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Proiect Dinamica A

Sa se proiecteze din punct de vedere dinamic un autoturism avand ca date de intrare masa si viteza maxima
Date initiale:
Masa

1700
160

vmax
3
f * Ga * vmax 0.5 * * c x * A * vmax
1000 * t

Pv max
f

0.02

1.225

A=1,62,8

2.3

0,30,5

0.45

randamentul transmisiei

0.9
Golf V 1.9 TDI

Puterea
Turatia maxima (nP)
Cuplul (Mmax)
Turatie cuplu (nM)
Lungime L
latime l
inaltime h
Ampatament A
Ecartament E
Dimensiuni anvelope
Masa proprie (G0)
vmax

78
4000
250
1900
4259
1757
1440
2607
1515
195/65 R15 T
1223
187

Etapa 2
Greutatea si capacitatea de incarcare a autovehiculului
1223
11997.63
5
75
20
1698
16657.38

M0
G0
Nr. Pasageri
Greutate pasager
Greutate bagaj
Ma
Ga
Parametrul

Starea

Tipul autovehiculului

Parametrul

Starea
gol
incarcat
gol
incarcat

autoturism
0.45-0.54
0.49-0.55
0.16-0.26
0.165-0.26

gol
incarcat
gol
incarcat

0.47
0.5
0.21
0.19

gol
incarcat
gol
incarcat

1225.29
1303.5
547.47
495.33

M1
M2
G1
G2
Mp1
Mp2

M1 = (b/L) * Ma
M2 = (a/l) * Ma
G1 = (b/L) * Ga
G2 = (a/L) * Ga
Mp1 = M1/2
Mp2 = M2/n

899.94
798.06
8828.4114
7828.9686
449.97
399.03

raza de rulare

rr = *r0

0.932

r0=rn
rn = D/2
D=d+2*H
d
H

317.25
317.25
634.5
15
126.75

a/L
hg/L
Coeficienti alesi
a/L
hg/L

a
hg

Alegerea pneului
295.677
0.93-0.935
0.945-0.95
mm
mm
mm
inch
mm

Alegerea randamentului transmisiei


cutie de viteze

cv

reductor distribuitor

cv

0.970.98
0.920.94
0.910.94

transmisia longitudinala

TL

0.990...0.995

transmisia principala

0.920.94
0.900.92
Rezistenta la rulare

f0
f01
f02
f03

0.013295
-0.000028664
1.8036E-07
0

f R f 0 f 01 * v f 02 * v 2 f 03 * v 3

f f 0 s hd 108 v 2
s

4 - pt autoturime, 5,5 - pt
autocamioane

4
150

hd
v
v

f r f r , 0 f r ,1 *
f r ,4 *

100km / h
100km / h
f r 0.0125 0.0085*

100

v
fr f0 fs *

100

2.5

fr,0
fr,1
fr,4
f0
fs

0.0085
0.0027
0.0007
0.012
0.006

v
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190

fR
0.013295
0.013026396
0.012793864
0.012597404
0.012437016
0.0123127
0.012224456
0.012172284
0.012156184
0.012176156
0.0122322
0.012324316
0.012452504
0.012616764
0.012817096
0.0130535
0.013325976
0.013634524
0.013979144
0.014359836

Graficul rezistentei la rulare


f
0.013295
0.013895
0.015695
0.018695
0.022895
0.028295
0.034895
0.042695
0.051695
0.061895
0.073295
0.085895
0.099695
0.114695
0.130895
0.148295
0.166895
0.186695
0.207695
0.229895

Viteza rezistentei la rulare


4500
4000

Coeficienti

3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

Viteza

v
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190

Pr
0
0.602737856
1.183956968
1.748664545
2.301867795
2.848573927
3.393790148
3.942523668
4.499781694
5.070571436
5.659900101
6.272774898
6.914203036
7.589191723
8.302748167
9.059879576
9.86559316
10.72489613
11.64279568
12.62429904

Pr
0
0.642928598
1.452430995
2.595080993
4.23745239
6.546118988
9.687654585
13.82863298
19.13562798
25.77521338
33.91396298
43.71845057
55.35524997
68.99093497
84.79207937
102.925257
123.5570416
146.854007
172.982727
202.1097754

Variatia puterii in functie de viteza de rulare


250

250

200

Pr

150

100

50

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

Viteza

Rezistenta aerului
Ra

1
2
2

cx
A
k
Pa

1.225
A=E*h*k
0.80.9
Pa=Ra*v

v
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

0.45
1788912
0.82

Ra[N]
0
3.80454375
15.218175
34.24089375
60.8727
95.11359375
136.963575
186.4226438
243.4908
308.1680438
380.454375

120

110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190

460.3497938
547.8543
642.9678938
745.690575
856.0223438
973.9632
1099.513144
1232.672175
1373.440294
Rezistenta la panta

Rp

= + = + =

= +

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

Rp
0
290.7113659
581.3341784
871.7799108
1161.960091
1451.786326
1741.170333
2030.023963
2318.259228
2605.788329
2892.523682
3178.377943
3463.26404
3747.095194
4029.784945
4311.247186
4591.396178
4870.146587
5147.413502
5423.112465
5697.159495
5969.471115
6239.964377

22

7000
6000
5000
Rp

Unghiul de inclinare
longitudinal al drumului

3000
2000
1000
0
0

Verificarea la putere maxima

4000

1
3
+
2
1000

v
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190

Pvmax
0
1.039975752
2.150406019
3.401745313
4.864448148
6.608969039
8.7057625
11.22528304
14.23798519
17.81432344
22.02475231
26.93972633
32.6297
39.16512784
46.61646435
55.05416406
64.54868148
75.17047112
86.9899875
100.0776851
Trasarea caracteristicii de turatie exterioara a motorului
4000
78
250

nr=nP=nmax
Pr=PP=Pmax
Mr=MP=Mmax

()

= [
+

2 (2 1)
( 1)2

2 ( 1)
( 1)2

ca 1
(ce 1) 2
ce

ca

( )3 ]

1.062142578

1.180708988

1.242851567

nM
nr

0.475

M max
Mr

1.342560963

M 955.4 *

P
n


[
]

cmin

viteza unghiulara
nmin

418.8790205
800
1000
4200

nmin=(0.150.2)*nP
nmin st=nmin+(100200)
nmax=(1,05-1,25)*nP

nmin stabil
nmax

Trasarea caracteristicii de turatie


90
80
70

Pmax

60
50
40

30
20
10
0
0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

Etapa 3
v
0
10
20
30
40
50

Pr+Pa
0.602737856
1.194525146
1.833209962
2.587208577
3.52493726
4.714812284

Pr+Pa
0
0.653496775
1.536976412
2.880421774
4.913815723
7.867141123

60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190

6.225249918
8.124666434
10.4814781
13.36410119
16.84095198
20.98044673
25.85100172
31.52103322
38.05895749
45.53319082
54.01214946
63.56424969
74.25790779
85.11142566

11.97038084
17.45351772
24.54653465
33.47941447
44.48214006
57.78469427
73.61705997
92.20922002
113.7911573
138.5928546
166.8442949
198.775461
234.6163357
274.596902

90

300

80
250

70
60

200

50

Pr+Pa

40

Pr

30
20

150
100

50

10

0
0

50

100

150

200

100

140

90

120

80

100

70
60
50

40

Pr+Pa

80

Pr

60

Pvmax

30
20

40
20

10

0
0

50

100

150

200

Punctul B

(0, PvmaxTr)

Viteza maxima
f ales

se determina din grafic

Determinarea raportului de transmitere al transmisiei principale

Turatia la viteva maxima

nvmax

Raportul transmisiei
principale

i0

Viteza maxima
Nr de dinti ai pistonului
de atac
Nr de dinti ai coroanei
Raportul transmisiei
principale

nv max nmax
i0

* nv max * rr
30 * Vmax

Vmax

Zp

zc
i0ef

i0ef = zc / zp

Determinarea rapoartelor de transmitere a cutiei de viteze


Forta la roata
Coef. de rezistenta la
rulare
Unghiul de inclinare a caii
de rulare

FRmax

FR max Ga * (sin max f * cos max )

f= (1,4..1,6)*0,01

Ft max * rr
M max * i0 * t

Raportul in treapta I

icv1

icv1

Nr minim de trepte

kmin

k min 1

Ratia initiala

q*

q*

Nr treptelor de viteza

Ratia de etajare

Raportul in treapta II

icv2

Raportul in treapta III

icv3

Raportul in treapta IV

icv4

Raportul in treapta V

icv5

ln icv1
ln q

nv max
nM

ln icv1
k 1
1
ln q

q k 1 icv1
ick

icv1
q k 1

Verficarea vitezei minime

vmin Rmin * rr

* nmin * rr

Viteza minima

vmin

Turatia minima

nmin

nmin = 0,2 * np

Viteza unghiulara
Raza de rulare

Rmin
rr

Rmin = ( * nmin)/30
-

30 * i0 * icv

Determinarea vitezelor minime si maxime


Turatia minima

n1

n1 >= nM

Turatia maxima

n2

n2 >= nP

Viteza autoturismului

v R * rr

* n * rr
30 * i0 * icv

Treapta I
viteza

n
2000

8.537234955

30.73404584

2100
2200
2300
2400
2500
2600
2700
2800
2900
3000
3100
3200
3300
3400
3500
3600
3700
3800
3900
4000
4100
4200
4300
rpm

8.964096702
9.39095845
9.817820198
10.24468195
10.67154369
11.09840544
11.52526719
11.95212894
12.37899068
12.80585243
13.23271418
13.65957593
14.08643767
14.51329942
14.94016117
15.36702292
15.79388467
16.22074641
16.64760816
17.07446991
17.50133166
17.9281934
18.35505515
m/s

32.27074813
33.80745042
35.34415271
36.880855
38.4175573
39.95425959
41.49096188
43.02766417
44.56436646
46.10106875
47.63777105
49.17447334
50.71117563
52.24787792
53.78458021
55.32128251
56.8579848
58.39468709
59.93138938
61.46809167
63.00479396
64.54149626
66.07819855
km/h

Turatia

Diagrama fierastrau
5000
4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500

Turatia

2000
1500
1000
500
0
0

50

100

150
Viteza

200

Proiect Dinamica Autovehiculelor Rutiere

rare masa si viteza maxima

kg
km/h

16677
44.44444444

78.30924554

kw

/3
2

kW
rpm
N*m
rpm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
kg
km/h

Etapa 2

kg
N
kg
kg
kg
N
Tipul autovehiculului

N
m/s

autobuz
0.5-0.65
0.5-0.68
0.23-0.285

mm
mm
mm
mm
kg
kg
N
kg
kg
kg

autocamion
0.46-0.55
0.6-0.75
0.21-0.268
0.3-0.38

autotractor

n-nr de pneuri

0.61-0.67
0.31-0.4

1381.71
1303.5

mm
Pneuri utilizate la presiuni mai mici de 600 kPa(6 bari)
Pneuri utilizate la presiuni mai mari de 600 kPa(6 bari)

381

mm

i
Treapta de priza directa
In celelalte trepte

0.93

Transmisii principale simple


Transmisii principale duble

0.92

mm
mm

ezistentei la rulare
fr
0.0125
0.012526879
0.012652053
0.012919008
0.01336014
0.014002602
0.014870266
0.015984689
0.017365684
0.019031685
0.021
0.023286999
0.025908248
0.02887862
0.032212378
0.035923246
0.040024465
0.044528841
0.049448787
0.054796354

fr
0.012
0.012018974
0.012107331
0.01229577
0.012607157
0.01306066
0.013673129
0.01445978
0.0154346
0.016610601
0.018
0.019614352
0.021464646
0.023561379
0.02591462
0.028534056
0.031429034
0.034608594
0.038081497
0.04185625

0.25
0.2

Coeficienti

fr
0.0085
0.00877007
0.00904112
0.00931567
0.00959792
0.00989375
0.01021072
0.01055807
0.01094672
0.01138927
0.0119
0.01249487
0.01319152
0.01400927
0.01496912
0.01609375
0.01740752
0.01893647
0.02070832
0.02275247

0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0

20

Rr

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190

stentei la rulare

Rr
Rr
Rr
Rr
Rr
140

160

180

Pr
0
0.405795524
0.836674286
1.293122126
1.776402229
2.288943797
2.834730719
3.419690246
4.052081662
4.742884958
5.5061895
6.359582706
7.324538714
8.426807058
9.696801337
11.16998789
12.88727447
14.8953989
17.24731777
20.0025951

terii in functie de viteza de rulare

200

Pr
0
0.579624971
1.170833602
1.793306845
2.472721343
3.239536958
4.128327804
5.17733687
6.428151022
7.925450022
9.716805
11.85251196
14.38545118
17.37096642
20.8667596
24.93279808
29.63123194
35.02631987
41.184362
48.1736389

Pr
0
0.556123921
1.120424542
1.706794302
2.333357889
3.021616382
3.795975038
4.683428908
5.713333427
6.917227251
8.32869
9.983224737
11.91815872
14.17255812
16.78715372
19.80427541
23.26779384
27.22306808
31.71689823
36.79748234

221.4598671
216.9856282
213.1122543
209.8397454
207.1681016
205.0973227
203.6274089
202.7583601
202.4901762
202.8228574
203.7564036
205.2908149
207.4260911
210.1622323
213.4992386
217.4371098
221.9758461
227.1154474
232.8559137
239.197245

Pr
Pr
Pr
Pr
Pr

120

140

160

180

200

stenta aerului

/3
mm^2

1.788912

Rezistenta aer
1500

Pa[kw]

1000
Ra

0
0.010568177
0.084545417
0.285340781
0.676363333
1.321022135
2.28272625
3.62488474
5.410906667
7.704201094
10.56817708

500
0

80
70

50

Pa

14.0662437
18.26181
23.21828505
28.99907792
35.66759766
43.28725333
51.92145401
61.63360875
72.48712661

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

50

anta

e maxima

Rezistenta la panta

Rp

10

15
Axis Title

20

25

exterioara a motorului
rpm
kW
N*m

Mr

186.2112834
260

rpm
rpm

P
M
cs
c0

4000

4500

n [rpm]
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300
2400
2500
2600
2700
2800
2900
3000
3100
3200
3300
3400
3500
3600
3700
3800
3900
4000
4100
4200

Pmax [kW]
24.95301125
27.73156601
30.52526803
33.32502895
36.12176042
38.90637409
41.6697816
44.4028946
47.09662475
49.74188368
52.32958305
54.85063451
57.2959497
59.65644027
61.92301786
64.08659414
66.13808074
68.06838931
69.8684315
71.52911896
73.04136333
74.39607627
75.58416942
76.59655443
77.42414295
78.05784662
78.4885771
78.70724603
78.70476505
78.47204583
78
77.27953921
76.30157512

Pr+Pa
0
0.590193149
1.255379018
2.078647626
3.149084677
4.560559094

Pr+Pa
0
0.566692098
1.204969959
1.992135084
3.009721223
4.342638518

M [daN*m]
238.4010695
240.8612561
243.032009
244.9133282
246.5052136
247.8076653
248.8206834
249.5442677
249.9784182
250.1231351
249.9784182
249.5442677
248.8206834
247.8076653
246.5052136
244.9133282
243.032009
240.8612561
238.4010695
235.6514491
232.6123951
229.2839073
225.6659858
221.7586306
217.5618417
213.075619
208.2999627
203.2348726
197.8803488
192.2363912
186.303
180.080175
173.5679164

Etapa 3
Pr+Pa
0
0.416363701
0.921219703
1.578462907
2.452765563
3.609965932

Pvmaxt
90.06991661
90.06991661
90.06991661
90.06991661
90.06991661
90.06991661

cs
272.6497836
269.864905
267.4544817
265.4000111
263.6861065
262.3001993
261.2323024
260.4748272
260.022447
259.8720025
260.022447
260.4748272
261.2323024
262.3001993
263.6861065
265.4000111
267.4544817
269.864905
272.6497836
275.8311067
279.4348082
283.4913307
288.0363195
293.1114781
298.7656268
305.0560186
312.0499839
319.827002
328.4813293
338.1253652
348.894006
360.9503377
374.4931746

5.117456969
7.044574985
9.462988329
12.44708605
16.07436658
20.4258264
25.58634871
31.64509211
38.69587925
46.83758555
56.1745278
66.81685291
78.88092652
92.48972171

6.411054054
8.80222161
11.83905769
15.62965112
20.28498208
25.91875566
32.64726118
40.58925147
49.86583752
60.60039573
72.91848528
86.94777388
102.8179707
120.6607655

6.078701288
8.308313648
11.12424009
14.62142834
18.89686708
24.04946844
30.17996872
37.39084317
45.78623164
55.47187306
66.55504718
79.14452209
93.35050698
109.284609

90.06991661
90.06991661
90.06991661
90.06991661
90.06991661
90.06991661
90.06991661
90.06991661
90.06991661
90.06991661
90.06991661
90.06991661
90.06991661
90.06991661

120
Pr+Pa

100

Pr
80

60
50

100

150

200
40

20

0
Pr+Pa
Pr

50

90.06991661
180
0.018

ere al transmisiei principale

100

150

200

50

4200

rpm

2.600910735

50

m/s

15

dinti

40
2.666666667

smitere a cutiei de viteze


5706.609984

0.018

19

2.788903426
2.293001594

2.210526316

1.407595356
1.981324686
1.407595356
1
0.710431443

minime
3.414893982

m/s

800

rpm

83.7758041
0.295677

s
m

-1

inime si maxime
2000

rpm

4100

rpm

Treapta II
viteza

Treapta III
viteza

Treapta IV
viteza

12.01697227

43.26110018

16.91503436

60.8941237

23.80952381

12.61782089
13.2186695
13.81951811
14.42036673
15.02121534
15.62206395
16.22291257
16.82376118
17.4246098
18.02545841
18.62630702
19.22715564
19.82800425
20.42885286
21.02970148
21.63055009
22.2313987
22.83224732
23.43309593
24.03394455
24.63479316
25.23564177
25.83649039
m/s

45.42415519
47.5872102
49.75026521
51.91332022
54.07637523
56.23943024
58.40248525
60.56554026
62.72859526
64.89165027
67.05470528
69.21776029
71.3808153
73.54387031
75.70692532
77.86998033
80.03303534
82.19609035
84.35914536
86.52220037
88.68525537
90.84831038
93.01136539
km/h

17.76078608
18.6065378
19.45228952
20.29804123
21.14379295
21.98954467
22.83529639
23.68104811
24.52679982
25.37255154
26.21830326
27.06405498
27.9098067
28.75555841
29.60131013
30.44706185
31.29281357
32.13856529
32.984317
33.83006872
34.67582044
35.52157216
36.36732388
m/s

63.93882989
66.98353607
70.02824226
73.07294844
76.11765463
79.16236081
82.207067
85.25177318
88.29647937
91.34118555
94.38589174
97.43059792
100.4753041
103.5200103
106.5647165
109.6094227
112.6541288
115.698835
118.7435412
121.7882474
124.8329536
127.8776598
130.922366
km/h

25
26.19047619
27.38095238
28.57142857
29.76190476
30.95238095
32.14285714
33.33333333
34.52380952
35.71428571
36.9047619
38.0952381
39.28571429
40.47619048
41.66666667
42.85714286
44.04761905
45.23809524
46.42857143
47.61904762
48.80952381
50
51.19047619
m/s

ama fierastrau

II
III

III
IV

V
200

250

300

Graficul rezistentei la rulare

fR
f

fr
fr
fr
40

60

80

100

120

140

160

Viteza

Rr

Rr

Rr

Rr

180

200

221.4598671
231.4542951
261.4375791
311.4097191
381.3707151
471.3205671
581.2592751
711.1868391
861.1032591
1031.008535
1220.902667
1430.785655
1660.657499
1910.518199
2180.367755
2470.206167
2780.033435
3109.849559
3459.654539
3829.448375

141.58773
146.0863886
150.6013715
155.1746551
159.8762006
164.8039534
170.0838431
175.8697841
182.3436748
189.7153983
198.222822
208.1317976
219.7361614
233.3577339
249.3463201
268.0797094
289.9636755
315.4319766
344.9463554
378.9965387

208.21725
208.6649897
210.7500483
215.1968214
222.5449209
233.246661
247.6996683
266.263039
289.266796
317.0180009
349.80498
387.9003915
431.5635355
481.0421469
536.5738183
598.3871539
666.7027187
741.7338324
823.6872399
912.7636845

199.88856
200.2046116
201.6764176
204.8153163
210.00221
217.5563795
227.7585023
240.8620581
257.1000042
276.68909
299.83284
326.7237187
357.5447616
392.4708402
431.6696671
475.3026098
523.5253614
576.4885005
634.3379647
697.2154549

Rezistenta aerului

Ra[N]

100
viteza

Rezistenta aerului

150

200

Pa[kw]

100
viteza

150

200

M
c0
6.803433117
7.483776429
8.16411974
8.844463052
9.524806364
10.20514968
10.88549299
11.5658363
12.24617961
12.92652292
13.60686623
14.28720955
14.96755286
15.64789617
16.32823948
17.00858279
17.6889261
18.36926942
19.04961273
19.72995604
20.41029935
21.09064266
21.77098597
22.45132929
23.1316726
23.81201591
24.49235922
25.17270253
25.85304584
26.53338916
27.21373247
27.89407578
28.57441909

cs
c0
3.334975135 14.97973 0.571488
71.48511154
72.22280418
72.87370945
73.43782735
73.91515788
74.30570104
74.60945684
74.82642526
74.95660632
75
74.95660632
74.82642526
74.60945684
74.30570104
73.91515788
73.43782735
72.87370945
72.22280418
71.48511154
70.66063153
69.74936415
68.7513094
67.66646728
66.49483779
65.23642093
63.8912167
62.45922511
60.94044614
59.33487981
57.6425261
55.86338503
53.99745658
52.04474077

18.20125
18.01534
17.85443
17.71728
17.60286
17.51035
17.43906
17.38849
17.35829
17.34825
17.35829
17.38849
17.43906
17.51035
17.60286
17.71728
17.85443
18.01534
18.20125
18.41363
18.6542
18.925
19.22841
19.56721
19.94466
20.36459
20.83149
21.35066
21.92839
22.5722
23.29108
24.09592
25

11.90476
13.09524
14.28571
15.47619
16.66667
17.85714
19.04762
20.2381
21.42857
22.61905
23.80952
25
26.19048
27.38095
28.57143
29.7619
30.95238
32.14286
33.33333
34.52381
35.71429
36.90476
38.09524
39.28571
40.47619
41.66667
42.85714
44.04762
45.2381
46.42857
47.61905
48.80952
50

Pr+Pa
Pr

100

150

200

Treapta IV
viteza
85.71428571
90
94.28571429
98.57142857
102.8571429
107.1428571
111.4285714
115.7142857
120
124.2857143
128.5714286
132.8571429
137.1428571
141.4285714
145.7142857
150
154.2857143
158.5714286
162.8571429
167.1428571
171.4285714
175.7142857
180
184.2857143
km/h

Treapta V
viteza
33.51417514
35.18988389
36.86559265
38.54130141
40.21701016
41.89271892
43.56842768
45.24413643
46.91984519
48.59555395
50.27126271
51.94697146
53.62268022
55.29838898
56.97409773
58.64980649
60.32551525
62.001224
63.67693276
65.35264152
67.02835027
68.70405903
70.37976779
72.05547654

120.6510305
126.683582
132.7161335
138.7486851
144.7812366
150.8137881
156.8463396
162.8788912
168.9114427
174.9439942
180.9765457
187.0090973
193.0416488
199.0742003
205.1067518
211.1393034
217.1718549
223.2044064
229.2369579
235.2695095
241.302061
247.3346125
253.367164
259.3997156