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CAPE

COMMUNICATION
STUDIES
Module 3
TYPES OF SPEAKING
AND WRITING

There are two main ways in which human beings


communicate verbally, that is, through speaking and
writing:
1. SPEAKING: is the vocalized form of human
communication through the use of uttered sounds for
auditory communication. It is based upon the syntactic
combination of lexicons and names that are drawn
from very large vocabularies.
2. WRITING: is the representation of language in a
textual medium through the use of a set of signs or
symbols such as letters that express some meaning.

1. SPEAKING: Oral Communication


TYPES: Expository speeches, Conversations, Face to face, Interview,
Meeting, Oral Briefing, Public address, Oral Presentation, Telephone Call,
Conference, Training Session etc.

Advantages:
Direct medium of communication
advantages of physical proximity and usually, both sight and sound of
sender and receiver; allows instant interchange of opinion, views,
attitudes instantaneous feedback
easier to convince or persuade

Allows for contribution and participation from all present.

Disadvantages :
More difficult to hold ground in face of opposition
more difficult to control when a number of people take
part
lack of time to think things out quality of decision
making may be inferior
often no written record of what has been said
Sometimes disputes results over what was agreed.

2. WRITING: Written Communication

TYPES: Essay, Journal, Diaries, Letter, Memorandum, Report,


Abstract, minutes, Article, Press Release

Advantages:
Provides written record and evidence of dispatch and receipt
capable of relaying complex ideas
provides analysis, evaluation and summary
disseminates information to dispersed receivers
can confirm, interpret and clarify oral communications
Forms basis of contract or agreement.

Disadvantages:
Can take time to produce
can be expensive
communication tends to be formal and distant
can cause problems of interpretation
instant feedback is not possible
once dispatched, difficult to modify message
Does not allow for exchange of opinion, views or
attitudes except over a period of time.