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4.1 Decimals and Fractions 1. A decimal is a fraction with a denominator of 10 or a power of 10. 2. To convert a fraction into a decimal, divide the numerator by the denominator. 3. To change a decimal into a fraction. Divide it by the power of 10 such as 10, 100, 1 000,.. Example: 2 = 0.4 5 0.4 is read as zero point four i) ii) 3.08 = 3 + 8 100

Example: i) 7.9 1 digit to the right of the decimal point Therefore, 7.9 has 1 decimal point. ii) 7.94 2 digits to the right of the decimal point Therefore, 7.94 has 2 decimal points. iii) 7.948 3 digits to the right of the decimal point Therefore, 7.948 has 3 decimal points. 4.3 Addition and Subtraction of Decimals

4.4

Multiplication and Division of Decimals To multiply decimals (a) Multiply the decimals in the same way as whole numbers. (b) The number of decimal places in the answer is equal to the sum of decimal places in the individual decimals. Example : i) 3.45 x 1.7 = 5.865 3.45 ( 2 d.p.) x 1.7 ( 1 d.p.) 2415 345 5.865 ( 3 d.p.) ii) 6.9 ÷ 0.03 = 6.9 690 = 0.03 3 = 230

3.08 is read as three point zero eight 4.2 Place Value and Digit Value 1. Tens units Decimal tenths hundredths point 1 2 . 4 5 12.45 = 10 + 2 + 0.4 +0.05 4 5 + = 10 + 2 + 10 100 2. The decimal places are the places occupied by the digit after the decimal point.

To add or subtract decimals, arrange the digits of the same place value in the same vertical column. Example: 27.064 +1.3 + 0.91 = 29.274 27 . 064 1. 3 + 0 . 91 29 . 274

4.5 Combined Operations In performing the combined operations of decimals, we follow the same rule as those for whole nuir (a) Work out the expressions in brackets. (b) Do multiplication and division from left to right. (c) Do addition and subtraction from left to right. Example: 6x ( 4.1 – 2.12 ) ÷ 0.8 = 6 x 1.98 ÷ 0.8 = 11.88 / 0.8

**= 14.85 Chapter 5 PERCENTAGES (%) 5.1 Percentages 1. Percentage is a fraction out of 100. 2. Change a fraction into a percentage,
**

multiply it by 100%.

**1. To find the percentage of a quantity,
**

change into fraction and multiply by the quantity. Example: 30% of 400

5. Increase may be dividend, commission, simple interest or profit. Increase = % increase x original value Final value = Original value + increase Example : 300 is increased by 20 % Value of increase = 20 x300 = 60 100 Final value = 300 +60 = 360 6. Decrease may be discount or loss. Decrease = % decrease x original value Final value = Original value - decrease Example: Selling price = RM 500 Discount = 30% 30 xRM 500 100 = RM 150 Selling price = 500 – 150 =RM 350 Decrease =

**30 = x 400 100
**

= 120

**2. To find the percentage one number is of
**

another, change both quantities to the same unit, form a fraction and multiply by 100% Example: = 3 of 10

**3 Example: x 100% = 75% 4
**

3. To change a decimal into a percentage, multiply by 100%. Example: 0.29 x 100% = 29% 4. To change a percentage into fraction, divide by 100% and reduce to its lowest terms.

3 x 100% 10

= 30%

**3. To find a number given the percentage,
**

first find the value of 1 % then find the value of 100% of the number. Example: Given 10% of a number = 50 1% of a number 50 =

**30 Example:1.30% = 1 + 100 3 =1 10
**

5. To change a percentage into a decimal, divide by 100%. Example: 16% =

50 10

16 100

**50 The number = x 100 10
**

= 500

= 0.16

5.2 Perform computations

4. To find the percentage increase or decrease Percentage change = change in value original value x 100%

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