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n tt nghip

Thut ton x l ting


ni trong Speech
Enhancement v nh
gi tnh hiu qu ca
thut ton

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CNG HA X HI CH NGHA VIT NAM
c lp T do Hnh phc
LI CAM OAN

Knh gi: Hi ng bo v n tt nghip Khoa in t _ Vin thng _


Trng i hc Bch Khoa Nng.
Em tn l:

Nguyn Th Ngc Dip

Hin ang hc lp 04T1- Khoa: in t - Vin thng Trng: i hc


Bch Khoa Nng.
Nhm em xin cam oan ni dung ca n ny khng phi l bn sao chp
ca bt c n hoc cng trnh c t trc.
Sinh vin thc hin

Nguyn Th Ngc Dip

SVTH: Nguyn Th Ngc Dip

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MC LC
LI CAM OAN .................................................................................................. 1
MC LC .............................................................................................................. 2
DANH MC CC T VIT TT V CC THUT NG TING ANH ........ 8
M U .............................................................................................................. 10
CHNG 1: TNG QUAN V NNG CAO CHT LNG TING NI ... 13
1.1

Gii thiu chng ................................................................................ 13

1.2

Nng cao cht lng ting ni l g ? .................................................. 13

1.3

L thuyt v tn hiu v nhiu ............................................................. 15

1.3.1

Tn hiu, h thng v x l tn hiu ................................................... 15

1.3.1.1 Tn hiu .............................................................................................. 15


1.3.1.2 Ngun tn hiu .................................................................................... 15
1.3.1.3 H thng v x l tn hiu .................................................................. 16
1.3.1.4 Phn loi tn hiu................................................................................ 16
1.4

L thuyt v nhiu ............................................................................... 17

1.4.1

Ngun nhiu ....................................................................................... 17

1.4.2

Nhiu v mc tn hiu ting ni trong cc mi trng khc nhau..... 19

1.5

Tn hiu ri rc theo thi gian ............................................................. 20

1.5.1

Tn hiu bc nhy n v ................................................................. 21

1.5.2

Tn hiu xung n v .......................................................................... 21

1.5.3

Tn hiu hm m ................................................................................ 21

1.5.4

Tn hiu hm sin ri rc ..................................................................... 21

1.6
1.6.1

Php bin i Fourier ca tn hiu ri rc DTFT ................................ 22


S hi t ca php bin i Fourier ................................................... 22

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1.6.2

Quan h gia bin i Z v bin i Fourier ..................................... 22

1.6.3

Php bin i Fourier ngc .............................................................. 23

1.6.4

Cc tnh cht ca php bin i Fourier ............................................ 23

1.6.5

Phn tch tn s (ph) cho tn hiu ri rc ......................................... 24

1.6.6

Ph tn hiu v ph pha ...................................................................... 25

1.7

Cc thut ton s dng nng cao cht lng ting ni........................ 26

1.7.1

Tr ph ............................................................................................... 26

1.7.2

M hnh thng k ............................................................................... 26

1.8

Tn hiu ting ni................................................................................. 26

1.9

C ch to ting ni ............................................................................. 28

1.9.1.1 B my pht m ca con ngi.......................................................... 28


1.9.2

M hnh k thut ca vic to ting ni ............................................. 28

1.9.3

Phn loi m ....................................................................................... 29

1.9.4

Thuc tnh m hc ca ting ni ........................................................ 29

1.10

Kt lun chng .................................................................................. 29

CHNG 2 : NH GI CHT LNG TING NI .................................. 30


2.1

Gii thiu chng ................................................................................ 30

2.2

Phng php nh gi ch quan.......................................................... 30

2.2.1

Cc phng php nh gi tuyt i.................................................. 31

2.2.1.1 Phng php nh gi tuyt i ACR ............................................... 31


2.2.2

Cc phng php nh gi tng i ................................................ 31

2.2.2.1 nh gi bng phng php so snh cc mu tn hiu ...................... 31


2.2.2.2 Phng php nh gi theo s suy gim cht lng ......................... 32
2.3

Phng php nh gi khch quan ...................................................... 33

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2.3.1

o t s tn hiu trn nhiu trn tng khung ..................................... 33

2.3.2

o khong cch ph da trn LPC .................................................... 35

2.3.2.1 Phng php o LLR ......................................................................... 35


2.3.2.2 Phng php o IS ............................................................................. 36
2.3.2.3 Phng php o theo khong cch cepstrum ..................................... 36
2.3.3

nh gi m phng theo cm nhn nghe ca con ngi ................... 37

2.3.3.1 Phng php o Weighted Spectral Slope......................................... 37


2.3.3.2 Phng php o Bark Distortion ....................................................... 38
2.3.3.3 Phng php nh gi cm nhn cht lng thoi PESQ ................. 39
2.4

Kt lun chng .................................................................................. 39

CHNG 3: THUT TON SPECTRALSUBTRACTION V WIENER


FILTERING ......................................................................................................... 41
3.1

Gii thiu chng ................................................................................ 41

3.2

S khi chung ca Spectral Subtraction v Wiener Filtering ........ 41

3.3

Thut ton Spectral Subtraction .......................................................... 41

3.3.1

Gii thiu chung ................................................................................. 41

3.3.2

Spectral subtraction i vi ph bin ........................................... 42

3.3.3

Spectral subtraction i vi ph cng sut ........................................ 43

3.4

Thut ton Wiener Filtering ................................................................ 45

3.4.1

Gii thiu chung ................................................................................. 45

3.4.2

Nguyn l c bn ca Wiener Filtering ............................................. 46

3.5

Overlap v Adding trong qu trnh x l tn hiu ting ni ................ 48

3.5.1

Phn tch tn hiu theo tng frame ..................................................... 48

3.5.2

Overlap v Adding ............................................................................. 49

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c lng v cp nht nhiu............................................................... 50

3.6.1

Voice activity detection ..................................................................... 51

3.6.2

Qu trnh c lng v cp nht nhiu .............................................. 51

3.7

Kt lun chng .................................................................................. 52

CHNG 4: THC HIN V NH GI CC THUT TON .................. 53


4.1

Gii thiu chng ................................................................................ 53

4.2

Quy trnh thc hin v nh gi thut ton ......................................... 53

4.3

Lu thut ton Spectral Subtraction ............................................... 55

4.4

Lu thut ton Wiener Filtering ..................................................... 56

4.5

Thc hin thut ton ............................................................................ 57

4.6

nh gi cht lng ting ni c x l ...................................... 59

4.6.1

C s d liu cho vic nh gi ......................................................... 59

4.6.2

Tng quan v quy trnh nh gi ....................................................... 59

4.6.3

Kim tra tin cy ca cc phng php nh gi ........................... 60

4.6.4

Thc hin nh gi ............................................................................. 62

4.6.4.1 nh gi thut ton vi cc h s d on ban u ........................... 62


4.6.4.2 Ti u h s alpha cho thut ton WF ............................................... 65
4.6.4.3 H s gamma cho thut ton SS......................................................... 67
4.6.4.4 nh gi thut ton sau khi ti u................................................. 68
4.6.4.5 nh gi n nh ca thut ton trong mi trng nhiu khc..... 69
4.6.5

Kt lun chng ................................................................................. 71

TI LIU THAM KHO ............................................................................... 72


KT LUN N V HNG PHT TRIN TI ............................... 75
PH LC ............................................................................................................. 76
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DANH MC CC HNH V V BNG


Hnh 1.1 Tn hiu ting ni [2]. ........................................................................... 15
Hnh 1.2 Dng v s phn b ph nng lng trung bnh nhiu trn xe [4]....... 18
Hnh 1.3 Dng v s phn b ph nng lng trung bnh ca nhiu trn tu [4].
.............................................................................................................................. 18
Hnh 1.4 Dng v s phn b ph nng lng trung bnh ca nhiu trong nh
hng[4]. ................................................................................................................ 19
Hnh 1.5 Mc nhiu v ting ni (c o bng SPL dB) trong cc mi trng
khc nhau [4]. ....................................................................................................... 20
Hnh 1.6 Mu ting ni eee c ly mu vi tn s ly mu 8kHz [11]. ...... 25
Hnh 1.7 Dng sng tn hiu ting ni ca cu The wife helped her husband v
dng sng ca ph m f trong t wife, dng sng ca on nguyn m er
trong t her [11]. ............................................................................................... 27
Hnh 1.8 mt ct dc ca c quan to ting ni [11]........................................... 28
Hnh 1.9 m hnh k thut to ting ni[11]. ...................................................... 28
Hnh 1.10 bng phn loi m v trong ting Anh ca ngi M [11] ................. 29
Bng 2.1.Thang im nh gi cht lng ting ni theo MOS [12] .................. 31
Bng 2.4. Thang im nh gi cht lng tn hiu ting ni theo CCR ............ 32
Bng 2.5. Thang nh gi DCR ........................................................................... 32
Hnh 3.1 S khi cho hai thut ton SS v WF .............................................. 41
Hnh 3.2 S khi ca thut ton Spectral subtraction [26]. ........................... 45
Hnh 3.3 S khi ca thut ton Wiener Filtering. ........................................ 48
Hnh 3.4 Phn tch tn hiu thnh cc frame [31]................................................ 49
Hnh 3.5 qu trnh thc hin overlap v adding [32]. ......................................... 50
Hnh 4.1. S thc hin v nh gi thut ton tng cng ............................ 53
Hnh 4.2 Lu thut ton SS ............................................................................ 55
Hnh 4.3 Lu thut ton WF........................................................................... 56
Hnh 4.4 dng sng v spectrogram ca tn hiu sch ........................................ 57
Hnh 4.5 Dng sng v ph ca tn hiu b nhiu xe hi vi SNR = 10dB ........ 57
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Hnh 4.6 Dng sng v spectrogram ca tn hiu sau khi x l nhiu xe hi bng
SS vi SNR = 10dB. ............................................................................................ 58
Hnh 4.7 Dng sng v spectrogram ca tn hiu sau khi x l nhiu xe hi bng
WF vi SNR = 10dB. ........................................................................................... 58
Hnh 4.8 Quy trnh thc hin nh gi ................................................................ 60
Hnh 4.9. th kim tra n nh ca nh gi OE i vi nhiu xe hi...... 61
Hnh 4.10. th kim tra n nh ca nh gi OE i vi nhiu ngi ni
xung quanh ........................................................................................................... 61
Hnh 4.11 th nh gi Objective vi h s IS=0.2, NoiseMargin=3 ............ 63
Hnh 4.12 th nh gi Objective vi h s IS=0.15, NoiseMargin=2. ......... 64
Hnh 4.14 th nh gi objective vi h s alpha=0.5, 0.8,0.9 vi IS=0.15 v
NoiseMargin = 2 .................................................................................................. 66
Hnh 4.15 th nh gi objective vi h s gamma = 1 v gamma = 2. ........ 67
Hnh 4.16 th nh gi vi IS=0.15 NoiMargin= 2 v alpha = 0.8 cho thut
ton WF, gama=1 cho thut ton SS. ................................................................... 69
Hnh 4.17 th nh gi OE vi nhiu ngi ni xung quanh. ....................... 70

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DANH MC CC T VIT TT V CC THUT NG TING


ANH
T vit

Ting Anh

Ngha ting Vit

SNR

Signal Noise Ratio

T s tn hiu trn nhiu

PC

Personal Computer

My tnh c nhn

SPL

Sound Pressure Level

Mc p sut ca m thanh

MMSE

Minium Mean-Squared Error

SVD

Singular Value Decomposition

Php phn tch gi tr n

DFT

Discrete Fourier Transform

Php bin i Fourier ri rc

FFT

Fast Fourier Transform

Php bin i Fourier nhanh

DTFT

Discrete-Time Fourier Transform

ZT

Z Transform

Php bin i Z

ROC

Region of Convergence

Min hi t

Inverse Discrete Fourier

Php bin i ngc Fourier

Transform

ri rc

tt

IDTFT
LTI
ITU-T

Linear Time-Invariant

Ti thiu ho sai lch trung


bnh bnh phng

Php bin i Fourier ca tn


hiu ri rc.

H thng tuyn tnh v bt


bin theo thi gian

InternationalTelecommunications Hip hi tiu chun vin


Union-Telecommunication

thng quc t

ACR

Absolute Categories Rating

nh gi theo gi tr tuyt i

MOS

Mean Opinion Scores

CCR

Comparison Category Rating

nh gi bng cch so snh

DCR

Degradation Category Rating

nh gi suy gim cht lng

SVTH: Nguyn Th Ngc Dip

nh gi theo quan im
ngi nghe

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SE

Subjective Evaluation

nh gi ch quan

OE

Objective Evaluation

nh gi khch quan

IS

Itakura_Saito

LLR

Log likehook Raito

WSS

Weighted Spectral Slope

o theo trng s ca ph

LPC

Linear Prediction Coefficients

H s d on tuyn tnh

VAD

Voice Activity Detection


Speech Enhancement

Thm d s hot ng ca
ting ni
Nng cao cht lng ting ni
Thut ton gim nhiu tn

SS

Spectral Subtraction

hiu ting ni bng phng


php tr ph.
Thut ton gim nhiu tn

WF

Wiener Filter

hiu ting ni bng cch s


dng b lc Wiener.
Thut ton gim nhiu tn

Statistical-model-based

hiu ting ni da trn


nguyn l thng k

Frame

Khung tn hiu.

Hamming

Ca s Hamming

Overlap v Adding

Xp chng v cng

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M U

Trong cuc sng, ting ni ng mt vai tr rt quan trng i vi con


ngi. Cng vi ting ni l s xut hin ca rt nhiu cc loi dch v thoi nh
ngy nay. Tuy nhin vic bo ton c tn hiu ting ni trn cc dch v ny l
iu v cng kh khn do s mt mt v suy gim tn hiu v nht l nh hng
ca nhiu s lm cho tn hiu ting ni khng cn nh ban u. V l do m
cc thut ton v Speech Enhancement ra i. Tuy khng th bo ton c y
nguyn tn hiu ban u nhng s dng cc thut ton ny ta c th tng cng
c cht lng ting ni v gim bt nhiu nn tn hiu sau khi x l n
ngi nghe vn mang y ni dung thng tin v khng gy kh chu bi nhiu
i vi ngi nghe. V vy, Speech Enhancement ng mt vai tr rt quan trng
trong lnh vc thoi.
Xut pht t thc t ny nhm bt tay vo tm hiu v Speech
Enhancement, nghin cu cc thut ton ca n thc hin v nh gi hiu
qu ca cc thut ton trong mi trng thc t.
thc hin c n, nhm phn chia thnh 3 phn tng ng vi 3
thnh vin :
-

Nguyn Ngc Trung : nghin cu v thc hin thut ton x l ting ni


s dng phng php Spectral Subtraction.

Nguyn Phc Nguyn : nghin cu v thc hin thut x l ting ni s


dng b lc Wiener.

Nguyn Th Ngc Dip : nghin cu v thc hin cc phng php nh


gi t cc kt qu t c ca 2 thut ton trn trong mi trng thc t.
thc hin c ni dung phn ca em th n ca em c kt cu

thnh 2 phn, gm 5 chng :


Phn 1 : L thuyt
Chng 1 : Tng quan v nng cao cht lng ting ni. Chng ny gii
thiu mt s khi nim c bn v tn hiu s, cc php bin i, tm hiu v cc

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loi nhiu , tn hiu ting ni v s hnh thnh ting ni. Bn cnh cn gii
thiu khi qut v mt s thut ton trong Speech Enhancement .
Chng 2 : nh gi cht lng ting ni. Chng ny gii thiu mt s
phng php nh gi hiu qu ca thut ton gim nhiu trong ting ni. Gm
c nh gi ch quan v nh gi khch quan.
Chng 3 : Thut ton Spectral Subtraction v Wiener Filtering. Chng
ny i su vo nghin cu nguyn l c bn ca tng thut ton.
Phn 2 : Thc hin v nh gi
Chng 4 : Thc hin v nh gi thut ton. Chng ny trnh by cc kt
qu nhm lm c gm c thc hin gim nhiu tn hiu ting ni bng hai
thut ton nghin cu chng 3. ng thi so snh kt qu thu c bng
cch dng cc phng php nh gi c gii thiu chng 2
Phng php nghin cu ca n l xy dng lu ca thut ton, thc
hin x l ting ni bng cc thut ton . Da trn cc kt qu t c sau khi
x l, sau s dng cc phng php nh gi khch quan nh gi tnh
hiu qu ca cc thut ton x l trong mi trng thc t.
n ca nhm thc hin c 2 thut ton x l ting ni trong
Speech Enhancement v a ra c cc kt qu nh gi khch quan lm c s
nh gi tnh hiu qu ca 2 thut ton trn. chnh l im mi trong n
ca nhm so vi cc n c trc trong cng ch nghin cu.

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Chng 1 : Tng quan v nng cao cht lng ting ni


CHNG 1: TNG QUAN V NNG CAO CHT LNG TING NI
1.1 Gii thiu chng
Ni dung ca chng trnh by mc ch ca nng cao cht lng ting ni
l g, cc loi nhiu trong ting ni, cch hnh thnh ca ting ni v cc c
im cu tn hiu ting ni. Chng ny cn gii thiu khi qut v cc thut
ton s dng trong speech enhancement.
1.2 Nng cao cht lng ting ni l g ?
Nng cao cht lng ting ni lin quan n vic ci thin cm nhn i vi
ting ni b suy gim cht lng do s c mt ca nhiu trong ting ni. Trong
hu ht cc ng dng, th mc ch ca nng cao cht lng ting ni l s ci
thin cht lng v tnh d nghe ca ting ni b suy gim do nhiu. S ci
thin v cht lng m tt th n lm gim i s kh khn cho ngi nghe khi
nghe v trong nhiu trng hp n cn gip cho ngi nghe c th nghe trong
mi trng c nhiu vi mc cao v nhiu tn ti trong thi gian di. Cc
thut ton ng cao cht lng ting ni lm gim v nn nhiu nn n mt mc
no v n c xem nh l cc thut ton nn nhiu.
Trong nhiu trng hp, s cn thit ca vic tng cng trong tn hiu
ting ni xut hin khi tn hiu ting ni hnh thnh trong vng c nhiu hoc nh
hng bi nhiu trong cc knh truyn thng. C rt nhiu kch bn yu cu t
ra i vi Speech enhancement trong nhiu trng hp khc nhau, v d i vi
thng tin thoi, trn cc h thng in thoi t bo th chu s nh hng nhiu
nn t t, nh hng,.. khi truyn n ch. Chnh v vy m cc thut ton trong
nng cao cht lng ting ni c th c s dng ci thin cht lng ca
ting ni ti im thu, mt khc, n c th c s dng trong cc khi tin x l
ca h thng m ho ting ni dng trong cc in thoi t bo chun [1]. Khi
nhn dng ting ni, ting ni b nhiu c tin x l bi cc thut ton nng
cao cht lng trc khi c nhn dng. Trong thng tin lin lc hng khng,
cc k thut nng cao ting ni cn c s dng ci thin cht lng v tnh

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Chng 1 : Tng quan v nng cao cht lng ting ni


d nghe ca ting ni ca phi cng b nh hng bi nhiu trong bung li. V
vy m nng cao cht lng ting ni cng rt cn thit trong thng tin lin lc
ca qun s. Trong h thng hi ngh qua thoi, th ngun nhiu xut hin mt
vng no th n s c truyn n tt c cc vng khc. Cc thut ton nng
cao cht lng ting ni c s dng nh tin x l hoc lm sch nhiu trong
ting trc khi c khuch i.
Nh cc v d minh ha trn th mc tiu ca cc thut ton tng cng
tu thuc vo cc ng dng m chng ta ang dng. Xt trn phng din l
tng, th chng ta mong mun Speech enhancement ci thin c c cht
lng v tnh d nghe hay s trong sut ca ting ni. Tuy nhin, xt trn phng
din thc t th cc thut ton Speech enhancement ch c th ci thin c cht
lng ca ting ni. N c th lm gim c nhiu nn trong ting ni nhng
n s lm gia tng thm mo ca tn hiu ting ni, chnh iu ny lm gim
i tnh d nghe ca ting ni. Do , yu cu chnh trong vic thit k mt thut
ton Speech enhancement phi m bo nn c nhiu v khng c gy ra
mo trong s cm nhn tn hiu ting ni.
Gii php tng qut trong cc vn ca Speech enhancement ph thuc
rt ln vo ng dng chng ta cn s dng, l cc vn nh l ngun nhiu
v giao thoa gy ra nhiu, mi lin h gia nhiu v tn hiu sch, s microphone
v cm bin c th c. S giao thoa c th xem nh l nhiu hoc c xem nh
tn hiu ting ni, n tu thuc vo mi trng ta ang xt, n c th c xem
nh l s tranh chp gia cc speaker. c tnh m nhiu c th c cng thm
vo tn hiu sch nu m thanh c hnh thnh trong cn phng b di m thanh.
Hn na, nhiu c th c tnh tng quan hoc khng tng quan v mt thng
k vi tn hiu sch. S lng microphone cng c kh nng nh hng n tnh
hiu qu ca cc thut ton Speech enhancement.

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Chng 1 : Tng quan v nng cao cht lng ting ni


1.3 L thuyt v tn hiu v nhiu
1.3.1 Tn hiu, h thng v x l tn hiu

1.3.1.1 Tn hiu
Tn hiu(signal) dng ch mt i lng vt l mang tin tc. V mt ton
hc, ta c th m t tn hiu nh mt hm theo bin thi gian, khng gian hay cc
bin c lp khc. Chng hn nh, hm: x(t) = 20t2 m t tn hiu bin thin theo
bin thi gian t. Hay mt v d khc, hm: s(x,y) = 3x + 5xy + y2 m t tn hiu
l hm theo hai bin c lp x v y, trong x v y biu din cho hai ta trong
mt phng [2].
Hai tn hiu trong v d trn v lp tn hiu c biu din chnh xc bng
hm theo bin c lp. Tuy nhin, trong thc t, cc mi quan h gia cc i
lng vt l v cc bin c lp thng rt phc tp nn khng th biu din tn
hiu nh trong hai v d va nu trn.

Hnh 1.1 Tn hiu ting ni [2].


Ly v d tn hiu ting ni l s bin thin ca p sut khng kh theo
thi gian. Chng hn khi ta pht m t away, dng sng ca n c biu din
nh hnh trn.

1.3.1.2 Ngun tn hiu


Tt c cc tn hiu u do mt ngun no to ra, theo mt cch thc no
. V d tn hiu ting ni c to ra bngg cch p khng kh i qua dy thanh

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Chng 1 : Tng quan v nng cao cht lng ting ni


m. Mt bc nh c c bng cch phi sng mt tm phim chp mt cnh/i
tng no . Qu trnh to tn hiu nh vy thng lin quan n mt h thng,
h thng ny p ng li mt kch thch no . Trong tn hiu ting ni, h
thng l h thng pht m, gm mi, rng, li, dy thanhKch thch lin quan
n h thng c gi l ngun tn hiu. Nh vy ta c ngun ting ni, ngun
nh v cc ngun tn hiu khc.

1.3.1.3 H thng v x l tn hiu


H thng l mt thit b vt l thc hin mt tc ng no ln tn hiu.
V d, b lc dng gim nhiu trong tn hiu mang tin c gi l mt h
thng. Khi ta truyn tn hiu qua mt h thng, nh b lc chng hn, ta ni rng
x l tn hiu . Trong trng ny, x l tn hiu lin quan n lc nhiu ra
khi tn hiu mong mun.
X l tn hiu l mun ni n mt lot cc cng vic hay cc php ton
c thc hin trn cc tn hiu nhm t mc ch no , nh l tch tin tc
cha bn trong tn hiu hoc l truyn tn hiu mang tin t ni ny n ni khc.
y ta cn lu n nh ngha h thng, n khng ch n thun l thit
b vt l m cn l phn mm x l tn hiu hoc l s kt hp gia phn cng v
phn mm. V d khi x l s tn hiu bng mch logic, h thng x l y l
phn cng. Khi x l bng my tnh s, tc ng ln tn hiu bao gm mt lot
cc php ton thc hin bi chng trnh phn mm. Khi x l bng cc b vi x
l-h thng bao gm kt hp c phn cng v phn mm, mi phn thc hin cc
cng vic ring no .

1.3.1.4 Phn loi tn hiu


Cc phng php ta s dng trong x l tn hiu ph thuc cht ch vo
c im ca tn hiu. C nhng phng php ring p dng cho mt loi tn
hiu no . Do vy, trc tin ta cn xem qua cch phn loi tn hiu lin quan
n nhng ng dng c th. Chng ta c th phn tn hiu thnh cc loi :
-

Tn hiu nhiu hng v tn hiu a knh

Tn hiu lin tc v tn hiu ri rc

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Chng 1 : Tng quan v nng cao cht lng ting ni


-

Tn hiu bin lin tc v tn hiu bin ri rc

Tn hiu xc nh v tn hiu ngu nhin

1.4 L thuyt v nhiu


1.4.1 Ngun nhiu
Nhiu mt hin thc, n tn ti mi ni, trn ng ph, trn xe, trong
vn phng, trong nh hng, trong cc to nh. N c th l ting xe chy trn
ng, ting n trn cc cng trng xy dng, ting n pht ra t cc qut chy
trong PC, chung in thoi, n tn ti vi cc hnh dng v hnh thc khc
nhau trong cuc sng hng ngy ca chng ta.
Nhiu c th hnh thnh mt ni c nh, v khng thay i theo thi
gian, v d nh l ting n pht ra t qut chy trong PC. Nhiu cng c th
khng ng yn mt ch, v d nh nhiu trong nh hng, l ting ni ca
nhiu ngi xen ln vi nhiu cch khc nhau vi ting n pht ra t nh bp.
Cc c tnh v ph cng nh thi gian ca nhiu trong nh hng thay i khng
theo quy lut nn vic nn nhiu trong cc mi trng c nhiu thay i nh vy
s kh khn hn nhiu so vi cc ngun nhiu ng yn khng thay i.
Cc c tnh c bit khc nhau ca cc loi nhiu l hnh dng ca ph
v s phn b ca nng lng nhiu trong min tn s. V d, nhiu gy ra bi
gi th nng lng ca n tp trung tn s thp di 500Hz. Nhng i vi
nhiu trong nh hng, trn xe, trn tu th khc, nng lng ca n c phn b
trn mt di tn s rng [3].

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Chng 1 : Tng quan v nng cao cht lng ting ni

Hnh 1.2 Dng v s phn b ph nng lng trung bnh nhiu trn xe [4].

Hnh 1.3 Dng v s phn b ph nng lng trung bnh ca nhiu trn
tu [4].

SVTH: Nguyn Th Ngc Dip

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Chng 1 : Tng quan v nng cao cht lng ting ni

Hnh 1.4 Dng v s phn b ph nng lng trung bnh ca nhiu trong
nh hng[4].
1.4.2 Nhiu v mc tn hiu ting ni trong cc mi trng khc nhau
im ti hn trong vic thit k cc thut ton ca Speech enhancement l
s nhn bit di bin thin ca ting ni v mc cng nhiu trong mi
trng thc t. T , chng ta c th m t min bin thin ca mc t s tn
hiu trn nhiu(SNR) c bt gp trong mi trng thc t. iu ny rt quan
trng nh gi tnh hiu qu ca cc thut ton Speech enhancement trong
vic nn nhiu v ci thin cht lng ca ting ni trong di bin thin ca mc
SNR.
Mc ca ting ni v nhiu c o lng bng mc m thanh. Php
o lng y l o mc p sut ca m thanh tnh bng dB SPL(sound
pressure level)[4]. Khong cch gia ngi ni v ngi nghe cng nh hng
n mc cng m thanh, n tng ng vi php o c thc hin khi
microphone c t ti nhng v tr c khong cch khc nhau. Khong cch
c trng trong giao tip face-to-face l 1m, khi khong cch tng gp i th
mc cng m gim i 6 dB[6].
SVTH: Nguyn Th Ngc Dip

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