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Note- For the sake of brevity, few answer are merged together as contrary and
contradictory though they are different in one line, yet are fused together.

## 1) What is traditional definition of Logic?

Traditionally logic was defined as the science which investigates general
principle of valid thought.
2) What is definition given by Cohen Nagel? Or what definition was given in time
A- Cohen and Nagel gave the definition as the science of implication or of valid
inference (based on such implication)
3) What is modern definition of logic, or what is popular definition of logic, or what
is final definition accepted today.
A- Logic is study of the form of valid arguments
4) Define Deduction
A- When the premises of an argument claim to provide sufficient evidence for the
conclusion, the argument is said to be deductive.
5) Define induction.
A- It is an inference which claims to provide some evidence for the conclusion.
6) What is truth and validity?
A- Truth- It represents fact. (False- It is absence of fact)
Valid- It is relation between premises and conclusion, if it implies each other than it
is or else invalid.
7) What is Variable and Constant?
A- Variable- They are symbols which do not have fixed meaning.
Constant- It means that its meaning remain same i.e. it has fixed meaning.
8) What is proposition?
A- Proposition- It is statement which is either true or false
9) What are characteristics of proposition?
A- 1) Every propositions has to be true or false. It cannot be true and false at a given
time.
2) Truth and Falsity of proposition must be definite.
10) What are elements of proposition, or what is Component and constituent.
A- Constituent- the elements into which proposition can be analyzed i.e. subject and
predicate.
Component- The combining element (of constituent)

## 11) What are parts of Traditional propositions.

A- (Quantity) Subject-Copula- predicate
[Subject- it is that about which proposition asserts
Predicate- it is that, what is asserted for subject, say, quality or attribute
Copula- word joining subject and predicate]
12) What is function of copula?
A- Function of copula is express affirmation or denial (Function of copula is same as
component)
13) What is term?
A- Term is a word or group of words, which stand as subject and predicate of a
logical proposition.
14) What are types of words? / what are definition of words?
A- There are three type wordsa) Categoramatic- this word stand as term without any support of other words. LikeHimalaya, Ram, Goa etc.
b) Sync categormatic- these words are dependent on Categoramatic words and
cannot become term itself. For ex- a, an, the, is etc.
c) acategormatic- this word are expressing feelings, emotion or exclamation. They
never become term. For ex- Oh!, oops! Etc.
15) What is General Term and Singular term?
A- General term- A general term is that which can be applied, in the same sense, to
each of an indefinite number of objects, having certain common qualities.
Singular Term- A singular term is that which can be applied to one definite object.
16) What is positive and negative definition?
A- Positive- It implies presence of attributes
Negative- It implies absence of attributes
17) What are contrary and contradictory terms?
A- Contradictory- terms that are mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive are
contradictory. For ex- White and non-white
Contrary- They are mutually exclusive. In other words, they express greatest degree
of difference in same universe of discourse. For ex- White and black.
(Mutually exclusive means Incompatible terms & collectively exhaustive means they
exhaust all possibilities)
18) What is denotation and connotation?
A- Denotation- it consists of all individual objects to which it can be applied.
Connotation- it consists of the common attribute possessed by all the objects to which
term is applied. (Connotation are also called intension)
19) What are types of connotation or intension?
A- Subjective intension- It consists of those attributes that on use of terms calls up in
the mind of a person.
Objective intension- It consists of all the attributes possessed in common by the
member of the class.
Conventional intension- It consists of those qualities that are essential to the class.

## 20) What is simple proposition?

Simple proposition (according to traditional classification is) one affirms or denies
the predicate of a subject. [it is also called Categorical by Kant]
Simple proposition (according to modern classification means) that proposition which
does not contain any other proposition or any propositional connectives.
21) What is compound proposition?
A- Compound proposition (as per traditional classification means) assertion under
certain condition. (Therefore they call it conditional also, and define in other words
as, one in which the assertion is made subject to some expressed condition)
Compound proposition (according to modern classification of proposition is)
proposition which contain any other proposition as component or has propositional
connectives.
22) What are types of compound propositions?
A- Traditional propositionThere are 2 types of compound proposition (or to what they say conditional)
1) Hypothetical Proposition- It is one which presents a condition together with some
consequences which follows from it. (it is about if. . . then . . .)
2) Disjunctive Proposition- it is one which states alternatives.
There are 5 types of compound proposition in modern classification1) Negative- When any proposition is negated or denied, it is negative proposition
(Symbolized by , called curl)
2) Conjunctive proposition- It is compound formed by combining any 2 proposition
with the (truth functional) connective and (many time also but, though)
(Symbolized by . Called dot)
3) Disjunctive proposition- It is compound formed by combining any 2 proposition
with the (truth functional) connective or (many time longer expression eitheror)
(Symbolized by v Called wedge)
4) Implication or Conditional proposition- It is compound formed by combining any 2
proposition with the (truth function) connective if . . . then. . . (Many time also but,
though)
(Symbolized by Called implication)
5) Equivalent (or bi-conditional) - It is compound formed by combining any 2
proposition with the (truth function) connective if and only if . . . then. . . (Many time
also but, though)
(Symbolized by Called implication)
23) What are types of simple proposition?
A- Simple proposition (according to traditional classification)
1) A- Universal + Affirmative- All Subject is predicate
2) E- Universal + Negative- No Subject is predicate
3) I- Particular + Negative- Some Subject is predicate
4) O- Particular + Negative- Some subject are not predicate.

## Simple proposition (according to modern classification)

1)

Subjectless- They do not express intension of the speaker clearly (therefore they
are also called primitive). They express emotion, feelings or exclamations.

2)

## Subject- Predicate- It states that individual possess a quality (or attribute)

[They are symbolized as S-P]

3)

## Relational Proposition- It asserts relation between two or more constituent.

[they are symbolized as xRy or R (x,y)]
[Beside it the term from which the relation proceeds is Referent; The term to
which relation proceeds is Relatum; from one constituent to other constituent
proceeds is called Sense or Direction of relation]

4)

## Class membership proposition- It asserts individual as member of class.

[it is symbolized by epsilon, as a C]

## 24) What is singular proposition?

A- Singular proposition is one in which the predicate is affirmed or denied of a single
definite individual.
25) What is general proposition?
A- In modern classification, proposition that makes assertion about class or classes
are called general proposition.
26) What is Propositional function?
A-Propositional function is an expression which contains a variable and becomes
proposition when the variable is replaced by a suitable constant.
27) What is Quantification and types of Quantification?
A- Quantification (or generalization) consists in asserting a propositional function of
all or some of the variables. (it can be represented by x, y or z)
Universal Quantification-It asserts for all x in propositional function [it can be
symbolized as (x), (y) or (z)]
Existential generalization- It asserts for some x in propositional function [it can be
symbolized as (x), (y) or (z)]
28) What is immediate and mediate inference?
A- An immediate inference proceeds from one given proposition (the premises) to
another given proposition (the conclusion), without requiring anything further for
drawing conclusion. (Opposition of proposition and eduction are immediate
inference)
A mediate inference is one in which the conclusion is drawn from two or more
proposition, taken together.(Syllogism and reduction are mediate inference)
29) Four opposition of proposition.
A- Contradictory- In it proposition differ in both quantity and quality (keeping
subject and predicate same) (A & O; E & I)
Contrary- In it proposition differ only in quality and keep quantity of universal same
(keeping subject and predicate same)(A & E)
Sub-contrary- In it proposition differ in quality, and keep quantity of particular same,
(keeping subject and predicate same)(I & O)

## Sub-altern- In it proposition differ in quantity, but quality is same, (keeping subject

and predicate same) (A & I; E & O)
30) What is eduction ?
A- Eduction are those forms of immediate inference in which, from a given
proposition, we deduce another proposition, differing from it in subject, in predicate,
or in both. The truth of the conclusion is implied by the truth of the premises.
31) What is conversion?
A- It is process of immediate inference i.e. eduction in which, from a given
proposition, we infer another proposition, having the predicate of the original
proposition as its subject and having subject of the original proposition as its
predicate.
32) What are rule of Conversion?
A- Rule of Quality- Converse must have same quality as the original proposition
Rule of Distribution- it states, no term can be distributed in converse, unless it is
distributed in the original proposition. (i.e. undistributed in original must not get
distributed.)
33) What is converse per accident?
A- When converse of any proposition, is not itself, it is Converse per accident. For
example Converse of I is I, therefore it is simple converse; but converse of A is I, so it
is converse per accident.
34) Converse of O is not possible comment.
A- As per rule of eduction while doing converse quality must not change, so converse
of O, can be O or E, but in both case rule of distribution is violated. Thus, onverse of
O is not possible.
35) What is obversion?
A- It is a way of obtaining a negative equivalent for affirmative proposition, or an
affirmative equivalent for a negative proposition.
36) What is Obvertend and obverse?
A- The given original proposition is called obvertend (in converse it is called
convertend)
The inferred proposition in Obversion is called obverse (in conversion it is called
Converse)
37) What are rules of obversion?
A- Rule of Quality- In obversion quality changes, but quantity remains same. So A
becomes E and vice versa.
38) What are other immediate inferences? And why are they said other immediate
inferences?
A- There are four other immediate inferences1) Material obversion- In it subject and the predicate of the inferred proposition are
contraries of the original subject and predicate (definition by Bain
2) Inference by added determinants- It consists in limiting the original subject and
the original predicate by qualifying them with the same determinant.
3) Inference by complex conception- It is like Added determinant i.e. qualifying

subject and predicate with the same determinant, but here determinant is not any
adjective whatsoever rather it is part of complex concept.
4) Inference by converse Relation- in it direction of relation changes and the word by
which it is related is replaced by its correlatives.
They are said other immediate inferences because their validity depends on
knowledge of content; instead of form.
39) What are three laws of thought?
A- The Law of Identity It states if any proposition is true, it is true (and when
applied to things states that, everything is what it is i.e. a is a)
The Law of Contradiction- It states that two contradictory propositions cannot be
true. (When applied to things, it states that nothing is both A and not A)
The Law of Excluded Middle- It states, both propositions cannot be false. (When
applied to things it state that, everything is A or not-A.
40) What is definition?
A- Definition is explanation of the meaning of a word, phrase or symbol (i.e. nonverbal).
41) What is real and nominal definition?
A- Real definition claims to state nature of the thing.
A nominal (or verbal) definition explains the meaning of a word, phrase or symbols.
42) What is connotative and denotative definition?
A- A denotative definition indicates the things to which the defiendum applies. For
ex.- Ostensive and Extensive.
Connotative definitions states properties. For ex.- Biverbal and per genus et
differentia.
43) Define all the types of definition?
A- Ostensive- It consist of pointing to the object (or objects) to which the
definiendum applies.
Extensive- It consists in giving example (also called type definition)
Bi-verbal- It explains one word for another; or one phrase for another.
Per genus et differentia- the definiendum is analyzed by stating its genus and
differentia.
Stipulative- it consists of deliberately assign the meaning to a words or word. (it is
specially used by poet, authors, scientists to find or discover new word.)
Lexical- it reports meaning of word or phrase as actually used by people i.e.
dictionary meanings.
Precising-It serves to reduce vagueness, by perfectly explaining term.
44) What is logical division? And which type of definition is division?
A- It is the process of splitting up (or separating) genus into its constituent species.

## Per genus et differentias reverse process is division.

45) On which principle is division possible?
A- Fundamentum divisionis (or principle of division) is either an attribute or it is an
attribute which is possessed by some members of the class, but not by the others.
46) what is division by dichotomy?
A- It is a class divided into two sub-classes, which are the corresponding positive and
negative terms.
47) What is Analogy?
A- Analogy is argument from partial resemblance to further resemblance.
48)What is simple enumeration?
A- In simple enumeration generalization is supported by positive instances and no
contrary instances are been observed.
49) What is disablement?
A-In Labour law, under workman compensation act 1923, It states about disablement
as followsIt is the loss of earning of capacities, which depends on nature and percentage of
loss.
There are broadly stating 2 types of disablement1) Total- it is incapacity of workman to do any work, which he use to do before.
2) Partial- it is divided into twoa) Temporary partial- It is reduction of earning capacity of the workman in the
particular area of employment.
b) Permanent partial- It is workmans loss of earning capacity in every field of
employment which he was capable to undertake at the time of accident.
50) What is Public/ Common/ general Nuisance?
A- In law of Torts, it is stated an act or omission which cause any common injury,
danger or annoyance to the public, or to the people in general who dwell or occupy
property in the vicinity, or which must necessarily case injury, obstruction, danger or
annoyance to persons who may have occasion to sue public right.
51) What is private nuisance?
A- In law of Torts it is stated that, it is some unauthorized use of a mans property,
causing damage to the property of another.
52) What is a) Terminally ill, b) Medical intervention, or c) Physician?
A- a) Terminally ill- in which an incurable, irreversible and uncontrollable diseses or
condition will, in the reasonable opinion of the attending physician, be likely to result
in death within 1 year.
b) Medical intervention- Any medicine, procedure or device which a physician
c) Physician is an authorized practioner of medicine and licensed by the appropriate
based.

## 53) Hardly politicians keep promises (reduce to logical form.)

A- Some politicians are not those who keep promises (O)
54) Only Soldiers are brave.
A- All Brave people are soldiers. (A)
No non-soldier is brave (E)
55) Few cats are like tom. Therefore, All toms are not cats. (test validity).
A- It is Converse of O. And converse of O is not possible. Therefore it is invalid
inference.
56) All Brahmins are hindus what is distributed.
A- In A- subject is distributed. Therefore in proposition Brahmin is distributed.
(One can easily find distributed by AsEbInOp i.e. in
A- subject is distributed
E- both subject and predicate are distributed,
I- nothing is distributed
O- Predicate is distributed)