I-e-−-dn-se tcm {]-tZ-i-Øp-≈-h¿-°pw {]-
tXy-Iw I-e-≠¿ D-s≠-¶n-epw \-
s°-Xn-tc I-≈-t°-kp-≠m-°-epw ]-Xn-hm-Wv. cp-Nn- °mw D-≠m-b-Xv. \-Ω-fn-∂pw I-e-
≠¿ D-]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂-Xv ]-e-t∏m-
Nn-e Zn-h-k-§Ä H-gn-hm-¡n-bm-Wv C-¯-c-sam-cp I-e-−À D-−m-¡p-¶-Xv. Ωƒ P-\p-h-cn H-∂mw Xn-ø-Xn X-
s∂-bm-Wp ]p-Xp-h¿-jw Kw-`o-c-
I -tI-kv A-t\z-jn-® kn.-_n.-sF, Ip-‰w dm-tØm-Un- gpw Hm-Ww, _-{Io-Zv, {In-k-av- -kv am-bn B-tLm-jn-°p-∂-Xv. \-K-c-
sem-Xp-°n A-bm-sf k-lm-bn-® F-√m-h-sc-bpw c- Xp-S-ßn-b B-tLm-j-ß-tfm Im- ß-fn-se-¶n-epw ÿn-Xn C-Xm-Wv.
£n-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. A-tX kn.-_n.-sF X-s∂ I- e-h¿-jw, Xp-em-h¿-jw Xp-S-ßn- ∂-sX-∂-Xpw Hm-tcm am-k-Øn- Wv. A-Xp-sIm-≠v C-∂v D-]-tbm- ™m-epw I-e-≠¿ Ir-Xy-X ]p- hpw \-√ D-Zm-l-c-Ww \-Ωp-sS kv- ]p-Xp-h¿-jw h-cp-∂-Xn-\v B-
iv-ao-cn-se tjm-]n-bm-\n¬ c-≠p bp-h-Xn-I-sf kp-c- b Im-e-ß-tfm h-s∂-Øm≥ C- epw F-{X Zn-h-k-ap-≠m-h-W-sa- Kn-°p-∂ I-e-≠-dn-\v {Kn-tKm-dn- e¿-Øp-sa-∂v D-d-∏m-bn. Pq-en-b≥ Iqƒ I-e-≠¿ X-s∂-bm-Wv. A- tLm-jn-°m-s\-¥m-Wp-≈-Xv F-
\n F-{X \m-fp-≠v F-∂-dn-bm-\m- ∂-Xpw am-dn-h-∂n-cp-∂p. A-ß- b≥ I-e-≠¿ F-∂m-Wp ]-d-bp- I-e-≠-dn¬-\n-∂p {Kn-tKm-dn-b≥ Xp Pq¨ H-∂n-\m-W-t√m Xp-S- ∂p an-°-h-cpw tNm-Zn-°m-dn-√. ]-
£m-`-S-∑m¿ _-em¬-kw-Kw sN-bv-Xp sIm-e-s∏-Sp- W-t√m. s\-bm-Wp k-]v-Xw-_¿ ap-X¬ I. Pq-en-b-kv ko-k-dn-s‚ Im-e- I-e-≠-dn-te-°p am-dn-b-Xn-s‚ ^- ßp-∂-Xv. A-Xp-t]m-se a-s‰m- s≠m-s° hn-f-sh-Sp-∏pw a-‰p-am-
Øn-b tI-kn¬ B I-Spw-ssI-s°-Xn-tc ]-cm-Xn-s∏- H-cp k-ºq¿-W I-e-≠-dn¬ Hm- Un-kw-_¿ h-sc-bp-≈ am-k- Øp ]p-Xp-°n-bn-cp-∂ I-e-≠¿- e-am-bm-Wv H-tŒm-_¿ hn-π-hw Xp- ∂m-Wp km-º-Øn-I-h¿-jw. A- bn _-‘-s∏-´m-Wv B-tLm-j-
´-h-cp-sS ta¬ a-‰p Nn-e Ip-‰-߃ Np-a-Øm-\m-Wp ap- tcm Zn-h-k-sØ-bpw th¿-Xn-cn-®- ߃-°v G-gm-a-sØ am-kw, F- kw-hn-[m-\-Øn¬ ]-Xn-\m-dmw-\q- S-ßn-b Zn-h-kw ]p-Xn-b I-e-≠- Xp \-ap-°v G-{]n¬ H-∂n-\m-W- ߃ \-S-Øn-bn-cp-∂-Xv. A-∂-Xn-
Xn¿-∂-Xv. dm-tØm-Un-s‚ Im-cy-Øn¬ h≥ P-\-tcm- dn-bm-\p-≈ kw-hn-[m-\-ap-≠m-hp- ´m-a-sØ am-kw F-∂n-ß-s\ ‰m-≠n-\p ap-tº Im-cy-am-b {]-iv- dn¬ \-hw-_-dn-em-b-Xv. t√m Xp-S-ßp-∂-Xv. Iq-Sm-sX _n- \p {]-k-‡n-bp-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. C-
sa-∂p {]-tXy-Iw ]-d-tb-≠-Xn-√. A¿-Yw h-cp-∂ t]-cp-Iƒ h-∂-Xv. \-߃ I-≠p-Xp-S-ßn-bn-cp-∂p. tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp P-\n-® h¿- kn-\-kv B-h-iy-߃-°m-bn Xn- ∂m-sW-¶n¬ hn-f-sh-Sp-∏n-\p X-
j-ap-b¿-∂-t∏m-gm-Wv ]p-Xn-b Ip-‰-߃ Np-a-Øm-\pw A-Xm-b-Xv, Zn-h-k-ß-sf B-gv-N- Pq-en-b-kv ko-k-dn-s‚ t]-cn-em- F-∂m¬, A-Xn-\p ]-cn-lm-cw Im- jw ap-X-em-W-t√m {In-kv-Xzm- I-®pw hy-Xy-kv-X-am-b I-e-≠-dp- s∂ {]-k-‡n C-√m-Xm-bn-h-cp-I-
Iq-Sp-X¬ h-en-b in-£ \¬-I-W-sa-∂m-h-iy-s∏-´p- I-fm-bpw B-gv-N-Iƒ tN¿-∂p am- Wp Pq-sse am-kw D-≠m-b-Xv. ]n- Wm≥ B-cpw X-øm-dm-bn-√. A- –w I-W-°m-°p-∂-Xv. ap-sºm- Iƒ D-]-tbm-Kn-°m-dp-≠v. D-Zm-l- bm-W-t√m. B-tLm-jw B-
sIm-≠v A-∏o¬ \¬-Im-\pw kn.-_n.-sF X-øm-dm-b- k-ß-fm-bpw am-k-߃ tN¿-∂p ∂o-Sv A-K-Ã-kv ko-k-dn-s‚ _- t∏m-gm-Wp P-kyq-´v ]m-Xn-cn-bpw s° {In-kv-Xp-hn-\v ap-ºv F-∂pw c-W-am-bn, bq-tdm-∏n-epw A-ta-cn- tLm-j-Øn-\p-th-≠n am-{X-am-
Xv. B-`y-¥-c-h-Ip-∏n-s‚ k-Ω¿-±-hpw A-Xn-\p Im-c- h¿-j-ß-fm-bpw {I-ao-I-cn-°p-∂- lp-am-\m¿-Yw -B-K-kv-Xv F-∂v H- tPym-Xn-im-kv-{X-⁄-\p-am-bn-cp- {In-kv-Xp-hn-\p ti-jw F-∂p-am- °-bn-epw a-‰pw 360 Zn-h-k-ap-≈ H- bn-Øo¿-∂n-cn-°p-∂p. F-¥m-bm-
W-am-bn-´p-≠v. Xn-eq-sS `q-X-Im-e-sØ-bpw `m-hn- cp am-k-Øn-\p t]-cn-´p. B-Zy-am- ∂ {In-kv-‰-^¿ t¢-hn-b-kn-s‚ Wv h¿-j-ß-sf Xn-cn-®n-cp-∂-sX- cp I-e-≠¿ D-]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂p-≠- epw F-√m hm-b-\-°m¿-°pw ]p-
bn-se-bpw G-Xp Zn-h-k-sØ-bpw k-߃-s°-√mw (s^-{_p-h-cn H- k-lm-b-tØm-sS t]m-∏v {Kn-K-dn ¶n-epw {In-kv-Xym-\n-I-f-√m-Ø-h- t{X. c-≠p Zn-h-k-߃-°n-S-bn- Xp-h-¬-k-cm-iw-k-Iƒ t\-c-s´.
]-cm-Xn-Iƒ F-^v.-sF.-B-¿ B-°n c-Pn-Ã-¿ sN- Ip-dn-®v Ir-Xy-am-bn ]-d-bm-\m- gn-®v) tdm-a≥ ssZ-h-ß-fp-sS t]- A-Xp i-cn-bm-°m≥ Xo-cp-am-\n-®- ¿-°p _p-≤n-ap-´p-≠m-hm-Xn-cn- ep-≈ Im-em-h-[n I-W-°m-°m-
øm-\p-≈ ]p-Xn-b \n¿-tZ-i-Øn-\v Cu km-l-N-c-y- hpw. C-Xn-\p-≈ kw-hn-[m-\-߃ cp-I-fm-Wp \¬-In-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xv. Xv. A-ß-s\, 1582 H-tŒm-_¿ 4 I- °m-\m-bn C-t∏mƒ "s]m-Xp-bp- \m-Wv Cu hy-Xy-kv-X I-e-≠¿. (Cu te-J-\w {In-tb-‰o-hv
Øn¬ h-f-sc {]-k-‡n-bp-≠v. F∂m¬, cm-{„o-b-b- tem-I-Øn-s‚ Hm-tcm `m-K-Øpw s^-{_p-h F-∂ ip-≤o-I-c-W gn-™p-≈ Zn-h-kw H-tŒm-_¿ 5, Kw' F-∂ {]-tbm-K-am-Wv D-]- {Kn-tKm-dn-b≥ I-e-≠-dn-se Nn-e tIm-a¨-kv sse-k≥-kn¬
P-am-\-∑m-cp-sS I-e-h-d-bn-√m-Ø ]n-¥p-W e-`n-°p-∂- {]-tXy-I-am-bn D-Zv-`-hn-®p. tem-I- s]-cp-∂m-fn-s‚ A-\p-kv-a-c-W-am- sh-≈n-bm-gv-N B-bn-cn-°n-√ F- tbm-Kn-°p-∂-Xv. ]-t£, {In-kv- Zn-h-k-߃ H-gn-hm-°n-bm-Wv C- {]-kn-≤o-I-cn-®n-cn-°p-∂p.-)
Xp-sIm-≠m-Wv dm-tØm-Un-s\-t∏m-se-bpw Kp-P-d-m-
Øn-se sIm-e-bm-fn-bm-b h≥-km-c-sb-t∏m-se-bp-ap-
≈ Ip-‰-hm-fn-Iƒ c-£-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv. `cW-sa∂-Xp ]-
e-t∏mgpw Ip-‰-hm-f-n-Iƒ X-Ωn-ep-≈ ]-c-kv-]-c-k-lm-
b -k-l-I-c-W-kw-L-am-Wv. a-\p-jym-h-Im-i-{]-h¿-
Ø-I-cp-sS-bpw ]u-c-k-aq-l-Øn-s‚-bpw \n-Xm-¥ Pm-
{K-X-bpw P-\-Io-b-am-b {]-h¿-Ø-\-ß-fpw am-{X-ta
D®n-¯m\pw Xnhm-cnbpw
A-Xn-s\-Xn-tc {]-X-n-tcm-[w kr-„n-°p-I-bp-≈q. ■ ]n sI \u^¬ ap-≈ Nm-\-ep-Iƒ A-bm-sf hn-´v t£, km-ap-Zm-bn-I-Xm¬-∏-cyw aq- ‘-am-bn-cp-∂p. C-cp-hy-‡n-I-ƒ- ]n-Sn-Iq-Sn. ]n-Sn-Iq-Sp-∂ k-a-b-Øv
a-‰p Nn-e-cp-sS ]n-∂m-se Iq-Sn. th- e-am-hmw, Cu B-tcm-]W -- -hp-am- °pw ]m¿-´n-bn¬-\n-∂p cm-Pn-h-bv- a-Zy-]n-®p Im-ep-I-fp-d-bv-°m-Ø
≠-{X sX-fn-hn-s‚ A-`m-h-Øn-em- bn _-‘-s∏-´p tI-c-f-Øn-s‚ t°-≠ A-h-ÿ-bn-te-°v Cu A-h-ÿ-bn-em-bn-cp-∂p D-Æn-
D]t`m-K-ioew C -¥y-bn-se a-t‰-Xp ]m¿-´n-tb-
°m-fpw kp-J-tem-ep-]-X-
Xn-\p ]n-∂n¬ P-\-ß-sf kzm-[o-
\n-® ta¬-∏-d-™ L-S-I-ß-fp-ap-
Wp tIm-S-Xn A-t±-l-sØ sh-dp-
sX-hn-´-Xv.
s]m-Xp-a-fi-e-sØ C-{X-am-{Xw
I-ep-jn-X-am-°n-b k-a-c-ß-fpw
B-tcm-]-W-߃ D-b¿-∂p-h-∂n-
cp-∂p. kz-¥w k-tlm-Z-c-\m¬
Øm-s\-∂v bq-Syq-_n¬ ]-c-∂p-\-
S-°p-∂ ¢n-∏p-Iƒ km-£y-s∏-Sp-
tbm-Sp Iq-Sp-X¬ Hm-cw-Nm-cp-∂-Xv ≠v. tIm¨-{K- n-s\ _-‘-s∏- tIm¨-{K-kv t\-Xm-°ƒ- {]-Xn-tj-[-ß-fpw H-cn-°-ep-ap- sIm-√-s∏-´ _n.-sP.-]n-bp-sS bp- Øp-∂p. D-Æn-Øm-s‚ kz-X-kn-
tIm¨-{K-kv ]m¿-´n-bm-Wv. H-cp Sp-Øn ]-d-™p-tIƒ-°p-∂ km- s°m-∏w-X-s∂ a-‰p ]m¿-´n-t\-Xm- ≠m-bn-´n-√. {]-Xn-tj-[-k-a-c-ß- h-Xp¿-°n-I-fn¬ H-cm-fm-bn-cp-∂ ≤-am-b ssi-en-bn¬ C-Xn-s\
kp -J-tem-ep-]-cm-Wv a-\p-jy-sc-∂ Im-cy-Øn¬
c-≠-`n-{]m-b-an-√. F-∂n-´p-sa-t¥, P-∑-Zn-\-
B-Z¿-i-{]-ÿm-\-sa-∂-Xn-ep-]-
cn tIm¨-{K-kv F-∂ Bƒ-°q-´w
º-Øn-I {I-a-t°-Sp-I-ƒ-s°m-∏w-
X-s∂ ssew-Kn-I-k-Zm-Nm-c-Øn-
°-fpw ssew-Kn-I B-tcm-]-W-ß-
fn¬-\n-∂p ap-‡-c-√. Ip-td-°q-Sn
fp-sS Xo-®q-f-bn¬, B-tcm-]-W-
hn-t[-b-\m-b Ip-™m-en-°p-´n-
ap-≥ tI-{μ-a-{¥n {]-tam-Zv a-lm-P-
s‚ t]-cn-epw sIm-e-]m-X-I-Øn-
\ym-bo-I-cn-°p-∂p-s≠-¶n-epw A-
Xn¬ Im-cy-an-√. F-∂m¬, ti-jw
Øn-\p In-´n-b hn-e-s∏-´ k-Ωm-\w A-t∏mƒ-Ø-s∂ X-s∂ cq-]-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv {]m-tZ-in-I s‚ ]n-∂m-ºp-d-°-Y-I-fpw \m- aq-ey-߃ \n-co-£n-°-s∏-Sp-∂ °v a-{¥n-ÿm-\-hpw ]m¿-´n-ÿm- \p Im-c-W-am-bn D-b¿-∂p-h-∂-Xp F-¥p-≠m-hp-sa-∂p Im-Øn-cp-
F-Sp-Øp-]-tbm-Kn-°m-sX kq-£n-®p-h-bv-°p-∂-Xv? \o-°p-t]m-°p-I-tfm `u-Xn-I-t\- ´n¬ {]-N-cn-°m-dp-≠v. H-cp {]-ap-J I-Ωyq-Wn-Ãv t\-Xm-°-fp-sS B- \-hpw cm-Pn-h-bv-t°-≠n-h-∂p-sh- ssew-Kn-Im-tcm-]-Ww X-s∂-bm- ∂p Im-tW-≠-Xp-X-s∂-bm-Wv.
C-Xp km-[m-c-W a-\p-jy-cn¬ I-≠p-h-cp-∂ {]-h- ´-ß-tfm ap-∂n¬-°-≠p-sIm-≠m- \-Sn-bp-sS ]n-Xr-Xzw kw-_-‘n-®p Zy-Im-e-˛-H-fn-hp-Po-hn-X-Øn-s‚ ∂-Xv N-cn-{Xw. tIm-S-Xn Cu tI- bn-cp-∂p. C-sX-√mw th-≠-{X sX- tIm¨-{K- m-b-Xp-sIm-≠v F-
Wv. eu-In-I-kp-J-t`m-K-Øn-s‚ tIm¨-{K- n-s‚ H-cp D-∂-X-t\- ti-jn-∏p-I-fm-bn hm¿-Ø-I-fn¬ kpw sX-fn-hn-s‚ A-`m-h-Øn¬ fn-hp-I-fn-√m-Ø, F-Xn¿-I-£n-I- ¥p-am-{Xw \-S-]-Sn-Iƒ D-Æn-Øm-
W-X-bm-Wv. B-‰p-t\m-‰p Im-Øn-cp-∂ H-cp kw-K-Xn ]p-Xn-b ta-J-e-Iƒ I-s≠-Øm- Xm-hn-s\ _-‘-s∏-Sp-Øn-bpw Nn- h-∂-Xv ssew-Kn-I-X X-s∂-bm-bn- X-≈p-I-bm-Wp-≠m-b-Xv. C-tX K- fp-sS B-tcm-]-W-Øn-s‚ am-{Xw s\-Xn-tc kzo-I-cn-°-s∏-Sp-sa-∂-
ssI-bn¬-°n-´n-bm¬ A-sX-Sp-Øv A-\p-`-hn-°m-\-√, \pw I-s≠-Øn-b-Xp \n-e-\n-¿- e \-Sn-am-sc-bpw tIm¨-{K- n-se cp-∂p. H-fn-hp-Im-e-Po-hn-X-Øn-\n- W-Øn¬-Ø-s∂ s]-Sm-hp-∂ k- A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ cq-]w-sIm-≠ Xp kw-i-bw X-s∂. A-tX-k-a-
\-s√m-c-h-k-cw h-cp-tºmƒ F-Sp-°m-\m-bn a-m-‰n-h-bv- Øm-\p-ap-≈ A-[n-Im-c-t{i-Wn- h-\n-Xm t\-Xm-°-sf-bpw _-‘- S-bn¬ h-gn-sX-‰n-t∏m-tb-°m-hp- am-\-kw-`-h-ß-fm-Wv C-S-Xp-]-£ hn-hm-Z-ß-fm-bn-cn-°mw. hm-Zn-I- bw, hn-P-b-{]-Xo-£-bn¬ s]m-Xp-
°pw. ]-t£, ]-e-t∏m-gpw kw-`-hn-°p-∂-Xv, a-‰p Xn-c- bm-bm-Wp tIm¨-{K- n-s\ {]m- s∏-Sp-Øn tIm¨-{K-kv t\-Xr-Xz- ∂ k-μ¿-`-ß-fp-≠m-b-Xm-bn ap≥ a-{¥n-k-`-bn¬ Aw-K-am-bn-cp-∂ fm-h-s´, km-l-N-cy-Øn-\-\p-k-cn- Xn-c-s™-Sp-∏v A-Sp-Øp-h-∂p-
°p-I-fn¬ A-Xn-s‚ Im-cy-a-ßp a-d-°pw. A-ß-s\ tZ-in-I-t\-Xm-°ƒ ap-X¬ D-∂-X- Øn-en-cn-°p-∂ Nn-e hy-‡n-I-sf- ap-Jy-a-{¥n \m-b-\m¿ X-s∂ H-cn- \o-e-tem-ln-X-Zm-k≥ \m-Sm-cp-am- ®p hm-Z-߃ am-‰n-bpw a-dn-®pw tI- \n¬-°p-∂ k-a-b-Øv, ho-Un-tbm
t\-Xr-Xz-\n-c-bn-ep-≈-h¿ h-sc h- °p-dn-®pw B-tcm-]-Ww D-b¿-∂n- °¬ ]-d-™n-´p-≠v. bpw ]n sP tPm-k-^p-am-bpw D- kn-s‚ Ku-c-hw C-√m-Xm-°p-I- ¢n-∏-S-°w F-Xn-cm-fn-I-fp-sS ssI-
Im-cy-am-bn Im-Øp-h-® P-∑-Zn-\ tI-°v-t]m-epw D-]- en-sbm-cp hn-`m-Kw ho-£n-°p-∂- cp-∂p. tIm¨-{K- -t√, C-sXm- F-∂m¬, km-lN - c
- y-kΩ
- ¿-±w- b¿-∂p-h-∂-Xv. \m-Sm-cp-am-bn _- bpw sN-bv-Xp. bn-ep-≈ B-bp-[-ß-fp-]-tbm-Kn-
tbm-Kn-°m-\m-hm-sX Im-°-bv-°n-´p-sIm-Sp-°p-∂ Ip- Xv. {]m-tZ-in-I-am-bn cq-]w-sIm- s° ]-Xn-hm-Wv F-∂ \n-e-bn-em- F-∂-Xn-ep-]-cn kp-J-t`m-K-Xr-jv- ‘-s∏-´v H-∂n¬-°q-Sp-X¬ ]-cm- A-tX-k-a-bw, Xo¿-Øpw kw- °m≥ k-lm-b-I-am-hp-∂ \n-e-bv-
Spw-_-߃ F-{X-sb-{X! ≈p-∂ L-S-\-I-fn¬ h-sc Cu Im- Wp P-\-߃ C-Ø-cw hm¿-Ø-I- W-bn-te-°p-≈ k-Jm-°-fp-sS h- Xn-Iƒ Io-gp-tZym-K-ÿ-Iƒ X- i-bm-kv-]-Z-am-b km-l-N-cy- °p-≈ X-Wp-∏≥ k-ao-]-\-sa-Sp-
C-t∏mƒ _n-tl-hn-b-d¬ C-t°m-W-an-kv-‰p-Iƒ c-Ww-sIm-≠p-X-s∂ k-aq-l-Øn- tfm-Sp {]-Xn-I-cn-°m-dv. f¿-® sh-fn-®-Øp-h-∂-Xv tIm-gn- s∂ D-∂-bn-®n-cp-∂p. A-t±-l-Øn- Øn¬ \m-´p-Im¿ X-s∂ C-cp-I- °m≥ tIm¨-{K-kv ss[-cy-s∏-Sp-
se {]-am-Wn-am-cp-sS-bpw a-‰p km- F-∂m¬, h¿-Ø-am-\-kw-`-h- t°m-Sv s]¨-hm-Wn-`-t°-kn¬ \pw a-{¥n-ÿm-\w \-„-s∏-´p. hn- £n-I-sf-bpw ssI-tbm-sS ]n-Sn- tam F-∂pw I-≠-dn-b-Ww.
A-Y-hm, kz-`m-h-]T-\ km-º-Øn-I-im-kv-{X-⁄¿ º-Øn-I-i-‡n-I-fp-sS-bpw kzm- ߃ hn-c¬-Nq-≠p-∂-Xv, ]-c-ky- an-\n ap-Jy-a-{¥n F-∂ A-]-c-\m-a- am-\-bm-{Xm-th-f-bn¬ X-s∂ ]o- Iq-Sp-∂-Xv D-Æn-Øm-s‚ hn-j-b- C-\n-bp-a-h-km-\n-°m-Ø Cu
F-s∂m-cp ]p-Xn-b hn-`m-Kw [-\-im-kv-{X-⁄¿ cw-K- [o-\-hpw A-[o-i-Xz-hpw Im- hpw A-]-lm-ky-hp-am-b \n-e-bn- Øn-eq-sS {]-i-kv-X-\m-bn-cp-∂ Un-∏n-®p-sh-∂p Im-Wn-®v H-cp sS- Øn¬ am-{X-am-Wv. X-te-∂p h-sc k-Zm-Nm-c-ew-L-\-Øn-s‚ H-Sp-hn-
Øp-h-∂n-´p-≠v. A-h¿ ]-d-bp-∂-Xv, C-sXm-cp [-\-im- Wm≥ I-gn-bpw. tIm¨-{K- n-s‚ te-°v t\-Xm-°-fp-sS ssew-Kn-I- tIm-gn-t°m-Sv ap≥ ta-b¿ H cm-P- en-hn-j≥ A-h-Xm-cn-I-bm-Wp k-Zm-Nm-c-sØ-°p-dn-®p Ko-¿-hm- e-sØ D-Zm-l-c-W-am-Wv D-Ø¿-
kv-{X hn-j-b-am-sW-∂m-Wv. "hn-`-h-߃ am-‰n-h-bv- \-b-cq-]o-I-c-W-Øn-epw {]-h¿- t]-°q-Øp-Iƒ h-f¿-s∂-Øn-bn- tKm-]m¬ {]-Xn-bm-hp-∂-Xn-eq-sS- tPm-k-^n-s\-Xn-tc B-tcm-]-W- Ww {]-kw-Kn-°p-I-bpw Nm-\¬ {]-tZ-iv ap≥ ap-Jy-a-{¥n-bpw C-
°¬' F-∂m-Wv A-h-co {]-{In-b-sb hn-ti-jn-∏n-°p- Ø-\-L-S-\ -cq-]o-I-cn-°p-∂-Xn- cn-°p-∂p F-∂-Xm-Wv. tI-c-f a-\- bm-Wv. _q¿-jzm ]m¿-´n-Iƒ ssI- ap-∂-bn-®-Xv. B sIm-Sp-¶m-‰n¬ N-¿-®-I-fn¬ I-Øn-°-b-dn k-aq- t∏mƒ K-h¿-W-dp-am-b tIm¨-{K-
epw C-Ø-cw aq-e-[-\-i-‡n-I-fp-  m-£n-sb ]n-Sn-®p-Ip-ep-°n-b h-iw-h-®n-cp-∂ k-Zm-Nm-c-Ø-I¿- A-t±-l-Øn-\pw a-{¥n-ÿm-\w l-Øn¬ am-\y-am-bn Po-hn-°p-∂-  n-s‚ X-e-aq-Ø t\-Xm-hv F≥
∂-Xv. X¬-°m-ew A-Xv D-]-tbm-Kn-®m-ep-≈ t\-´-hpw sS ]-¶v A-Xp-sIm-≠p-X-s∂ i- kq-cy-s\-√n s]¨-hm-Wn-`-t°- ® sXm-gn-em-fn-∏m¿-´n-I-ƒ G-s‰-Sp- Xm¬-°m-en-I-am-bn \-„-s∏-´p. h-sc-°p-dn-®v B-t£-]-߃ Un Xn-hm-cn-s°-Xn-tc D-b¿-∂p-h-
`m-hn-bn¬ Iq-Sp-X¬ \-s√m-c-h-k-cw h-cp-tºmƒ D-]- ‡-hp-am-Wv. tIm¨-{K- p-Im¿ kn¬ {]-Xn-tN¿-°-s∏-´-Xv °p-∂-Xv k-aq-lw A-Zv-`p-X-tØm- tIm-S-Xn Cu tI-kpw X-≈n-°-f- sNm-cn-™p a-Wn-°q-dp-Iƒ I-gn- ∂ B-tcm-]-Ww. k-Ω¿-±-Øn-\n-
tbm-Kn-®m-ep-≈ t\-´-hpw a-\p-jy¿ I-W-°p-Iq-´n- k-\m-X-\-aq-eyw ew-Ln-°p-∂- tIm¨-{K- n-s‚ ssl-°-am- sS t\m-°n-°-≠p. C-tXm-sSm-∏w- bp-I-bm-Wp-≠m-b-Xv. kw-L-]-cn- bp-∂-Xn-\pw ap-tº X-s∂ cm-Pv- S-bn¬ A-t±-lw cm-Pn-h-bv-t°-
t\m-°pw. A-ß-s\-bm-Wp ]-c-am-h-[n Kp-Ww In-´m- tXm A-gn-a-Xn sN-øp-∂-tXm A- ‚n¬ h-sc kzm-[o-\-i-‡n-bp-≈, X-s∂-bm-Wp ap-kv-enw-eo-Kv t\- hm-c-kw-L-S-\-I-fn¬ ]-d-™p- tam-l≥ D-Æn-Øm-s\-bpw Im-ap- ≠n-h-∂n-cn-°p-I-bm-Wv. Xn-hm-cn-
gn-a-Xn-t°-kp-I-fn¬ s]-Sp-∂- tI-{μ-a-{¥n-bm-bn-cp-∂ t\-Xm-hm- Xm-hn-s\-Xn-tc D-b¿-∂p-h-∂ tI-´n-cp-∂ {]-[m-\ B-tcm-]-Ww, In-sb-∂v B-tcm-]n-°p-∂ kv-{Xo- bp-sS ap≥-Im-e-N-cn-{X-hpw A-{X -
\m-bn D-]-t`m-Kw am-‰n-h-bv-°p-∂-Xv. tXm th-≠-{X hm¿-Ø-bm-hm-Ø- bn-cp-∂p. C-¥ym-hn-j-≥ A-S-°- ssew-Kn-Im-tcm-]-Ww. H-cp-]- D-am-`m-c-Xn-˛-tKm-hn-μm-Nm-cy _- sb-bpw \m-´p-Im¿ ssI-tbm-sS sa-®-a-√.
]-t£, Im-e-t^m¿-Wn-bm k¿-h-I-em-im-e-bn-
se {]-^-k¿-am-cm-b kq-k≥ jq-kpw sF-e-‰v \o-kn-
bpw ]-d-bp-∂-Xv, C-Xp-sIm-≠v ]-e-t∏m-gpw hn-Nm-cn-®-
Xn-s‚ hn-]-co-X-^-e-am-Wv D-≠m-hp-I-sb-∂m-Wv. A-
h¿ Cu-bn-sS \-S-Øn-b ]T-\-ß-fn¬-\n-∂p sX-fn-
™p-h-∂ h-kv-Xp-X-bm-Wn-Xv. C-„-s∏-´ hn-`-h-߃
\-„-am-b I-Y-I-fm-Wv C-Ø-cw A-\p-`-h-ß-fn¬ A-
[n-I-hpw Im-Wm≥ I-gn-bp-∂-X-t{X.
en_À-lm³: H-cp- kva- m-cI
- i
- n-e I
- q-Sn
A-Xp-sIm-≠p \-√ anTm-bn-tbm tI-t°m-˛ F-¥p
k-Ωm-\-am-bn In-´n-bm-epw H-´pw ssh-Im-sX kp-lr- \o -≠ ]-Xn-t\-g-p-h¿-j-
sØ K¿-`-[m-c-W-Øn-
s\m-Sp-hn¬ P-\n-®p-ho-W en- hmb\¡mÀ Fgp-Xp¶p
®m¿ I-Ωn-‰n dn-t]m¿-´v, an-{i I-
Ωo-j≥ Xp-S-ßn-b dn-t]m¿-´p-I-
fp-sS kv-am-c-I-in-e-Iƒ \n-d-
D-Æn-Øm-t‚-Xp-t]m-se H-‰-
s∏-´ tI-kp-Iƒ ]n-Sn-°-s∏-Sp-
∂p-sh-∂p-am-{Xw. kz-h¿-K-c-Xn-
c-Po-μ¿ k-®m-dn-s‚ t\-Xr-Xz-
Øn-ep-≈ I-Ωn-‰n G-Xm\pw am-
k-߃-°pti-jw dn-t]m¿-´v k-
Øp-°-fp-am-bn tN¿-∂v B-tLm-j-]q¿-hw A-Xv A-\p- _¿-lm≥ I-Ωo-j≥ dn-t]m¿-´v ™p-In-S-°p-∂ iv-a-im-\-Øn¬ t]m-epw \n-b-a-hn-cp-≤-a-√m-Xm- a¿-∏n®p. A-Xv A-e-am-c-bn¬
`-hn-°p-I-bm-Wp \-√-sX-∂v A-h¿ D-]-tZ-in-°p-∂p. H-cp Nm-]n-≈-bm-Wv. _m-_-cn a- ∂p-sIm-Sp-°m≥ s\-lv-dp-hn-s‚ °p-t\-sc h-f-sc h-en-b ]-¶v H-cp in-e-Iq-Sn h¿-[n-®n-cn-°p- °m≥ {i-an-°p-∂-h-cp-≈ H-cp s]m-Sn-]n-Sn-®pIn-S-°p-I-bm-Wv.
kv-Pn-Zv X-√n-Ø-I¿-°p-∂-Xn-\v ]u-{X≥ cm-Po-hv Km-‘n-bm-Wv ln-μp-Xz-^m-jn-Ãp-Iƒ h-ln- ∂p. Im-cy-£-a-hpw ^-e-{]-Z-hp- cm-Py-Øv {]-Ir-Xn-k-l-P-am-b _m_-cn [zw-k-\-sØ-°p-dn-®p
H-Øm-i-Iƒ sN-bv-Xp-sIm-Sp- A-[n-Im-c-Øn-en-cp-∂v H-Øm-i- ®n-´p-≠v. A-h¿ H-cp L-´-Øn¬ am-b H-cp \-S-]-Sn-bpw C-Xn- C-Ø-cw _-‘-ß-sf k-Zm-Nm-c- k-a¿-∏n-® en-_¿-lm≥ dn-t]m¿-
t\Àhc Øv H-Sp-hn¬ A-Xp X-I¿-∂p-
ho-gp-tºmƒ au-\w ]m-en-®
Iƒ sN-bv-X-Xv. 1992¬ ]-≈n X-
I¿-°p-tºm-gpw tIm¨-{K-kv X-
{_n-´o-jv km-{am-Py--Øn-s‚-bpw
C-t∏mƒ A-ta-cn-°-bp-sS kn.-
t∑¬ D-≠m-hm≥ C-S-bn-√ hn-cp-≤-Xm- en-Ãn¬-\n-∂v H-gn-
hm-°-W-sa-∂m-Wv A-`n-{]m-
´v ]m¿-e-sa‚n¬ c-≠paq-∂p Zn-
]n ]n A-–p-d-lv-am≥ hk-sØ N¿®-bv°pti-jw ap-
tIm¨-{K- pw A-h-cp-sS t\- s∂-bm-Wp tI-{μw `-cn-®n-cp-∂- sF.-F, C-{km-tb-en-s‚ sam- bw. ßn. C-\n Ipd-®pIm-ew cw-K-\m-
C∂v Un-kw-_¿ 31. Xm-hpw {]-[m-\-a-{¥n-bp-am-b Xv. A-tbm-[y-bn¬ X¿-°-ÿ- km-Zv Xp-S-ßn-b Kq-V-i-‡n-I- s]-cn-ßm-Sn
F F-kv ap-l-Ω-Zv Ip-™n Yv -an-{i I-Ωo-j-\mhpw N¿-
]n hn \-c-knw-l-dm-hp-hpw h- e-Øp in-em-\ym-kw A-\p-h-Zn- fp-sS-bpw N-´p-I-ß-fm-bn h¿-
ln-® ]-¶n-s\-∏-‰n H-∂pw ]-d- ®-Xv cm-Po-hv Km-‘n-bm-bn-cp- Øn-°p-I-bm-Wv. H-cp-]-t£, ]-cI--kgv-{n-Xoþ]pcp-j_-Ô§-Ä
™ Zn-h-kw ]n-Sn-°-s∏-
Im-k-¿-tIm-Uv ®mhn-jbw.
bm-Ø dn-t]m¿-´n-s‚ B-[n-Im- ∂p. 1989se s]m-Xp-Xn-c-s™- A-h-cn¬ ]-e¿-°pw X-߃ l-ko_v
cn-I-X- Xo¿-Øpw kw-i-bm-kv-]- Sp-∏n¬ tIm¨-{K- n-s‚ {]-Nm- km-{am-Py-Xz Zp-»-‡n-I-fp-sS N- ´ cm-Pv-tam-l≥ D-Æn-Øm-s‚
A-\m-im-ky-{]-h¿-Ø-\-sØ-
F´p Imcyw?
\yq-\-]-£-ß-fp-sSbpw a-‰p
tIm-°q¿
Z-am-Wv. hm-Pv-t]-bn-sb Ip-‰-s∏- c-tWm-Zv-Lm-S-\w A-tbm-[y- ´p-I-am-sW-∂ Im-cyw A-dn-bn-
Sp-Øm-\p-≈-Xn-t\-°mƒ \ym- bn¬ h-®m-Wv cm-Po-hv Km-‘n √. A-{X hn-Z-Kv-[-am-bm-W-t√m °p-dn-®p ]-e-cpw A-an-X-am-bn ]n-∂m-°hn-`m-K-ß-fp-sSbpw IØ-b-°p-∂-h¿
bw dm-hp-hn-s\-bpw tIm¨-{K- \-S-Øn-b-Xv. _m-ly-i-‡n-Iƒ I-cp-\o-°p- hm-Nm-e-cm-hp-∂p. sXm-Æq-dp-i- {]-iv-\-ß-ƒ ]Tn-°p-∂-Xn\pw hcn-Iƒ hn-´pw hm-N-I-߃
 n-s\-bpw Ip-‰-s∏-Sp-Øm-\p- C-cp-]-Xmw \q-‰m-≠n¬ C- ∂-Xpw cw-K-sam-cp-°n ]-cn-]m-Sn X-am-\w cm-{„o-b-t\-Xm-°-fpw ]-cn-lm-cw Im-Wp-∂-Xn-\p-am-bn Npcp-°nbpw th-≠-{X am¿Pn-\n´pw
≠v. ¥y Z¿-in-® aq-∂p Zp-c-¥-ß-fp- \-S-Øp-∂-Xpw. km-ln-Xy-Im-c-∑m-cpw C-ß-s\- cm-Py-Øv \nc-h[n A-t\z-j-W Fgp-Xm≥ Xm-¬-∏-cyw.
1949¬ \m-ep-\q-‰m-≠n-te-sd ≠v: 1) \n¿-`m-Ky-I-c-am-b C- C-t∏mƒ h-f-sc ssh-In-b- bm-Wv F-∂-Xp bm-Ym¿-Yy-am- IΩo-j-\pI-sf \n-tbm-Kn-®n-´p- IØn-s\m-∏w apgp-h≥ t]-cpw
G-I-ssZ-hm-cm-[-\ \-S-∂ a-kv- ¥ym-hn-`-P-\w. 2) Km-‘n-Pn-bp- th-f-bn¬ h-∂ en-_¿-lm≥ dn- Wv. ssew-Kn-I-X-bpw {]-i-kv-Xn- ≠v. ]q-¿Whn-em-khpw sSe-. \º¿
Pn-Zn-\v ]q-´n-Sp-tºmƒ s\-lv-dp- sS Zm-cp-W-h-[w. 3) C-¥y≥ a- t]m¿-´v ^-e-iq-\y-am-b hn-fw- bpw ]-c-kv-]-cw _-‘-s∏-´p-In-S- bp.]n.F K-h¨-sa‚ v A-[n- F∂n-hbpw Dƒs∏-Sp-Øm≥
hm-Wv tI-{μw `-cn-®-Xv. bp.-]n `- tX-X-c-Xz-Øn-s‚ {]-Xo-I-am-b _n-X-\o-Xn-bm-Wv. \m-\m-h-Xn °p-∂p. ssew-Kn-I-X F-∂pw {]- Im-c-Øn¬ h-∂-t∏mƒ ap-kv- {i≤n-°p-I. ]q-¿Whn-em-k-
cn-®-Xpw tIm¨-{K-kv X-s∂. _m-_v-cn a-kv-Pn-Zn-s‚ X-I¿-®. I-Ωo-j-≥ dn-t]m¿-´v, {io-Ir-jv- i-kv-Xn-bp-sS ]n-∂m-se t]m-hp- enw-I-fp-sS A-h-ÿ-sb-°p-dn- an-√m-Ø I-Øp-I-ƒ
1986¬ ]-≈n ]q-P-bv-°p Xp-d- Cu aq-∂p Zp-c-¥-ß-fn-epw t\¿- W I-Ωo-j≥ dn-t]m¿-´v, k- ∂-Xm-bm-Wp Im-W-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv. ®p ]Tn-°m≥ \n-b-an-® P-Ãn-kv {]-kn-≤o-I-cn-°p-∂X√.

C¶s¯ hmNIw
C-cp-]-Xmw \q-‰m-≠n¬ C-¥y Z¿-in-® aq-∂p Zp-c-¥-ß-fp-≠v: 1) \n¿-`m-Ky-I-c-am-b hnemkw
FUn‰¿
C-¥ym-hn-`-P-\w. 2) Km-‘n-Pn-bp-sS Zm-cp-W-h-[w. 3) C-¥y≥ a-tX-X-c-Xz-Øn-s‚ tXPkv Zn\]{Xw
aoUnbmkn‰n
{]-Xo-I-am-b _m-_v-cn a-kv-Pn-Zn-s‚ X-I¿-®. tImgnt°mSv 673 027
e-mail: letters@thejasonline.com
C\n A-Sp-Ø-h¿jw...! ]n ]n A-–p-d-lv-am≥, s]-cn-ßm-Sn