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# PRACTICE PROBLEMS -

ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS

1.

A piston-cylinder device operates 1 kg of air at 20 bar pressure. The initial volume is 0.04 m 3. The
fluid is allowed to expand reversibly following a process pV 1.45 = constant so that the volume
becomes double. The fluid is then cooled at constant pressure until the piston comes back to the
original position. Keeping the piston unaltered, heat is added reversibly to restore it to the initial
pressure. Calculate the work done by the cycle and its efficiency.

2.

A piston and cylinder machine containing a fluid system has a stirring device in the cylinder. The
piston is frictionless, and it is held down against the fluid due to the atmospheric pressure of
101.325 kPa. The stirring device is turned 10,000 revolutions with an average torque against the
fluid of 1.275 mN. Meanwhile the piston of 0.6 m diameter moves out 0.8m. Find the net work
transfer for the system.

3.

A mass of gas is compressed in a quasi-static process from 80 kPa, 0.1 m3 to 0.4 MPa, 0.03 m3.
Assuming that the pressure and volume are related by pvn = constant, find the work done by the
gas system.

4.

If air of volume 6000 cm3 and at pressure of 100 kPa is compressed quasistatically according to
pV2 = constant until the volume becomes 2000 cm3, determine the final pressure and the work
transfer.

5.

An electric generator coupled to a windmill produces an average electrical power output of 5kW.
The power is used to charge a storage battery. Heat transfer from the battery to the surroundings
occurs at a constant rate of 0.6 kW. Determine the total amount of energy stored in the battery,
in kJ, in 8h of operation.

6.

680 kg of fish at 5oC are to be frozen and stored at -12oC. The specific heat of fish above freezing
point is 3.182, and below freezing point is 1.717 kJ/kg K. The freezing point is -2oC, and the latent
heat of fusion is 234.5 kJ/kg. How much heat must be removed to cool the fish, and what per cent
of this is latent heat?

7.

A gas in a piston-cylinder assembly undergoes an expansion process for which the relationship
between pressure and volume is given by pVn = constant. The initial pressure is 0.3 MPa, the
initial volume is 0.1 M3 and the final volume is 0.2 M3. Determine the work for the process in kJ if
(a) n=1.5, (b) n=1.0 and (c) =n=0.

8.

A stationary closed system containing air goes through a cycle comprising the following
processes:
(i) Process 1-2 isochoric heat addition of 235 kJ/kg;
(ii) Process 2-3 adiabatic expansion to its original pressure with loss of 70 kJ/kg
in internal energy;
(iiI) Process 3-1 isobaric compression to its original volume with heat rejection of
200 kJ/kg
Show that this cycle obeys first law and find its thermal efficiency. (Page 82, Problem 4.6)

9.

## A stationary system consisting of 2 kg of the fluid expands in an adiabatic process according to

pv1.2 = constant. The initial conditions are 1 MPa and 200oC and the final pressure is 0.1 MPa. Find
W and E for the process. Why is the work transfer not equal to p.dv ?

10.

A fluid contained in a cylinder receives 150 kJ of mechanical energy by means of a paddle wheel,
together with 50 kJ in the form of heat. At the same time, a piston in the cylinder moves in such
a way that the pressure remains constant at 200 kN/m2 during the fluid expansion from 2m3 to
5m3. What is the change in internal energy, and in enthalpy?

11.

A gas undergoes a thermodynamic cycle consisting of three processes beginning at an initial state
where p1 = 1 bar, V1 = 1.5 m3 and U1 = 512 kJ. The processes are as follows:
(i)
Process 1-2 : Compression with pV = constant to p2 = 2 bar, U2 = 690 kJ
(ii)
Process 2-3 : W23 = 0, Q23 = -150 kJ, and
(iii)
Process 3-1: W31 = + 50kJ. Neglecting KE and PE changes, determine the heat
interactions Q12 and Q31.

12.

A gas of mass 1.5 kg undergoes a quasi-static expansion which follows a relationship p = a + bVm,
where a and b are constants. The initial and final pressures are 1000 kPa and 200 kPa respectively
and the corresponding volumes are 0.20 m3 and 1.20 m3. The specific internal energy of the gas is
given by the relation
U = 1.5 pv 85 kJ/kg
Where p is the kPa and v is in m3/kg. Calculate the net heat transfer and the maximum internal
energy of the gas attained during expansion.

13.

A mass of 8 kg gas expands within a flexible container so that the p-v relationship is of the form
pV1.2 = constant. The initial pressure is 1000 kPa and the initial volume is 1 m 3. The final pressure
is 5 kPa. If specific internal energy of the gas decreases by 40 kJ/kg, find the heat transfer in
magnitude and direction.

14.

Air flows steadily at the rate of 0.4 kg/s through an air compressor, entering at 6m/s with a
pressure of 1 bar and a specific volume of 0.85 m3/kg, and leaving at 4.5 m/s with a pressure of
6.9 bar and a specific volume of 0.16 m3/kg. The internal energy of the air leaving is 88 kJ/kg
greater than that of the air entering. Cooling water in a jacket surrounding the cylinder absorbs
heat from the air at the rate of 59 W. Calculate the power required to drive the compressor and
the inlet and outlet cross-sectional areas.

15.

A gas flows steadily through a rotary compressor. The gas enters the compressor at a
temperature of 16oC, a pressure of 100 kPa, and an enthalpy of 391.2 kJ/kg. The gas leaves the
compressor at a temperature of 245oC, a pressure of 0.6 MPa, and an enthalpy of 534.5 kJ/kg.
There is no heat transfer to or from the gas as it flows through the compressor. (a) Evaluate the
external work done per unit mass of gas assuming the gas velocities at entry and exit to be
negligible. (b) Evaluate the external work done per unit mass of gas when the gas velocity at entry
is 80 m/s and that at exit is 160 m/s.

16.

A turbo compressor delivers 2.33m3/s at 0.276 MPa, 43oC which is heated at this pressure to
430oC and finally expanded in a turbine which delivers 1860 kW. During the expansion, there is
a heat transfer of 0.09 mJ/s to the surroundings. Calculate the turbine exhaust temperature if
changes in kinetic and potential energy are negligible.

17.

In a gas turbine the gas enters at the rate of 5 kg/s with a velocity of 50 m/s and enthalpy of 900
kJ/kg and leaves the turbine with a velocity of 150 m/s and enthalpy of 400 kJ/kg. The loss of heat
from the gases to the surroundings is 25 kJ/kg. Assume for gas R = 0.285 kJ/kg K and cp = 1.004
kJ/kgK and the inlet conditions to be at 100 kPa and 27 oC. Determine the power output of the
turbine and the diameter of the inlet pipe.

18.

A turbine operates under steady flow conditions, receiving steam at the following state: pressure
1.2 MPa, temperature 188oC, enthalpy 2785 kJ/kg, velocity 33.3 m/s and elevation 3m. The
steam leaves the turbine at the following state: pressure 20 kPa, enthalpy 2512 kJ/kg, velocity
100 m/s, and elevation 0 m. Heat is lost to the surroundings at the rate of 0.29 kJ/s. If the rate of
steam flow through the turbine is 0.42 kg/s, what is the power output of the turbine in kW?

19.

A reciprocating air compressor taken in 2 m3/min at 0.11 MPa, 20oC which it delivers at 1.5 MPa,
111oC to an after cooler where the air is cooled at constant pressure to 25oC. The power absorbed
by the compressor is 4.15 kW. Determine the heat transfer in (a) the compressor, and (b) the
cooler. State your assumptions.

20.

A heat pump working on the Carnot cycle takes in heat from a reservoir at 5 oC and delivers heat to
a reservoir at 60oC. The heat pump is driven by a reversible heat engine which takes in heat from
a reservoir at 840oC and rejects heat to a reservoir at 60oC. The reversible heat engine also drives
a machine that absorbs 30kW. If the heat pump extracts 17 kJ/s from the 5 oC reservoir,
determine (a) the rate of heat supply from the 840 oC source, and (b) the rate of heat rejection to
the 60oC sink.

21.

A heat engine is used to drive a heat pump. The heat transfers from the heat engine and from
the heat pump are used to heat the water circulating through the radiators of a building. The
efficiency of the heat engine is 27% and the COP of the heat pump is 4. Evaluate the ratio of the
heat transfer to the circulating water to the heat transfer to the heat engine.

22.

A reversible power cycle is used to drive a reversible heat pump cycle. The power cycle takes in
Q1 heat units at T1 and rejects fQ2 at T2. The heat pump abstracts Q4 from the sink at T4 and
discharges
Q3 at T3. Develop an expression for the ratio Q4/Q1 in terms of the four
temperatures.

23.

A reversible cyclic heat engine operates between the maximum and minimum temperatures of
671oC and 60oC respectively. It drives a heat pump which uses river water at 4.4 oC to heat a block
of flats in which the temperature is to be maintained at 21.1 oC. Assuming that a temperature
difference of 11.1oC exists between the working fluid and the river water, on the one hand, and
the required room temperature on the other, and find the heat input to the engine per unit heat
output from the heat pump. Why is direct heating thermodynamically more wasteful?

24.

Consider an engine in outer space which operates on the Carnot cycle. The only way in which
heat can be transferred from the engine is by radiation. The rate at which heat is radiated is
proportional to the fourth power of the absolute temperature and to the area of the radiating
surface. Show that for a given power output and a given T1, the area of the radiator will be a
T
3
minimum when 2
T1 4

25.

A reversible heat engine operates between two reservoirs at temperatures of 600 oC and 40oC.
The engine drives a reversible refrigerator which operates between reservoirs at temperatures of
40oC and -20oC. The heat transfer to the heat engine is 2000 kJ and the net work output of the
combined engine refrigerator plant is 360 kJ.
(a) Evaluate the heat transfer to the refrigerant and the net heat transfer to the reservoir
at 40oC.
(b) Reconsider (a) given that the efficiency of the heat engine and the COP of the
refrigerator are each 40% of their maximum possible values.

26.

A heat pump is to be used to heat a house in winter and then reversed to cool the house in
summer. The interior temperature is to be maintained at 20 oC. Heat transfer through the walls
and roof is estimated to be 0.525 kJ/s per degree temperature difference between the inside and
outside (a) If the outside temperature in winter is 5oC, what is the minimum power required to
drive the heat pump? (b) If the power output is the same as in part (a), what is the maximum
outer temperature for which the inside can be maintained at 20oC?

27.

A heat engine operating between two reservoirs at 1000 K and 300 K is used to drive a heat pump
which extracts heat from the reservoir at 300 K at a rate twice that at which the engine rejects
heat to it. If the efficiency of the engine is 40% of the maximum possible and the COP of the heat
pump is 50% of the maximum possible, what is the temperature of the reservoir to which the heat
pump rejects heat? What is the rate of heat rejection from the heat pump if the rate of heat
supply to the engine is 50 kW?

28.

Two kg of water at 80oC are mixed adiabatically with 3 kg of water at 30oC in a constant pressure
process of 1 atmosphere. Find the increase in the entropy of the total mass of water due to the
mixing process (cp of water = 4.187 kJ/kg K).

29.

Calculate the entropy change of the universe as a result of the following processes:
(a) A copper block of 600gm and with Cp of 150 J/K at 100o C is placed in a lake at 8oC.
(b) The same block, at 8oC, is dropped from a height of 100m into the lake.
(c) Two such blocks, at 100 and 0oC, are joined together.

30.

A reversible engine, as shown in Fig. during a cycle of operations draws 5 MJ from the 400 K
reservoir and does 840 kJ of work. Find the amount and direction of heat interaction with other
reservoirs.
(Page 203, Problem 7.18)
200 K

300 K

Q3

Q2

W=840 kJ

400 K

Q1 = 5 MJ

31.

A fluid undergoes a reversible adiabatic compression from 0.5 MPa, 0.2m3 to 0.05m3 according to
the law, pv1.3 = constant. Determine the change in enthalpy, internal energy and entropy, and the
heat transfer and work transfer during the process.

32.

A thermally insulated 50-ohm resistor carries a current of 1A for 1s. The initial temperature of the
resistor is 10oC. Its mass is 5g and its specific heat is 0.85J gK. (a) What is the change in entropy of
the resistor? (b) What is the change in entropy of the universe?

33.

An iron block of unknown mass at 85oC is dropped into an insulated tank that contains 0.1 m3 of
water at 20oC. At the same time a paddle-wheel driven by a 200 W motor is activated to stir the
water. Thermal equilibrium is established after 20 min when the final temperature is 24 oC.
Determine the mass of the iron block and the entropy generated during the process.

34.

A piston cylinder device contains 1.2 kg of nitrogen gas at a 120kPa and 27 oC. The gas is now
compressed slowly in a polytropic process during which pV1.3 = constant. The process ends when
the volume is reduced by one-half. Determine the entropy change of nitrogen during this process.

35.

A rigid tank contains an ideal gas at 40oC that is being stirred by a paddle wheel. The paddle
wheel does 200 kJ of work on the ideal gas. It is observed that the temperature of the ideal gas
remains constant during this process as a result of heat transfer between the system and the
surroundings at 25oC. Determine (a) the entropy change of the ideal gas and (b) the total entropy
generation.

36.

Eighty kg of water at 100oC are mixed with 50 kg of water at 60oC, while the temperature of the
surroundings is 150C. Determine the decrease in available energy due to mixing.

37.

Air flows through an adiabatic compressor at 2 kg/s. The inlet conditions are 1 bar and 310 K
and the exit conditions are 7 bar and 560 K. Compute the net rate of availability transfer and the
irreversibility. Take T0 =298 K.

38.

In a steam boiler, hot gases from a fire transfer heat to water which vaporizes at constant
temperature. In a certain case, the gases are cooled from 1100 oC to 550oC while the water
evaporates at 220oC. The specific heat of gases is 1.005 kJ/kg-K, and the latent heat of water at
220oC, is 1858.5 kJ/kg. All the heat transferred from the gases goes to the water. How much does
the total entropy heat transfer? Obtain the result on the basis of 1 kg of water evaporated.
If the temperature of the surroundings is 30oC, find the increase in unavailable energy due to
irreversible heat transfer.

39.

Calculate the decrease in available energy when 25 kg of water at 95 oC mix with 35 kg of water at
35oC, the pressure being taken as constant and the temperature of the surroundings being 15 oC
(cp of water = 4.2 kJ/kg K).

40.

Exhaust gases leave an internal combustion engine at 800oC and 1 atm, after having done 1050 kJ
of work per kg of gas in the engine (cp of gas = 1.1 kJ/kg K). The temperature of the surroundings
is 30oC. (a) How much available energy per kg of gas is lost by throwing away the exhaust gases?
(b) What is the ratio of the lost available energy to the engine work?

41.

Air enters an adiabatic compressor at atmospheric conditions of 1 bar, 15oC and leaves at 5.5 bar.
The mass flow rate is 0.01 kg/s and the efficiency of the compressor is 75%. After leaving the
compressor, the air is cooled to 40oC in an after cooler. Calculate (a) the power required to drive
the compressor, and (b) the rate of irreversibility for the overall process (compressor and cooler).

42.

2 p
c

= 2
T
T V

and hence

43.

## Derive the third TdS equation

T
dp + Cp
TdS = Cv
p v
and hence prove that
T
dV
TdS = Cv dT +
k

dV
dV p

44.

2V
C p

-T 2
T p
p T

45.

V p
Cp Cv = -T

T T V T
2

46.

## Derive the equations

V p
(a) Cp = T

T p T s

Cp
p
(b)
T s VT
47.

In an air standard Otto cycle the compression ratio is 7, and compression begins at 35 oC, 0.1
MPa. The maximum temperature of the cycle is 1100oC. Find (a) the work done per kg of air,
(b) the cycle efficiency.

48.

In an air standard Diesel cycle, the compression ratio is 15. Compression begins at 0.1 MPa, 40 oC.
The heat added is 1.675 MJ/kg. Find (a) the maximum temperature of the cycle, (b) the work
done per kg of air, (c) the cycle efficiency, (d) the cut-off ratio, (e)) the m.e.p. of the cycle.

49.

In an air standard Brayton cycle the compression ratio is 7 and the maximum temperature of the
cycle is 800oC. The compression begins at 0.1 MPa, 35oC. Compare the maximum specific volume
and the maximum pressure with the Otto cycle. Find (a) the heat supplied per kg of air, (b) the
net work done per kg of air, (c) the cycle efficiency, and (d) the temperature at the end of the
expansion process.

50.

A gas turbine plant operates on the Brayton cycle between the temperatures 27oC and 800oC. (a)
Find the pressure ratio at which the cycle efficiency approaches the Carnot cycle efficiency, (b)
find the pressure ratio at which the work done per kg of air is maximum, and (c) compare the
efficiency at this pressure ratio with the Carnot efficiency for the given temperatures.

51.

In an air standard Diesel cycle, the compression ratio is16, and at the beginning of isentropic
compression, the temperature is 15oC and the pressure is 0.1 MPa. Heat is added until the
temperature at the end of the constant pressure process is 1480 oC. Calculate (a) the cut-off ratio,
(b) the heat supplied per kg of air, (c) the cycle efficiency, and (d) the m.e.p.

52.

An air standard dual cycle has a compression ratio of 16, and compression begins at 1 bar, 50 oC.
The maximum pressure is 70 bar. The heat transferred to air at constant pressure is equal to that
at constant volume. Estimate (a) the pressures and temperatures at the cardinal points of the
cycle, (b) the cycle efficiency and (c) the m.e.p. of the cycle, cp = 0.718 kJ/kg K, cp = 1.005 kJ/kg K.

53.

In an ideal Brayton cycle, air from the atmosphere at 1 atm, 300 K is compressed to 6 atm and the
maximum cycle temperature is limited to 1100 K by using a large air-fuel ratio. If the heat supply is
100 MW, find (a) the thermal efficiency of the cycle, (b) work ratio, (c) power output, (d) energy
flow rate of the exhaust gas leaving the turbine.

54.

An engine working on the Otto cycle has an air standard cycle efficiency of 56% and rejects 544
kJ/kg of air. The pressure and temperature of air at the beginning of compression are 0.1 MPa and
60oC respectively. Compute (a) the compression ratio of the engine, (b) the work done per kg of
air, (c) the pressure and temperature at the end of compression, and (d) the maximum pressure in
the cycle.

55.

Two engines are to operate on Otto and Diesel cycles with the following data: Maximum
temperature 1400 K, exhaust temperature 700 K. State of air at the beginning of compression 0.1
MPa, 300 K.
Estimate the compression ratios, the maximum pressures, efficiencies, and rate of
work outputs (for 1 kg/min of air) of the respective cycles.

56.

A mass of 1.5 kg of air is compressed in a quasi-static process from 0.1 MPa to 0.7 MPa for
which pv = constant. The initial density of air is 1.16 kg/m3. Find the work done by the
piston to compress the air.

57.

A thermometer is calibrated in such a way that it reads 32 0N when placed in melting ice
and 2120N when placed in boiling water. What will it read when the measured
temperature is 2880K

58.

## A gas undergoes a thermodynamic cycle consisting of the following processes:

(i) Process 12: Constant pressure p = 1.4 bar, V1 = 0.028 m3, W12 = 10.5kJ
(ii)Process 23: Compression with pV = constant, U3 = U2
(iii)Process 31: Constant volume, U1 U3 = 26.4 kJ. There are no significant changes in
KE and PE.
(a) Sketch the cycle on a pV diagram
(b)Calculate the net work for the cycle in kJ.
(c) Calculate the heat transfer for process 12.
(d) Show that cycle Q
=
W
Cycle

cycle

59.

Steam enters a horizontal nozzle at an enthalpy of 2764.85 kJ/kg, a specific volume of 0.25547
m3/kg, a temperature of 2800C and at a steady velocity of 40 m/s. At the exit, the steam has the
enthalpy and specific volume of 2755.5 kJ/kg and 0.31546 m3/kg, respectively. If the nozzle is
adiabatic and if the diameter of the nozzle at the inlet is 15 cm, calculate (i) the velocity of steam
at the exit, (ii) the rate of flow of steam per second and (iii) the exit diameter of the nozzle.

60.

Two reversible heat engines 1 and 2 are connected in series such that 1 is rejecting heat
directly to 2. Engine 1 receives 200 kJ at a temperature of 421 0C from a hot source, while
Engine 2 is in communication with a cold sink at a temperature of 4.40 C. The work output
of 1 is two times that of 2. Calculate (i) the intermediate temperature between 1 and 2, (ii)
the efficiency of each engine, and (iii) the heat rejected to the cold sink.

61.

## State and prove clausius inequality.

62.

The volume of 1 kg of air increases from 0.5 m3 to 1.3 m3 while its pressure decreases from 1 MPa
to 0.25 MPa. Then 100 KJ of heat is added to it is a constant pressure process. Calculate the
entropy change for the whole events. Assume for air CP = 1.005 KJ/KgK and R = 0.287 KJ/KgK.

63.

1250 KJ of heat is supplied to a reversible cyclic engine at 527 oC. The surrounding are at 20oC. Find
the available energy and unavailable energy.

64.

## Using Maxwells relations deduce the two TdS equations.

65.

A dual combustion cycle operates with a volumetric compression ratio rk = 12, and with a cut-off
ratio 1.615. The maximum pressure is given by pmax = 54p1, where p1 is the pressure before
compression. Assuming indices of compression and expansion of 1.35, show that the m.e.p. of the
cycle pm = 10 p1. Hence evaluate (a) temperatures at cardinal points with T1 = 335 K, and (b) Cycle
efficiency.

66.

If a gas of volume 6000 cm3 and at pressure of 100 kPa is compressed quasi-statically
according to pV2 = constant until the volume becomes 2000 cm3, determine the final
pressure and the work transfer

67.

A gas contained in a piston cylinder arrangement expands from 0.75m 3 volume to 1.25m3 volume
while the pressure remains constant at 200kPa. If the gaseous system receives 80kJ of work from
a paddle wheel, determine the net work done by the system.

68.

A mass of 8 kg gas expands within a flexible container so that the pv relationship is of the
from pvl.2 = constant. The initial pressure is 1000 kPa and the initial volume is 1 m3. The
final pressure is 5 kPa. If specific internal energy of the gas decreases by 40 kJ/kg, find the
heat transfer in magnitude and direction.

69.

## State the limitations of first law of thermodynamics.

70.

A blower handles 1 kg/s of air at 20C and consumes a power of 15 kW. The inlet and
outlet velocities of air are 100m/s and 150m/s respectively. Find the exit air temperature,
assuming adiabatic conditions. Take cp of air is 1.005 kJ/kg K.

71.

## Make an energy analysis of the steam nozzle and heat exchanger.

72.

A heat engine is used to drive a heat pump. The heat transfers from the heat engine and
from the heat pump are used to heat the water circulating through the radiators of a
building. The efficiency of the heat engine is 27% and the COP of the heat pump is 4.
Evaluate the ratio of the heat transfer to the circulating water to the heat transfer to the
heat engine.

73.

## State and prove Carnots theorem

74.

5 kg of air at 1.3 bar and 27oC is compressed to 24 bar pressure according to the law
PV1.33 = C. After compression air is cooled at constant volume at 30 oC. Determine
i) Change of entropy during compression and ii) change of entropy during constant volume
cooling. For air take CP=1.01 and CV = 0.72.

75.

2 kgs of water at 50oC is mixed with 3 kgs of water at 100oC in a steady flow process
calculate (a) the mixture temperature (b) in mixing reversible or irreversible (c) what is the
unavailable energy w.r.t the reservoir at 50oC.

76.

## If entropy S be imagined as a function of T and V, then show that

dS = cv (dT/T) + (p/T)v dV

77.

Show that the air standard efficiency for a cycle comprising two constant pressure
processes and two isothermal processes (all reversible) is given by
= ( T1 T2 ) ln ( rp )( - 1 ) / / T1[ 1 + ln ( rp )( - 1 ) / - T2 ]
Where T1 and T2 are the maximum and minimum temperatures of the cycle, and rp is the
Pressure ratio.

78.

## Distinguish between Macroscopic and Microscopic points of view of thermodynamic

system investigation.

79.

80.

## A stationary system consisting of 2 kg of the fluid of Problem 4.8 expands in an adiabatic

process according to pv1.2 = constant. The initial conditions are 1 MPa and 200C, and the
final pressure is 0.1 MPa. Find W and E for the process. Why is the work transfer not
equal to pdV?

81.

## Derive an expression for heat transfer in non-flow constant volume process.

82.

Derive an Expression for SFEE. Discuss its application to compressors and nozzles.

83.

A heat pump working on the Carnot cycle takes in heat from a reservoir at 5C and delivers
heat to a reservoir at 60C. The heat pump is driven by a reversible heat engine which
takes in heat from a reservoir at 840C and rejects heat to a reservoir at 60C. The
reversible heat engine also drives a machine that absorbs 30 kW. If the heat pump extracts
17 kJ/s from the 5C reservoir, determine
(i) The rate of heat supply from the 840C source
(ii) The rate of heat rejection to the 60C sink.

84.

A Carnot engine operates between 1000 K and 300 K. The change in entropy of the source
is 0.6 KJ/K. Find the heat added and net work output.

85.

An ideal gas R = 0.2 KJ/kgk is throttled adiabatically from 12.2 bar 37 oC to 1 bar. If the
surroundings are at 27oC find the irreversibility of the process in KJ/Kg.

86.

## If entropy S be imagined as a function of T and p, then show that

TdS = cp dT - T( V/T )p dp

87.

Two engines are to operate on Otto and Diesel cycles with the following data: Maximum
temperature 1400 K, exhaust temperature 700 K. State of air at the beginning of
compression 0.1 MPa, 300 K. Estimate the compression ratios, the maximum pressures,
efficiencies, and rate of work outputs (for 1 kg/min of air) of the respective cycles.

88.

1 kg of gas at 2400C expands adiabatically so that its volume is doubled and the
temperature falls to 1150C . The work done during the expansion is 89.86 kJ. Calculate the
two specific heats.

89.

## State Zeroth law of thermodynamics.

temperature measurement.

90.

A slow chemical reaction takes place in a fluid at the constant pressure of 0.1 MPa. The
fluid is surrounded by a perfect heat insulator during the reaction which begins at state 1
and ends at state 2. The insulation is then removed and 105 kJ of heat flow to the
surroundings as the fluid goes to state 3. The following data are observed for the fluid at
states 1, 2 and 3.
State
v (m3 )
t (C)
1
0.003
20
2
0.3
370
3
0.06
20
For the fluid system, calculate E2 and E3, if E1 = 0.

91.

A turbine operates under steady flow conditions, receiving steam at the following state:
Pressure 1.2MPa, temperature 188C, enthalpy 2785kJ/kg, velocity 33.3m/s and elevation
3m. The steam leaves the turbine at the following state: Pressure 20kPa, enthalpy
2512kJ/kg, velocity 100m/s, and elevation 0m. Heat is lost to the surroundings at the rate
of 0.29kJ/s. If the rate of steam flow through the turbine is 0.42 kg/s, what is the power
output of the turbine in kW?

92.

List out the differences between control mass system and control volume system.

93.

## A household refrigerator is maintained at a temperature of 2C. Every time the door is

opened, warm material is placed inside, introducing an average of 420 kJ, but making only
a small change in the temperature of the refrigerator. The door is opened 20 times a day,
and the refrigerator operates at 15% of the ideal COP. The cost of work is Rs. 2.50 per
kWh. What is the monthly bill for this refrigerator? The atmosphere is at 30C.

94.

## Explain the principle of increase of entropy.

95.

Calculate the entropy change of the universe as a result of the following processes:
(i) A copper block of 600 g mass and with Cp of 150 J/K at 100C is placed in a lake at 8C.
(ii) The same block, at 8C, is dropped from a height of 100 m into the lake.
(iii) Two such blocks, at 100 and 0C, are joined together.

96.

## Prove that cp cv = - T (V/T)p2 x (p/V)T

97.

Helium is used as the working fluid in an ideal Brayton cycle. Gas enters the compressor at
27C and 20 bar and is discharged at 60 bar. The gas is heated to l000C before entering
the turbine. The cooler returns the hot turbine exhaust to the temperature of the
compressor inlet. Determine: (a) the temperatures at the end of compression and
expansion, (b) the heat supplied, the heat rejected and the net work per kg of He, and (c)
the cycle efficiency and the heat rate. Take Cp = 5.1926 kJ/kg K.

98.

A spherical balloon contains air at a pressure of 1.5 bar. The diameter of the balloon is increased
to 40 cm by heating and during the process the pressure is proportional to its diameter. Calculate
the work done assuming the process to be quasi static.

99.

## Prove that energy is a property of the system.

100.

5 kg of air at 40 C and 1 bar is heated in a reversible non-flow constant pressure process until the
volume is doubled. Find (i) work done (ii) change in internal energy and (iii) change in entropy.

101.

A heat pump is used to maintain an auditorium hall at 24 C when the atmospheric temperature is
10 C. The heat lost from the hall is 1500 kJ/min. Calculate the power required to run the heat
pump if its COP is 30% of Carnot machine working between the same temperature limits.

102.

## Explain (i) Availability (ii) Second law efficiency.

103.

One kg of air is contained in a rigid tank at 500 kPa and 700 K. The dead state is taken as 20 C
and 100 kPa. Calculate maximum useful work (i) if the system were to change to dead state. (ii)
when air is cooled to 400 K in the tank.

104.

## State and prove Clausius Inequality.

105.

One kg of water at 300 K is first heated to 400 K by bringing in contact with an intermediate
reservoir at 400 K and ten to 500 k as before. What will be the entropy change of the universe.

106.

=
T

2 p
2
T V

and hence

107.

108.

## Derive an expression for air standard efficiency of a Diesel cycle.

109.

An engine operating on ideal Otto cycle for which the following information is available:
Maximum temperature
: 1277 C
Exhaust temperature
: 447 C
Ambient conditions
: 1 bar and 37 C
Air consumption
: 2 kg/min
Estimate (i) Air standard efficiency and (ii) power output. Take Cp = 1.005 kJ/kg and
Cv = 0.718 kJ/kg.