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OliviaMayer

10/15/2014
Sciencelesson

LessonPlan

Objectives
Studentswillunderstandthefollowing:

IthasbeendiscoveredthatMarsandEarthhaveseveralsimilargeological
1. features.
2. Thesefeaturesmaybeusefulforsupportinglifeonbothplanets.

Materials

Forthislesson,youwillneed:

CurrentresearchmaterialsonMars
BookscontaininggeologicalphotographsofthesurfaceofMarsandEarth
ComputerwithInternetaccess

Procedures

TellstudentsthattheyaregoingtocompareEarthandMarstofind
similaritiesbetweenthetwoplanets.Havethembeginbydoingresearchto
findinformationandcollectpicturesofgeologicalfeaturesofbothplanets.
TheyshouldstarttheirresearchatthefollowingWebsites:
ViewsoftheSolarSystem:MarsIntroduction
mars
ViewsoftheSolarSystem:EarthIntroduction
1. earth
Instructstudentstodownloadandprintpicturesofgeologicalfeaturesand
formationsonEarthandMars.Theycanalsofindpicturesintext
2. referencesandphotocopythem.

HavestudentspostpairsofpicturesofEarthandMarssidebysideona
bulletinboardinordertocomparesimilargeologicalfeaturesand
3. formationssharedbybothplanets.

Foreachpairofpictures,studentsshouldidentifytheplanetineachpicture
andwriteshortdescriptionsofthegeologicalfeaturesbeingcompared.
Studentsshoulddofurtherresearchtoincludeintheirdescriptions
explanationsofhowthefeaturewasprobablyformedandofhowthe
featuremaybeusefulforsupportinglifeonbothplanets.

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Adaptations

Downloadpicturesforthestudentsandguidetheminfindinggeological
similarities.

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DiscussionQuestions

WhatgeologicalevidencehavescientistsfoundonMarsthatsuggeststhat
1. thisplanetoncehad,andmaystillhave,largequantitiesofwater?
AlthoughscientistsnolongerbelievethataMartiancivilizationliveson
Mars,arecentdiscoverysuggeststhatsomeformoflifemayhaveonce
inhabitedtheRedPlanet.DescribetheconsequencesforEarth,iflifeonce
2. existedonMars.Debatethepresenceoflifeinotherpartsoftheuniverse.
HowwouldhumanbeingsonEarthbenefitifitwerepossibletocreatea
3. spacecolonyonMarsinwhichhumanscouldlive?
Discusswhetherourgovernmentshouldspendmoneytofundfurther
explorationofMars,orusethatmoneytoimproveconditionshereon
4. Earth?Orshouldfundsbemadeavailableforbothpurposes?

Evaluation

Youcanevaluateyourstudentsontheirdescriptionsusingthefollowing
threepointrubric:

Threepoints:clearlyandcompletelydescribesthegeologicalfeaturebeing
comparedincludesplausibleexplanationofhowthefeaturewasprobably
formedincludesclear,accurateexplanationofhowthefeaturemaybeusefulin
supportinglifefreeoferrorsingrammar,usage,andmechanics

Twopoints:adequatelydescribesthegeologicalfeaturebeingcompared
includesacceptableexplanationofhowthefeaturewasprobablyformed
includesacceptableexplanationofhowthefeaturemaybeusefulinsupporting
lifeincludessomeerrorsingrammar,usage,andmechanics

Onepoint:vaguedescriptionofthegeologicalfeaturebeingcompared
implausibleexplanationofhowthefeaturewasprobablyformedunclear
explanationofhowthefeaturemaybeusefulinsupportinglifemanyerrorsin
grammar,usage,andmechanics

Extensions

PreparingaMealforSpaceFlight
Letstudentsknowthatinordertopreservefoodandreducecargoweightona
spacetrip,foodisdehydrated.Thismeansthatwaterisremovedfromthefood.
Mostlyforreasonsofpreservation,somefoodisdehydratedforconsumption
hereonEarth.Havestudentsmakealistofallthedehydratedfoods(sometimes
referredtoasfreezedried)thattheycanfindinthesupermarketandfromthat
listprepareamealthatmightbeenjoyedbyastronautsoutinspace.Insome
cases,studentsmaywanttorehydratethefoodtomakeittastyandmore
consumable.Hereisasamplemenu:
Dehydratedfruitsuchasbananasandstrawberries:rehydrateinmouthbysaliva
Dehydratedpeanuts:rehydrationnotnecessary
Dehydratedorangecrystals:rehydratewithwaterinasandwichbag,andusea
strawtosipoutthecontents
Dehydratedinstantpudding:rehydratewithwaterinasandwichbag,snipoffa
cornerofthebagwithscissors,andslurpoutthecontents
Dehydratedbeefjerky:rehydrateinmouth
Dehydratedicecream:followpackageinstructionstorehydrate
Afterfeastingontheirspacemeal,studentscanratetheirexperiencewitheach
foodandcommentonwhethertheywouldlookforwardtothecuisineonalengthy
spaceflight.

ConstructaShuttle
Havestudentsusetape,Velcro,glue,shoeboxes,papertoweltubes,plastic
sodacans,andotherhouseholdrecyclablestoconstructamodelofthespace
shuttle.Instructstudentstoglueortapetogetherthepartsthatneverseparate
andtouseVelcrotoholdtogetherpartsthatwillbejettisonedafterliftoff(e.g.,the
fueltankandrocketboosters).

SuggestedReadings

TheSolarSystemFactsandExploration
GregoryL.Vogt.NewYork:TwentyFirstCenturyBooks,1995
VisitMarsandalltheplanetsinthesolarsystemlearnaboutthedifferenttypes
ofelectronicphotosthataretakenfromspacecompareplanetarydataand
successfulinterplanetaryspacecraftgetthenamesandaddressesofspace
organizationstowritetoformoreinformation.

TheRedPlanet:Mars
IsaacAsimov,withrevisionsandupdatingbyFrancisReddy.Milwaukee:Gareth
StevensPublishing,1994
WouldyoubewillingtotraveltoMarsandtrytolivethere?Readabouttheplanet
beforeyoumakeadecision!

TheU.S.SpaceCampBookofRockets
AnneBaird.PhotographsbyDavidGraham.ForewordbyDr.BuzzAldrin.New
York:MorrowJuniorBooks,1994
JoinSpaceCamptraineesinRocketParkandSpaceMuseuminHuntsville,
Alabamaandlearnthehistoryofrockets,seefamousrockets,andclimbaboard
aspaceshuttleandaspacestation.

FloatingHome
DavidGetz.IllustratedbyMichaelRex.NewYork:Holt,1997
EightyearoldMaxinehastodoanartprojectandimaginesherselfbravinga
takeoffandtravelingonaspaceshuttletolookatEarthfromfaraboveit.

MakingandEnjoyingTelescopes:SixCompleteProjectsandaStargazers
Guide
RobertMiller.NewYork:SterlingPubl.Co.,1995
Learnhowtomakeatelescopeandcheckoutthestarsfromyourown
backyard!

AdventureinSpace:TheFlighttoFixtheHubble
ElaineScottandMargaretMiller.NewYork:HyperionBooksforChildren,1995
WilltheastronautsbeabletofixtheEarthorbitingHubbleSpaceTelescope?
ReadandfindoutabouttheHubbleSpaceTelescopeinthisexcitingbook.

LivinginSpace
LarryKettelkam.NewYork:MorrowJuniorBooks,1993
Readaboutpeoplewhovelivedinspaceandaboutspacesuits,spacestations,
andplanstosendpeopletoMarsand,someday,tootherplanetsinothersolar
systems.Doyouwanttobeoneofthesetravelers?


The21stCenturyinSpace
IsaacAsimovandRobertGiraud.WithrevisionsandupdatingbyGreg
WalzChojnacki.Milwaukee:GarethStevensPublishing,1996
Seeandreadabouthugetelescopes,airplanesinspace,landingonMars,anda
probetothesun.Checkoutthepageswheretheauthorssaywhatwellbe
doinginspacebetweennowandtheyear2016,aswellasin20,000years,
40,000yearsandevenin296,000years!

Links

SearchingforEvidenceofWateronMars[PDF]
FindinformationandadditionalactivitiesonthistopicattheJohnsHopkinsApplied
PhysicsLabwebsite.

AmazingSpace
AmazingSpaceisasetofwebbasedactivitiesprimarilydesignedforclassroom
use,butmadeavailableforalltoenjoy.Inoneofmanyactivitiesfollowthehistoryof
thetelescopefromGalileo'sinventiontotheorbitingHubbleSpaceTelescope.

LivinginSpaceLesson
ThisNASApageisfilledwithhandsonK8lessonplansthatwillinvolveyour
studentsinlearninghowtosurviveinspace.

SpaceEducatorsHandbookHomePage
Findgreatlessonplansrelatingtospacetravelandastronomy,manyofwhichare
interactivesitesontheWeb.DownloadSpaceColoringbooks,spinoffs,references
andsomuchmore.

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Vocabulary

Clickonanyofthevocabularywordsbelowtohearthempronouncedandused
inasentence.

microorganism

Definition:Amicroscopic(verysmall)plantoranimal.
Context:Thepresenceofmicroorganismsfoundinmeteorites,believedtohave
originatedfromMars,suggeststhatlifeonceexistedonthatplanet.

centrifugalforce

Definition:Anoutwardforcecausedbyabodypushingorpullingonastructure
thatiscausingthebodytoexperiencearotationalmotion.
Context:Anastronautwillpushoutwardswithacentrifugalforceonarotating,
donutshapedspacestation,andsensetheillusionofweightinthedirectionof
thisforce.Thefasterthespacestationrotates,theheaviertheastronautwillfeel.

terraforming

Definition:Tousethegreenhouseeffecttoincreasethedensityofaplanets
atmospherebyreleasingcarbondioxide(andothergases)trappedinthe
planetsrocks.
Context:Inordertoprovideareplenishingfoodsource,astronautswilluse
terraformingtoreleasecarbondioxidefromMartianrocksneededforplantsto
grow.

astronomy

Definition:ThestudyofobjectsandprocessesbeyondtheEarthsatmosphere.
Context:Hetookupastronomyasahobby.

microgravity

Definition:Aconditionofrealorapparentreducedgravityexperiencedonorbiting
spacevehicles.
Context:Orbitingastronautsexperiencemicrogravityconditionspartlybecause
theyarefartherawayfromtheEarth,andmostlybecausetheyareinastateof
freefallastheyorbittheEarth.

Standards

Thislessonplanmaybeusedtoaddresstheacademicstandardslistedbelow.
ThesestandardsaredrawnfromContentKnowledge:ACompendiumofStandards
andBenchmarksforK12Education:2ndEditionandhavebeenprovidedcourtesyof
theMidcontinentResearchforEducationandLearninginAurora,Colorado.

Gradelevel:35
Subjectarea:technology
Standard:
Understandstheinteractionsofscience,technology,andsociety.
Benchmarks:
Knowsthatpeoplehavealwayshadquestionsabouttheirworldscienceisoneway
ofansweringquestionsandexplainingthenaturalworld.

Gradelevel:68
Subjectarea:technology
Standard:
Understandstherelationshipsamongscience,technology,society,andtheindividual.
Benchmarks:
Knowsthattechnologyandsciencearereciprocal(e.g.,technologydrivesscience,
asitprovidesthemeanstoaccessouterspaceandremotelocations,collectand
treatsamples,collect,measure,store,andcomputedata,andcommunicate
informationsciencedrivestechnology,asitprovidesprinciplesforbetter
instrumentationandtechniques,andthemeanstoaddressquestionsthatdemand
moresophisticatedinstruments).

Gradelevel:35
Subjectarea:technology
Standard:
Understandsthenatureoftechnologicaldesign.
Benchmarks:
Categorizesitemsintogroupsofnaturalobjectsanddesignedobjects.

Gradelevel:35
Subjectarea:technology
Standard:
Understandstheinteractionsofscience,technology,andsociety.
Benchmarks:
Knowsthattoolshelpscientistsmakebetterobservations,measurements,and
equipmentforinvestigations.

Gradelevel:35
Subjectarea:technology
Standard:
Understandsthescientificenterprise.
Benchmarks:
Knowsthatwomenandmenofallages,backgrounds,andgroupsparticipateinthe
variousareasofscienceandtechnology,astheyhaveformanycenturies.

Gradelevel:68
Subjectarea:science
Standard:

Understandsessentialideasaboutthecompositionandstructureoftheuniverseand
theEarthsplaceinit.
Benchmarks:
Knowscharacteristicsandmovementpatternsofthenineplanetsinoursolarsystem
(e.g.,planetsdifferinsize,composition,andsurfacefeaturesplanetsmovearoundthe
suninellipticalorbitssomeplanetshavemoons,ringsofparticles,andothersatellites
orbitingthem).

Intro
IfoundthislessonplanatanonlinesourcethatIhaveusedbeforetoaccesspicture,
soundsandvideosfrommyfieldexperience.WhileIhaveneverusedalessonplanfrom
thissitebeforeIassumedthattheymetmoststandardsofthedistrictlessonplans
becauseofthereeasytousequalitiesandhandsontimes.Ithenthoughtthatitisvery
importanttoseethatwhiletheselessonswereEasytoaccesstheycanbeadaptedtofit
wellwelltogether.ThislessonwasfoundonlineatDiscoveryEducationandwascalledthe
pathtomars.AfterfurtherreviewIsawthatthislessonneedsALOTofwork
Sciencecontent
Thelessonstatesthatthesciencecontentbeinglearnedisaboutspaceandhow
studentswillknowaboutthesimilargeologicalfeaturesandthatthesefeaturesmakeit
usefulforsupportinglifeoneitherplanet.Ialsothinkitisimportanttothegradetolearn
aboutspaceanditeffectsweatherandourweatherhereonearthitalsoisagreatchance
forstudentstoidentifythatlifecouldbeinotherplace.Ifeellikesomeofthesearemet,but
inaroundaboutwaybuttheyarenotcompletelynotedinthelessonplan.Accordingtothe

CPLAMSwebsitethefollowingstandardsmatchwithwhattheSFASsay5thgraders
shouldlearn:

SC.5.E.5 Recognizethatagalaxyconsistsofgas,dust,andmanystars,including
.1

anyobjectsorbitingthestars.IdentifyourhomegalaxyastheMilkyWay.

SC.5.E.5 Recognizethemajorcommoncharacteristicsofallplanetsand
.2

compare/contrastthepropertiesofinnerandouterplanets.

SC.5.E.5 DistinguishamongthefollowingobjectsoftheSolarSystemSun,planets,
.3

moons,asteroids,cometsandidentifyEarth'spositioninit.

SC.5.E.7 Createamodeltoexplainthepartsofthewatercycle.Watercanbeagas,
.1

aliquid,orasolidandcangobackandforthfromonestatetoanother.

SkillsandNOS
SomeprocessingskillsIfoundIcouldputintothislessonwouldbeinvestigatingby
research.Iwouldhavechildrendetectthecharacteristicsoftheinnerplanets.Byplacing
childrenintogroupsandgivingthemeachaplanet,Earth,Mars,Venus,andMercury.
Givingeachgroupthegoalofresearchingandtellingtheclasshoweachplanetissimilar
anddifferent,giving5ofeachcomparison.Thiswouldgiveeverychildajob,onechild
wouldworkonresearchingthemoonatmosphere,onewouldbuildoneaclaymodel,one
wouldfilloutagraphicorganizerandsomeonewouldstandwiththemodeltoanswer
questionsforstudentsastheygallerywalkacrosstheroom.Thenasaclassstudents

wouldcompareandcontrastusingnotesfromresearchandgraphicorganizerandanswer
theEQwiththeirfindings.