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Drives (Version 32003):
Dr. Zainal Salam UTMJB
1
Chapter 4
DC to AC Conversion
(INVERTER)
• General concept
• Singlephase inverter
• Harmonics
• Modulation
• Threephase inverter
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2
DC to AC Converter (Inverter)
• DEFINITION: Converts DC to AC power by
switching the DC input voltage (or current) in a
predetermined sequence so as to generate AC
voltage (or current) output.
• General block diagram
I
DC
I
ac
+
−
V
DC
V
ac
+
−
• TYPICAL APPLICATIONS:
– Uninterruptible power supply (UPS), Industrial
(induction motor) drives, Traction, HVDC
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Simple squarewave inverter (1)
• To illustrate the concept of AC waveform
generation
V
DC
T1
T4
T3
T2
+ V
O

D1
D2
D3
D4
SOUARLWAVL
INVLRTLR
I
O
S1 S3
S2 S4
LOUIVALLNT
CIRCUIT
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4
AC Waveform Generation
V
DC
S1
S4
S3
+ v
O
−
V
DC
S1
S4
S3
S2
+ v
O
−
V
DC
v
O
t
1
t
2
t
S1,S2 ON; S3,S4 OFF for t
1
< t < t
2
t
2
t
3
v
O
V
DC
t
S3,S4 ON ; S1,S2 OFF for t
2
< t < t
3
S2
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5
AC Waveforms
FUNDAMENTAL COMPONENT
3
RD
HARMONIC
5
RD
HARMONIC
π
DC V 4
V
dc
V
dc
V
1
3
1 V
5
1 V
INVERTER OUTPUT VOLTAGE
π 2π
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Harmonics Filtering
• Output of the inverter is “chopped AC voltage with
zero DC component”. It contain harmonics.
• An LC section lowpass filter is normally fitted at
the inverter output to reduce the high frequency
harmonics.
• In some applications such as UPS, “high purity” sine
wave output is required. Good filtering is a must.
• In some applications such as AC motor drive,
filtering is not required.
v
O 1
+
−
L
C
v
O 2
(LOW PASS) FILTER
+
−
v
O 1
v
O 2
BEFORE FILTERING AFTER FILTERING
INVERTER LOAD DC SUPPLY
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Variable Voltage Variable
Frequency Capability
T
1
T
2
t
V
dc1
V
dc2 Higher input voltage
Higher frequency
Lower input voltage
Lower frequency
• Output voltage frequency can be varied by “period”
of the squarewave pulse.
• Output voltage amplitude can be varied by varying
the “magnitude” of the DC input voltage.
• Very useful: e.g. variable speed induction motor
drive
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Output voltage harmonics/
distortion
• Harmonics cause distortion on the output voltage.
• Lower order harmonics (3
rd
, 5
th
etc) are very
difficult to filter, due to the filter size and high filter
order. They can cause serious voltage distortion.
• Why need to consider harmonics?
– Sinusoidal waveform quality must match TNB
supply.
– “Power Quality” issue.
– Harmonics may cause degradation of
equipment. Equipment need to be “derated”.
• Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) is a measure to
determine the “quality” of a given waveform.
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Total Harmonics Distortion (THD)
( )
( ) ( )
( )
frequency. harmonic at impedance the is
: THD Current
known, is vaveform for the voltage rms the If
....
voltage, harmonic th the is If : THD Voltage
, 1
2
2
,
, 1
2
2
, 1
2
, 1
2
, 2
2
, 3
2
, 2
, 1
2
2
,
n
n
n
n
RMS
n
RMS n
RMS
n
RMS RMS
RMS
RMS RMS RMS
RMS
n
RMS n
n
Z
Z
V
I
I
I
THDi
V
V V
THDv
V
V V V
V
V
THDv
n V
=
=
−
=
+ + +
=
=
¯
¯
¯
∞
=
∞
=
∞
=
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Fourier Series
• Study of harmonics requires understanding of wave
shapes. Fourier Series is a tool to analyse wave
shapes.
( )
( )
( )
t
n b n a a v f
d n v f b
d n v f a
d v f a
n
n n o
n
n
o
ω θ
θ θ
θ θ
π
θ θ
π
θ
π
π
π
π
=
+ + =
=
=
=
¯
í
í
í
∞
=
where
sin cos
2
1
) (
Fourier Inverse
term) sin" (" sin ) (
1
term) cos" (" cos ) (
1
term) DC" (" ) (
1
Series Fourier
1
2
0
2
0
2
0
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Harmonics of squarewave (1)
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
− =
=
− =
=
− + =
í í
í í
í í
π
π
π
π
π
π
π
π
π
θ θ θ θ
π
θ θ θ θ
π
θ θ
π
2
0
2
0
2
0
sin sin
0 cos cos
0
1
d n d n
V
b
d n d n
V
a
d V d V a
dc
n
dc
n
dc dc o
V
dc
V
dc
θ=ω
π 2π
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Harmonics of square wave (2)
( ) ( ) [ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
π
π
π
π
π
π π
π
π π π
π
θ θ
π
π
π
π
n
V
b
n
b
n n
n
n
V
n n
n
V
n n n
n
V
n n
n
V
b
dc
n
n
dc
dc
dc
dc
n
4
1 cos odd, is n When
exist) not do harmonics even i.e. (
0
1 cos even, is When
) cos 1 (
2
) cos 1 ( ) cos 1 (
) cos 2 (cos ) cos 0 (cos
cos cos
Solving,
2
0
=
=
− =
=
− =
− + − =
− + − =
+ − =
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Spectra of square wave
1 3 5 7
9 11
Normalised
Fundamental
3rd (0.33)
5th (0.2)
7th (0.14)
9th (0.11)
11th (0.09)
1st
n
• Spectra (harmonics) characteristics:
– Harmonic decreases with a factor of (1/n).
– Even harmonics are absent
– Nearest harmonics is the 3rd. If fundamental is
50Hz, then nearest harmonic is 150Hz.
– Due to the small separation between the
fundamental an harmonics, output lowpass
filter design can be very difficult.
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Quasisquare wave (QSW)
( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) ( )
( ) [ ]
( )[ ] π α
π
α π α
π
α π α π α π
α π α π
α π α
π
θ
π
θ θ
π
α π
α
α π
α
n n
n
V
n n n
n
V
b
n n n n n n
n n n
n n
n
V
n
n
V
d n V b
a
dc
dc
n
dc
dc
dc n
n
cos 1 cos
2
cos cos cos
2
cos cos sin sin cos cos
cos cos
: Expanding
cos cos
2
cos
2
sin
1
2
symmetry) wave  half to (due . 0 that Note
− =
− = ¬
= + =
− = −
− − =
− =
=
=
−
−
í
π
π 2
α α α
V
dc
V
dc
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Harmonics control
( )
( )
n
n
b
b
Note
V
b
n
n
V
b
b
o
dc
dc
n
n
o
3
1
1
90
: if eliminated be will harmonic general,
In waveform. the from eliminated is harmonic
third or the , 0 then , 30 if example For
: n Eliminatio Harmonics
, adjusting by controlled be also can Harmonics
by varying controlled is , , l fundamenta The
:
cos
4
: is l fundamenta the of amplitude , particular In
cos
4
odd, is n If
, 0 even, is n If
=
= =
=
= ¬
= ¬
α
α
α
α
π
α
π
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Example
degrees
30 with case wave square  quasi for (c) and (b) Repeat
harmonics zero  non e first thre the using by THDi the c)
harmonics zero  non e first thre the using by THDv the b)
formula. exact" " the using THDv the a)
: Calculate series. in 10mH L and
10R R is load The 100V. is ge link volta DC The signals.
wave square by fed is inverter phase single bridge  full A
=
=
=
α
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Halfbridge inverter (1)
V
o
R
L
+
−
V
C1
V
C2
+

+

S
1
S
2
V
dc
2
Vdc
2
Vdc
−
S1 ON
S2 OFF
S1 OFF
S2 ON
t
0
G
• Also known as the “inverter leg”.
• Basic building block for full bridge, three phase
and higher order inverters.
• G is the “centre point”.
• Both capacitors have the same value. Thus the DC
link is equally “spilt” into two.
• The top and bottom switch has to be
“complementary”, i.e. If the top switch is closed
(on), the bottom must be off, and viceversa.
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Shoot through fault and
“Deadtime”
• In practical, a dead time as shown below is required
to avoid “shootthrough” faults, i.e. short circuit
across the DC rail.
• Dead time creates “low frequency envelope”. Low
frequency harmonics emerged.
• This is the main source of distortion for highquality
sine wave inverter.
t
d
t
d
"Dead time' = t
d
S
1
signal
(gate)
S
2
signal
(gate)
S1
S2
+
− −− −
V
dc
R
L
G
"Shoot through fault" .
I
short
is very large
I
short
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Singlephase, fullbridge (1)
• Full bridge (single phase) is built from two half
bridge leg.
• The switching in the second leg is “delayed by 180
degrees” from the first leg.
S1
S4
S3
S2
+

G
+
2
dc
V
2
dc
V

2
dc
V
2
dc
V
dc
V
2
dc
V
−
2
dc
V
−
dc
V −
π
π
π
π 2
π 2
π 2
t ω
t ω
t ω
RG
V
G R
V
'
o
V
G R o
V V V
RG
'
− =
groumd" virtual " is G
LEG R LEG R'
R
R'

o
V +
dc
V
+

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Threephase inverter
• Each leg (Red, Yellow, Blue) is delayed by 120
degrees.
• A threephase inverter with star connected load is
shown below
Z
Y
Z
R
Z
B
G
R Y B
i
R
i
Y
i
B
i
a
i
b
+V
dc
N
S1
S4 S6
S3 S5
S2
+
+
− −− −
− −− −
V
dc
/2
V
dc
/2
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Three phase inverter waveforms
1
3
2,4
2
3,5
4
3
5
4,6
4
1,5
6
5
1
2,6
6
1,3
2
Inverter Phase
Voltage
(or pole switching
waveform)
V
RG
240
0
Interval
Positive device(s) on
Negative device(s) on
2V
DC
/3
V
DC
/3
V
DC
/3
2V
DC
/3
V
DC
V
DC
V
DC
/2
V
DC
/2
Quasisquare wave operation voltage waveforms
120
0
V
DC
/2
V
DC
/2
V
DC
/2
V
DC
/2
V
YG
V
BG
lIneto ine
Voltage
V
RY
Sixstep
Waveform
V
RN
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Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
Modulating Waveform Carrier waveform
1
M
1 +
1 −
0
2
dc
V
2
dc
V
−
0
0
t
1
t
2
t
3
t
4
t
5
t
• Triangulation method (Natural sampling)
– Amplitudes of the triangular wave (carrier) and
sine wave (modulating) are compared to obtain
PWM waveform. Simple analogue comparator
can be used.
– Basically an analogue method. Its digital
version, known as REGULAR sampling is
widely used in industry.
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PWM types
• Natural (sinusoidal) sampling (as shown
on previous slide)
– Problems with analogue circuitry, e.g. Drift,
sensitivity etc.
• Regular sampling
– simplified version of natural sampling that
results in simple digital implementation
• Optimised PWM
– PWM waveform are constructed based on
certain performance criteria, e.g. THD.
• Harmonic elimination/minimisation PWM
– PWM waveforms are constructed to eliminate
some undesirable harmonics from the output
waveform spectra.
– Highly mathematical in nature
• Spacevector modulation (SVM)
– A simple technique based on voltsecond that is
normally used with threephase inverter motor
drive
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Modulation Index, Ratio
waveform modulating the of Frequency
veform carrier wa the of Frequency
M
) ( M Ratio) (Frequency Ratio Modulation
veform carrier wa the of Amplitude
waveform modulating the of Amplitude
M
: M Depth) n (Modulatio Index Modulation
R
R
I
I
= =
= =
=
=
p
p
Modulating Waveform Carrier waveform
1
M
1 +
1 −
0
2
dc
V
2
dc
V
−
0
0
t
1
t
2
t
3
t
4
t
5
t
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( )
(1,2,3...) integer an is and
signal modulating the of frequency the is where
M
: at located normally are harmonics The
spectra. in the harmonics of
(location) incident the determines ratio dulation M
ly. respective voltage, (DC) input and voltage
output the of l fundamenta are , where
M
1, M 0 If
component l fundamenta voltage
output the s deterrmine Index Modulation
R
1
I 1
I
k
f
f k f
o
V V
V V
m
m
in
in
=
− − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − −
=
< <
Modulation Index, Ratio
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Regular sampling
Regular sampling PWM
Sinusoidal modulating
waveform, v
m
(t)
Carrier, v
c
(t) t
1
t
2
t'
1
t'
2
t
t
π
π 2
) (t v
s
pwm
v
Regular sampling waveform,
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Asymmetric and symmetric
regular sampling
T
sample
point
t M
m
ω sin
1
1 +
1 −
4
T
4
3T
4
5T
4
π
2
dc
V
2
dc
V
−
0
t
1
t
2
t
3
t
t
asymmetric
sampling
symmetric
sampling
t
Generating of PWM waveform regular sampling
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Bipolar Switching
Modulating Waveform Carrier waveform
1
M
1 +
1 −
0
2
dc
V
2
dc
V
−
0
0
t
1
t
2
t
3
t
4
t
5
t
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Unipolar switching
Unipolar switching scheme
A
B
Carrier waveform
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
1 S
3 S
pwm
V
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Bipolar PWM switching: Pulse
width characterization
k 1
δ
k 2
δ
k α
∆
4
∆
= δ
π
π 2
carrier
waveform
modulating
waveform
pulse
kth
π
π 2
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The k
th
Pulse
pulse PWM kth The
∆
0
δ
0
δ
0
δ
0
δ
k 1
δ
k 2
δ
2
dc
V +
k
α
2
dc
V +
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Determination of switching angles
for kth PWM pulse (1)
2 2
1 1
second,  volt the Equating
p s
p s
A A
A A
=
=
v Vmsin θ ( )
A
p2
A
p1
2
dc
V +
2
dc
V
−
A
S2
A
S1
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PWM Switching angles (2)
( ) ( )
( )( )
( ) ( )
( )( )
[ ]
) sin( 2
Similarly,
) sin( sin 2
cos ) 2 cos( sin
sinusoid, by the supplied second  volt The
2
2 2
half, second for the Similarly
2
2 2
: as given is pulse PWM the of
cycle half first the during second  Volt The
2
2
1
2
2 2 2
1
1 1 1
o k m o s
o k o m
k o k m m s
o k dc
k o
dc
k
dc
p
o k dc
k o
dc
k
dc
p
V A
V
V d V A
V
V V
A
V
V V
A
k
o k
δ α δ
δ α δ
α δ α θ θ
δ δ
δ δ δ
δ δ
δ δ δ
α
δ α
+ =
− =
− − = =
− =
−

.

\

−

.

\

=
− =
−

.

\

−

.

\

=
í
−
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Switching angles (3)
( )( )
( ) ( )
[ ] ) sin( 1
: by given is waveform PWM the of
cycle half first for the width pulse the Thus,
modulation as known is
2
Ratio, Modulation the , definition By
sin(
2
) sin( 2
pulse, PWM of cycle half first the for the Hence,
;
strategy, modulation the derive To
) sin( 2
) sin( 2
, sin
angle small For
1
1
1
2 2
1 1
2
1
o k I o k
dc
m
I
o k o
dc
m
o k
o k m o o k dc
s p
s p
o k m o s
o k m o s
o o
o
M
) (V
V
M
V
V
V V
A A
A A
V A
V A
δ α δ δ
δ α δ δ δ
δ α δ δ δ
δ α δ
δ α δ
δ δ
δ
− + = ¬
=
− = − ¬
− = −
=
=
− = ¬
− = ¬
→
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PWM switching angles (4)
[ ]
[ ]
k I o k
k k
o k I o k
k k
M
M
α δ δ
δ δ δ
δ δ
δ α
δ α δ δ
δ α
sin 1
Hence
, Modulation Symmetric For
different. are and i.e , Modulation
Asymmetric for valid is equation above The
: angle edge trailing the And
) sin( 1
: waveform PWM of cycle half second
the of width pulse method, similar Using
: is pulse kth the
of angle switching edge leading the Thus
k 2k 1k
2k 1k
2
2
1
+ = ¬
= =
+
+ + =
−
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Example
• For the PWM shown below, calculate the switching
angles pulses no. 2.
V 5 . 1
V 2
π
π 2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t7 t8 t9 t10 t11 t12
t13
t14
t15
t16
t17
t18
π 2
π
1 α
carrier
waveform
modulating
waveform
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Harmonics of bipolar PWM
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦

.

\

− +
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦

.

\

+
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦

.

\

− =


.

\

=
í
í
í
í
+
+
+
−
−
−
o k
k k
k k
k k
k k
o k
d n
V
d n
V
d n
V
d n v f b
dc
dc
dc
T
nk
δ α
δ α
δ α
δ α
δ α
δ α
θ θ
π
θ θ
π
θ θ
π
θ θ
π
2
2
0
2
2
1
1
sin
2
2
sin
2
2
sin
2
2
sin ) (
1
2
: as computed be can
pulse PWM (kth)
each of content
harmonic
symmetry, wave
half is waveform
PWM the Assuming
∆
0
δ
0
δ
0
δ
0
δ
k 1
δ
k 2
δ
2
dc
V +
k
α
2
dc
V +
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 32003):
Dr. Zainal Salam UTMJB
38
Harmonics of Bipolar PWM
{
}
[
]
equation. this of n computatio the shows slide Next
: i.e. period, one over pulses
for the of sum isthe waveform PWM
for the coefficent Fourier ly.The productive
simplified be cannot equation This
2 cos cos 2
) 2 ( cos ) ( cos
2
Yeilding,
) 2 ( cos ) ( cos
) ( cos ) ( cos
) ( cos ) 2 ( cos
: to reduced be can Which
1
1 1
2
1 2
1
¯
=
=
+
− − − =
+ − + +
− − + +
− − − − =
p
k
nk n
nk
o k
k k k k
dc
nk
o k k k
k k k k
k k o k
dc
nk
b b
p b
n n
n n
n
V
b
n n
n n
n n
n
V
b
δ α
α δ α
π
δ α δ α
δ α δ α
δ α δ α
π
Power Electronics and
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Dr. Zainal Salam UTMJB
39
PWM Spectra
p
p 2 p 3 p 4
0 . 1 =
I
M
8 . 0 =
I
M
6 . 0 =
I
M
4 . 0 =
I
M
2 . 0 =
I
M
Amplitude
Fundamental
0
2 . 0
4 . 0
6 . 0
8 . 0
0 . 1
NORMALISED HARMONIC AMPLITUDES FOR
SINUSOIDAL PULSEWITDH MODULATION
Modulation
Index
Power Electronics and
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Dr. Zainal Salam UTMJB
40
PWM spectra observations
• The harmonics appear in “clusters” at multiple of
the carrier frequencies .
• Main harmonics located at :
f = kp (f
m
); k=1,2,3....
where f
m
is the frequency of the modulation (sine)
waveform.
• There also exist “sidebands” around the main
harmonic frequencies.
• Amplitude of the fundamental is proportional to the
modulation index.
The relation ship is given as:
V
1
= M
I
V
in
• The amplitude of the harmonic changes with M
I
.
Its incidence (location on spectra) is not.
• When p>10, or so, the harmonics can be
normalised. For lower values of p, the sidebands
clusters overlapnormalised results no longer apply.
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 32003):
Dr. Zainal Salam UTMJB
41
Tabulated Bipolar PWM Harmonics
n
M
I
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
M
R
1.242 1.15 1.006 0.818 0.601
M
R
+2 0.016 0.061 0.131 0.220 0.318
M
R
+4 0.018
2M
R
+1 0.190 0.326 0.370 0.314 0.181
2M
R
+3 0.024 0.071 0.139 0.212
2M
R
+5 0.013 0.033
3M
R
0.335 0.123 0.083 0.171 0.113
3M
R
+2 0.044 0.139 0.203 0.716 0.062
3M
R
+4 0.012 0.047 0.104 0.157
3M
R
+6 0.016 0.044
4M
R
+1 0.163 0.157 0.008 0.105 0.068
4M
R
+3 0.012 0.070 0.132 0.115 0.009
4M
R
+5 0.034 0.084 0.119
4M
R
+7 0.017 0.050
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 32003):
Dr. Zainal Salam UTMJB
42
Threephase harmonics
• For threephase inverters, there is significant
advantage if M
R
is chosen to be:
– Odd: All even harmonic will be eliminated
from the poleswitching waveform.
– triplens (multiple of three (e.g. 3,9,15,21, 27..):
All triplens harmonics will be eliminated from
the linetoline output voltage.
• By observing the waveform, it can be seen that with
odd M
R
, the linetoline voltage shape looks more
“sinusoidal”.
• As can be noted from the spectra, the phase voltage
amplitude is 0.8 (normalised). This is because the
modulation index is 0.8. The line voltage amplitude
is square root three of phase voltage due to the
threephase relationship
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 32003):
Dr. Zainal Salam UTMJB
43
Effect of odd and “triplens”
2
dc
V
2
dc
V
−
2
dc
V
2
dc
V
−
2
dc
V
−
2
dc
V
−
2
dc
V
2
dc
V
dc
V
dc
V
dc
V −
dc
V −
π
π 2
RG
V
RG
V
RY
V
RY
V
YG
V
YG
V
6 . 0 , 8 = = M p
6 . 0 , 9 = = M p
ILLUSTRATION OF BENEFITS OF USING A FREQUENCY RATIO
THAT IS A MULTIPLE OF THREE IN A THREE PHASE INVERTER
Power Electronics and
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Dr. Zainal Salam UTMJB
44
Spectra: effect of “triplens”
0
2 . 0
4 . 0
6 . 0
8 . 0
0 . 1
2 . 1
4 . 1
6 . 1
8 . 1
Amplitude
voltage) line to (Line 3 8 . 0
Fundamental
41 43
39
37
45
47
23 19
21 63
61
59
57
65
67
69 77
79
81
83 85
87
89
91
19 23
43
47
41
37
61
59
65
67
83
79
85
89
COMPARISON OF INVERTER PHASE VOLTAGE (A) & INVERTER LINE VOLTAGE
(B) HARMONIC (P=21, M=0.8)
A
B
Harmonic Order
Power Electronics and
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Dr. Zainal Salam UTMJB
45
Comments on PWM scheme
• It is desirable to have M
R
as large as possible.
• This will push the harmonic at higher frequencies
on the spectrum. Thus filtering requirement is
reduced.
• Although the voltage THD improvement is not
significant, but the current THD will improve
greatly because the load normally has some current
filtering effect.
• However, higher M
R
has side effects:
– Higher switching frequency: More losses.
– Pulse width may be too small to be constructed.
“Pulse dropping” may be required.
Power Electronics and
Drives (Version 32003):
Dr. Zainal Salam UTMJB
46
Example
Harmonic
number
Amplitude (pole switching
waveform)
Amplitude (lineto
line voltage)
1 1
19 0.3
21 0.8
23 0.3
37 0.1
39 0.2
41 0.25
43 0.25
45 0.2
47 0.1
57 0.05
59 0.1
61 0.15
63 0.2
65 0.15
67 0.1
69 0.05
The amplitudes of the pole switching waveform harmonics of the red
phase of a threephase inverter is shown in Table below. The inverter
uses a symmetric regular sampling PWM scheme. The carrier frequency
is 1050Hz and the modulating frequency is 50Hz. The modulation
index is 0.8. Calculate the harmonic amplitudes of the linetovoltage
(i.e. red to blue phase) and complete the table.
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