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JOHANNINE GRAMMAR

BY THE SAME AUTHOR


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JOHANNINE GRAMMAR

BY

Edwin A. Abbott

" He

settled

HotFs business

let

it

be

Properly based Oun."

Browning,

Grammarians

OF THE

UNIVER3
OF

LONDON
Adam

and Charles Black

1906

Funeral.

.'

Cambntjgc

PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M.A.


AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.

s
I*

TO

MY DAUGHTER
BY

WHOM THE JOHANNINE

MATERIALS FOR THIS WORK

WERE GATHERED AND ARRANGED


AND THE RESULTS CORRECTED AND REVISED
"JOHANNINE GRAMMAR"

IS

DEDICATED

156736

PREFACE
was

said

IT Vocabulary (1879),
Fourth Gospel than

in

half

of this

work, Johannine
There are more ambiguities in the
all the Three taken together, and it is

the

in

first

"

easy to put one's finger on the cause of


object of Johannine

ultimately

Grammar

explaining,

an

tries to
"

ideal who
"

help to
"

"

settle

of them."

One

to classify, with the view of

For
ambiguous passages
Hoti on my title-page may
1

these

example, what Browning


mean "that" or "because."

alas

is

many

calls

Browning extols his Grammarian


Hotts business." This work-

settled

"
it

unquestionably

it

has not yet

the Fourth Gospel, in some


passages
of which our translators halt between "that" and "because."

been

settled

in

for

Again, Johannine commentators of repute disagree as to


is speaking in certain portions of the Gospel.
Take, for

who

example,

we

i.

16

18

"For he was before me.


the only begotten Son,

all received

of the Father, he

hath declared [him]."

For of his fuhiess

which

is

in the bosom,

Origen attributed the

So did Irenaeus. Heracleon,


italicised passage to the Baptist.
and many critics in Origen's time, maintained that it proceeded partly from the Baptist, partly from the evangelist.
Alford and Westcott assert that the whole of

from the evangelist.


in

it

proceeds

Next take iii. 15 21 "...that whosoever believeth may


him have eternal life. For God so loved the world, that he
1

See Index, "Ambiguity," pp. 666vii

PREFACE
Son that whosoever believelh in him
For God sent not the
life.

his only begotten

gave

should not

perisli, but have eternal

Son... that they have been wrought in God."

Concerning the
"
It contains the reflections
passage Westcott says
of the evangelist and is not a continuation of the words of
italicised

the Lord."

many

Alford says that this view although held by


commentators is " as inconceivable as the idea of

St Matthew having combined into one the insulated sayings


Westcott maintains that his own conclusion

of his Master."

consistent with the tenor of the passage and

"

appears to
be firmly established from details of expression.
Some of
"
"
these details
such as only begotten Son,"
believe in the
is

'

name
gelist

"
of,"

do

belong

which are characteristic of the evan-

truth,"

to vocabulary rather than

favour of Westcott's view there

is

But

grammar.

a small point of

which attention might have been called, as


from the two passages to be next quoted.
to

in

grammar

will

be seen

One

of these, according to Westcott, follows or, according


to Alford, is part of the last words of the Baptist, thus

hi.

30 36 "He must

cometh from above

is

increase, but

above

He

must decrease.

all... For

he

whom God

that

hath sent

words of God ; for he giveth not the Spirit by


measure... the wrath of God abideth on him!'
Concerning

speaketh the

the whole of these six verses ("

him

W estcott
T

")

He

that cometh... abideth on

says that the section

"

contains reflections

of the evangelist"; and he calls attention to the use of the


"
"
title
Son absolutely, and to other details, as well as to the

Alford
tenor of the passage, as justifying his conclusion.
is
not peculiar to Westcott) an
this view (which

calls
"

"

arbitrary proceeding

but he himself abstains from any

argument based on grammatical or verbal detail.


The next instance occurs in the Dialogue between our
Lord and the Samaritan woman,

iv.

"

9 (R.V.)

thou, being a Jew, askest drink of me, which

woman?

{For Jews have no dealings


viii

How

am

with

is

it

that

a Samaritan

Samaritans)."

PREFACE
Chrysostom takes the italicised words as uttered by the
woman. The meaning would then be, "Jews as a rule do
not condescend to have dealings with Samaritans yet thou
:

askest a favour from


"

if

"

But some authorities omit the

Alford and Westcott (the

italicised words.

caveat

me

genuine

")

latter,

with the

say that they are an explanatory note

of the evangelist.
"
In favour of this last conclusion (that "Jews... Samaritans
is an evangelistic explanation) is the following grammatical

There are two words, on and yap, used by John


to express the conjunction "for."
For the most part, in
in his own comments,
Christ's words, he uses the former
the latter (2066). The latter occurs not only in the Samaritan
1

argument.

Dialogue but also in the two previously quoted passages.


It is a matter of minute detail
but, so far as it goes, it
;

view favoured

confirms

Westcott's

matical

considerations

that

all

also

three

by other gramare

comments (1936).
The labour has been much

greater,

than

But the more

anticipated or desired.

evangelistic

and the book longer,


fully

studied

the Gospel and its most ancient MSS., versions, and commentators, the more necessary it seemed to give the evidence,
if at all, at full length.
Conclusions stated confidently, and

with abundance of references, frequently assume an entirely


different complexion when the references are verified and

quoted accurately with their complete contexts.


As to the lines on which the book is constructed, they
Shakespearian Grammarpublished nearly forty years ago but presumably still found
useful as it is still in demand.
Besides many points of

are

the

same

as

those of

my

By "John" is meant, throughout the whole of this volume, the writer of the
Fourth Gospel, of which the originator may have been (as the Gospel suggests)
John the son of Zebedee, but of which the writer, the exact nature of the
1

origination,

and the exact extent

and blended allegory with

fact,

to

which the writer paraphrased, commented,

are (in

my

ix

opinion) at present

unknown.

PREFACE
two works have two broad assumptions

similarity in detail, the

common.
The Shakespearian Grammar assumed

in

that Shakespeare

wrote, with a style of his own, in English that he read and


Hence North's Plutarch, Florio's Montaigne, the
spoke.

and especially his own works comanother were treated as safer guides to

Elizabethan dramatists
with

pared

one

meaning than Milton, Dryden, and Pope. A


assumption is made in the Johannine Grammar.
his

similar

The

Johannine language in general has been carefully classified


with a view to the elucidation of particular passages
and
;

the Synoptists, the New Testament as a whole,


150 A. I), have been recogEpictetus, and the Papyri of 50
nised as safer guides than writers of the third century and
far safer than those of the fourth.
This assumption is even

the

LXX,

truer

about John

given,

in

about

than

some measure,

Shakespeare, to

whom was

the very rare privilege of anticipating,

or shaping, the language of posterity.

My

Shakespearian

speare was a great

Grammar

also assumed that ShakeAbout John, I have tried to

poet.

subordinate strictly to grammatical inferences my conviction


that he, too, is a master of style and phrase, as well as an
inspired

prophet

he did not at
"

the Second

another"
or

all

but

events

Epistle

like a

boat-race.

have

modern

bound

assume that

to

misuse words like the author of

of St
_

felt

Peter,"

"

or

use one word for

journalist describing a cricket-match

For example, where John

is

by our Revised Version as saying that Jesus


head" upon the cross,
argued,
that it must be rendered "laid
I

in

his

represented
"

bowed

his

"Johannine Vocabulary,"
head to rest," and that,

if so, the expression mystically implied "rest on the bosom


of the Father."
This rendering was based entirely on dry

hard grammatical evidence shewing that the phrase had no


have subsequently
meaning in the Greek language.

other

PREFACE
discovered that Origen thrice assumes this to be the meaning
(" inclinasse caput super gremium Patris ").

Besides these two assumptions, the Johannine Grammar


namely, that the author
recognises one strong probability

was an honest man

some commentators hardly


some seventy years or
indeed
recognise), writing
but
still
with some knowledge
the
more after
Crucifixion,

seem

(a fact that

to

of what

lie

to those for

had read

wrote about, and with some sense of responsibility


whom he wrote. His Christian readers (I assume)

earlier Gospels, which,

writer of a

if

new Gospel was bound

an honest

authoritative,

to take into account.

For

example, the Synoptists express themselves differently and


"
somewhat obscurely as to the " authority
possessed by
Christ and imparted

of true

by

"

"

authority

discussed

Him
It

by Epictetus.

John's teaching on

The meaning
much

to the disciples.

of great moral importance, and

is

assumed

is

this point

as

was intended

probable

that

to elucidate that

of the Synoptists.
I venture
to think that the Index to N.T. passages will
supply something like a continuous commentary on the

Fourth Gospel, and that the Index to Greek words

will

reader to compare Johannine, Synoptic, literary,


help
and vernacular Greek. The English Index contains copious
the

references

Epictetus,

to

indicating

circumstances
originator,

interpreted

Origen,

amid

Nonnus,

which

was committed

by the

of

lines

earliest

Chrysostom,

thought

the

Gospel

to writing

by

Philo,

illustrative

its

issued

of

from

author, and

and
the
its

was

extant commentaries.

of the grammatical details must of course be


and unsuitable for any but Greek scholars. But
an attempt has been made by translating literally many

Many

abstruse

of the

quotations,

by comparing the

Authorised with the

Revised Version, and by illustrating Greek from English


idiom to make several interesting peculiarities of Johannine

xi

PREFACE
style intelligible to readers unacquainted with

Greek

literature

except through translations. In order to give easy access to


all such oases in the classical desert, and a bird's-eye view
of

some of them, the English Index has been made very


contains, for example,

It

copious.

The

biguity."

two columns on

reader will also find references to

"

"

Am-

Allusiveness,"

"Emphasis," "Mysticism," "Narrowing Down," "Parenthesis,"


"
"
"
Self-correction."
Many of
Repetition," and
Quotation,"
these subjects will

sincerely believe

be better understood

by a student with little or no knowledge of Greek but much


knowledge of literature, than by one case-hardened against
"
the classical
intellectual interests by a long course of
"

languages

For

unintelligently

my

and unwillingly studied.

"Notes on preceding Paragraphs" (2664

799)

am under great obligations to Professor Blass's Grammar


of New Testament Greek, even where
have been led to
To Dr Joseph B. Mayor, in
differ from its conclusions'.
I

whose works on the Epistle of St James and on Clement of


Alexandria I have found rich stores of Greek learning, and
to

Dr

of

\V.

Rhys Roberts,

Leeds,

whose

Demetrius, are

on Greek

style,

of interesting and stimulative information

am

indebted for correction of

my

proofs

nor must
very useful criticisms and suggestions
omit brief but hearty thanks to the Cambridge University

and
I

full

Professor of Greek at the University


of Longinus, Dionysius, and

editions

for

Press.

EDWIN
Wells idf

Hampstead
20 Dec.

905

See Huh' on
xii

p.

xxvii.

A.

ABBOTT.

CONTENTS
PAGE

References and Abbreviations

xxv xxvii

Introduction

The scope of the proposed work (1886 7)


The arrangement and proportions of the work

BOOK

(1888

93)

FORMS AND COMBINATIONS OF WORDS


General warning as

to use of

Index (1894*)

Adjectives
(i)

Used

(ii)

Special

predicatively (1894)

(a)

Movos (1895, 2664)

(j8)

npwros (18961901, 26657)

Adverbs
Intensive (1902)

(i)

(ii)

Special

(a)

"Ava6ev (19038)

(0)

"Apn, see vvv (1915

(y)

'Eyyis (1909)

(8)

EMur and

(i))

(0

ev6Cs (191015)
Nvv and apn (1915 (i) (vi))
Ourcos (19167)

(17)

Happrjaia (1917

(6)

Td X eiov (1918)

(e)

A. vi.

(i)

(vi))

xiii

CONTENTS
Anacoluthon
Generally (1919)

(i)

(ii)

The Subject suspended (19202)

(iii)

Digression (19234)

(iv)

Impressionism (1925

7)

AoRlST, see Index

APODOSIS, see Index

Apposition

With proper names

(i)

(1928)

(ii)

In subdivisions

(iii)

Explaining, or defining (not with Participle) (1931

(iv)

With

Noun

(v)

Participle

repeated

Of Pronoun

(vi)

Article

(see also

Before

(i)

(192930)

T937 45)
in

Apposition (1946)

with preceding Subject (1947)

266974)

Nouns

in general (1948)

Inserted, or omitted, before special

(ii)

(a)

(0)
(y)

Heaven (19528)

(S)

Man

(0

(195961)
Mountain (19623)
Only begotten (1964)

(17)

Prophet (1965)

(e)

"
(8)

Nouns

Fathers (194950)
Feast (1951)

Teacher

!!

[of

(1966)

srael]

Names (196770)

(iii)

Before

(iv)

With

(v)

With Non-Possessive Adjectives (19826)

(vi)

With Possessive Adjectives (19879)

(vii)

Omitted, or misplaced (1990

(viii)

With

Participle

and

"

is

"

or " are

"

4)

Infinitive (1995)

Asyndeton
(i)
(ii)

Johannine use of (19969)


Classification of references (2000

xiv

8)

(197181)

6)

CONTENTS
CASES
Accusative

Adverbial (200911)

(i)
(ii)

Absolute, or suspensive (2012)

(iii)

Denoting time, but not duration (2013)

Cognate (2014)

(iv)

With

(v)

special verbs

(a)

'Aicouo)

(j8)

Teiofiai

(y)

UpoaKVi>(u> (2019)

(2015)

(20168)

Dative

II

Of instrument

(i)

(2020)

(iii)

Of time (completion) (20214)


Of point of time (2025-6)

(iv)

With

(ii)

-napa (2027)

Genitive

III
(i)

Absolute (202831)

(ii)

Objective or subjective (2032

(iii)

Partitive

(iv)

Before

(v)

Special passages

IV

40)

(20412)

Nouns

(2043)

(a)

With

()

Tifcpidbos (2045)

npaiTos

and

Trpcorov (2044)

(y)

'H 8ia(nropa

(8)

Ta

(e)

UapaaKevr] tov Tvacr\a (2048)

tS>v 'EAAi/i'coi'

j3aia tcov (poiviKcov

(2046)

(2047)

Nominative
Special passage

(i)

(a)

'O

Kvpuk pov (204951)

V Vocative

(see also

267982)

Special passages

(i)

(a)

Uar^p (20523)

Conjunctions
(i)

(ii)

(1894*)

for

a.v,

lav, orav,

'6t,

see Index

Johannine use of (2054)

'AXXd
(a)

'AXXd = contrariety,

"not

this

but

that,

or,

something

more" (20557)

xv

b 2

CONTENTS
Special passages (20602)
'AXX' in (20634)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

(a)

Synoptic and Johannine use (2065


Special passages (2067

8)

(/3)

Consecutive or adversative f2069 73)


Third word, or later, in its clause (20746

(y)

Mo/...8e(2077)

El

corresponding

(a)

Ei,

(j8)

Et 8e

Words

to av, in

of the Lord (2078

9,

m (20806)

'Eirei
'E7T6i Trapaa-Ktvi)

rji>

(2087

8)

"Ecus

Not confused with

(a)
(viii)

(20589)

(/3)

(a)
(vii)

"

Tip

(a)

"H and

cos-

(2089)

r\-ntp

(a)

"H (2090-1)

(0)

"H7T6P (2092)

"Iva (see also

268690)

(a)

In John, expresses, or implies, purpose (2093)

(0)

In John, never merely appositional (2094

(y)

Special passages (20972103)

6)

(f)

and Subjunctive, compared with Infinitive (2104


Omission of principal verb before Iva (2105 12)
Dependent on verb implied in question (2113;

(77)

With

(6)

Connexion

(0

"lva...iva

(8)
()

"iva

Indicative (2114)
of (2115)

(2116 21)

KaOois

(0)

Suspensive (2122)
Followed by Kai or Kyd>

(y)

Supplementary (212832

(a)

(xi)

nevertheless

(y)
(8)

(x)

"

'AXXfl

(iii)

(ix)

= difference,

03)

in

Apodosis (2123

7)

KaC
(a)

(0)
(y)

Km in narrative (Hebraic) (21334)


Km connecting affirmation and negation
Km = " and yet " (213640)
xvi

(2135)

CONTENTS
(8)

Special instances of

()

(f )

Km
Km

(77)

Km'

meaning
in

"

also

(t)
((C)

KllKt'lVOS

in Crasis (2150)

(2151)

Kai iav (21589)

(p)

K&v (2160)
Km... Km, "both... and" (21616)
Kal yap (2167)

(a-)

Km' omitted between two adjectives (2168)

(*)

Mv,

(xii)

|xvToi

(216970)

(xiii)

"Ottov (21712)

(xiv)

"Oirws (2173)

"On

(xv)

(see also

2694-5)

(0)

"On (1) suspensive, (2) explanatory (21747)


"On introducing (1) cause of action, (2) ground

(y)

statement (217880)
"On (?) " that " or " because

(8)

"On

(a)

"

(21816)

(2187)

(e)

Ov X on (2188)

(0

"Or< recitativum

(218990)

Ovv

(xvi)

(a)

(0)

In Christ's words (21917)


Applied to Christ's acts (21982200)

'fis

(xvii)

(a)

'<fc(?) for

(/3)

'fly

"ft

(xviii)

"as

it

eas (2201)

were" (2202)

(2203, 2697)

Ellipsis

(a)

icadws etc. in Protasis (2148)

(0

(o)

(ii)

el,

fyis (2149)

(|)

(/*)

5)

(2147)

Km " also," connexion of (21523)


Km " also " in viii. 25 (21546)
Km meaning " [indeed] and " (2157)

(X)

(i)

"

yet

"

Apodosis, after a,

Km
Km

(6)

= u and

(2141
introducing an exclamation (2146)
kcii

Of two kinds

(2204)

Contextual (22059)
'Ei> oui* 6((x>prjT(

(2210

2)
xvii

of

CONTENTS
(iii)

Idiomatic
"

Ellipsis of

(a)

Ellipsis

(fl)

(?)

"

Ellipsis of

(y)

some " (22135)

of " gate

daughter

'AAA' Iva, see

(8)
()

Oi x

(0

Ellipsis after

(i?)

Ellipsis of

Sti

"

(2216)
"
"
(or

wife

"
?)

(2217;

20634 and 210512

(22189)
"

am "

(22208)

cWt (222930)

Imperative, see Index


Infinitive, see Index

Interrogative Sentences
(i)

Interrogative particles (2231)

Or rf (2232)
ObKoiv (22334)

(a)
(j8)

Mij (2235)

(y)
(ii)

Interrogative tone (223647)

(iii)

Questions without interrogative particle (2248)

(iv)

Indirect interrogative (2249

51)

Mood
(i)

(ii)

Imperative, Indicative, Infinitive, and Subjunctive, see Index

Optative (2252)

Negative Particles
M^j (22534)

(i)

Ov

(ii)

(i-q

with Future and Subjunctive (2255)

(iii)

El ov (2256)

(iv)

Ov...ov8ek (2257)

(v)

Ovt..W (22589)

(vi)

Ov

(vii)

Ov

(or

|xt()

combined with was (2260

3)

v.r. oWa) (22645)


Ov X <(2265(i))

(viii)

Number
(i)

(ii)
(iii)

Plural referring to preceding Singular (2266)


Plural Neuter with Plural

Verb (2267)

Special words

(a)

Ae/tara f2268

(j8)

'i/xaVta

-9)

(2270)

xviii

CONTENTS
Participle (1894*)
Causal (22713)

(i)

Tenses of (see also Tense 24992510)

(ii)

Tv(pUs &v (2274)


ovpava (2275)

(a)

'O u>v iv tg>

(/3)

'H

(y)

(2276)

tKfidtjacra

(iii)

Present with r> (2277)

(iv)

Agreement of (2278)

(v)

Prefatory use of (2279)

Prepositions

(for o-vv see

2799

(ii))

Introductory Note (2280)


(i)

'Avci

(ii)

'Avri (22847)

(iii)

'Am5

(22813)

(a)

'Afl-o

(0)

'Atto,

and

e<

meaning "[some]

of,"

see 2213

transposition of (2288)

and

(y)

'Atto

(8)

'A7ro, in,

e\ describing domicile or birthplace (2289

and napd, with

e(pxop.ai, see 2326

93)

Aid (see also 2705, 2715)

(iv)

with Accusative of Person (22942300)

(i)

Aiti

(2)

Aui with Genitive of Person (23014)


Els (see also 2706

(v)

For

(a)

TTia-rcuew

foil.)

eir,

see 1480

foil.

(y)

Eis without verb of motion (2305


"
"
"
or " into (231011)
to
Ei's,

(8)

Eis fatjv almviov (2312

(|3)

(e)

"O^ovrm

(f)

Eis reAos

9)

6)

(23178)
(231923)

els

'Ek

(vi)

(a)

(0)

"
meaning some of," see 2213 5
"
'Ek
native of," as distinguished from
meaning
"coming from," or "resident in," see 2289 93

'Ek

(y)

'Ek fiirpov (2324)

(8)

'Ek with

(e)

'Ek, dno,

()

'Ek with irXrjpooi

(vii)

(rco^o)

and

and

irapd,

rr/pe'co

(2325)

with etjtpxopai (2326

and

ye/xi co

"E^-irpoo-ecv (2330)

xix

(2329)

8)

drro

CONTENTS
'Ev

(viii)

"

(a)

'Ev used metaphorically,

03)

'Ev used temporally (2331)

(y)

'Ev quasi-instrumental (2332)

(8)

'Ev used locally, iv tu yao<f)v\aKia> (2333

(ix)

'Evwiriov (2335)

(x)

'Eiri

e.g.

in,"

see 1881

4)

'Eni with Accusative (2336)

(i)
(2)

'Eiri

with Dative (23379)

(3)

'Errl

with Genitive
e a \a(T(rr,s (23406)

(a)

'Eirl t?is

(/3)

'Ent tov araupov (2347)

Kara

(xi)

abide

(2348)

MtTd

(xii)

(a)

Mera

((3)

Ot

(y)

Mera compared with

'lovBalov

/xer'

avrov

(234950)
ovra (2351)

rrapd (2352

3)

Ilapa

(xiii)

(1)

Ilapa with Accusative (2354)

(2)

Ilapa with Dative

and perd with Genitive, see 2352


Synoptic and Johannine use (2355)

Ilapa with Dative

(a)

O)
(3)

Ilapa with Genitive (2356)

(4)

Ilapa

with

Genitive

and

with

Dative

interchanged

(23579)

n P

(xiv)

(2360)

nP6

(xv)

(a)

(0)

npo e'poG (23612)


npo transposed, see 2288

IIpos

(xvi)

(1)

npdy with Accusative, with verb of

(2)

Ilpdy repeated after verb of

(3)

npo? with Dative (2368)

(xvii)
(xviii)

'Yir^p

'Yir6

(236971, see also 271822)

and (htokcL (2372)


with Accusative (2372)

(1)

'Ytto

(2)

'Ytto with Genitive (2373)

XX

rest

(2363

motion (2367)

6)

CONTENTS

PRONOUNS
Demonstrative

Avros (237480, see also 27237)

(i)

'EKtivos

(ii)

(23815, see also 272932)

Ovtos(2386)

(iii)

(a)

Am

(j8)

'Ev roirco

tovto (238791)

(23923)
Mera tovto or tcivtci (2394)
Avroi) omitted and raCra repeated (2395

(y)
(8)

Toiovtos (2398)

(iv)

Personal

II

(i)

Insertion for emphasis (23992400)

(ii)

'EyA (2401)
2{,

(iii)

(24024)

Relative

III

"Os

(i)

(j8)

Attraction of the Relative (24057)


'Ev rw ovo^iaTi aov w 8(8a>Kcis /xoi (2408

(y)

'~Evto\i]v Kaivr)v...o (2412)

(a)

(ii)

"Oo-ns (2413)
"Oo-tls av, or iav

(a)

(24146)

Subject
Collective or

(i)

noun group (2417

(ii)

Neuter plural (241920)

(iii)

Suspended (2421)
Tlav 6 Se'Sw/caf (2422,

(a)

Omitted

(iv)

in partitive

8)

27404)

clauses (2423)

"They" non-pronominal (24246)

(v)

"
(vi)

We "
We

"
(a)

non-pronominal (24278)

know

"

(ot8a/xn/)

(242935)

TENSE
Tense-rules and word-rules (2436)
I

7)

In

the Imperative Mood

Aorist

(first)

and Present (24379

xxi

(v))

11)

CONTENTS
the Indicative Mood

In

II

(i)

Aorist

(2)

Aorist of special verbs

(0)

'Akovw (24502)
'AjtootAXgi (2453)

(y)

At'Sw/xi

(8)

Elrrov (2456)

(e)

"Ep^o/iai

(a)

(24545)

and

Aorist for English Pluperfect (245962)

(3)

Future, see 2484

(ii)

i^ip^ofiai (2457)

Mevco (2458)

(0

foil,

and 2255

Imperfect

(iii)

The Imperfect

(1)
(a)

(/3)

in

general (2463

(1)

As

(2)

As

(3)

the result of Johannine style (24735)

the result of Johannine thought (2476


Second Perfects (24789)

(v)

Pluperfect (24801)

(vi)

Present (see also

27606

Historic Present (24823)

(2)

Present of Prophecy and Present of

In the Infinitive
Infinitive

(i)

IV

compared with

Iva

Aorist (24992505)
Perfect (2506)

(ii)

Present (250710)

(iii)

the Subjunctive Mood

In

Aorist and Present (2511)


(o)

In Deliberative Subjunctive (2512)


tdv (or &v) " if" (25135 (i))

(j8)

With

(y)

With

(2484

94)

and Subjunctive (2495

In Participles
(i)

Law

Mood

Aorist and Present (24968, 2767)

(ii)

7)

(i))

(1)

III

(i)

(i))

"EXeyoy (246770)
"HdeXov (24712)

Perfect

(iv)

274755 and 278590)


compared with Perfect (2440 9)

Aorist (see also

(i)

Sv and Relative (2516)

xxii

CONTENTS
(5)

"Av Tivav KpcniJTe (251720)

With
With

(e)

(0

"Iva

(77)

fiij

With

(6)

m (25213)

ihp
Iva

(25249)

Codex B)

awoBvi-ja-Ki] (vi. 50, in

orai.

(2530)

(2531-5)

Voice
Middle

(i)

(a)

Alrovpai (2536)

03)

'ArroKpivaaBai (2537)

Passive

(ii)

(a)

'Efcpv/37;

(253843)

BOOK

II

ARRANGEMENT, VARIATION, AND REPETITION


OF WORDS
CHAPTER

ARRANGEMENT AND VARIATION

Variation in repetition or quotation (2544

Chiasmus (2554

The

53)

7)

Possessive Genitive (255869, see also 277684)

Miscellaneous (257086)

CHAPTER

II

REPETITION

2
3

The nature

of Johannine repetition (2587)

Jewish canons of repetition (2588

90)

Repetition through negation (2591)


Repetition in the Synoptists (25923)

The Johannine Prologue

(2594

7)

Johannine repetition through negation (2598

Twofold repetition

in the Baptist's

xxiii

2600)

teaching (26012)

CONTENTS
Twofold repetition

in Christ's

Twofold repetition

in narrative (2607)

io

words (26036)

Twofold or threefold repetition (2608

11)

Threefold repetition (261223)

1 1

Sevenfold repetition (2624

12

7)

CHAPTER

III

CONNEXION OF SENTENCES
Self-corrections (262830)

Parentheses (26315

Instances of doubtful connexion (2636

(ii))

APPENDIX

40)

TWOFOLD MEANINGS AND EVENTS

Our Lord's Sayings (2641 2),


and of the Evangelist (2643

(2645),

The Sayings of the


3 The Sayings

4),

Disciples
of others

4 Events (26469)

APPENDIX

II

READINGS OF CODEX VATICANUS NOT ADOPTED BY

WESTCOTT AND HORT

12

Introductory

(26503),

Remarks
3

List of

Tischendorf and the Photograph


Readings (265462), Pause-spaces

(2663)

NOTES ON PRECEDING PARAGRAPHS


For summary of Contents, see pp. 506

(2664-2799)

INDICES
To Johannine Vocabulary, (i) N.T. Passages,
pp. 625 51
To Johannine Grammar, (i) N.T. Passages,
pp.

65287

xxiv

(ii)

(ii)

English,

(iii)

Greek,

English,

(iii)

Greek,

REFERENCES AND ABBREVIATIONS

REFERENCES
Black Arabic numbers refer to paragraphs in this volume (1886
2799) or in preceding volumes of Diatessarica

(i)

273

The Books

(ii)

1885 Johannine

of

are

Scripture

where

except

breviations,

272 =Clue.
552 = Corrections.

5531149= From Letter


1150 1435 = Paradosis.
1436

to Spirit.

Vocabulary.

referred

to

by the ordinary abBut when it is

below.

specified

Matthew, or any other writer, wrote


understood as meaning the writer,
whoever he may be, of the words in question, and not as
meaning that the actual writer was Samuel, Isaiah, or Matthew.
said

that Samuel,

this

or that,

is

it

Isaiah,

be

to

The

the Latin
principal Greek MSS. are denoted by N, A, B, etc.
The Syriac version discovered by
versions by a, b, etc., as usual.

(iii)

Mrs Lewis on Mount


It

is

Sinai

is

referred to as SS,

Mr

always quoted from

Syrian."
regret that in the

name was omitted

first

in

three vols, of Diatessarica

connexion with

i.e.

"

Sinaitic

Burkitt's translation.

Mrs

Lewis's

this version.

The

text of the Greek Old Testament adopted is that of B, edited


1
of the New, that of Westcott and Hort.
by Professor Swete

(iv)

Modern works

(v)

vol.,

are referred to by the

and page,

e.g.

Levy

iii.

343 a,

name

i.e.

vol.

of the work, or author,


iii.

p.

343, col.

1.

ABBREVIATIONS
= Aquila's
=
Apol. Justin
Aq.

Blass, see

version of O.T.

Martyr's First Apology.

Addendum on

p. xxvii.

= BuhPs edition of Gesenius, Leipzig, 1899.


Burk. = Mr F. C. Burkitt's Evangelion Da-meftharreshe, Cambridge
Buhl

University Press, 1904.

Codex B, though more ancient than Codex A,

Hebrew than

the latter {Clue 33)-

XXV

is

often less close to the

REFERENCES AND ABBREVIATIONS


C. before

Canon.
Chr.

numbers = circa, "about"

LXX = lhe

= Chronicles.
=
words

Chri.

///*'

{e.g. c.

canonical books of

10).

LXX.

of Christ, as distinct from narrative, see 1672*.

= Clement of Alexandria in Potter's page 42.


Dalman, Words= Words of Jesus, Eng. Transl. 1902; Aram. G.=

Clem. Alex. 42

Grammatik Aramaisch,

1894.

Demosth. 433 = Teubner's marginal page 433 of Demosthenes; but


Demosth. (Preuss) xxvii. 3 = p. 3 of Orat. xxvii. in Teubner, as in Preuss's
Concordance.
Diatess. = the Arabic Diatessaron, sometimes called Tatian's, translated by Rev. H. W. Hogg, B.D., in the Ante-Nicene Christian Library.
Ency.

= Encyclopaedia

Biblica.

Ephrem = Ephraemus

Syrus, ed. Moesinger.


= the First Epistle of St John.
Epistle, the
Euseb. = the Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius.
Field

= Origenis Hexaplorum

Otium Norvicense,

quae

supersunt,

Oxford,

Gesen. = the Oxford edition of Gesenius.


Heb. LXX = that part of LXX of which the Hebrew

Heb. = Horae

Hor.

a l so

1875,

1881.

Hebraicae,

by John

is

Lightfoot,

extant.

1658

74,

ed.

Gandell, Oxf. 1859.


Iren. = the treatise of Irenaeus against Heresies.
severally the Targum of "Jonathan Ben
Jer. Targ. (or Jer.) I and II
Uzziel" and the fragments of the Jerusalem Targum on the Pentateuch.

K.

= Kings.

Levy = Levy's Neuhebriiischcs und Chalddisches Worterbuch, 4 vols.,


Leipzig, 1889; Levy Ch. =Chalddisches Worterbuch, 1 vols., 1881.
L.S. = Liddell and Scott's Greek Lexicon.
Narr. = in narrative, as distinct from {a) speech of Christ, (b) speech
generally (1672*).

=
Origen, Huet, or Lomm., ii. 340 vol. ii. p. 340 of Huet or Lommatzsch
is
also
sometimes
reader
The
guided by reference to the text,
severally.
e.g.

commentary on Numbers.
Oxford Concordance to the Septuagint.
Papyri are indicated by Pap. [from the] Berlin [Museum] and Pap.
vi, viz. 6>.vy[rynchus]
iv,
the] Egypt [Exploration Society], vols,

Numb.

xiv.

Oxf. Cone.

[of

23 in O.'s

= The

Fayum

v,

71V;/[unis]

vi.

means peculiar to Matthew, Luke, etc.


by Mangey's volume and page, e.g. Philo ii. 234,
as to the Latin treatises, by Auchers pages (P. A.) (see 1608).
Resell = Resch's Parol leltcxtc (4 vols.).
to Mt., Lk., etc.,

Pec, affixed

I'hilo is referred to

or,

S.

= Samuel

s.

= "see."

- Schottgen's Horae Hebraicae, Dresden and


Schottg.

xxvi

Leipzig, 1733.

REFERENCES AND ABBREVIATIONS


Sir.

= the work

of

Ben

Sira,

The

Ecclesiasticus (see 20a).

i.e.

the son of Sira.

original

by Cowley and Neubauer, Oxf. 1897

Camb.

It is commonly called
Hebrew has been edited, in part,

in part,

by Schechter and Taylor,

1899.

SS, see

(iii)

above.

= Stephani Thesaurus (Didot).


Steph. or Steph. Thes.
=
version
of O.T.
Sym. Symmachus's
Theod. = Theodotion's version of O.T.

Tromm. = Trommius' Concordance to the Septnagint.


Tryph. = the Dialogue between Justin Martyr and Trypho the Jew.
Wetst. = Wetstein's Comm. on the New Testament, Amsterdam, 75 1.
W.H. = Westcott and Hort's New Testament.
1

e.g.

bracketed Arabic number, following Mk, Mt., etc., indicates


of instances in which a word occurs in Mark, Matthew, etc.,
dydnrj Mk (o), Mt. (1), Lk. (1), Jn (7).

(a)

the

number

(6)

Where

numbered

verses

Hebrew, Greek, and Revised Version, are

in

differently, the

number

of R.V.

given alone.

is

ADDENDUM
Blass = Second English Edition of Professor
New Testament Greek, Macmillan and Co., 1905.
my hands till this volume was in the press. But

use of

it

in

foot-notes,

and

more

still

in

Blass's

Grammar

of

come into
have made copious

It

did not

the " Notes on Preceding

Dr Blass regards as interpolations some


should treat as evangelistic comment and he appears

Paragraphs" (2664799).
passages that
to

me

much importance to the testimony of Chrysostom


whom Field, Chrys. Comm. Matth. vol. iii. p. 153 uses the

to attach too

(concerning
"
weighty words, Chrysostomo, Scriptori in libris citandis incuriosissimo,"
of which the reader will find ample proof in the following pages) and
too little to that of Origen.
But even where, as is frequently the case,

my

conclusions differ from

for his succinct

his,

gladly acknowledge

my

obligation

statement of the evidence favouring his views, and

calling attention to points that

had escaped

xxvn

my

notice.

for

INTRODUCTION
The

i.

scope

of the proposed work

[1886] Obscurity of style in an inflected language is caused


3
2
ambiguity (i) in words (2) in inflexions of words (3) in

by

combinations of words 4

The

First Part of this work, Johannine

Vocabulary, dealt with characteristic, or characteristically used,


"
"
Johannine words, such as believe," and authority," with the

synonyms, and with the relation between


But the words

principal Johannine

the Johannine and the Synoptic Vocabularies.

were almost exclusively verbs, nouns, adjectives, and adverbs.


The article could not be represented statistically in the Voof the pronouns and conjunctions;
and only a general view could be given of the difference
between the Johannine and the Synoptic use of prepositions.
cabularies, nor could

many

These words must therefore now be added

to the

above mentioned as remaining to be


inflexions, and combinations of words.

discussed

two subjects

namely,

This is the sixth part of the series


part of the series ("Johannine Vocabulary") terminated with subsection 1885.
2
E.g. "apprehend" (1443, 17356' g) may mean "understand" or
"
take prisoner."
3 "
Inflexions" include those of all parts of speech.
1

See references on pp. xxv

entitled Diatessarica.

The

foil.

fifth

and

"Combinations" include those


in

paragraphs

A. VI.

in phrases, in clauses, in sentences,

(or sections).
I

INTRODUCTION
|

The

I.

scope

of the proposed ivork

[1886] Obscurity of style in an inflected language is caused


2
3
ambiguity (i) in words (2) in inflexions of words (3) in

by

combinations of words 4

The

First Part of this work, Johannine

Vocabulary, dealt with characteristic, or characteristically used,


Johannine words, such as "believe," and "authority," with the
principal Johannine synonyms, and with the relation between
But the words
the Johannine and the Synoptic Vocabularies.
were almost exclusively verbs, nouns, adjectives, and adverbs.

The

article

could not be represented statistically in the Vomany of the pronouns and conjunctions;

cabularies, nor could

and only a general view could be given of the difference


between the Johannine and the Synoptic use of prepositions.
These words must therefore now be added to the two subjects
above mentioned as remaining to be
inflexions, and combinations of words.

See references on pp. xxv

discussed

namely,

This is the sixth part of the series


part of the series ("Johannine Vocabulary") terminated with subsection 1885.
1

entitled Diatessarica.

"

The

foil.

fifth

2
E.g. "apprehend" (1443, 1735 eg) may mean "understand" or
take prisoner."
3 "
Inflexions" include those of all parts of speech.
4

and

"
in

Combinations
paragraphs

A. VI.

"

include those in phrases, in clauses, in sentences,

(or sections).
I

INTRODUCTION

[1887]

In Johannine

[1887]

Grammar

it

is

proposed to treat of

these matters with a view to two objects.


to ascertain the evangelist's

The

meaning the second


;

first
is

object

to

examine the

Greek, or in a

Grammar

great

Grammar

deal will be omitted that would be inserted in a

New Testament

compare

or contrast his Gospel with those of the Synoptists.

is

of

that proposed to

differences between Johannine and, for example,

Pauline style. On the other hand, a great deal will be inserted


that would not find place in a treatise attempting simply
to elucidate the obscurities of the Fourth Gospel.
As in

Johannine Vocabulary, so in Johannine Grammar, many


remarks that may seem superfluous for explaining the special
passage under discussion may be found to be justified hereafter

by the use made of them


in the Four Gospels

in a

commentary on

parallel passages

The arrangement and proportions of

2.

[1888]
ness, will

tJic

work

Logical arrangement, symmetry, and completebe subordinated to the object of illuminating the

Fourth Gospel as a whole, and passages of recognised


in particular,

idioms.

For

by

difficulty

ready reference to groups of similar Johannine

this purpose,

English alphabetical order will be

adopted as regards subjects, e.g. Adjectives, Adverbs, Anacoluthon, Asyndeton etc., and Greek order, for the most part, as
regards Greek words discussed separately under these several
"
in
accordance with the
Under " Adjectives
headings.

promise to omit all that did not bear on Johannine style


very little will be said except as to John's use of two or three

For the

special words.
'

Article"

makes the
Adverbs.

rest,

the reader will be referred to

since the repetition of the

article with

an adjective

emphatic. The same rule will apply to


"
the other hand, under Anacoluthon" (i.e. want

latter

On
1

Sec Johannine Vocabulary,


2

Prof. p.

ix.

INTRODUCTION

[1890]

of grammatical sequence) space will be given to the discussion


and " Asyndeton " i.e. the
of several difficult passages

between clauses and sen-

omission of connecting particles


tences

will

receive a space proportioned to the

instances in which

number of

causes ambiguity.
"
[1889] Under Mood," the reader will find hardly anything
except a reference to other headings and especially to "Tense."

The reason

it

that

is

occasionally (2511
a distinction of

many Johannine

foil.)

word

distinctions of

so important as almost to

arise

mood

amount

to

from the evangelist's distinction

between the present and the aorist in the same mood and may
be most conveniently discussed as Presents and Aorists rather
than as Imperatives, Subjunctives etc. Concerning the am"
Ye believe in
biguous Trio-revere in xiv. I rendered by R.V.

God, believe also in me," with a marginal alternative "Believe in


"
God," it was remarked three centuries and a half ago, It may
be read

in four

ways

."

There are several other passages of

a similar character about which

be said

to

arrived at

The
or

"

till

by

doomsday

much

the same thing is likely


some conclusion can be

unless

a grouping of similar Johannine

ambiguities.
best heading for these appeared to be, not " Indicative"

Imperative," but

"

Interrogative."

Under "Prepositions"

will be given avd, although


[1890]
occurs in only one Johannine passage, ii. 6 " two or three
firkins apiece" and dvrl, although that, too, occurs only in
it

i.

16 "grace for grace."

In the latter, not

much doubt

the meaning exists in the former, none at all.


But
space has been given to both, because it happens
;

expressions similar to these occur in the

Book of

as to

some
that

the Revela-

tion of St John and in the works of Philo, and, if questions


should arise hereafter, in dealing with the Fourfold Gospel, as

to allusiveness or latent mystical

these external quotations

So Suicer

(ii.

may

be of use.

721) quotes Erasmus,

meanings

"

in either passage,

Similarly, under

Quadrifariam

legi potest."

12

INTRODUCTION

[1891]

"
Pronouns," in treating the Johannine
will be made to ascertain, by reference to

"

usage (as well as to Johannine passages)

am," an attempt

Hebrew and LXX


when John uses it

he ever does) to mean simply " I am the person you speak


of," and when he uses it to mean (or to suggest) the divine

(if

AM.
In those

[1891]

parts of the

work which

relate to the

order and arrangement of words, something will need to be


about Philonian and Rabbinical canons of sacred

said

expression, and about the repetitions so frequent in Hebrew


For these may explain some
poetry and in Jewish liturgy.
curious twofold and threefold repetitions of the

same

state-

ment, and some

(logically speaking) superfluous combinations

of

and

is

affirmation

made

of these,

negation.

much

perhaps,

inexplicable,

in

even

when

the

most

except by particular influences and

The book seems

circumstances.

But

the Johannine style will remain

to

combine the occasional

man

with the general and pervasive


It
subtlety of a master of words in the prime of intellect.
has curious sevenfold arrangements of events and sayings
of an old

diffuseness

that strike a

modern reader

as highly artificial,

and

likely to

have required much forethought and elaboration. Yet sometimes it halts, adds after-thoughts, breaks into parentheses,
seems to make inexact statements and to correct them, and it
certainly mixes words of the Lord and of other speakers
with remarks of the evangelist in such a way that the most
careful commentators are tasked to disentangle them.
[1892]

Some

of the

we

phenomena above mentioned resemble

Apocalypse. Others indicate


a subtle use of Greek grammatical forms quite unlike any-

phenomena
thing

in

that

that

book.

find in the

Yet the Gospel has not two

Indeed, as has been pointed out in the Preface,


a

it

styles.

has such

sameness of style that the words of the Baptist or of


although distinguishable on close examination ap-

Christ

pear to

have been confused by some able


4

critics

with words of

INTRODUCTION

[1893]

the evangelist. There may, however, have been one originator


who did not write, and one writer, who did not originate. In

may have

other words, there

whom

the

and

second

been, in

later

while

effect,

two authors, of

impressing his

own

character on the style of the whole may have preserved here

and there with special fidelity (sometimes at the cost of


clearness, 1927 c) the traditions of the first, in whose name
he wrote nominally as an amanuensis but actually as an
expounder and interpreter. These considerations will come
before us

(2427

35)

discussing the remarkable textual


"
the disciple that beareth
passage about

variations in the

in

witness of these things," but they ought to be always so far

present that our minds may be kept open to


bearing on the question of authorship.

all

[1893] The Fourth Gospel is admitted by


scholars to be, in parts, extraordinarily obscure.
writer of history

is

evidence

all

Greek

No

honest

obscure, as a rule, except through careless-

ness or ignorance
ignorance, it may be, of the art of writing,
or of the subject he is writing about, or of the persons he is
addressing, or of the words he

is

using, but, in

any

case,

ignorance of something. But an honest writer of poetry


or prophecy may be consciously obscure because a message,
so to speak, has come into his mind in a certain form, and he

prove the best form ultimately, when his


readers have thought about it.
Instances will come before
feels this likely to

"

"
"
example, where on may mean that or because,"
and where Kadd><$ may look back to what precedes or forward
us, for

to

what follows

and as

to these

we may say

that the writer

preferred to let the reader think out the meaning


But what are we to say to
or the connexion for himself.

may have
x. 38

"

that ye

ye may
that the

the

may come

to

know definitely (yvcare) and that

continue in the ever

aorist

Father

is

in

me "

growing knowledge (yivcoo-Krjre)


Here the difference between

and the present subjunctive is so great as to


to the difference between two distinct words

amount almost

[1893]

but

We

is it

INTRODUCTION
like a poet or a

prophet to write after this fashion

must frankly admit that such language of which there


would appear highly artificial in
are many instances (2524)

any Greek writer unless there were

special reasons for

it,

as,

example, a desire to protest tacitly against some popular


and erroneous notions about "knowing" and "knowledge."
A Grammar is not the place to discuss the question whether
for

such notions existed and whether the evangelist would be


but it may be of use here to
likely to protest against them
;

prepare the reader for a multitude of such minute gramIn an ordinary book, we should stigmatical distinctions.

matize them as pedantry in the Fourth Gospel, they must


be explained (we may feel sure) by very different reasons.
The business of the Grammar will be to collect and classify
;

these and other peculiarities so as to lead the way to an


explanation that lies beyond the limits of a grammarian.

BOOK

FORMS AND COMBINATIONS


OF WORDS

'

OF

THE

BOOK

FORMS AND COMBINATIONS OF WORDS


General warning as

For all matter affecting Adjectives, Adverbs,


and not occurring under these several headings,
referred to the Index. For example, under the heading
N.B.

[1894*]

Anacoluthon
the reader

of Index

to use

is

etc.,

"Adjectives "in the following paragraphs nothing will be found about


their frequent use with the reduplicated article for emphasis, nor
about their occasional use with the ellipsis of a noun. But these

under the heading " Adjectives in the


Index at the end of the book, where the reader will find references
"
"
to
Article," to
Ellipsis," and to passages dealing with emphasis.
"

deficiencies will be supplied

Also, as regards some special adjectives, discussed at considerable


length, but not here (e.g. 18109, iro\v<s TrpofiaTLKrj), the reader will
i

be referred to the paragraphs dealing with them by the two Indices


of Greek words, where they will be found in their alphabetical order.

The Index

"

to the

the Index to the

"

Vocabulary

"Grammar,"

will give

their

the statistics of the words

grammatical use.

Adjectives
(i)

Used predicatively
[1894]

tpr/K-a?,

latter

The

which

adjective
is

might have

this," or (2)

is

used predicatively in

quite different from


meant (1) " Truly,

"Thou

i.e.

hast said this truly,

former means " This, at

all events,

iv.

tovto d\r)@<Zs

among

in truth,
i.e.

all

with

18 tovto d\r]6ls
elpr]Ka<;.

The

thou hast said

truth.''''

But the

that thou hast said,

is

ADJECTIVES

[1895]

true" implying
and

woman

that hitherto the

has talked in a reckless

trifling

way

Special

(ii)

Monoc

(a)

Mdvos occurs as follows

[1895]

believe, receiving glory

in v.

from one another:

from the only [God] (rrjv So^av ttjv irapa


"
euv is here omitted not only by
not
!

ab unico non quaeritis

and

")

the omission occurred in

omission

sometimes

similar letters 3

But

that the reading

can ye

fxovov [#eoi)]) ye seek


but also by a ("gloriam

too)

("honorem

ejus qui est solus'")".

If

might be explained as an

it

alone,

"How

44 (W.H.)

and the glory that comes

occurring in that excellent ms. in a group of


occurs also in Origen 4 which demonstrates

it

was much

earlier

More-

than the draughting of B.

would suggest a lacuna, which


scribes would be tempted to fill up, conforming the passage to "the
5
The Greek "only"
only true God" later on, and to general usage
is used
in
"the
man
of
only
(as
Shakespeare,
Italy ") to mean
over, the omission, being unusual,

"unique"

more than merely

"first."

In N.T. "only"

is

connected

with ascriptions of glory


Horace speaks of Jupiter as having "no
8
like or second" although Pallas occupies "the place next in honour ."
9
Aristotle says that the heaven is "one and alone and perfect ."
But
.

R.V. ("this hast thou said truly")

[1894 ]

is

ambiguous, and might agree

"thou

hast indeed (or, in truth) said."


(Teubn. p. 87) tovt6 ye dXrjdes (but better MSS. dXrjdi]) Xeyov<Tu>.

with

1),

f, a\r)6u>s

Comp. Demosth.

Such a predicaprob. without another parall. in N.T.


Ka^ws
[1894/-*] In xiii. 34 ivToXrjv Kaivrjv 5lowfj.i vyuv iva. ayairare dXX^Xoi's
qydirrjcra iifids, 'iva ko.l iifxeh dyairdre dXXrjXovs, the adj. "new" is not predicative.

tive use

is

The meaning is, " I give you a new commandment " and it is " new " because it
enjoins a new kind of "love," not revealed through the Prophets, but for the first
:

time through the Son and through His love of men.


Comp.
on the other hand
a new commandment do I write to you

Jn

ii.

8 "Not

new commandment do I write to you which [paradox] (0) is true in him and in you," i.e. it
"
"
" new in Christ and in His newborn
" old
is
disciples.
yet made
[1895 a] The Lat. / has "quae a Deo solo," ff" quae ab illo solo est Deo"

(where

"

Deo"

(7rdXti<)

looks like an interpolation out of place). Neither of these retains


d (" gloriam ab unico deo ") and e ("gloriam a solo do ").

the (Ik order as in


''

[1895

/'J

and that of
4

Orig.

OT

See 2650:

Huet

i.

392,

"

illogical.

Odes,

OT

of fxivov

1.

xii.

B
Tim. i. 17.
Jn xvii. 3, Rom. xvi. 27,
See also Lucian (ii. 386, Demon. 29) where
ko.1 TrpQros tuiv 8ta\eKTiKu>i>, and is rebuked for
being
Rom. xvi. 27, 1 Tim. i. 17, Jude 25, Rev. xv. 4.

and see 2664.

[1895c] Much Ado iii.


a man boasts that he is /xdvos
6

might be omitted coming between the

Oi).

20.
19

1.

92.

10

De

Cacl.

i.

9. 8.

ADJECTIVES
no passage is alleged
and such a use, if it

Thesaurus where Greeks

must have been

God

call

6 /xoVos:
1

existed,
among the Jews
"
It is not
to the point is the saying of Philo that the words
"
"
man
be alone are uttered because It is
that

More

word with "glory" both

briefly

He

that

the

with

in
"

alone glorious

is

the whole,

when speaking about "glory" and

that,

source, the evangelist used 6 MdVos


"

On

meaning the Only God.

,''

probable

fairly

of the

good

Alone should be alone

seems

rare

to

for

good

in the

[1897]

allusion to the connexion

Hebrew and Greek


i.e.

it

its

"

He

from

whom

to

mean

alone

all

glory comes."

TTpooToc

(/3)

followed by a genitive, and

some to
cometh
after
15 (R.V.)
me is become before me (epurpoaOev /xov) for he was before me (on
"
and i. 30 (R.V.) "After me cometh a man which is
7r/owTos fiov rjv)
become before me for he was before me " (R.V. marg. in both
[1896]

mean

is

ITpojTos

"first in regard of," in (a)

"He

i.

is

said by

that

me "). It is rendered by the conjunction


" If
the world hateth
"before," supplying a verb, in (b) xv. 18 (R.V.)
you, ye know that it hath hated me before [it haled] you (irpuTov
verses "first in regard of

v/xwv).

[1897]

To

Aelian 3 "those

deal

first

with

who have

But

p.ov TavTCL avi^veucrai'res)."

from 7rpwT09

rtvos

Scholiast's Preface

rjv.

to

(a).

Stephen's Thesaurus quotes from

me (ol

investigated these things before


7rpajro's

tlvos e7rot^cra ti

is

-n-pwroL

different

More to the point is 7rpcoi-os wv in the


the Phoenissae of Euripides quoted in the

"
Eteocles, as though he 7ve re first [in regard] of his
brother (are TrpGno% wv tov dSeXcpov)," given by Dindorf (presumably
Another Scholiast explains
correcting the text) as t<2v d8e\<pm>.

Thesaurus thus

"

"

(7rpwTo'yovos re cpohn)
by saying
the
[in regard] of
bay-tree (ttp<Ztov yewrjdivra rrj?
Origen seems to take 7rpwros p.ov as parallel to, and

{Hecuba 458)
"created first
8d<f>vr)<;)."

firstborn

palm

[1895 (/] Levy ii. 234 quotes Genes. Rab., on Gen. iii. 22 "one of us,"
explained as "like the Only One of the universe," and Levy Cliald. i. 331 b quotes
a Targ. on Job xiv. 4 "not one," explained as "shall not the Only One}'' (so
" nonne tu
Vulg.
qui solus es?").
Philo i. 66 Aia rl rbv avOpuiwov, ci jrpo^^ra, ouk Zari koKov elvai p.ovov ; "On,
1

(f>rt<rl,

ko\6v eari rbv fxovov

ovdeu 5e
3

oiire

6/j.olov

[1897a] Ael.
irpCirbs

tis

elvat.

Moj'oj 5^, Kal ko.6' avrbv, eh

fidvor.

u>v,

deds,

dei^i.

N. A.

avefii]..

viii.

12.

.Karuivos

Steph. also quotes Plut. Vit. Cat. Min. % 18


but he thinks irporepos
varepos airrfKde

otire

should be restored here, and he expresses doubt about the quotation from Aelian.

II

ADJECTIVES

[1898]

included

in,

tt/dwtotokos

ktictcws

irdcr-q'i

i.e.

creation," so that -n-pwro-; fiov would mean


"
me," i.e.
my eldest brother." His words are

all

how

[us]

become before him

'

is

Jesus

"firstborn [brother] of
" firstborn
[brother] of
"
The Baptist teaches
:

[by] being

first

of
[in regard]

TrpuJTos avrov)' since He was the firstborn (ttpcjto'tokos) of every


creature 2 "; and the same view is suggested by irapd (implying the
" I understand
metaphor of a household) in the following words,
that He was first [born in respect] of me and more honourable in

him (wv

the house of the Father (irapa.

tw

IlaTpi)."

Chrysostom, without using

the word "firstborn," argues that the words must refer to precedence
3
in point of time
not in point of rank, rank having already been

expressed (as he says) by the words "become before me."


[1898] According to Luke, the Baptist was born before Jesus.
If that was recognised as a historical fact by the earliest readers of
" first in
the Fourth Gospel,
regard of me could not appear to them
to mean "born before me [on earth]."
But some have supposed
"
it to mean
begotten before me in the beginning." If so, why did
"

the Baptist omit "in the beginning," which is essential, and insert
"before me," which, had "in the beginning" been inserted, would

not have been essential

?
Many will feel great difficulty in believing
the
John
Baptist, at this stage in his testimony to Jesus (if
indeed in any stage) proclaimed to the Jews (i) the pre-existence
of Jesus, as being the Messiah
and proclaimed Him, too, as

that

but
pre-existent, not "from eternity" nor "from the beginning,"
eternal
the
former
to
The
himself.
doctrine,
pre(2) relatively
[1897 ^5] Col. i. 15 irpwroTOKOs Trdinjs Kricreuis, comp. the genitive in Rev.
ttpwt6tokos tQiv veKpuiv, and see Col. i. 18 i] dpxv, wputotokos eK tCov veupCcv,
Gen. xlix. 3 irpwroTOKos fiov, crv layis fxov kclI dpxv tkvo3v p.ov, Rom. viii. 29 eh to
1

i.

dvai avrov TrpwroroKov tv iroWoh doe\<pois, Col. i. 18 'iva yevrjrai. iv iracnv avrbs
wpwrevuv, and 2 S. xix. 43 irpwroTOKos eyu rj av (LXX error). These passages shewthat wpurbroKos, suggesting supremacy among brethren, might be replaced by
Trpurevuu, or irpGiros, if one wished to say "my firstborn [brother]," because "my
"
firstborn" would naturally be taken to mean
my firstborn [son]." The phrase

"my

elder [brother]," TrpecT^vTepds

fxov,

would convey none of the old associations

of the blessing and supremacy belonging to the Firstborn.


2

Orig. Iluet

[1897c]

ii.

"It

99.

not to be supposed, says [the Baptist], that, whereas I was


me (so to speak) in the race, cast me behind [Him] and

is

He, by outstripping
i.e.
'has become before

first,

'

superior].
point of time],' for all that
|

me

[in

Tiros,
fjiov

(t>T}<rl,

tjv,

IvTiixbrfpos.

On

He

the contrary
is

coming

'

He was

first [in

TrpoKowrjs trp&Tbv p.e ovra. dnta-cj pttpas Zp.irpo<T6tv yiyovtv,

xal

On

vurepos

He explains lfxirpo<r$(v
irapayherai.
the I.eyden Papyri, see 2667.

ffov TrpQirbs dp.i in

12

regard] of

last into [view]," 0i'5

as

dWd

yap

Ik

llpwrds

Xaffrrpdrepos,

ADJECTIVES
may

existence of the Messiah,

some Jews

in the

possibly have been entertained by

Baptist's time

the Baptist gave

to believe that

[1900]

but,

even

if

it

it

was,

is

difficult

such prominence and in such

it

a shape.

The

[1899]

Synoptists

"mightier than
"

meaning
"

might

instead of
suggests

first in regard

also be

interpreted as
Rab, the root

Hebrew

of me," have

some word capable

that

of

"

superior to,"
of "Rabbi,"

The Baptist
capable of the two meanings (1897 b).
said, in effect, "Jesus of Nazareth numbers Himself
is

Teacher,"
may have

among my

"

The

than 2 ."

"stronger

This

I."

firstborn

disciples,

but

He

was from the

first

my

Teacher, or Rab."

Now

whenever a Jewish Teacher spoke about the divinely ordained


relations between the elder and the younger, so prominent in
Hebrew history, he might use the word Rab (420) to mean
"firstborn," alluding to the supremacy of Jacob preordained in the
words " the elder shall serve the younger 3 ." But Rab is also used for

Messianic passages such as "mighty to save" and


a portion with the mighty*."
John may have taken the word in the
latter.
in
the
former sense, the Synoptists
in

"mighty"
"

which cannot be answered with


[1900] Apart from the question
used
word
as
the
to
by the Baptist, we may be
original
certainty
sure that this rare expression 7rpajTo's fiov means something more than

writer had in view the Johannine


"
and the Last 5 ." As one can speak of my
"
"
God" my Rock" my Light," so one might speak of my First,"
having in view the Firstborn of God, the Beginning. The evangelist,

Iacl&v

Probably

/xov.

traditions
"

"

am

the

the First

without supposing that the Baptist consciously intended hereby to


set forth to the world the eternal pre-existence of Christ as the Logos,

might very well represent him as unconsciously including

in

his

language (after the manner of all the Prophets and the Psalmists)
more than he included in his thought. According to this view, the

meant "

Baptist

brother"

Mk

i.

He

was from the cradle

my

superior,

my

elder

but he said words that might be interpreted as meaning

7,

[1899<?]

Mt.
In

iii.

n, Lk.

2 S. xix. 43,

iii.

the

16.

LXX,

confusing "in David" with "firstborn,"

uses the latter as a comparative adjective, "I am firstborn than thou," irpwroroKos
never means
eyw rj cru. But the Hebrew word there erroneously read by the

LXX

"strong."
3
5

Gen. xxv. 23.


Rev. i. 17, xxii.

13.

13

Is.

lxiii.

1, liii.

12.

ADJECTIVES

[1901]
"

He

was, from the beginning,

my

First?

the Firstborn of God,

i.e.

the object of

my worship.
[1901] We come now to the use of 7rpwrov with the genitive in
xv. iS "If the world hateth you, ye know that it hath hated me

(b),

No precedent is alleged from Greek


[it hated] you."
But -n-pwrov
such a rendering of the italicised words.
rendered as above will make sense here "It hath hated me, your
(R.V.) before
literature for

Something
priorem vobis ") is the
and of one of the oldest Latin mss. and
"
others, though they omit
you," take irpQrov as an adjective
("priorem )." Thus rendered if "first" be taken as suggesting
the words prepare the disciples for the new
"firstborn brother"

First,

your

i.e.

like this ("

Chief."

rendering of the Vulgate

sphere of life and thought that was to follow the Resurrection,


wherein Christ was to become " the firstborn of the dead, the ruler
of the kings of the earth
" the firstborn

He

."

was not

brethren

among many

to

"

first-fruits

."

of

He

them

Himself was
that

had

" friends

to

be

to

be the

5
fallen asleep ."

The Johannine
branches

was

The whole Church was to

be "the Church of the firstborn 4," and


First of the firstborn, the

He

be alone.

context leads the disciples to regard themselves as


"
" slaves
"
friends
") of the Son
(no longer
that must henceforth partake in His life and in His secret

in the Vine,
"

Being now destined to become younger brothers of the


Firstborn, they must expect to share the Elder Brother's sufferings
"
If the world now hateth you, adopted brethren of the Family

counsels 6

of God, remember that it hath hated me the First[boru] of you


Possibly the evangelist wishes not so much to say this as to
[a//]'."
"

You"

is

(d has

"me primum

and e ("me primo odiit ")


and ff have "me priorem odio
" me
habuit,"_/and Vulg.
priorem vobis odio habuit." See 2665 foil.
2
Rev. i. 5, quoting Ps. lxxxix. 27, where David is declared 'firstborn."
4
3
Rom. viii. 29.
Heb. xii. 23.
1

and

[1901 a]

also

by

om. by a ("me prius


odiuit ")

[1901
authorities

/>]

In

i.

Cor. xv. 20.

"'

odiit ")

Jn

xv.

15.

41 euplcTKei ovtos wpurov top adeXcpbv rov

idioi>

~i(iuva, several

have "mane," apparently having read irpui.


The Syriac (Burk.) has "And he, Andrew, saw Simon Kepha and saith to him...,"
SS "And he, Andrew, saw Simon his brother on that day." It is generally
upposed (1720/) that the meaning is, "Andrew first found his own brother [before
Andrew's companion John the son of Zebedee found his own brother James the
son of Zebedee]." But there may be also some allusion to ancient traditions in
which trpuiTov ili/iwa, or (as in Mt. x. 2) irpuiros ifj.u>i>, occurred at the head of
a list of the Apostles.
If wpuiros were read above, it would lay rather more stress
on the fact that Andrew was the fir Christian disciple that made a convert.
have irpwros

/'and

14

ADVERBS

[1903]

"
"
by expressing the phrase before you in a manner that
2665
7.
would convey more than one meaning. See also

suggest

this,

Adverbs
Intensive

(i)

The adverbs

[1902]

who

from Luke 1

slightly

Xiav, Trepurcrws etc. are rarely

in this

differs greatly
.

When John

used by John,

Mark and Matthew, and

respect from

wishes to emphasize an adverb or

adverbial phrase he gives it an unusual place, e.g. at the beginning of


the sentence, xvi. 31 "Apri iruTTtveTt, xii. 27 NCi/ r/ ij/vXV fxov TCTa'puKTou,
xvi.

iv tovtu) TTLcrTevofxev, vii.

30

layanj

rfi

oi//opat

77/xe'pa

vpas

See 2636

14

Se

77817

rrj<;

On

and 2668.

d/ify

37 cv Se
22 TraAtv Se

/xeo-oucrris, vii.

i.

7rpo 8i tt/; eoprrys r. Trdcr^a, xvi.

xiii.

see 2611

dfjLtjv

a.

Special

(ii)

"AnooBcn

(a)

[1903]

The most important adverb

in the

Fourth Gospel

is

avi6a;

7 (R.V. marg.) "Except a man be born from above


he
cannot
see the kingdom of God.... Marvel not that I said
(avwOev)
unto thee, Ye must be born from above." Nicodemus takes this as
"
"
"
and he
a second time
a man enter

as used in

meaning

iii.

born

says that our

on

to further

replies,

a second time into

his mother's

womb and

Can

be born

"
?

Chrysostom
Lord here speaks obscurely in order to lead Nicodemus
question and he adds, ""Aru>0eu here means, some say
;

2
'from the heaven,' others 'from the beginning .'" The following facts
indicate that our Lord is intended by the evangelist to mean "from

(1), Jn (o)
atp65pa, Mk (1),
Mt. (1), Lk. (o), Jn (o). Mk has
adverbial forms of 7roXi^s more freq. than Mt. Lk. Jn taken together.
[1902 ] But see 1914 as to the position of evdvs, and comp. xi. 29 riyepdij
to-xv with xi. 31 raxe'ws aviar-q, where raxe'ws (2554/') before its verb appears to
be more emphatic than raxu on which the voice does not rest. An adverb may also
be emphasized by coming at the end of a sentence.
1

Mt.

[1902 a]

(7),

Lk.

Aiav occurs

(1),

Jn (o):

Mk

(4),

TrepiaaQs,

Mt.

Mk

(4),

Lk.

(2),

3
[1903 a] Chrys. himself, in a very long comment, gives the impression that
he takes &vwdei> to mean "from heaven" and that Nicodemus materialises it:

"

Why

down

draggest thou," he says, apostrophizing Nicodemus, "the meaning (\6yov)


This kind of birth is above such birth-pangs (avuirepos iari tCjv

to earth?

tolovtwv

wdii/icv

ovtos 6 t6kos)."

Origen's

comment ad

toe. is

lost,

he contrasts yefvarai avwdev with e/c tui> koltu yiverai in such a way as
that he took the former to mean " born from above.'"
See 2573.

15

but elsewhere
to

demonstrate

ADVERBS

[1904]

heaven" and that Nicodemus

is intended to be
regarded as misunderstanding Him, or affecting to misunderstand Him, as though He

meant "a second time."


[1904] "Avwdev occurs in N.T. thirteen times.

passage under consideration,


except thrice, and then it
or "ascertaining
"
the

from

never means "from the beginning"

is

joined

"again" or "knowing,"

to

The Thesaurus shews

."

"

that (i)

it

often

means

connexion with the tracing of a genealogy,

in

beginning

Apart from the

it

describing one's ancestry or early life, or a friendship of long date,


relating ancient history, or speaking of ancient times, or repeating a
story over again from the beginning

and Suicer shews

that dviodev

thus used in connexion with WAiv, and with i ap^?;?.


On the
"
other hand (2) it means "from above in a spiritual sense in Jn hi.

is

"he

cometh from above"

"given to thee from above."


once to "every perfect gift" as
being "f?-om above, coming down from the Father of lights... By his
"
will (fiov\r)9eis) he brought us forth (txTreKvrjcrev) by the word of truth
31

that

In the Epistle of St James,

xix. 11

refers

it

thus connecting "from above" with spiritual generation: in two


other passages St James connects it with " the wisdom that is from
above 2 ." In the LXX, it always has a local meaning, except once
3
(where it is joined with 7rd\iv) in the Wisdom of Solomon
.

[1905] Apart from LXX and N.T. usage, the rendering "from
above " in the Dialogue with Nicodemus is also favoured by the
probability that the intention is to fix the attention not on being born
"

"

which might be a change for the worse but upon


a higher life.
This latter thought is approximated to
born
into
being
in
various
Philo,
phrases
by
including avw#ei/, when he speaks of
over again

"him

that

avoid the

is

life

inspired from above" (in connexion with those


of the flesh and live to God) and of those

"philosophize, so to speak, from above*."

Moses

calling up of

Lk.

i.

3,

is

[1904/']
n

Ezra

i.

Wisd.

says,

comp.

ii.
'

rfj \pi'XV>

'

Gal.

5,

18,

49^

xix.

"This

righteousness."
4
[1905a] Philo
ipriaavres,

17

Mount

iii.

Sinai,

c* 7r

is

6.

In

Commenting,

he describes

it

also,

on the

"a second

as

iv. 9.

15,

In Jn

17.

" from above."

3
II.

Acts xxvi.

[1904rt] Jas

meaning

to

who
who

Is.

xlv.

commandment

xix.

"Let
to

23 Ik tQu dvuideu
the heaven drop

v<f>a.vr6s, its

from

abo ve,

the angels that they shall

"

drop

i.
482 6 KaTairievadeis dvoodev, i. 264 oi avwdiv irws (pikoao442 rod dtiov trvfvfxaTos owep avutitv KaTairvevadtv eicipKrjtraTO
ovpavov Karairvtvadds &vw0tv.

l6

ADVERBS

[1907]

birth better than the first," where there is "no mother, but only
a father, the Father of all ."
[1906] The use of "from above'" to describe a heavenly ideal is
common in Jewish literature. St Paul speaks of " Jerusalem that is
1

as being free, in contrast with "the present Jerusalem," which


2
The Apocalypse speaks of "the ne?c> Jerusalem,"
bondage

above''''

in

is

but adds "coming down from heaven*."


Somewhat similarly St Paul
is of the earth, earthy,
first
man
"the second man
that
the
says

from

is

In the one case

heaven'."

"new" and

in the other

"second"
"

might be used to paraphrase the expression "from heaven ; and


similarly "generate anew" might be a substituted paraphrase for
"

from

generate

heaven."

But

to say that a

man on

earth must be

"

born from above" implies that he must also be "born ane7C," so


The former is
that the former has the advantage of being ampler.
also more in accordance with Johannine doctrine, as well as with

Johannine use of avwOev. Again, all the Synoptists say that Jesus
"
asked the Jews whether " the baptism of John was "from heaven or
from

men

and "from heaven"

such a context might naturally


Moreover, the very
beginning of the Bible describes, shortly after the motion of the
" the waters and the
Spirit on the waters, a separation between
";

in

be expressed by the Aramaic "from above."

Targum has

waters," or, as the Jerusalem

it,

" the
waters above

and

the waters below."

Thus,

[1907]

from several points of view,

if

Rabbi came

about baptism, and if our Lord wished to insist on


the need of a spiritual, and not a mere external, regeneration, we
to consult Jesus

might expect that the phrase "from above" would occur in His
mention of the operation of the Spirit. If Christ had said " new "

"anew"

or

"

Aramaic

this

could

have been misunderstood; for the


KaivoV, cannot be confused with

not

new," like the Greek

"above." Moreover if the evangelist had desired to represent in


Greek the mere thought of " regeneration " he might have used
But " regenerate " unless qualified as it is in St Peter's
avayewav.

[1905(5]

secunda

Philo (on Ex. xxiv. 16) P. A. 502 "

est nativitas (sive regeneratio)

Sursum autem vocatio prophetae


non est mater; sed

priore melior... cuius

pater solus, qui etiam universorum."


2
Gal. iv. 25
6.

Rev.

Mk

xxi. 2.

xi.

A. VI.

30,

Mt.

xxi. 25,

Lk.

xx. 4.

17

Cor. xv. 47.

ADVERBS

[1908]
1

Epistle

does

righteousness.

not necessarily convey the notion of a birth unto


Nicodemus was familiar with the doctrine of " new

"

applied to baptized proselytes, and he knew that very often it


2
did not mean much
But this doctrine of Jesus about " birth from
above," he dimly felt, meant a great deal more, some fundamental
birth

change what he would call a "miraculous" change. He therefore


asks what the miracle is to be: "It cannot be that a man is to
be literally born a second time ?"
[1908] In deciding this question we have to consider, not only
what our Lord may have said, but also how the author of the Fourth
in view of the misunderstandings of what He had said as
Gospel,

"

the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who


[1907 a] i Pet. i. 3
regenerated us into a living hope... ," i. 23 "having been regenerated, not from
corruptible seed, butfrom incorruptible; through the word of God, living and abiding."
"
Comp. Jas i. 18 he brought us forth by the word of truth"
[1907(5] On our Lord's opinion of some proselytes, see Mt. xxiii. 15 "twofold
1

a child of hell."
3
[1907 c] There are naturally some cases where dvwdev is ambiguous, e.g.
Clem. Anc. Horn. ch. 14 tt)v eKKXrjo-iav ov vvv elvai dWa dvwdev. This (as in the
above quoted Gal. iv. 25 6 rfj vvv
i) be dvw) might conceivably mean, "that
the Church is not of this present age ([tov] vvv [alwvos]), but from heaven?'
But
such an ellipsis is unlikely and the contrast is more probably between or vvv
"
[ttpu/tov], "not now [for the first time]
(ov vvv irpwTov being freq. in Greek) and
" but
" Wilt thou not bear with
i.
the
13. 3
from
thy brother,
beginning." Epict.
who hath Zeus for his ancestor, [and who] (wairep, ? 6s wo-irep) as a son, is born from
"
the same seed and from the same celestial sowing (ttjs aiTr)s dvwdev KaTa^oXijs)
dvwdev
"initial
Philo
ii.
but
less
141 i)pxa.t.o\6yriffev
sowing."
might be,
probably,

means "beginning from the beginning


mind the ancient Greek saying " Let us begin
beginning God created." He proceeds to say that the
forth "the Father and Maker of the world," and then man

aps&fievos ttjs tov wavrbs yevecrews probably


[i.e.

from

"
the First Cause]
having in
Zeus" and " hi the

fust object

was

to set

obeying the Maker's laws.


[1907 d] Justin Martyr Tryph. 63 dvwdev /ecu btd yaarpos dvdpwTreias (describing
the birth of Christ) appears to mean ["by the action of the Sp'u'it] from above and
"
through a mortal womb
(although the Psalm (ex. 3) from which Justin has
refers
birth
to
(LXX) "before the morning star "). Comp. Kpiphanius
quoted
(Ilaer. Ii. ch. 6, vol. i. 428) about Mark as "nowhere saying [that] the birth
"
and (ib.) ttjs dvwdev
[was] from above (ovba.fj.ov dvwdev \iybjv tt)v y^vvrjo-iv)
deov \6yov.
So Simon Magus (Ilippol., ed. Duncker, vi. 18)
H
In Artemid. Oneirocr.'x. 13,
peaks of the generating principle as from above."
" to be born
again" but there the meaning
yewao-Oai dvwdev undoubtedly means
" If a man dreams that he is
is prepared for in a peculiar way by the context

KaTaywyrjs

this indicates that he will have a son in every respect like himself :
being bom
for thus he might seem to be born over again (ovtw yap [av] dvwOev avrbs bo^ete
into
yevvdffOai)." And there it should be noted that the meaning is not "to be born

better life," but

" to be born over


again in every respect like what one was before."

I8

ADVERBS
it

[1910]

had been recorded by the Synoptists


"

might

Become

think

it

right

to

one of these
danger of being misunderstood literally

Christ's doctrine,

recast the saying.

ones," might be in
(somewhat after the manner of
little

Nicodemus)

ye as

as encouraging childish-

It is in accordance
ness rather than childlikeness (i Cor. xiv. 20).
with the Johannine method that John should illustrate this danger

by exhibiting a great Rabbi as actually misunderstanding the doctrine


It is also in accordance with his method of
its first utterance.

at

"

"

(2290) that he should first introduce a general


narrowing down
term "from above" including as St James says "every perfect gift"
and then define it as a spiritual influence.
that comes from heaven

The

who was compared by the


saying of Christ, that a proselyte,
to
a
new-born
be
a " child of hell" is of
made
child,
Jews
might

to explain why it might be necessary to emphasize


the truth that regeneration must be "from above."
See 2573.

itself sufficient

09)

A P ti

(7)

'Ernfc

see nyn (1915

(i) foil.)

[1909] This adverb is used (1718) more frequently by John than


by the Synoptists all together. In Jn it never describes the nearness
of a person except in vi. 19, "they behold Jesus walking on [the

edge of?] the sea and becoming near the boat (eyyus tov ttXolov
yivo/jLevov)."
'Eyytw, "draw near," is frequent in O.T. and N.T.,
and the Synoptists sometimes (Luke most frequently) apply it to

John never uses

Christ, but

Under

it.

"

"

Prepositions

(2340 6)
reasons will be given for thinking that John regards the Lord as
"
on the sea shore" and not as advancing over the sea to the boat.

he

If so,

may

into view

and
first

"

use

yn'o'/xcroi' cyyu's

when we

"

we speak

as

come

"

of the coast "coming

within sight of

it.

The words

a spiritual interpretation. At
unbelief, beheld (1598) Jesus

their context are susceptible of

the

disciples,

in

terror

Then

"becoming near."

and

ourselves

(vi.

and
21)

"they willed

to receive

him";

"

That is to say,
straightway the boat was on the land."
like the Ephesians, "they that had been far off were made to
be near
(S)

."

Eyeeooc and eyOyc

Mark (1693) never uses


Matthew uses both pretty

[1910]
dantly.

xapaxpfjixa

pretty often,
1

Eph.

ii.

13

but

iifj.ds o'i

ev8v<;

ev8eu>s,

often.

but he uses evOvs abun-

Luke

only once.

uses evOews and


John uses evdiws

irore oVres fiaKpav iyevr)6riT iyyvs.

19

ADVERBS

[1911]

and tiOvs

thrice,

found

Whenever Matthew uses eiOvs

thrice.

the parallel

in

The

Mark.

question

arises

distinguishes between the two words, or whether he uses

now

Matthew appears

another, as

to do,

and now another, source of evangelic

As

[1911]

who used
about

because he uses

it

"straight opposite [to],"

says,

Eu#v, 6p8ov,

OLTrXovv,

"coming

eyyus,

now
now

Phrynichus blames

away") instead of
simply Ev9vs, avriov, which indicates
("straight

mean

is

one,
one,

tradition.

to evdvs "straightway,"

ev6v

it

(7),

whether John

face to face with."

rrapa-^prjp.a,

"many"

Hesychius says
that he took it to

it.

evOelar.

ets

He

also

Bonitz's

Index shews that Aristotle uses evOvs of place, before uVd, 7rpd?, /acto.
mean "immediately under," etc. and also to mean "to take the

to

instance that presents

first

means

in Epictet.
1

passages)
in

Gen.

In

i.

19.

LXX,

itself,"

i.e.

"for example," which

(where Schweigh.

as a rendering of

XV. 4 kou evdvs (pwvrj

refers to

many

45 evQvs

Pe/?KKa ie7ropevTO, xxxviii. 29 kol evOvs iy\8tv 6 aSeA.<os avrov,

Hebrew has "behold!"

the

Scholiast on Thucydides,

their

Similarly, parallel to

Mk

xiv.

where

43 "and

cometh up," Matthew and Luke have "behold !"

straightway... there,

also

other

Hebrew, evOvs occurs only

iyivi.ro irpos avrov, xxiv.

Kvptov

it

who

describes the Plataeans as "killing


ev8v<; does not mean

prisoners straightway" says that here

2
immediately but offhand and without reflection which is probably
Very likely Mark's evflus may be a loose rendering of
implied.
,

an original Semitic " behold 3 ." But even without any such hypothesis the above-mentioned variety of meanings suffices to explain

why Luke almost always avoids

the word.

[1912] Mark's non-use of evOlw; does not require explanation in


view of the fact that it is never used by Aeschylus and (though thrice
4

5
only once by Euripides in a fragment whereas both
In the Indices of Epictetus and Lucian,
tv6v<> is found, but not tvOiw;, and Bonitz's Index to Aristotle shews
a very great preponderance of the former.
The
Concordance

by Sophocles

writers use evdv<; frequently.

LXX

EvOius

in

[1911 n]

Polyb.
Step]),

" Hie enim

xii.

5.

is

on Time.

perh. similarly used.


ii.

oi

5<:

nXarcufJs

aviKTeivav rods ae<5pas


"

non esse irapaxpv^ a se( l e!;ev$eia<; et acTKoirws.


3
[1911/'] It has been shewn (3523) that "behold" in Mt.-Lk. freq.
corresponds to some verb of "coming to" in Mk. This maybe illustrated by
evOvs,

Ilesych.
4
5

eiiOvs,

schol. ait evdvs

avriov

i.e.

"coming

Sophocles also uses evdvs

Fragm.

31.

The

to

meet."

times.

gypt. Pap. Indices have tvQtus (11), eidfc

20

(2).

ADVERBS

[1914]

It occurs
gives eufle'ws as only once representing a Hebrew word.
The insertion
almost exclusively in Maccabees (especially book II).
of such a word (whether in Hebrew or in Greek) might depend on

The Jerusalem Targum

the author's taste.

was

there

immediately

and

light,"

has (Gen.

Susannah (29)

in

i.

3)

"And

LXX

and

Theodotion severally insert cu^'ws and omit it.


Aquila uses the
word (Micah ii. 7) to mean "straightforwardly," "righteously."
[1913] In N.T., apart from the Gospels, evOews is used frequently
in the Acts, and occasionally elsewhere
Eu#vs occurs nowhere
1

"Now

was done thrice and straightway


except
the
vessel
was
taken
to
the heaven."
This occurs in a
up
(tvdvs)
Acts

in

16

x.

this

Petrine passage describing the vision that resulted in the conversion


of Cornelius.
But when Luke rewrites this in Peter's speech, he
alters the expression (Acts xi. 10) "Now this was done thrice and
2
This indicates (1)
everything was caught up again to the heaven" ."
that ev9vs might be expected in a Petrine Gospel such as Mark's

generally believed to be, (2) that Luke, although occasionally


it as
part of an old document, might be expected to alter

is

retaining
it

in re-editing or re-writing.

[1914] Coming to Johannine usage we find (a) ewfle'ws in the


at the Pool of Bethsaida, the Walking on the Water, and the

Cure

Denial of Peter 3

Only as to the last of these ("immediately the


cock crew") does the word occur in the parallel Synoptic narrative
where Mark has evOvs but many authorities omit it, Matthew has
but

ei$vs
(/;)

many

authorities

EvBvs occurs in Jn

xiii.

Luke has irapaxprjiJ.a*.


ei'6*ew5,
"Having taken the sop, therefore,

read

30

2,

he [Judas] went out straightway (i$rj\0ev


When, therefore, he went out, Jesus saith,

man

Now it was night.


Now was the Son of

eiOvs).
(lit.)

and God was glorified in him. And God will glorify


him in himself and will straightivay glorify (ev#us Sofacrei) him,"
"
xix. 34
One of the soldiers pierced his side with a spear and there

Jas

i.

glorified

Acts

ix. 18, 20, 34, xii.

24, 3

Jn

[1913 n]

14,

Rev.

10, xvi. 10, xvii. 10,

Actsx. 16 evdvs

3
4

Jn

i.

16,

to (TKevos, xi. 10 avecnrdadr] tt&\iv a iravra.


altered from x. 14 ovdevore tcpa-yov irdv
oiibiwoTe eicrrjXOev els to ard/xa fiov.
dve\r]/j.(pdr]

Also the Hebraic use of "all. ..not"


KOLvbv into xi. 8 koivov

14, xxi. 30, xxii. 29, Gal.

2.

iv.

is

v. 9, vi. 21, xviii. 27.

[1914 d\
avrov.
In the

Mk

xiv.

72,

Mt. xxvi.

Walking on the Water,

Lk.

74,

Mk

evdvs oe i\d\7]aev are not quite parallel to

21

vi.

Jn

xxii.

50

vi. 21

60 7rapaxpwta

Zti

6 5e evdvs iXdXijaev,

\ix\ovvtos

Mt.

xiv. 27

tvdeus eyivero to irXolov..,

ADVERBS

[1915]

came out straightivay (i$r}\8ev evOvs) blood and water." Comparing


(a) and (b) we must bear in mind that the Cure at the Pool has

many points of resemblance with the Cure of the Paralytic where


Mark and Luke describe the act as immediate, and that the Walking
on the Water is recorded by Mark and Matthew so that we may

say generally that the instances in (a) have some connexion with
In xiii. 30 the
Synoptic narrative while those in (b) have not.

emphasis rests on evOvs, which comes at the end of the sentence


In xix. 34 the voice passes on from
(" rushed forth straightivay ").
"
"
fountain
vOv<; to at/xa ko.1 uSojp, but the adverb indicates that the
against "sin

ready to

seem

and uncleanness

gush

forth.

"

Having

in

(Zech.

xiii.

was foreordained and

1)

regard to the rarity of the


in

30

adverb we

2, John deliberately
thinking that,
one and the same passage concerning the " immediate" departure of Judas and the "immediate" advent of

uses

justified

it

twice

xiii.

in

"glory," the former being subordinate to the

The conclusion

that

latter.

and evBew; are used

in
[1915]
N.T., not indiscriminately but with reference to meaning, or because
The only instance
they occur in documents of this or that style.
of evOvs in Luke is in the passage about the house without foundation
ev9v<;

49) "against which the river burst and straightivay

(vi.

is,

where Matthew

it

fell

in

It is
27) differs.
quite intelligible that Luke might be willing to apply to the fall
of a house an adverb that he might think unfit to apply to the

heap

(evOv<;

o-weVecre),"

(vii.

actions of Christ.
(e)

[1915

Nyn and
(i)]

&pfi

In 1719, vvv was shewn to

mean "at

the present time"

from apri "at this moment") and to imply, in Jn, a


This
contrast for the most part between the present and the past.
distinct

(as

is

its

general use in the Epistles, especially in contrasting the past

darkness with the present light ("ye were once darkness but now are
But the interpretation of kolI vvv in xi. 22
ye light in the Lord ").
1

(1719) is complicated by the use of the phrase in LXX, where


notv" is often connected with the thought "And now in this
or, at this stage,

or,

in

these difficulties,

or,

in

"and
crisis,

conclusion, what

is

Of course in
[1915 (i) a] Eph. v. 8 tJtc yap vore ctk6tos vvv 8Z (puis ev KvpLtpspecial phrases such as 6 vvv aiwv, 77 vvv \(povaa\i)tJ. etc. the contrast is with the
future as in 2 Pet. iii. 7, rS (the only instances of vvv in that Epistle).
But in
and iii. 21, the contrast is with the past.
I'et. i. 12, ii. 10
(bis), ii. 25,
1

'

22

ADVERBS

[1915

(iii)]

"
done ? e.g. " And now, Israel, what doth the Lord thy God
"And now, Lord, what wait I for? My hope
require from thee?"
in
?"
So
is
thee
Peter, after reproaching the Jews for crucifying

to be

"And

Christ, says,
it,"

7iow, brethren, I

know

where the underlying thought appears

done?

to be

that in ignorance ye did


u

And

to be,

now, what

is

."

Acknowledge your past ignorance


6, the words "Remember ye not
[1915 (ii)] In 2 Thess. ii. 5
that while I was still with you I used to say these things to you,"
"
come after a prediction about " the man of lawlessness and before

"And ?ww ye know that which hindereth (ko.1 vvv to Kar^ov


where
Lightfoot doubtfully inclines to the logical meaning
otSaTe),"
know") and says "this usage is particularly noticeable
Well,
then,
ye
("
But he suggests alternatively "and as to the
with 018a following."
"
-a transposition like
present time ye know what it is that restraineth
the words

that in

now

Jn

hast

iv.

(ko.1

18 "for thou hast had five husbands,


vvv ov e^eis) is not thy husband*."

and he whom thou

[1915 (iii)] These facts indicate that koI vvv, especially in an


author like John, prone to transposition and asyndeton, will

1
[1915 (i) ^] Deut. x. 12, Ps. xxxix. 7, see Gesen. 774 a quoting Gen. iii. 22
and many other instances. The LXX regularly represents the phrase by /cat vvv,
Chr. xvii. 26) "And now,
and it is extremely frequent, e.g. 2 S. vii. 28 (sim.
now therefore, let it
Lord God, thou art God, and thy words are truth
" And in conclusion." It
please thee," where it might almost be translated
1

(1) the conclusion of a prayer, (2) a logical or inferential conclusion.


In Acts this is often ko.1 to. vvv, e.g. Acts iv. 29
[1915 (i) (] Acts iii. 17.
And noiv (k. to. vvv), Lord, look on their threats," v. 38 " and now {k. [to.] vvv)

suggests
-

"

unto you, desist- from these men." In Acts xx. 22


32 ko.1 vvv Idov, "and
behold," is used first temporally ("and at the present time. ..I go bound "),
then with a suggestion of logical meaning (" and now behold I know ") and lastly
/cat rd vvv (" and now [in conclusion} I commend you to the Lord ").
3
[1915 (ii) a] Theoretically, the italicised words might begin a new sentence in
" The one that thou hast even now is not
But, even in
thy husband."
asyndeton,
an author so prone to asyndeton as Jn, this is hardly possible. Col. i. 24 Xvv
1 say

now

Xalpu iv

rot's

Tra.drnj.aaLv,

coming

at

the beginning of a paragraph and after a

description of the wealth of God's mercy, is explained by Lightfoot "Now, when


I see the full extent of God's mercy...," no doubt correctly.
But he adds "compare
also 2 Cor. vii. 9 vvv xo.ipco, oi<x otl k.t.X., where again there is no connecting
particle."

printed by

This, however, instead of coming at the beginning of a paragraph, is


" ...dicrre
otl el ko.1
p.e /.iclWov xapijvai.
thus, 2 Cor. vii. 7
9,

W.H.

i\vwriaa v/xds iv

rrj iirLffToX-r],

ov fiTafxi\of.caf

iTTLCTToXri eKeivT] el /cat 7rpos (lipav

otherwise.

According

i\vw7]0-ev

i'/J-as,)

el

ko.1

vvv

/j.Tefie\6fJ.riv,

x^P

03

"

It

/3\e'7rw

otl

r)

might be printed

But, however printed, the context indicates that vvv may be temporal.
W. H., the meaning would naturally be, "I may perhaps have

to

repented once,

rejoice

now."

23

[1915

depend, for
is

ADVERBS

(iv)]

its

meaning, on

As

context.

its

a reference to past teaching in

Jn

in 2 Thess.

18, TraiSCa, la-xarq

ii.

5,

there

wpa

Icniv,

ii.

on 'Avrr^ptcrTo? ep^erat, koj. vvv avTi^pLdroi 7roA.Aot


"
the
meaning is even as ye heard the prediction in past
yeyovacnv,
1
There is
time, even so (kcli) at the present time (vvv) it is fulfilled ."
also some reference to past time in 1 Jn ii. 27
8, but the passage
Ka8o)s ?/k-oucraTe

K(iL

comes

end of a section enjoining "[steadfast] abiding," and

at the

ko.1

vvv appears to be logically or rhetorically (not temporally) used,


"But as (ok) his anointing teacheth you... and even as (koL KaOws)
it

taught you, abide in


2

in

it

[1915

(iv)]

There

Jn iv. 3, "and
have heard that

And now

[in conclusion,

repeat] abide

already

(rj8rrj)V'

again a reference to past teaching in


the [spirit] of antichrist, [as to] which ye
cometh,' and now (koi vvv) in the world it is
is

this

"and

it.

."

'

it

is

Without any addition,

ko.1

vvv might have

meant

the present time [in accordance with past


"
but
by adding rjSrj, the writer shews that he intends
prediction]
"
before expectation."
In 2 Jn 5 there is
the meaning to be
"
I have found some of thy children
reference to past teaching,
walking in the truth, even as we received commandment from the
[accordingly] at
:

Father,

and now

vvv) I ask thee... that

(ko.1

we

love one another," where

the temporal and the logical meaning seem combined, but the latter
These are all the instances of /cat vvv in the Johanpredominates.

nine

Epistles.

Nw,

apart

from

occurs

ko.1,

in

them only once,

Jn iii. 2 "beloved, now are we children of God." This follows


the mention of what the Father's love has done for us, and precedes
1

the mention of what

we

shall

become

and

vvv suggests the thought

of the isthmus between the past and the future.

[1915 (iii) a] But probably there is a double force in


suggests "even now is antichrist here."
1

ko.1

so that

it

also

1
Jn ii. 278 ...teal kcl6ws i 5L5ai;ev v/j.as fiivere iv avT$. Kal vvv,
Theoretically the first fj.ivere might be indicative; but this would
be against Jn's general use of the word, and does not seem necessitated by to
Xp/ff/ua /xivei iv itfuv in the context: for the meaning may be "the Spirit of Christ

[1915

(iii) b~\

reKvia, /xivere.

abides in you. ..take care to abide in Him."


rule laudando praecipere: the Spirit abideth
repetition of "abide'' imperatively

is

like Phil.

11

M^et
in
iv.

iv v/xiv

is

an instance of the

you if ye are Christ's. The


4, "Rejoice in the Lord alway,

again / will say Rejoice.


[1915 (iv),/] A^ above, Kai vvv might theoretically mean "even now" and is
perhaps intended to suggest "even now," which, however, is made clearer by
''

adding

ijor}.

24

UNIVEI
"

ADVERBS

[1915

(vi)]

on oaa av alrqoig...
d\\d
before /cat so as
many
"
But... even now..f R.V. has "And
to make the meaning (A.V.)
even now," apparently taking kuX vvv as "even now" and supplying

we

[1915 (v)]

Returning to

find that

mss.

xi.

22 xa\ vvv oT8a

and versions

insert

" and " for the sake of


English connexion.

This indicates a tendency

to take the phrase according to classical Greek idiom.


But, having
regard to the fact that /cat vvv or koX vvv ISov, with oTSa, occurs in

N.T. elsewhere Hebraically (1915 (i) c) or with a suggestion of


Hebraic meaning, and that koX vvv in the Johannine Epistles is
frequent and sometimes Hebraic, we are justified in preferring a

{"And now Lord,


In that case the meaning will be " Lord,
if thou hadst been here, my brother had not died.
[But it pleased
thee to be absent although we sent unto thee.]
And now [Lord,
Hebraic meaning here,
what do I wait ? ").

like that of the Psalmist

for

what am I to say? My hope is still in theei\ I know that whatsoever


thou shalt ask God, God will give it to thee." This is confirmed
by two other passages where koL vvv seems to introduce a last word,
before the speaker passes from one subject to another xiv. 29
30
" And now I have said
to
it

you before

come

to pass...

No

longer
[it]
with you," xvii. 4
5 "I have glorified thee on
the earth having perfected the work... and now glorify thou me."
[1915 (vi)] "Apn is distinguished from vvv as "this moment"
is
distinguished from "this present time ."
"Apn is practically
shall I

much

speak

LXX

(485 b) not a
at

word, and

aV apn

does not occur

in

LXX

"The

present [dispensation]," to vvv, might be said to date


"
when the revelation of the Father
"from the moment ( a
apn)
all.

had been consummated through the Son 2


disciples, "From this moment ye know him

and Jesus

to

the

"Ecus

dpn

says

(the Father)."

used in v. 17 ("My Father worketh (A.V.) hitherto") of that


which has been going on "up to the prese?it moment" and is still
continuing, as also in 1 Jn ii. 9 (" is in the darkness up to this very
is

[1915 (vi) a] Comp. Mt. xxvi. 64 air' apn 6\pea6e "ye shall see from this
moment the Son of man seated," with Lk. xxii. 69 diro tov vvv 8e earai, which
presents much less difficulty than Mt. because airb tov vvv might mean "from the

[beginning of the

all

but] present [age]."

which Jn never uses (except


2

this

xiv.

moment

air
I

in viii.

dpri yivwo-neTe clvt6v.


tell

"exactly," see 485

c.

you before

it

Lk.

xii.

52 again uses d7ro tov vvv,

interpol.).

Wit' dpTi also occurs in

come

to

pass."

On

air'

xiii.

apTi,

19.

or

"From
airapTi,

ADVERBS

[1916]

moment "). In the following, a distinction (though a slight one) is


drawn between dprt and iw, xiii. 33 7, "And as I said to the Jews
Where I go ye cannot come,' to you also I say [it]for the moment
(kcu v/juv Aeyw apn)." Then, in answer to Peter's question, "Whither
goest thou?" Jesus replies "Where I go, thou canst not follow
1

'

me

at

present time

the

"

but

(vvv),

shalt

follow

later

(vo-Tipov)."

moment," but He gradually reveals to


only
saying
the disciples that the absence will be more than momentary extending
through "the present time." Peter, in his second question, is not

The

is

for the

content with the promise that he shall follow "later," nor even
" at the
"Why," he asks, "can I not follow thee
present time (vvv)."
at this

moment

(apri) ?

OfTOK
"Thus"
[1916]

"

()

7riaKw?)

in

6 (R.V.) "Jesus... being wearied u-e*oby the well," is scarcely intelligible. But

iv.

sat thus (outws)

R. V. marg. says " or, as he was." In classical Greek, ovtw; is often


used of something that happens before circumstances have time to
alter, e.g. of a speaker "departing thus" i.e. without another word,
of an assailant "departing thus," i.e. without suffering in return.
" I cannot answer
Similar to these is
So here
thus," i.e. offhand.
the meaning
out."

"he

is,

attention

calls

sat down/2/.y/ as he

Probably Chrysostom
to

the

is

"

was, being thoroughly tired

right in suggesting that the


"

sitting

as

being

in

some sense

adverb
casual,

although it was divinely foreordained to bring about the conversion


of the Samaritans.
It also suggests, as he says, the indifference of
the true King to the external symbols of royalty

15

Almost

all

the

1
[1915 (vi)/>] R.V., in both, "even until mm," but in xvi. 24 R.V. and A.V.
have " Hitherto have ye asked nothing in my name." Comp. 1 Cor. iv. 13, viii. 7,
xv. 6.
In v. 17 the meaning appears to be, "My Father worketh [on the sabbath
from the beginning\ until this moment, and I accordingly work [such acts as my
Father prescribes on the sabbath]."

1 Cor. xiii. 12
"For we see for the moment (<5(/m) through
Jn uses vvv thus, he adds fxev in xvi. 22 "and ye now indeed
niv) have sorrow... but I will see you again and your joy none shall take from

[1915
a mirror."
(vvv

(vi) c\

Comp.

When

you."
[1915 (vi)*/] ~Svv, in Mk xiii. 19, Mt. xxiv. 21 ws tov vvv, Mk xv. 32,
Mt. xxvii. 42, KarajiaTU) vvv airb t. (rravpov, and also in Mt. xxvi. 65, xxvii. 4/; has
almost the meaning of dprt, "at this moment."
But in Mk x. 30 vvv ev r. Kaipf
tovt<p

In

it

I.k.
8

means "at
(1719)

[1916(7]

it

is

the present time."

These are

all

the instances in

Mk-Mt.

much more

Chrys. ad

loc.'.

frequent.
Aia tov kottov (Cramer t6wov)

26

ij

KaOedpa ydyove, 5ta

ADVERBS

[1917

(i)]

"
sat [so] that he might rest
Latin mss. omit the adverb, and SS has

and

himself," perhaps confusing kottluw

This passage prepares

Ko-n-d^w.

for the true reading, and


[1917]
"
He [the beloved disciple] leaning
rendering, in xiii. 25 (R.V.)
back, as he was (outws), on Jesus' breast, saith unto him,
Lord,

us

'

who

'

it ?

is

probably

"

where many authorities omit

The meaning

ovtuos.

that the beloved disciple, instead of turning

is,

round to

speak to Jesus (which would have attracted attention) merely "leaned


back a little, keeping the same attitude." But further, if any reader
"

asked,

How

could any of the disciples venture to ask such a


"He did it, at Peter's

question?" this adverb suggested an answer,


suggestion,

and being so close

to the Lord,

'just as he was,'

i.e.

unpremcditatedly '."
(??)

TTapphci'a

[1917

"
(i)]

speech,"

when applied

(on Col.

ii.

29,

speaking

liapprja-ia,

15) says

to language,

"either

all

"

[one's mind],"

may be opposed

(1) to 'fear,' as

or (2) to

xi.

John

freedom of

as

vii.

Lightfoot

13,

xvi.

Acts

iv.

but

14,
'ambiguity, reserve,' Job.
25, 29;
misgiving, apprehension in some form or other seems to be always
the correlative idea.
Hence when it is transferred from words to
'

'

it
appears always to retain the idea of 'confidence, boldness '....The idea of publicity may sometimes be connected with the
word as a secondary notion, e.g. in Joh. vii. 4, where iv irappyjaiu.
elvaL
to assume a bold attitude
is
opposed to iv KpvwT^ ttouIv

actions,

'

'

(comp.

xviii.

Hence,

in Col.

jrappTquia)

20)
ii.

but

it

does

15 (R-V.)

not

triumphing over them

substitutes "boldly"

and

displace the primary sense."


a shew of them openly (iv
in it [i.e. in the
cross]," Lightf.

"he made

(earlier)

paraphrases thus,

"As

a mighty

t6 Kav/xa, 5i& to wepifxelvaL tovs fxadrjT&s- ydei fxev yap <rv/j.l37](r6fia>ov to kclto, roi's
HafiapeiTas, ovk sttI tovto 5e fjXde Trpor)yov[xtvu>s...'ri 64 eaTiv, Ovtws; Ovk ewi
6p6vov, (prjalf, ovk sttI irpoo~Kecpd\aiov, d\X' awXuis ko.1 ws ^tuxc tt e5d<povs.
" thus as
[1917 a] Ovrus in the Gospels almost always looks backward,
has
been said above.'"
It seldom means "thus,
namely, as follotvs" {e.g. Mt. i. 18,
vi.
iv. 26 Oiirws <ttiv i] ft. t. deov u>s..., "the
9, Jn xxi. 1).
kingdom of heaven
is even so as [if] a man were to cast
seed...," is exceptional in the Gospels and
also non-classical.
Oiirws wore occurs in Jn iii. 16, Acts xiv. 1, but, in Jn with
1

Mk

indie, in Acts with infin.

Jn's construction, unique in N.T. (2203), is frequent in


one of many proofs that the passage was not regarded by
the evangelist as a saying of the Lord, but was written as an
evangelistic comment
in a somewhat less Hebraic
style (see Preface, p. viii).
classical

Greek and

is

27

[1917

ADVERBS

(ii)]

He

conqueror

world, leading

[1917

(ii)]

displayed these His fallen enemies to an astonished

them

in triumph on His cross."


This view of the adverbial 7ro.pprjaria, namely, that

"

it

"

'

is
appears always to retain the idea of confidence, boldness,'
confirmed by its use as a noun in the rest of N.T. where R.V.

renders

regularly

that

to

it

effect

Moreover

the Johannine

in

occurs four times, and always to express the "boldness,"


Epistle
or "confidence" of Christ's followers, confidence "toward God," or
it

confidence as to future judgment


Even in xi. 14 "then therefore
said
without
?nore
to
them
reserve
Jesus
(Trappqo-La) 'Lazarus is dead,'"
.

the meaning may be, that Jesus, having prepared His disciples for
the disclosure, revealed the truth without (as Lightfoot says above)
"
"
lest their faith should fail
for a
misgiving or apprehension
teacher will not use -n-app-qcria unless he is "confident" as regards his
:

pupils, that they are ready to receive the teaching.

This, too, may


explain xvi. 25 "I will announce to you without reserve concerning
the Father"; and xvi. 29 "Behold, now speakest thou without

reserve"

i.e.

[1917

frankly,

(iii)]

Gospels.

(1)

passage where

and

fully,

and

Mark employs

it

(viii.

boldly (R.V. openly) speaking the


for the

32)

word"?

abundant use of the word

Epistle where
N.T. together

clearly.

There remain two questions as to


Why do Matthew and Luke omit

Trapprja-La

in

the

the single

"and he [i.e. Christ] was


(2) What is the reason

in the

Johannine Gospel and

occurs thirteen times, as often as in

it

in

it

all

the rest of

(setting aside the Acts, where it occurs five times) ?


of these may arise a third question.
(3) Is there any reason

Out

for thinking that this is one of the many passages where John
intervenes to explain something in Mark that is omitted by Matthew

and Luke
[1917

(Mk

viii.

(iv)]

In

order to

understand

32 "boldly speaking the word")

Christ's prediction of His

Gospel that proved

"

to

own

Mark's use of " boldly

we must bear

in

mind

"

that

was the prediction of a


the Jews a stumbling block and to the
crucifixion

[1917 (ii) a] See Acts iv. 13, 29, 31, xxviii. 31, 2 Cor. iii. 12 (where A.V.
Sim.
has "plainness of speech," but R.V. "boldness of speech"), vii. 4 etc.
Acts ii. 29 (R.V.) "I may say unto you freely" (A.V.) "let ma freely speak unto
1

you."
1

Jn

ii.

28,

iii.

21,

iv.

17, v. 14.

28

ADVERBS

[1917 (v)]

The shock caused by "the word"

Gentiles foolishness'."

to

the

especially to Peter, shews that their Master

had need
of "boldness" (not for Himself in facing death, but for them in
boldness in believing that He would ultimately carry
predicting it
them with Him and that they would not abandon Him irrevocably).
and

disciples,

But

to readers that did not realise the circumstances of the

still,

Some might

moment, Mark's brief phrase might seem obscure.


take

Trapp-qcria

that

the

as "openly"

i.e.

to all the

These might say

world.

phrase was misplaced, since Christ was addressing the


Others might take the view of the Sinaitic Syrian,

disciples alone.

and the Codex Bobbiensis, which agree (1252)


words
the
part of a prediction of Christ, that, after death,
making
He would rise again and speak the word " openly" or "until confidence "

the Arabic Diatessaron,


in

Matthew and Luke

to the disciples.

omit

perhaps

for

one of these two

the phrase.
Clearly this tradition called for explanation on the part of any writer of a fourth authoritative Gospel.

reasons

[1917

among

at the close of the first century, there

Moreover,

(v)]

special reasons

why

among

Greeks

attention should be called

non-Christian Jews, and among


great Teacher of divine truth.

mark of a

were

Christians,

to -n-apprjaia as the

was a time of religious


Many people made money out of them. St Paul lays
impostures.
great stress on his own "sincerity/' "confidence," and "boldness"
It

He is not one (he says) of those who "water


"frankness").
2
the Gospel for gain
Speaking from another point of view,
"
there was a
veil," he adds, on the face of Moses proclaiming
(or

down"

Law (which was unto

the

death) but not on the face of Christian

"

Having such a hope [as I have above described] we use


boldness
and not as Moses used to put the veil on his face 3 ."
great

teachers

is

Ike

[1917

(iv)

a]

power of

Comp. Rom. i. 16 "For I am not ashamed of the


Jew first and also to the Greek" with i

God... to the

Gospel,

Cor.

for

it

i.

23 4
" IVe
preach Christ crucified unto Jews a stumbling block and unto Gentiles
foolishness, but, unto them that are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the

po'uer of God and [Christ] the


2 Cor. ii.
17 "watering

"of sincerity"
3

[1917

Tim.

e eLXcKpiveias,

iii.

Cor.

12

(v) a]

Comp.

Xpw/xe&a

wisdom of God."

down"

iii.

Cor.

vii.

Heb.

or

"making merchandise"

4 "confidence," ireTroidTjcriv.
^xoeres ovv tomxvtt)v eKirlda
4,

Eph.

iii.

12,

vi.

19,

Phil.

Kair-qXevovres,

iroWrj
i.

irapp-qala

20, Col.

ii.

15,

35; also Acts xx. 20 ovdef


vweaTL\dn7]i/, at first limited by tQv crufxtpepovrup, but repeated xx. 27 ov yap
VTrecTTei\djjL7]v rod p.-q dvayyelXat. irdcrav rr\v $ov\r\v r. deov v/xiv, where "all the
1

iii.

13,

Philem.

8,

iii.

6,

iv.

16, x. 19,

counsel of God" implies the fore-ordained sacrifice on the cross, which was, to
some, "foolishness" or "a stumbling block."

29

[1917

ADVERBS

(vi)]

freedom of speech used by Abraham toward


among "admirable virtues," the sign of a

Philo, describing the

classes Trapp-qo-ia

God,

conscience," and quotes with approval the saying of a comic


poet that a slave may be a storehouse of knowledge and yet "a
rascal" unless you "give him a spice of -appyo-La. ."
Arrian, too,

"good

publishing the sayings of Epictetus, just as he had heard them,


"
notes to remind himself of the
describes them as intended to be
1

Epictetus had been a


with
He is
a
twofold
Trapprjcrla.
permeated
free from all misgivings as to the truth of his teaching
he is also
absolutely free from personal fear as to the consequences of uttering
what he thinks right to utter.

understanding and

teacher's

slave

but his teaching

Trapprja-icL ."

is

[1917 (vi)] These facts may well explain the prominence given
by John to Christ's irappyjaia, and the different circumstances in
which he mentions it so as to suggest that traditions might vary
For example, Christ's brethren
about it and yet might be reconciled.

"

urge Him, indirectly, to "take a bold attitude


"
moment, because His hour was not yet come."
21

He

refuses, at the

Soon

afterwards,

"
not speaking boldly through fear of
represented as
the Jews," and this timid multitude testifies to Christ, "Behold, he
speaketh boldly*." Later on, it is said that Jesus would no longer

the multitude

is

walk and teach "boldly"

the

among

Jews;

but

this

is

almost

immediately followed by His final journey to Jerusalem and to


death 5
To the Jews, who say " If thou art the Christ, tell us boldly."
He replies in a dark saying ; yet to the High Priest He protests
.

"

have spoken boldly

[1917

OOKtlv

(v)

b~\

Philo
"

i.

to the

473

u>s

Av wdvd'

The

world 6 ."

impression

koX to ku(xlkov dipevbu>s

/xdWov

t)

left

by these

ku>/j.ikus eipTJadai

bovXos riavxa-tw iJ-avddvri

Hovr/pos forai' /xerabibov Trapprjcrias.


[1917 (v)r] Letter of Arrian to Gellius, introducing the Dissertations: Ovre
avviypa\j/a eyw tovs 'EviKTrjTov Xbyovs ovtus ottuis &v tls cn<yy pdipeie to. rotaOra*
baa be tjkovov avrov
ovre e^-qveyKa eh dvdpwirovs avrbs bs ye ovbe avyypd\pcu <pr]fxi.

Xiyovros, ravra avra

eTreipddr]i', avrols ovoflavin a>s olbv re rjv ypa\pdp.evos, VTrofxvi)Aristotle


fiaTa eh varepov e/j-avrcp bia<pvXdi;ai. rfjs exelvov Otavoias xai Trapprjaias.
I-'.th. Xic. iv.
Plutarch
3. 2$ says that the p.eyaX6\pvxos must be irappr]<naaTiKbs.

68 9 (Dc Adulatore 27
9) has a long discussion on the good and bad Trapprjcria
rather inclining against Trapprjulav kwik^v k. Xbyovs rpaxeh.
See 1917 (i), where Lightf. is quoted as rendering Jn vii. 4 "assume a bold

ii.

''

attitud
4

vii.

13, 26.

"'

xi.

30

54.

\ii.

1.

(i

x. 24, xviii. 20.

ADVERBS
superficial inconsistencies

but

not

is

"clearly,"

always

[1918]

that our

Lord always spoke "boldly,"

at

not

least

clearly

because the disciples were "not able to bear


doctrine as yet.

have had

They

"

to

the

disciples

the clear and

also suggest a probability that

full

John may

view misunderstandings arising from the doctrine of


Mark,
"Jesus taught the word boldly." Perhaps, too, he may
have had before him a version of Mark like that of SS, namely,
in

that

would "rise from

that Christ
for

this

is

much

very

like

the

the

dead and speak the word boldly"


"
The hour
Johannine tradition,
\

cometh when I shall no longer speak to you in proverbs, but


announce to you without reserve concerning the Father 2 ."
(6)

shall

Ta'xgion

[1918] Ta'xeiov (or Ta'xiov) occurs in xiii. 27 and xx. 4 "the other
In N.T., it occurs
disciple ran on before more quickly than Peter."

Hebrews

19 (R.V.) "that I may be the sootier restored to


"if
he come (R.V.) shortly" but the meaning is
23
3
4
doubtful (2554(f)
John also uses both jayi^% and ra^i'

also in

you," and

xiii.

xiii.

pass to the

important passage

xiii.

270

7roiets iroirja-ov

rdx^ov.

We

R.V.

renders this " do quickly,."


But it seems reasonable to suppose that
not
does
use
the
form
John
ra^etov exactly like Taboos and rayy.

And

excellent sense to suppose that Judas, who had not been


originally purposing to commit the act of treachery on that flight, zvas

it

makes

interesting to note that the disciples, in spite of


for the irappijala, persist in affirming that
Christ already speaks (xvi. 29) iv irapp-qoiq.. It should be added that wapprjaia occurs
(5 or 6) in Canon. LXX, but only once (cf. Oxf. Cone. Lev. xxvi. 13 "upright,"
this

[1917

a]

(vi)

warning as

xvi. 25.

to the

It

is

need of waiting

"with head erect as freemen") with correct Heb. equiv.


that the Hebraized word may mean (1) "publicly,"
"
Stimme.
i.e.

says

[1918 a]

meaning

The Thesaurus

Oclttov \6yov,

indicates that ddacrov

"quicker than one can

is

Levy iv. 103 4


" mit lauter

(2)

frequently used (perhaps


"at once," as it is also

tell it") for

in the second book of Maccabees iv. 31, v. 21, xiv. 11 (A.V. "in all haste," "no
sooner but"), and t6.x<-ov is also thus used, though not nearly so many instances are
Tdxioj' occurs thus in Diod. Sic. and in Plut. Moral. 2400 "Unless you
given.

turn the stranger (gevtiXhiov) out of doors at once, he will corrupt you."
to vernacular Creek and is condemned by Phrynichus.
4

It

belongs

xiii.
9, t&xiov means "sooner."
rdxiov Tjfids oXeOpevaovcnv, the context
allows the meaning to be (1) "quickly" or (2) "all the more quickly," "sooner."
In view of general usage, (2) is probable.
In N.T. rax^ws, iv rax^, and rax",
are all in use, so that there was no lack of words to express "quickly" regularly

In

[1918/'] xi. 29 raxv, xi. 31 rax^ws.

Mace.

ii.

40

In Wisd.

iav.../j.ri Tro\efir)<no/j.ev ...vvv

and accurately.

On

the variation in

xi.

29

31

31,

see 2554

/>.

ANACOLUTHON

[1919]

driven to quicker action by the words of Jesus.

had

in his

mind some thought similar to


Mark and Matthew "Not on

In other words, Judas

that expressed by the chief

the feast day lest there be


an uproar of the people": but he was forced to do the deed "more
And so it was brought about that the crucifixion took
quickly?
Luke omits all mention of this
place on the Day of the Passover.
priests in

If John's ra.yf.iov
original intention to delay the arrest of Christ.
refers to it, it is one of the many instances where Luke omits and

intervenes.

John

Anacoluthon
Generally

(i)

Anacoluthon 3

" not
following")

is the name given to


a grammatical irregularity wherein, though the meaning may be clear,
what is expected to follow does not folloiv, e.g. xv. 6 (R.V.) " If a man

[1919]

(lit.

(tis) abide not in me, he is cast forth as a branch and is withered


and they gather them (aura) \i.e, the branches] and cast them into the
"
is
Here " as a branch " is simile, but " he is withered
fire."
metaphor: and strictly "them" ought to be "it." Moreover, the
following words tell only what becomes of the branches, not what
becomes of the man. But the sentence is clear in meaning and calls
for little comment.
;

The Subject suspended

(ii)

[1920]

Several

may be

instances

custom of putting the subject


then repeating
Revelation (iii.
"

will

correct

Greek
I will

icfnj)Stdo-dq/j.i'

avrov etc.

Mk

vii.

a]-.

"

conquereth

Ps.

olvtovs,

Compare

ciii.

|n

ii.

viii.

24

53, x. 35

17)

7,

followed by

Somewhat more
"To him that con-

him."

ix.

Josh.

12 ovtol ol uprot...

^opro? at
thus explained.

avOpwrros, were!

following passages

Mt. xxvi.

ii.

is

(6 vikuv)

give to

I will

given earlier (Rev.

give to him."

The

\iv. 2,

a pillar,"

"

may be

r)fxepaL

5.

The Johannine passages quoted under

38, 49,
1

12, 21) "//t'that

is

beginning of a sentence, and


"
The Lord, he is God." So in

as a pronoun, e.g.

make him

quereth

it

by the Hebrew

illustrated

at the

6,

xii.

35,

xiii.

-.

3-

this

head are

29, xv. 2

6,

i.

xvii.

15,
2,

v.

44. vi.

xx. 18, x\i.

39,
12:

ANACOLUTHON
vi.

[1921]
I

may

39 "...In order that all

none of it";

lose

38
from his belly";

rivers... shall flow

sanctified... do

ye say [to

as [eVeti'o?] ov (in the

"

Every branch

35

6 "

Whom

him] 'Thou blasphemest,'"

in

Father

(ov) the

best explained

of the preceding passages); xv. 2


5
that beareth not fruit he taketh it

light

(KXrj/ia)

x.

he hath given me
that believeth (6 7rio-TiW)...

(irav) that

"He

vii.

[1923]

me

away... and every [one] (Tray) that beareth fruit he purifieth


that abideih ( 6 /xeVwv) in me and I in him, he (ovto<;) beareth
fruit"

xvii. 2

"In order

it... he

much

that all (ttuv) that thou hast given to

him

the Son] should give to them eternal life."


Here, grammatically, the meaning would be that the Son should give
all that He has received frotn the Father, namely, eternal life.
But the

Son] he

to the

[i.e.

meaning
(comp.

[I.e.

He

should give eternal life to the whole Church


39 above). See 2422.
" Ye
1
(emph.) (v/ms) that which ye heard
Jn ii. 24 7
that

is

vi.

[1922]

from the beginning let it abide in you.


which ye heard from the beginning, ye also
[in]

If in

you there abide that

shall

abide in the Son and

the Father... And ye (emph.) (vfuls), the chrism that ye received


in you, and ye have no need that any man should

from him abideth

Here the

be teaching you."

writer emphasizes those that confess

who deny
and he may perhaps have begun by intending to say, " Ye,
abide ye (imperat.) in the Son." But he deviates into saying,
"let the chrism of the Son abide in you and then ye will abide
Christ ("ye") as opposed to those previously mentioned,

Him

in the Son."

Having regard to the instances in which the initial word {"he that
conquereth," "he that believeth," "ye") is clearly nominative, it is
probable that it is nominative in other cases, where the ambiguous
neuter

{-nS.v,

KXrj^a)

would allow the accusative.

Digression

(iii)

anacoluthon sprang from the desire to


" How can
digresses, e.g. in v. 44
ye
(emph.) believe, receiving glory from one another and the glory that
from the only God ye seek not}" The writer perhaps began with
[is]
In the

[1923]

insist

the

and

repeat.

intention

of

seeking from God,"

last section,

More

it

"receiving from one another... and not


and then strayed away into the definite statement
In viii. 53 "Art thou greater than our father
saying

"ye seek not."


Abraham, who (o<ms)
A. vi.

often

is

dead? and
33

the prophets are dead;

whom
3

ANACOLUTHON

[1924]

makest thou thyself?," as in the preceding example, the writer


from the logical continuation of the interrogative ("and

deviates

greater than the prophets

who

dead

are

This deviation

trenchant affirmation.

into a

? ")

which may imply an affirmation, " Now


to prepare the way for a second affirmation.
(w?) (2201) ye

have the

and [then] he

more

favoured by
he (ox, for he)

is

light, lest (u*a ^77)

brief

and

oo-ris d-n-Wavev,
is

dead," so as
"

Walk as
35
the darkness overtake you
In

xii.

knoweth not where he

that walketh in the darkness

goeth," the speaker digresses from a particular consequence ("and lest


ye walk in darkness and know not ") into a general one ("and then

what

is

the consequence

not whither he goeth

A man that walketh

in

darkness, knoweth

").

was pointed out above (1919) that after mentioning


"
them " instead of " it." So he has
John speaks of
vii. 49 "This multitude that understandeth not the Law
[they] are
is
which
more
accursed
(i-n-dpaTOL tlo-iv),"
emphatic than the
[all]
[1924]
" branch "

It

Also

singular.

xxi.

12" No one

(ouSci's)

of the disciples was bold

Who art thou ? knowing \all of them]


question him,
enough
(ttSoTes) that it was the Lord," though ungrammatical, is brief and
clear

'

'

to

1
.

Impressionism

(iv)

Anacoluthon in John often proceeds from his desire to


[1925]
let readers receive impressions of things in his pages as they receive
them in nature, that is to say, first seeing the most striking of a
group of things at a glance, and then gradually taking in the rest.
In order to effect this, he may even deliberately let pass a statement
that he afterwards corrects, as where he says that Jesus was baptizing

and then adds


did

22,

(iii.

introduces
Christ,
i.

(tf)

\eywv,

(/>)

15

that

iv.

He
2).

Himself did not baptize, but His disciples


Take, for example, the way in which he

the Baptist's testimony concerning the coming of


Mary Magdalene's testimony concerning the Resurrection
(a)

(W.H. marg.)

Ol'to?

tjv

ov airov

Ioiai^s
6

/naprvpel

oTriaw

irf.pl

(or, ...bi>

avrov Kal

elirov

KtKpayev

OTTiau})

fiov

But the participle, in such a


[1924 <?] Clear so far as concerns the pi.
context, suggests two interpretations, (1) "They dicl not dare to question though
they knew it was he," (2) "They did not dare to question because they knew it
was he." The Latin ha^ the pi. part., SS has "because they were believing that
it

was he," (Walton) "since they knew that

34

it

was our Lord."

See 2273.

ANACOLUTHON

[1927]

6
elirtuv
'O oVio-w...)
txt
outos
rjv
\4ytav
p^oju.evo?...(W.H.
XX. 1 8 px eTat Mapta/x. T] Ma.y8aA.T7rr/ dyye'/XAovcra T019 pa^r/Tais
(/>)
,

ort 'Ewpa/ca tov Kvpiov

kolI

Tavra

t7TV

avrrj.

W.H.

(b),
give no various reading: but
[1926]
and some Latin versions)
A.V. follows a text (similar to that of
that creates regularity by turning both clauses into reported speech,
" M. M. came and told the
disciples that she had seen the Lord and

In the latter

[that]

2
he had spoken these things unto her ."

to the all-important

gives prominence
"
for the speaker

words

have seen the Lord."

The

true text, however,

all-important, at

Then

there

is

least,

a drop into

reported speech ("and he said these things to her," where "these


"
refers to the message just recorded by the evangelist and
things
therefore not repeated). Some might have expected on to be omitted
before the direct speech, and to be inserted before the reported
But the writer reverses this, apparently using on (2189 90)
to mean "these were her words," as the sign of quotation, (lit.)

speech.

"There cometh M. M. bringing


these were her

i.e.

he said these things

words "

'

have

the disciples that"


seen the Lord''
and [that]

tidings

to

to her ."

[1927] In the earlier passage (a) above quoted (1925), we should


expect outos r/v ov (or, -n-epl ov) elwov otl if the meaning had been
"This was he [concerning] whom I said that he that cometh after

me

is

become before me 4 ."

Consequently we are led to another

but (1) SS (Burk.) supports W.H.


[1925 a] The best MSS. give o eiwuv
marg., (2) the scribal difference turns on a point on which the evidence of B is
comparatively weak, (3) the sequence of similar syllables, oemoooniCO), may
1

have been a special cause of confusion (1961, 2650 2).


2
[1926 a] SS has "and the things which he revealed to her she said to them,"
D /cat a eiirev avrij e/j.ijvvaei' (d adnuntiauit) avrois, a "et haec dixit illi," b " et
haec dixit," /"et omnia quae dixit ei," e "et quae dixit ei manifestavit." Con-

may have arisen from reading T&yT&eineN as T&Y TAAeiTTeN ancl from
supplying what then seemed needful to complete the sentence.
fusion

Jn xiii. -29 "For some thought... that Jesus was saying {\eyei) to
Judas Iscariot] Buy (1176^00-01') the things we have need of for the
feast, or, that he should give something to the poor (17 tois tttwxois 'iva ti 5o))" is
perhaps hardly to be called anacoluthon, but rather variation, the sentence passing
from a direct to an indirect imperative. The change seems to be one from definiteness to vagueness, from the authoritative "buy" to "instructions about giving"
as to which Judas, the (Jn xii. 6) " thief,"
might be supposed to need a stimulus
(" do (1918) more quickly ").
[1926/']

him

[i.e.

to

4
6'rt

[1927 a] For the construction of the relative, comp.

Jn

viii.

54 6v v/xeh \4yere

35

32

APPOSITION

[1928]

"This was he that I said" i.e. "meant, or contemplated,


"
and the following words (" He that cometh ")
may be a new statement of the Baptist's. Later on, the Baptist uses
a preposition, thus "This is [he] in behalf of whom (or, about whom)
"
I said, 'After me cometh a man... V
It is reasonable to infer that in
the first passage the Baptist must not be supposed to mean "/' behalf
of whom (or, about whom)" for else the evangelist would not have
2
varied the phrase
On the whole we may believe that, at some cost
rendering,
[in all

my

utterances]

of immediate clearness of detail, the evangelist wishes to put briefly


before his readers the essence of the Baptist's testimony as being,
from the beginning, twofold
in the first place one of prediction, or
:

anticipation, in the next place


fill

in the details afterwards.

Then he can
when Jesus first

one of subordination.

The

first

point

is

that

appeared, the Baptist at once testified "This was he that I said" the
"
Later on, he connects the two.
second,
After me yet before me."

At

first

he places them side by side without connexion

3
.

AORLST, see Index

Apodosis, see Index

Apposition

With proper names

(i)

[1928]

Apposition

to say" without writing

ending to a

first

"Thomas,
Thomas,

"

that

is

is

a method of expressing the phrase "that is


"
by "apposing a second word with a case-

it,

word with the same case-ending, as in


to sa)'] he that is called Didymus,"

is

xi.

16

xx.

24
[that
[that is to say] one of the Twelve, [that is to say] he
called Didymus," vi. 71 "This man (i.e. Judas Iscariot) was

30 ovrds eariv vvip oO iyu: dirov, 'Qiricrw fiov Zpxcrai dvrip


See 2360, 2369 70. Supposing virip to be used for 7rep/ "concerning," as it is used by many authors, the argument will still hold good, that John
would not have used virtp ov to denote exactly the same thing as 6v.
3
[1927 c] After all attempts at explanation it remains difficult to understand
how any writer and particularly one that shews himself so subtle and careful

Jn

i.

[1927/']

occasionally in distinguishing various shades of meaning could here express


himself with such extraordinary irregularity, abruptness, and obscurity.
Possibly
we have here (1892) some clause of ancient tradition inserted with the result of
dislocating the context.

expectation

is

The

expression

"This was he

that

similar to that in The Gospel of the

longing
mi, in omnibus Prophetis exspectabam te."

36

said"

Hebrews

if it

means

(1042) "Fill

APPOSITION
destined to deliver him up

"Judas

[(?)

that

is to

[1929]

say] one of the Twelve," xii. 4


disciples, he that was

[that is to say] one of his

Iscariot,

him up." This construction conduces to brevity


but sometimes to obscurity as is seen in the above queried
eis e twv Sajoe/ca.
This
outos yap e/xeAAej' 7rapaSi86Vai avrov

destined to deliver

and
vi.

force,

7 1

may be an abbreviation of eh u>v,


may
understood
to
mean
"though he was one ." There
"being one,"
"
His mother and the sister of
is also serious ambiguity in xix. 25
be mere apposition, but

it

mother Mary the [daughter] of Clopas and Mary Magdalene."


it is impossible to tell, from the text apart from other evidence,

his

Here

whether " the

sister

of his mother

"

is

"

Mary

the [daughter] of

Clopas," or whether they are two persons.

In subdivisions

(ii)

Apposition

[1929]

But the

is

used after a broad statement to define

its

of the instances given below is not a certain


parts.
"
is
found
one.
John
referring to a previous statement that Jesus
in the Temple those that 7vere selling oxen and sheep and doves."
first

What follows may mean that Jesus


of the Temple, both sheep and oxen

"drove

all
[of them] out
k
tov Upov, rd
i$e(3a\ev
(-n-aiTas
(ii.

15)

i.e. the men and what


they sold, indicating
included
their
belongings,
"sheep sellers and
them]"
sheep and oxen." And this may be his meaning in using

tc TrpofSaTa kuI rovs /5das),"

that "all [of

ox
t

sellers,

which

a verb 2

occurs nowhere else in this Gospel without introducing


Whatever the conso, the instance is appositional.

If

1
[1928 a] Comp. Mk xiv. 10 'I. 'Ick. 6 els rCov dwSeKa, Mt. xxvi. 14 els r. du>5.
6 Xeyo/xevos I. 'I., Lk, xxii. 3 'lovdav rbv KaKovfxevov 'Io~k., 8vra k tov dpt^/xoO r.
Later on, W.H. read Mk xiv. 43 [6] 'I., eZs r.
8u>8., where Mk's 6 is very curious.

Mt. xxvi. 47 'I. ets r. 5., Lk. xxii. 47 6 \ey6/jLei>os 'I. eh t. d. In


and w being interchanged, the participle Cov
MSS. of the 1st cent.,
might be written and confused with the article.
[1928/'] It is worth noting that, in John, these appositional constructions have
d.,

parall.

illiterate

to

Gk

some {Enc.Bib. 5058) "Judas Thomas,"


(a) Thomas, who was called by
"
all of whom
Judas Iscariot, and (xiv. 22) with (c) "Judas not Iscariot
might need to be distinguished. But in other cases also, when the Gospels came
to be read publicly in sections, there would be found great use and clearness in
appositional clauses defining personality at the beginning of a section, even though
to

do with

with

[b)

such a clause had been already inserted on the introduction of the character in an
earlier section.
2

iv.

The other two instances are


[1929 a] Te occurs only thrice in this Gospel.
In ii. 15, A.V. has
rrj re yvvaiKi gXe-yoi', vi. 18 77 re 6a.\ao-o-a...8ieyeipero.

42

"drove them

all out... and the sheep,"

R.V. "cast

37

all out of the temple, both the

APPOSITION

[1930]

may be, the context implies that Jesus dealt in one way
with the sellers of cattle and in another with the sellers of doves.
struction

in

R.V.,

[1930]

v.

"A

of them

multitude

that were

sick

apparently takes the participle as parallel


but A.V. takes the participle as including them,

(ao-OevovvTwv), blind, halt,"

to the adjectives

"a multitude

of impotent folk,"

the construction

is

such

word,

apposition in

ix.

29,

xx.

2,

some more

Other

paralysed."

v.

former had been intended,

the adjective, or
instances

ao-devrjs

"

as

In that case,

blind, halt...."

If the

appositional.

we should have expected

"of

i.e.

of

and

are perfectly clear,

12,

special

subdivisional
call for

no comment.
Explaining, or defining (not with Participle)

(iii)

In most of the following instances the writer places at or

[1931]

near the end of a sentence some word or clause introduced without

any preparatory or connecting word. Often, but not always, the clause
is of such a nature that we
may suppose it to have taken the hearer
surprise, when first uttered.
They may be conveniently grouped
here together and discussed severally in 1932
6.
i.
whom
wrote...
Moses...
we
have found Jesus,
45 "[Him of]

by

son of Joseph, the [Jesus] of Nazareth

from heaven

the Son

of

man

"

vi.

"
iii.

"

"

13

Now

He

there

came down
was at hand the
that

"

in
passover, the feast of the Jeivs" (W.H. enclose "at...passover
half brackets.
Contrast vii. 2) vi. 27 " For him did the Father seal

God"

vi.

71

"For

one of the Twelve,"


2

vii.

"

Now

i.e.

there was at

feast of tabernacles"

who have
1934

5)

viii.

hand the

40

"Ye

spoken to you the truth


;

viii.

[your] father

Pharisees

[man] was destined to deliver him up


"
"
probably though he was one of the Twelve
this

"

41

We

seek to
"

(As
have one Father

the devil"

(lit.)

called his parents

[the

parents of]

me (lit.)

Jews the
a man, [me]

to this difficult passage, see

God"

viii.

him

44

"

Ye

are of

(avrov) to the

tv<j>\ov) "..."

him that had recovered

they
1

sight

"
;

But
hardly in accordance with Gk idiom.
" He cast them all
Jn the meaning might be,
both the sheep and the oxen [did he cast out] and he poured

sheep and the oxen."

The former

is

in a writer so fond of
parenthesis as

kill

;
13, 18 "They bring
the once blind [man] (tov irore

ix.

[great] feast of the

OUl uf the temple


forth the money...."
1

[1931 a] Toi/s yoveis avrou tov avapXtyavTos (which, strictly, belongs to


"
the parents
apposition with participle, 1937), would mean, in ordinary Greek,
of the very man that had recovered sight."
But this, besides making poor sense,

38

APPOSITION

"
xiii.
14 "If
46 "I (emph.), light, have come into the world
the lord and the teacher...''''
(emph.), then, have washed your feet

xii.

[1932]

(perhaps generally interpreted as meaning "though I am the lord


" because
I am the lord and
teacher,'' but possibly meaning

and the

assumed

that it was the attribute of the lord to


another
Paraclete shall he give to you. ..the
sen.ie); xiv. 16,
"
But
the
Paraclete, the Holy Spirit... he shall teach
Spirit of truth,"
26
"But
when
the
Paraclete shall have come
xv.
the Spirit
you";

the teacher,"

if

Christ

"And

26

of truth"

xvii.

"That

"The

16

xviii.

they

and of him

the only true God,

other disciple

may grow

whom

knowledge of thee,

in the

thou sentest

Jesus

the friend (6 yrwo-Tos)

Christ

"
;

of the high

priest...."

[1932] Some of the above quoted instances require little


comment, being simply short and sudden ways of implying "that
is to say," or "and it is," e.g. (viii. 41, 44) "We have one Father

"Ye are of [your] father [and it is] the devil."


it
is] God,"
Similarly xviii. 16, "the other disciple, the friend..." means "now
he was, as I said before, a friend of the high priest, and hence he was
[and

In
45, "son of Joseph"
and "of Nazareth" are mentioned abruptly by Philip as attributes
In i. 46 and vi. 42 the same
of the Messiah, whom he accepts.
able to introduce Peter into the house."

i.

phrases are mentioned as reasons for rejection


with which Philip obtrudes them (so to speak)
.

Nathanael
to

(who

illustrate

shocked

is

Philip's

character

by

"Nazareth")

and

faith.

In

The abruptness
on the learned

may be intended
iii.

13

the

words

"coming down from heaven" followed, not by "the Son of God,"


2
but by "the Son of man ," stimulate the reader to think of what was

would be

In the only Johannine instance of avros 6


Father himself {avros yap 6 TraT-qp)," it means,
These clauses ("the once
unsolicited by me.
"
the reason for the

rare Johannine usage.

applied to persons (xvi. 27)

"The

"of himself" (2374) that is,


blind" etc.) are not needed for clearness.

They suggest
bringMore amply it might be expressed by "'Here,' said
was once blind,'' " or " full of astonishment at the cure

ing" and the "calling."


'

they,
of the

is

the

man

man

that

was once

blind."
" Nazareth " is
42,
(in effect) tacitly indicated as an
objection, by the mention of "Bethlehem" as the foreordained birthplace of the
1

that

[1932 a]

Also

in

vii.

Messiah.
2

R.V. adds "which is in heaven": but this clause is not even placed
1^]
marg. by W.H., being absent from the best MSS. and from ancient quotations,
which stop short, omitting these words (W.H. ad loc). Probably a feeling of
[1932

in the

abruptness and paradox originated the interpolation

39

(if it

is

one).

APPOSITION

[1933]

meant by "heaven," and "coming down."

In

xiv.

16,

26, xv.

26,

on the Paraclete, or Advocate, as not being one of


the ordinary kind
the kind that takes up a client's cause, good or
the
and
makes
best of it
but as being "holy" and
which is
bad,
laid

is

emphasis

"a Spirit of truth."


twice repeated
above quoted xii. 46 'T, light (eyw <ws), have
In
the
[1933]
come into the world," the appositional clause comes exceptionally
near the beginning of the sentence.
It is not parallel to iii. 2 "From
God thou hast come a teacher " because the emphasis in the former
1

on "/, light" but in the latter on "from God" (and the pronoun
"thou" is not expressed). It may mean, either, "I, though I am
and have been Light from the beginning, have come into this world
of darkness," or, "I, because I am Light, and because it is the mission
lies

of Light to enlighten, have come into the world." The reader is


probably intended to thi?ik of both these meanings and to prefer the

being in harmony with the saying in the Prologue, "There


was the Light, the true Light, enlightening every human being
coming [as it does continually] into the world."

latter, as

In

[1934]

40, there

viii.

a very great difficulty fully appreciated

is

by Origen and Chrysostom, and by the translators of some Latin


versions.
Our Lord is proving to the Jews that they are not true

Abraham

"If ye are children of Abraham, the deeds


But as it is ye are seeking
ye are doing (20789).
me, (lit.) a human being (or man, avOpw-rrov), ivho have told you

children of

Abraham

of

to kill

the truth,

which

heard from God"."

On

this

Origen has frequent

comments, trying (2412 a) to explain the insertion of "human being"


on the ground that it refers to Christ's human nature, which alone
can be killed

accept these explanations, and


Chrysostom dispenses with the need of them by dropping "human
etc.

"Ye

being" thus:

It is difficult to

seek to

me

kill

because (otl)

have told you the

Also two Latin versions (ff and e) have "hominem qui


locutus est" ("a man that has" not "a man, me who have").
Doubtless either Origen is right in thinking that "human being" has
truth."

some

definite

and emphatic meaning, or Chrysostom

thinking that the text must he altered.


1935] But the text may be retained and
1

natural
1

and

beautiful

'Awo dtou tkrfhvdas


Xf'<' 8i

J
(

Irig.

meaning

ii-

we suppose

may

right

2()i A,

298

avOpuirov 6s

B, 41,5

];,

ttjv dXrjt)fiaf i'puv

and comp. 297 A

40

B,

in

receive a very

Lord assumed

that our

5i5d<rKa.\os.

iyiTtlri fxe airoKTitvai,

Hue!

if

is

\t\d\tjKa.

363

B.

APPOSITION
a connexion, in

whom He

minds of those

the

[1936J

was addressing,

between "Abraham" and "man" (in the sense of "mankind" or


"human being"), and also between "Abraham" and "truth," so that
Jesus might be understood to say "You say you are Abraham's
He loved men and loved
but you do not act like him.
children
;

I am

you are
of

and I am

telling you God's truth, and


u
30) speaks of Abraham's love
as
the
natural
of
his
being
(<iA.ai'#pw7n.'a)'"
accompaniment
Abraham also is the first of Biblical characters to use the

God's truth.

a man,

man

piety.

words ''brethren

"

Philo

me."

seeking to kill

and "men

"

(ii.

together in a passage in which he sets

His words and

a precedent for peace-making.

the

deeds

his

all

suggest

mention of the word

first

Again,
"humanity," 4>L\av8pwj7ia.
"
"
truth
in the Bible is connected with God's manifestation of His

"kindness and truth


a

later

little

"

Abraham 2

to

Moreover the statement (made


Messiah
least the Messiah is the ideal of
.

on) that the Patriarch ''saw the day" of the

3
if at
rejoiced ," implies
humanity that Abraham was the friend of

"and

obscure passage

this

Abraham

man

as well as the friend

These considerations indicate the meaning of

of God.

to

be,

the friend of man,

On

[1936]

xvii.

"And

3,

"Ye
and

to

profess

yet ye desire to

this is life

part

of

be the children of

eternal,

a man."

kill

that they

should

the only true God, and [him] whom thou sentest


Jesus Christ," AVestcott (ad loc.) says, "(1) The use of the name
'Jesus Christ' by the Lord Himself at this time is in the highest

know

thee,

degree unlikely... (2)... 'the only true God '...recalls 'the true God'
(1 Jn v. 20) and is not like any other phrase used by the Lord,
(3) the clauses, while perfectly natural as explanations, are most
if

strange

they are taken as substantial parts of the actual prayer."

These arguments demonstrate that this is one of the many 4 passages


where evangelistic explanation of a Logion or utterance of the Lord
has made its way into the Logion itself.
But what distinguishes this
from other cases is, that the saying not only retains the second
person, but
"...that

[1935 a]

between

Gen.

me and

xiii.

thee...

the true [One]

(Heb. and

(lit.

The

God.

also addressed to

See Origen on Ps.


Gen. xxiv. 2-.

etr/j.4i>.

is

we should know

for men

lxii.
3

Jn

LXX)

" Let
there be no

brethren [are]

"a man"
viii.

56.

41

Epistle says (1 Jn v. 20)


in the true [One] in

and be

we"

strife,

8ti avOpwrroi

pray thee,

dSeA^ot

(2412a).
4

See Index,

"

Speech."

i]/xeis

APPOSITION

[1937]

Son Jesus

his

Christ.

This

is

God and

the true

eternal

The

life."

evangelist, or some editor, seems to have applied this definition of


"
"
"
eternal life
to the explanation of words in the Prayer (xvii. 2)
that

that thou hast given

all

him

he may give to them eternal

in order to continue in the language of prayer,

"we"

the

"
life

and,

he perhaps changed

of the Epistle into "they," and "the true

One"

into "thee,

the only true God."

With

(iv)

Participle

Apposition between a noun and a participle with the

[1937]

For example, 6 xp<.o-t6s 6 kpyop.zvo'i


may be ambiguous.
might mean either (1) "the Christ that is to come" (like Tennyson's
article

"the Christ that

is

to be"), or (2)

"the Christ,

He

that

is

to

come."

The former would


the

first

not be true apposition but definition.


Possibly
of the following instances may be of the nature of apposition,

"
There came into being
although the participle has no article i. 6
a
man
sent
from
God
(avOpuyn-os)
(a7reo-TaA.yu.eVos 7rapa.
(eyevero)
[one]
:

Here

seems to be contrasted with the previous


the
tjv
("In
beginning was {-qv) the Word"), (l>) aV0pw7ros, "a
man," with 6 Ao'yos, "the Word," and (possibly) (c) a7re0-TaA.yu.eVos 7rapa
"
"sent from the house of," with yv 7rpo's "was with ("the Word was
deov)."

in

with

i.

(a) eyeVeTo

God ").
i.

[1938]

of the Father
k6\ttov rov

18

"Only

begotten, God,

he (emph.) declared him

HE THAT IS

eVelVos i^rjytjcraTo)."

-7Tarp6<;

(Movoyei'r/s, Qeo's,

The

passage

in the

bosom

o con

eis

top

one of great
from W. H.) as
is

but it seems best to punctuate (differently


though the Logos here receives three distinct titles. 'Ek<Vos, i.e.
"He, and he alone," would be called an instance of apposition in
a classical author but, in John, it is the imitation of Hebrew idiom

difficulty:

for the

purpose of emphasis (1920).

he that taketh away the

sin of the

In

i.

29

"The lamb

world

of

God

(?)

6 aipwv
(6 ap.ios row deov
ttjv d/xapTLav rov koV/xou)," theoretically the construction might be
non-appositional, "the lamb that," i.e. "among lambs offered in
But practically the
sacrifice this is the one that taketh away sin."

fondness for apposition almost decides that the conappositional here, "the Lamb of God, He that taketh
away the sin of the world."
1939
ii.
those that had drawn
g "But the attendants knew

evangelist's

struction

is

42

APPOSITION

[1941]

the water (ot Se Zio.kovoi yjSeicrav, ot rfvTXrjKOTes to iJSojp)," probably


"
not exactly the attendants, but only]
[that is to say,
apposition,
the men that had drawn the water."
Non-appositionally it would

punctuate) "the attendants that had drawn," i.e.


such of the attendants as had drawn. The meaning is the same

mean
in

is

W.H.

(as

both cases, but the way of putting things


apposition,

statement

and

this corrective

Moreover,

(1925).

different.

is

defines, or rather corrects, the larger

it

manner

is

If there

incorrect

a Johannine characteristic

the participle had

if

and

been non-appositional

it

would probably not have been separated from its noun by the
"
In iii. 29
But the friend of the brideintervention of the verb.
is to say] he that standeth and hcarkeneth unto him
groom,
[that

(6

tov

(/h'Aos

vvfX(j>LOV,

earrjKws

clkovidv

kcli

avrov),"

the

con-

and W.H. punctuate it so. It


does not mean "That one of the bridegroom's friends whose task it
"The 'friend' of the bridegroom" might
is to stand and hearken."
be expressed in modern English, "The bridegroom's 'best man."
he that is called Christ
In iv. 25, "I know that Messias cometh

struction

is

certainly appositional

is clearly
Xcyofxero'i XpicrTo's)," the appositional clause

(M. epxeTcu, 6

an evangelistic addition. On iv. 23 "seeketh such


that worship him [in such wise]," see 2398.
In

[1940]

iv.

26 "I

am

namely,

those

[Messiah] (2205) he that talketh

to

"

the appositional clause is added as a


thee (eyaj elfii,
aoi)
so
of
a
statement
startling that the Samaritan woman
repetition
"
When I say I,'
that
she
heard it rightly
believe
might hardly
In vi. 14 "This is of a truth
I mean 'he that talketh to thee.'"
6

XaXCw

'

the prophet
6

(?)

epxo/Acvos),"

has, previously

title

by

come into the world (6 irpo$r)Ty)<i (?)


comma after Trpo^rjT^. But John
no
place
the prophet}" as though that were
"Art
thou
21),
familiar to the people
and Matthew and Luke

[he]

that

is to

W.H.
(i.

itself,

both represent the Baptist as sending to say to Jesus (Mt. xi. 3,


"
On the
Lk. vii. 19) "Art thou he that is to come (6 ep^o/Aevo?) ?
whole, the evidence of Johannine usage (1635

"the prophet, he that is to come."


"The Christ, the Son of God, he that
In

[1941]

had come

to

xi.

45

Mary and

"

9) favours apposition,

This applies also to


is

to

come

tw

27

those that

therefore of (eV) the Jews,


beheld (jroWol ovv Ik
'IouScuW,

Many

xi.

into the world."

01 iX96i'Te<;

A.V. has "the Jews which


came." R.V. inserts a comma, "the Jews, which came." Perhaps
neither version would be generally understood to mean what the

7rpo?

ttjv

Mapia/A

Kal

OeaadfxtvoL)...,"

43

APPOSITION

[1942]

Greek means, namely,

'

many,'

[by

"Many

therefore of the citizens of Jerusalem 1


1
mean] those that had come to Mary' .'"

The passage presents great difficulty. That John should


[1942]
here use "Jews'" not in his usual hostile sense but
apparently to
mean citizens of Jerusalem (as also seemingly in xi. 18, 19, 31 and
need not surprise us much but the sense seems to demand,
"
"Jews," the genitive t<3v eXdovrw,
Many therefore of the Jews
mean
those
that
had
come to Mary... believed, but
[I
many] of
[Jews]
some of them [i.e. of those Jews that had come to
Mary] gave informaxii.

9)

after

tion

to

This

the Pharisees."

actually the reading of

is

But

long comment in which he mentions the phrase


"those that had come unto Mary" some seven or eight times,
4
gives express reasons why twv IkdovTw should not be read
Origen, in a very

Chrysostom does not commit himself


brief statement, "

Some

marvelled

to

anything definite

in

his

but others went and carried word

to the Pharisees 3 ."

Jn uses 'lovSaioi to mean citizens of Jerusalem in xi. 18. 19, where


"
Bethany was close to Jerusalem,
many of the Jews (apparently
had
come
out
to
Martha
and
meaning citizens)
Mary to comfort them": so, too,
in xi. 31 and in xii.
9, "the common people therefore of the Jews."
Elsewhere
(1702), the word "Jews," in Jn, is often almost synonymous with " Pharisees."
1

[1941 a]

he says

that, as

"

"

is a relative term.
It would
probably mean a very much
larger
"A/any of the citizens died of the plague," than in (2) "Many
of the citizens used to come out to see us as our
village was only a couple of miles
off."
In xi. 45, there was need to define "
many." It needed no definition in

[1941 b\

number

18

xi.

19

Many

in (1)

where the context defined

it.

[1941 r] The difficult question remains, Why does Jn repeat a phrase ("many
of the Jews") that meant one thing above (xi.
1819), and would mean quite
a different thing here unless he hastened to
explain it ? The explanation may
be, that the original text presupposed some distinction between (xi. 19) those
Jews
that "came to Martha and Mary," and those that came to
(? SS "because of")
at
the
tomb
of
Lazarus.
Some may have remained in the house when Mary
Mary
went out of it. In that case, (1) "the Jews" in xi. 45 mean the
Jews above
"
came to Martha and Mary." (2) " Many of these [Jews] " had
mentioned, who
"
" come to
Mary at the tomb of Lazarus and "believed." (3) " But some of these
[Jews]" did not come to Mary at the tomb, and these did not believe but gave
information to the Pharisees.
"
[1942rt
SS, quite altering the sentence, has
Many Jews thai came unto
Jesus because of Mary from that hour believed in [esus."
:;

Orij4.
'-

[1942

Huet ii. 353.


Cramer ad Joe,

/']

in

has yfuonivov 5t toD Oav/xaTos,


to<s <J>aprcuots which

an extract closely
resembling Chrysostom's context,
iirlvTevoav tQv deaffan^fui'. 01 5e iv^yyeiXav

ol fxlv

commits

itself to the

the miracle.

44

view that the informers had beheld

APPOSITION

[1944]

The impression left by Origen's long commentary is that


[1943]
he distinguishes the Jews that followed Mary to the tomb from other
Jews that remained in the house. All had come to comfort the two
sisters

but only those that followed Mary, in the belief that she was
weep at the tomb, were by her means drawn out of the

going to

house so that they unexpectedly met Jesus and witnessed the miracle.
"
Concerning these one might say, in the words of SS, that
they

came unto Jesus because of Mary." Origen speaks of them as the


Perhaps
persons for whose sake the miracle was mainly wrought
he regards them as a type of the Church or of the Jewish section
1

of

it.
2

[1944] Justin Martyr and Irenaeus regarded Rachel as the type


of the Church. Origen, according to an extract from Cramer, connects
Rachel with persons weeping for their children and not yet instructed

by the Resurrection of Christ, and says that she is a type of the


3
Whether Origen connected Rachel weeping for her
Church
.

children with

comment on

Mary weeping
the weeping

is

Lazarus we do not know, as his


but he compares the stone rolled

for
lost

Rachel) with the stone rolled away from the


Origen censures Martha's want of faith. Justin
says that Leah, because she had weak eyes, was a type of the
Synagogue, and Irenaeus says that Rachel was a type of the Church

away by Jacob

(for

grave of Lazarus

because she "had good eyes." By this is meant that Rachel could
The Johannine narrative
discern the truth, which Leah could not.
does not justify anyone in drawing this marked distinction between

Martha and Mary but it certainly leaves on us the impression that


Mary was in some way superior to Martha, and that in very ancient
;

"

came

"

were regarded as typical of those


because
of Mary," and that this coming
Jews
was associated with the message of Resurrection 5
times,
"

those that

who came

to

Mary

to Jesus

In what follows, he says that Jesus raised


[1943 a] Orig. Huet ii. 352 D.
Lazarus "that the majority of the Jews (oi ttoWoL, not iroWoi), having come to
Mary (dXddvres trpbs M., not oi i\$6vTes)... might believe in him." Then he adds,
" The
language is somewhat ambiguous."
2
Iren. iv. 21. 3, Just. Mart. Tryph. 134.
1

ii. 18.
Orig. Huet ii. 343 B.
[1944 a] This phrase (" those that came to Jesus because of Mary") might
come into use in connexion with the part played by Mary3Iagdalene as the first
announcer of Christ's Resurrection. A great deal remains to be explained about
the different Maries, about the sisters Maiy and Martha, and the household of

Cramer on Mt.

45

APPOSITION

[1945]

he that was
of his disciples
[1945] xii. 4 "Judas Iscariot, one
destined to deliver him up (els twi/ /j.a6r]TMv avrov, 6 fxikXwv avrhv
7rapa8i8dvai)."

Judas Iscariot has been previously mentioned

same connexion,
tip one, of the

vi.

71 "for he

twelve":

repeats the statement,

was

in

destined (ejueAAei') to deliver

and now, reversing the

when explaining

that the

John

clauses,

words

xii.

"
5

the

him

Why

was not this ointment sold?" were uttered, not (as Matthew says)
"
certain persons," but by
by "the disciples" or (as Mark says) by
"one of his disciples" namely, Judas Iscariot. It happens that Luke
omits, in his description of the Last Supper, the words of the Lord
"
One of you shall deliver me up ."
reported by Mark and Matthew,
"
To these Mark alone adds One of the twelve"." John follows Mark
1

and Matthew in the former statement, "One of you shall deliver me


3
up "; and it is perhaps in view of this pathetic utterance of Jesus

twelve"

that he prepared his readers


"one of you" or "one of the
it at the very first mention of Judas Iscariot, and now repeats it.

for

Noun repeated

(v)

A noun

[1946]
his glory

is

Apposition

glory as of [an] only begotten."

suggest that the

to

in

repeated in apposition
"

"

glory

in

i.

14

"And we

beheld

perhaps intended
cannot be defined by such words as

This

is

or by anything except repetition,


"light," "splendour," "brightness,"
some qualifying phrase to denote unique personality.

with
(vi)

Of Pronoun with preceding subject

of a pronoun with
[1947] On the apposition, or quasi apposition,
a preceding subject, as in i. 33 6 7r/xi/'as....K:ea'os, see 1920 and
Bruder (Moulton) p. 678 gives this construction (of 6 with
2386.
etc. followed by demonstrative
pronoun) as occurring
Mt. (6) (including Mt. iv. 16 where it is a transl. of the Heb.
idiom in Is. ix. 1), Lk. (1), Jn (17). On KtWyos thus used, see 2151.

participle

Mk

(3),

45
Bethany. Besides many other variations, SS has the following in Jn xi. 5
" Now
Jesus was loving to these three, the brother [and sisters] Mary, Martha,
Lazar (R.V. loved Martha, and her sister, and Lazarus)
(19) that they might
to M. and M. to console them concerning their
comfort Martha and Mary (R.V.
that
brother)... (45) And many fews that came unto Jesus because of Mary from

hour believed in fesus (R.V. Many therefore of the Jews, which came to Mary and
beheld that which he did, believed on him)."
1

Mk

xiv.

[8,

Mt. xxvi. 21.

[1945<d Mk xiv. 20 "One of the twelve, he that dippeth with me in the


dish," Mt. xxvi. 23 "he that has dipped his hand with me in the dish," omitting
-

"one
3

nf

Jn

tlic

xiii.

twelve."
21.

46

ARTICLE

[1949]

Article
Nouns

Before

(i)

in general

The Fourth Gospel, more than

[1948]

the Three, represents

Good

(i) ideals such as the

denote

Jesus as using the Article to

Shepherd, the Way, the Truth, the Door, the Life, and (2) types,
"
the bridegroom," " the woman
such as " the wolf," " the porter,"
[of the house],"

R.V. has

1
the wife

i.e.

"the grain."

24 "Except a grain of ivheat


into the earth," perhaps from a sense that
xii.

In the

last instance,
kokkos tov ctltov) fall

(6

in English, though we
can say "the seed," we could not say "the wheat-grain." But we

lose in this translation the recognition of the fact that "the grain"

(no less than "the sower," and "the earth"), was present before our
Lord as one of the familiar instruments, so to speak, in His Father's

Somewhat

hand.

Mark alone speaks

similarly

where Matthew and Luke have dropped the

"Fathers"

(1)

vi.

[1949]
that

candle,"

Nouns

Inserted, or omitted, before special

(ii)

"the

of

article

it

"Not

58

and died,"
Moses but from

as the fathers ate

vi.

58,

circumcision]
"the fathers"

ceived

the

law

[i.e.

is

from

"Not

22

vii.

the fathers."

must mean "the generation that reand died in the wilderness." But, in the New
Testament generally, "the fathers" means "the patriarchs" (and
In

of

God 3

original receivers of the Promises

Abraham) regarded as the


and the language of the

especially
;

Epistle to the Hebrews,

"God,

who... spake to the fathers in the prophets 4," is quite exceptional


Hence, in the Acts, when the people of Israel (and not
(2553 e).
the Patriarchs) is denoted, "our" (or "your") is perhaps invariably
inserted
1

and we should expect a Jew

iv.

speak and write "our

to

xvi. 21
yvur] orav 71*7-77, i.e. the married woman, not "a
The meaning is " the woman \pfthe Aome]," or "housewife." Comp.
11 "Like Rachel and like Leah, which two did build the house of Israel."

[1948 a]

woman."
Ruth

Perh. there

17

allusion to this thought in the description of Jehovah as, so to speak,


ii. 22 "he built the rib into a woman."
See 1019.

is

building the builder, Gen.


-

Mk

[1948 ]

even rendered
Lk. viii. 5.
4
5

Heb.

i.

[1949 a]

\vxvos,

Mt.

" a sower"

Rom.

ix. 5, xi.

v.

(but

15,

Lk.

28, xv. 8,

Acts

16 \vx"ov.

viii.

R.V. "the")

in

xiii.

Mk

iv. 3,

32 (comp.

A.V. has
Mt.

2 Pet.

xiii. 3,
iii.

4).

1.

Acts

iii.

11, 12, 15, 38, 39, 44,

xxviii. 25.

21

iv.

cireipuiv

Note

13,

45

that,

iii.

[bis),

amidst

25

(vfxCov,

marg.

ti/muiv), v.

30, vii. (Stephen's speech)

17, xv. 10, xxii. 14, xxvi. 6,


" our fathers " in the course
frequent repetitions of

51 (vfiwv), 52 (fytw").

47

xiii.

ARTICLE

[1950]

when mentioning his own people. The preceding words


"This is the bread that came down from heaven" whereas, in
8) represented as saying "from
Gospel, Jesus is always (1952

fathers"
are,

this

These facts suggest that vi. 58 may be an evangelistic


of the Doctrine of the Bread from Heaven.
" For this cause Moses
gave you circumcisioD
[1950] In vii. 22

the heaven."

summary
not that

it is

from Moses but from the fathers

circumcise

ye

man

(1961),"

exact

the

and

on the sabbath
historic truth would

from the fathers," but " from Abraham." But " the
fathers," meaning "the patriarchs," might be loosely used to express
require, not

"

the fact that circumcision, beginning with the first of the Patriarchs,
rest of them, and was thus passed on to Moses,

was continued by the

If John wrote vi. 58


who, though he "gave," did not originate it.
own person, but vii. 22 in the person of Christ, it is compara-

in his

tively easy to explain

Wilderness"

how

"

in the former,

the fathers

"

"
might mean

and "the Patriarchs"

Israel in the

in the latter

1
.

It

more in accordance with the Johannine method of expression that


our Lord should speak of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob as " the
is

"

fathers

than that

He

wandered forty years


"Feast"
(2)

should give

this

name

to the generation that

in the wilderness.

"
Now there was at hand the [principal] feast of the
[1951] vii. 2
the
feast
of
tabernacles
rQv 'I. q o-K-qvoTr-qyia)." Josephus
(77 kopr-q
Jews,
calls this

(Ant. viii. 4. 1)
the Hebrews," and

among

"by
(ib.

far the

most holy and important

xv. 3. 3)

"most

of

all

observed

feast

among

John's reason for calling attention to this is given in the


The brethren of Jesus urge Him to shew Himself in
context.
us."

of Stephen's speech, " the fathers" (according to W.H., following SBDj occurs
exceptionally thus, Acts vii. 19 "the same dealt subtilly with our race, and evil
entreated the fathers, that they should cast out their babes."
Is this to be explained

from the special context, as meaning " the fathers of navly born children"!
" the
Stephen calls the sons of Jacob
patriarchs (oi TraTpiapxai) when they sell
" our
and
when
Joseph,
they are sent to buy corn, and subsequently
fathers"
In Acts iii. 22 (A.V.) the words "unto the fathers" are an
(Acts vii. 9, 12, 15).

"[The] Song of [the] Fathers," LXX v/xvos


World."
" our
[1950(7] Note that Jesus, in replying to the Jews (vi. 31
fathers ate the
manna") has said vi. 49 "your fathers ate the manna. ..and died" (comp. Mt.

interpolation.
Traripwv,

is,

in

The

lick,

title (in Sir. xliv.)

"

Praise of the Fathers of the

"

Our fathers. ..your fathers"). An evangelist, commenting on this


30 2
a Gospel for Greeks and Jews, not being able to say "your fathers," might
substitute "the fathers."
xxiii.

in

48

ARTICLE

[1954]

" Manifest
thyself to the world," and this particular feast was
the best occasion for obtaining publicity
" Heaven "
public,

(3)

[1952] The article is always used by John (16 times) with


"heaven" except in i. 32 "I have beheld (Te0eapx<.) the Spirit
"
"
vi. 58
This is the
descending as a dove from heaven (Z$ ovpavov)
bread that descended from heaven (6 e ovpavov Kcu-a/3as) not as the
he that eateth this bread shall live for ever."
fathers ate and died
Of the sixteen instances of "heaven" with the article, thirteen occur
2
This makes the two exceptions
in the phrase "from the heaven ."
;

all

more remarkable.
" the heaven
[1953] As a rule,

the

distinct

"

from

means heaven regarded as a place


"
means what is heavenly
mortal or human.
In the Synoptic

the earth," whereas "heaven

or divine as distinct from what

"The

Tradition,

"

is

doctrine of John, was


1 ''

men 3 ?," "from

heaven'

means

it

from heaven

divinely

inspired,

(e 6.) or

from

but "from the

heaven" would have implied a suggestion of an angelic message, or


Different writers
vision (Acts xi. 5) "sent down from the heaven."
"
hearing from heaven."
might take different views of the Lord
Solomon in the book of Kings uses the article, Nehemiah does not 4
But the same author may reasonably be expected to take the same
.

view,

and not

use

to

phrase with and

the

without

the

article

indiscriminately.

He

has

"

from the heaven,'' using the noun metaphorically in


sense like " the bosom of the Father," " the light of the

a spiritual
"

habitually represents Jesus as asserting that

John

[1954]

come down

"

If he had used the phrase "from


etc.
would
have
heaven?
predicated about our Lord what might also
have been predicated as we have seen above concerning the

world,"

the bread of

life

it

Therefore in the Fourth Gospel both


Christ and Christ's doctrine, the Bread of Life, are said as a rule to

doctrine of John the Baptist.

[1951a] In

W.H.

But
2
3

v.

1,

[1952 a]

All have

[1953 a]

Mk

dvdpwiros

Mera ravra

rjv

iopri;

tQv

reject the article without alternative.

it;

xi.

ovpavov,

k,

30,

and

except

Mt.
Cor.

vi.

xxi.
v. 2

'lovdaiojv, Tisch. reads

SS has "

17

eopT-f).

a feast of the Jews."

&tt6.

38

Lk. xx. 4.
1
Cor. xv. 47 6 devrepos
"
to % ovpavov imply " spiritual
as opposed to
25,

"earthly," "fleshly."
4
[1953 f^] 1 K. viii. 32, 34, 36, 39, 43, 45, 49 eLo-a/coi'iay e/c tov 6., Nehem. ix. 13
i\a\-qoas irpos avrovs e 6., ix. 15 dprov e 6. 5w/cas avrols, ix. 27 i 6. o~ov -rjnovaas,
Contrast also Ps. liii. 2 6 deos e/c t. 6. oi^KV\pev with Ps.
ix. 28 ei; 6. eiarjKovo-as.

cii.

19 Kvpios e

A. VI.

6. eirl ttjv 777c e7r^/3\et/<e.

49

ARTICLE

[1955]

Thus John reverses the usual


custom of speech. Most writers would speak of " the birds of the
heaven" and would describe a bird as coming down " from the
heaven" meaning "the sky," whereas they would say that a prophet's
have descended "from the heaven."

message comes "from heaven, not from earth." But John prefers to
"
take " the heaven
as a materialistic term used by him always in
a metaphorical sense to imply that the Lord Jesus Christ, the Bread
not merely of a heavenly origin but came down in
of the Eternal God.

of Life, was

manner from the abiding-place

a unique

What

[1955]

bearing

has this on

the

of the two

first

above-

mentioned exceptions, i. 32 "I have beheld the Spirit descending as


a dove from heaven ($ 6.)"? The answer is complicated by several
facts.

The

is
speaking, not our Lord, nor the
" from
(2) It is not clear whether
person.
"
"
taken
with
as
a
dove
or
with
should be
"descending."

(1)

evangelist

heaven"

Baptist

own

in his

Mark and Matthew

(3)

the descent of

in their parallel description of

"
the Spirit, mention " the heavens and
"
has the heaven" and "from heaven."

but Luke
"from
If John had written "from
the

heavens"

it
might have been taken literally in connexion with
"dove," so as to mean "like a dove from the sky"; or it might
have been taken metaphorically, "from the very habitation of God."

the heaven,"

Perhaps neither of these meanings

is

contemplated

More probably John regarded the Baptist


"
that came "from heaven
and as using the

Gospel.
vision

the Fourth

ordinary phrase
This phrase he places exceptionally in the Baptist's mouth
order to distinguish it, on the one hand, from any bodily dove

about
in

in

as speaking of a

it.

all, and, on the other hand, from those unique spiritual


" the
concerning which Jesus spoke, which were from
heaven of heavens." See 685 724.

visible to

descents

[1956]

The

other instance,

down from heaven


follows, in the

from
vi.

"

"This

or

"

is

less

apros

is

the bread that


it

ovpavov

came

KaTa/3as),

than eight instances of " bread

come down from

the bread that

the

heaven" and,

in particular,

heaven

is

am

several contexts: (a)

this

[continually] coming do\vn/;vw


the living bread that came down from the heaven."
two challenge, as it were, comparison or contrast. So do their
1

the heaven...

The

(outos

58 "This

vi.

icrriv

same chapter, no

the heaven

50

"

vi.

58 "This

is

the bread that

not as the fathers ate and died)

bread shall

wilderness the

live for ever,"

manna and

(/>)

died.

came down from

he that feedeth on (rpwyuv)

"

vi. 49
Your fathers ate in the
51
This is the bread that is continually

50

ARTICLE

[1957]

coming down from the heaven that anyone may


(dTruOdvrj) (or, be liable to death, aTroOvrjaKrj).

came down from

that

the heaven,

eat thereof and not die

am the living bread


eat of this bread he shall
I

//anyone

live for ever.'''

The

[1957]

first

be noted

point to

that in (a)

is

the passage

under discussion, the eaters of the manna are called " tfie fathers,"
but in (/') "your fathers." This, as has been shewn above (1949),

implied
12 "

iii.

is a saying of the Lord, while


(a) is evangelistic
next point is that the anacoluthon, or breaking off",

indicate that (b)

may

The

comment.
in

"not

not

as (ov ku#ojs),"

is

Cain was of the

as

paralleled by Westcott here to

one"

evil

Jn

and neither here nor

in

the Epistle does Westcott refer to any other N.T. instance of such a
1
These two peculiarities of John himself, as distinct
construction
.

from the words of Christ recorded by John, when combined with


"from heaven"'instead of the phrase regularly assigned to Christ

("from

both here and elsewhere

the heaven'')

indicate

the

that

here speaking in his own person and summing up the


whole of the Eucharistic discourse. According to .this view, the
evangelist

is

teaching of the Lord in the Synagogue at Capernaum concluded


"
He that feedeth on me, he also shall live for
with the words (vi. 57)

my

Then John

sake."

circumstances

down from
1

heaven

[1957 a]

Kadvos

in xiv. 27 (where
-

[1957/i]

[bread]

down

not from men]

not as the fathers [of Israel] ate

01)

icaddis

apart

in

from

it

"This is" both in (a) and (b) is ambiguous.


came down," or " This [man] is

Cor.

viii.

lips

it

It

in

ral ov

iii.

may mean,

the bread that

12

" This

came

never represented as saying ovtos ianv except


" This
But it is quite
[bread] is."
probably means

In Jn, Christ

His

purely Johannine, occurring in Jn vi. 58, xiv. 27, 1 Jn


is in Christ's words) the construction is quite regular.

is

the bread that

(1974)."

here, and

himself thus sums up the doctrine and the


delivered "This is 2 the bread that came

it is

According to Bruder,

r)\iricra./j,ev

is

which

in

is

Jn that he should repeat the words of the Lord giving them their
inner sense " This [wan] is." The phrase occurs several times in testimony to
" This is he about whom I
" This is
Christ,
said," i. 33
30 (from the Baptist)
he that baptizeth," i. 34 "This is the Son (or, Chosen One) of Cod," iv. 42 (from the
" This is in truth the Saviour of the
world," com p. vi. 14, vii. 40
Samaritans)
" This is in truth the
" This is the Christ."
In some of these
vii.
characteristic of

i.

prophet,"

41

In xxi. 24 it comes
passages, e.g. i. 34, iv. 42, it comes at the close of a narrative.
In
near the close of the Gospel, " This is the disciple that testifieth these things."
" This is he that
" This is the
the Epistle it occurs thrice
ii. 22
antichrist," v. 6.
came through water and blood," v. 20 " This is the true God and eternal life."
:

The phrase comes

appropriately in Jn

vi.

58 as part of an evangelistic utterance

testifying to the truth of Christ's Eucharistic doctrine.

51

Comp. 26212.

42

ARTICLE

[1958]
the wilderness and died.

He

These things he

for ever.

that feedeth

said in

on

this

bread shall live

synagogue teaching

in

Caper-

naum."
51, "Ye shall see the heaven opened (perf.)," the
[1958] In
meaning is probably something quite different from a vision of
a "rending" in the sky such as might be inferred from Mark's use of
the word "rend" in the description of Christ's baptism.
Taken in
i.

conjunction

with

John's

about

context

"angels ascending and

"
promise a continuous revelation and
descending," the words (642)
"

a permanent avenue opened up between heaven


the spiritual
"and earth." The evangelistic use of the word with the
heaven

article in

xii.

28 "There came therefore a voice from the heaven" and

"

Having lifted up his eyes to the heaven" perhaps denotes


both passages an outer and an inner meaning for non-believers,
that lower heaven which men call "the sky"; for believers, "the

in xvii.

in

heaven of heavens
"
(4)

Man

."

"

"
In the following passages, " the man
is used
the
(like
"
"man
the vine
in general," "mankind," or
etc.) to mean
dog,"
"human nature"; Jn ii. 24 5 " But Jesus himself (2374) would not
"

[1959]
"

trust himself to them because he understood

all
[men] (-n-a^Tas) and
he
had
no
need
that
one
should
because
any
testify about human
nature (lit. the man) because he himself (2374) could understand what

human nature (lit. the man)." Mark alone has (ii. 27) "the
made for the man and not the man for the sabbath."
But Mk vii. 15 "There is nothing outside the man (i.e. man in

was

in

sabbath was

general) that, going into him,

by Mt. xv.
of the man,

In Genesis,

11.
i.e.

able

is

vi.

to

defile

him

"
is

imitated

"God

mankind, was great,"

viii.

saw that the wickedness


21 "the imagination of the

mankind" LXX has 1st " the men," 2nd " the
man." Comp. Eccles. iii. 11 "so that the man cannot find out,"
where LXX has "the man" but Aquila "man," and iii. 19 "theman

heart of the man,

i.e.

hath no preeminence above the beasts," where LXX and Theod.


have " the man," but Sym. "man" So 1 Cor. ii. 11 "Who among

men knows the things of the man?" i.e. the facts of human nature.
The Hebrew phrase is identical with "the Adam," so that the Pauline
phrases "the old man" and "the //era man," are equivalent severally

For "judgment-seat

"

with ami without the article, see 1745.

52

ARTICLE
to (i)

Adam"

"the old

man" who

"second

Adam," and (2) "the


"from heaven."

or "first

said to be

is

[1960]

Adam"

last

or

[1960] In vii. 51, "the man" may very well refer to previous
context, which describes an attempt on the part of the Sanhedrin to
arrest Jesus.
Nicodemus, a member of the Sanhedrin, pleads that

judge

the

events to be heard: "Will

at all

Jesus ought

man

it first

except

The term

been trying to arrest.

and

Nicodemus

exhibits

superior

position

is

i.e.

our

Law

man you

have

doth

(or,

"

the

perhaps slightly contemptuous,


speak from a detached and

as affecting to

of the fact that he has visited Jesus


similarly, in Matthew, Peter detaches himself

in

spite

Somewhat

by night.
under pressure of

hear from him...?

fear,

when he

and,

is

questioned about his Master,

" I

do not know the man'2 ." In classical Greek, 6 dvdpwiro';


often means "the poor man," "the poor creature," and there is
probably a tinge of this mixture of pity and contempt in Pilate's
"
Behold the man," i.e. " Behold the poor creature
saying (xix. 5)
says,

whom

are

you

But

as speaking

"not from

Pilate, like

who

Caiaphas

is

beneath

surely

50),

(xi.

your

also be regarded

may

himself," so that he unconsciously uses an


" Behold the man " i.e. the Man
according

may mean

expression that
to

and

persecuting,

hostility !"

God's Image, the ideal

Man

3
.

B gives Kpivel fut., which favours the view


would favour the rendering "the man [from time to time
brought before the Law]." Comp. Lk. xix. 22 Kpivw where W.H. (with most
Lat. vss.) have Kpivw but R.V. KpivQi.
1

[1960 a]

The

taken above;

[1960 3]
Lk.
Xeyere.
rid of it.
3

[1960 c]

mean "the
[of

scribe that accented

Kpivei

Mt. xxvi.
xxii.

58,

t'ov

74

72,

dvdpwTrov,

60 has &vdpwwe.

Mk

Mk

xiv.
71 top d. tovtov Sp
softens the harshness, Lk. gets

He uses it to
Epictetus' use of the term is worth considering here.
man," what Philo would call "the man according to the image

ideal

God]," St Paul "the new man," and some "the Son of man."

briefly expressed
that,

"

by

being unable to

fulfil

we

e7ra77eX/aj' TrXr]pu>o~ai)

"

in the following extracts

the promise implied in


take in addition to [it]

'

The

Man

'

(ttjp

(7rpoaXa/j.j3a.pop:ep)

thou do aught

"Beware,

It

may be
"

(ii.

title)

How

rod 'Avdpwirov
that of

'

The

as a wild beast

then, lest
lost The
(airuXeo-as top avdpwirov), thou hast not fulfilled the
Else, thus also The Man is
Beware, lest [thou do aught] as a sheep

Philosopher,'"
Else, thou hast
promise.

The Man

(ii.

9.

foil.)

Man

And again (Epict. ii. 10. 14) "But if, from


destroyed (ambXeTo 6 avdpuiros).'
being a man, a creature mild and sociable, you have become a wild beast, noxious,
1

cunning

at mischief,

''

given to biting, have you lost

(air oXdiXex as)

nothing?

\\ hat

Must you wait to lose the trash in your purse before you will confess to having
Is there no other loss
suffered damage (dXXa del ae Kepfxa ajroXecrat. iva I'rj/xLwOrjs) ?
"
that damages 7"he Man (aXXov 5' ovdevbs a-n-uXeia i'T]/xioi top avdpwirov) ?

53

ARTICLE

[1961]
[1961] In

vii.

23

" If a

man

receiveth circumcision

(dv6pwiro<;)

on the sabbath," W.H. have [6] dv6pu)Tro<;, and B inserts 6. But


the high authority of B is weakened as regards the article by the
fact

makes frequent mistakes (2650 2) about o and the


c, e.g. v. 7 npoceMoy for rrpoeMoy, vi. 19 ooct&Aioyc
cocctaAioyc, vii. 38 eie/v\e for eice/v\e, and even vii. 43 cxima.
that

it

similar letter
for

for

cxicma

(where,

as

in

vii.

23,

the

error

of

insertion

omission could not arise from the juxtaposition of similar

or

letters).

23 the scribe of B may have referred to the previous


words (" and on the sabbath ye circumcise a man ") and he may
Possibly

in vii.

have supposed the

text to proceed, "if the

In any case " man "


" The man is
not

is

as

emphatic here

made

as

man
is

it

{just mentioned]..."
in

Mark's statement

"

and the emphasis is


illustrated by vii. 22 "On the sabbath ye circumcise a man."
"A
man " might have been omitted if emphasis had not required it.
for

the sabbath

But the argument is: "You do not hesitate to break the sabbath by
If human beings on the sabbath are
circumcising a human being.
allowed to receive this partial purification, are ye angry with me for
having made a whole human being (6'Aov dvOpwirov) sound on the
"
sabbath ?
The plea is, in behalf of humanity, for a humane

judgment ("judge righteous judgment"). And the whole passage


illustrates the use of dvOpw-n-os alleged above (1934
5) to mean

"human
is

Abraham whose "love

being" in connexion with

of

men"

eulogized by Philo.
(5)

"Mountain"

[1962] In Genesis (xix. 17) (LXX) "Look not behind thee nor
stand in any of the surrounding country (rrj 7repi^ajpa)), escape into
"
the mountain," the context defines " the mountain as the mountainous

country near Sodom.

Twelve,

(iii.

13)

So

in

"he goeth up

previous mention of

(iii.

7)

Mark, before the Choosing of the


into the mountain,"

is

defined

the

by
presumably the sea of Galilee

"the sea"

mountainous country near the sea of Galilee


but the
Luke
"he
went
forth
the
into
mountain
to
parallel
(vi. 12)
pray" is
not defined by anything unless we suppose it to follow closely on
Christ's teaching in (vi. 6) "the synagogue," and assume this to
1

as being the

"
the synagogue of Capernaum, so that " the mountain
means
"
the mountainous country
near that city.
In Mark and Matthew

mean
"

'

To 6pos means " the mountain," or

."iiiriliin^

implied

-\]>n

<<!,

l,

like "///<

54

the mountainous country," defined


1

is^hlands,"

"

the Lakes."

by

ARTICLE

[1964]

"

into the mountain to pray," after the Feeding of the


"
a boat,"
Five Thousand, follows a previous mention of going in
In the story of the Gerasene
presumably on the sea of Galilee
Christ's going

demoniac, "the mountain" is also defined


"
a previous mention of " the sea," or

When

"GerasaV

the

is

Transfiguration

Mark and Luke) by

(in

as

sailing,"

well

described,

as

by

Mark and

Matthew speak of "a high mountain 3 " (as also does Matthew in the
4
5
Temptation ) but Luke has "He went up into the mountain to pray ."
of
the
in
A
of
the
contexts
Mark
review
which
passages
[1963]
mentions ''the mountain" makes it probable that he uses the phrase
not that
to mean the mountainous country in view of Capernaum

which was actually nearest to the city on the west of the Lake, but
The former, though near,
that which lay on the east of the Lake.
could not be seen by the citizens of Capernaum who lived under it,
the latter, being constantly visible to them, might
speak
This is not always clear in the
"the mountain."
called
be
naturally
so

to

But John defines the position thus in the only passages


is used by him absolutely, vi. i 15 "Jesus

Synoptists.
in

which "the mountain"

went away on the other

side of the sea

Galilee....

of

Now

Jesus

came

up into the mountain.....he withdrew again into the mountain." Luke


makes no mention of "the mountain" in connexion with the Feeding
of the Five Thousand, Mark and Matthew mention it once, John
mentions

twice.

it

Luke omits and John

a case where

It is

inter-

venes.
"

"

Only begotten

(6)

i.

[1964]

"No man

18

he hath

hath

Under

him."

declared

God

seen

God, he that

begotten (Movoyevr}<;),

the

is in

any time.

at

bosom

Only

of the Father,

head of Apposition (1938)

the

reasons have been given for punctuating as above, and for regarding
"Only begotten," "God," and "he that is" (6 wv qualified by

"in the bosom of the Father") as three


Greeks, and Philo
called

God

"

(the

which

that

"He

that

Jewish
is,"

Mk
vi.

3
3
6

vi.

46
32, Mt.

Mk
Mk

v.

11,

ix. 2,

Rev.

i.

" went
xiv.

Lk.
Mt.

away

interpreter

is," 6

bosom

to pray," Mt.

xiv.

the Logos.

viii.

32, following

Mk
4

23

4, 8 etc.

55

v. 1,

Mt.

not

of the Father" to indicate


" went
up to pray," following

13.

xvii. 1.

The

Greek philosophy)

make God a Person,

so as to

of

John adopts the Apoca-

to ov, neuter.

lyptic phrase
He then adds "in the
a thing.

Mk

titles of

Lk.

iv. 8.

viii.

26.
5

Lk.

ix.

28.

ARTICLE

[1965]
a Person,

wisdom

whom

in

but

the defining characteristic is not strength or


Thus an expression
with a Father.
closes
the list of titles
filial
love
paternal and

both

implying

union

filial

and descriptions of the Logos enumerated


the

last

of these

three

titles,

the

first

place

Hebrew

begotten," which, both in Greek and

the
is

In

Prologue.
to

given

owing

"

Only

to the con-

implied
only Son and a beloved son (803)
not likely that John meant us to render the

nexion between an

"beloved Son."

in

It is

word "an only begotten," any more than to render Oeos, "a God."
As a Christian would not render Xpio-ros "an Anointed," but "the
"
Christ," so John intends us to render Movoyevr/s, "the
Anointed," or
"
Only beonly begotten," or else, as a proper name, Monogenes, i.e.

The

gotten."

alterations of this text are

Tohn has strained

to the

utmost the

elastic

numerous and natural


Greek language

briefly the intensity of his conviction that the

Father

is

as

to express

known

only

through the Son.


(7)

"Prophet"
In

[1965]

21

i.

"Art thou

the

prophet," apparently (unless "that"

prophet}"

is

"

"
ille

as

A.V. has "that


in

K.

xviii.

as a repetition of the previous question "Art


(A.V.)) regarding
thou Elijah ?" Origen, with more probability, supposes it to refer to
it

the "prophet" mentioned in Deuteronomy xviii. 15, 18, whom the


Jews (825) seem not to have identified with the Messiah, although the

prophet
(8)

is

thus identified in Acts

"Teacher
iii.

[1966]

10

iii.

22.

[of Israel]"

"Thou

art the teacher of Israel (6

S.

tov

'I.)

and

knowest not these things!" is probably ironical, meaning "the


That John would not indiscriminately insert
\well-knoiun~\ teacher."
and omit the article in such phrases, may be inferred from his
discrimination and,
general carefulness and subtlety in linguistic
"
of
thou art the Son
in particular, from i. 49
God, thou art King
utterance of Nathanael, as compared with xii. 13
"the king of Israel," the utterance of the crowd, in the Entry into
"The Son of God" reigns over, or is "king of" all the
Jerusalem.
nations of the earth including Israel.
David, or Hezekiah, or a
" the
called
be
king of Israel"
merely Jewish Messiah, might naturally
Nathanael is made to utter a coni.e. the king for the time being.
fession much more inclusive than that of "the great multitude ."
of Israel," the

[1966-/

In classical

Gk

a distini tion

56

is

drawn between

fiaaiXevs,

i.e.

"

King'

ARTICLE
Names

Before

(iii)

The

[1967]

article before a

name may mean

variety of usage in different writers,

"the [above-

Mark is singularly consistent


moods).
He omits
nominative, "Jesus."
mention of the name (i. 9) but never again, except in
different

in

his use of the article with the

in
it

(i)

This leaves room for great


and even in the same writer

"the [well-known]."

mentioned]," (2)

(when writing

[1969]

in the first

"

where custom requires


47) "Jesus the Nazarene
omission as the name is defined by "the Nazarene." Matthew

the phrase
its

(x.

and Luke omit the

article at

in

but omit

first,

about

predicative nominative)
later on (besides the parallel to

and

five

Mk

x.

also (with the non-

it

eight instances, severally,

47).

In John
excluding such instances as "Jesus the Naza[1968]
"
and others where we might expect omission we find the
rene

With Ae'yei, John, more often


omitted about sixty-five times
than not, has 6 'lrja., but he has aireKpiOr) 'I770-. about twenty-two
2
In phrases with
times and dneKfnOy 6 'lrja. only once for certain'
aTrKpt6ri and names, the LXX regularly omits the article.
John
1

article

may have been

influenced, in using this word, by

LXX

usage, while,

With indeclinable
of Aeyet, he follows Greek usage.
names, case-inflexions are sometimes indicated by the article for the
the

in

use

apparent purpose of clearness and perhaps it is sometimes inserted


in accordance with an unconscious sense of rhythm so as to avoid
;

in the long dialogues that characterize the

monotony

John's

[1969]

general

rule

is

to

introduce a

Fourth Gospel.
personal

name

uniquely, the name given to the sovereign of the East, and 6 j3aac\evs, "the king"
There is perhaps an inner evangelistic meaning in
of ihis or that barbarous tribe.

the protest of the priests, xix. 21 "Write not, the king of the Jews,' but that
"
'He said, I am kingoi the Jews QS. rwv I. ei/iL),' besides some allusiveness to the
l

See 2669.
Synoptic differences concerning the inscription.
to
the similarity of o to C and
doubtful
are
statistics
The
owing
a]
[1968
1

the weakness of codex

B on

this point (1961

and 26502).

But 65

is

probably the

minimum.
'

[1968<$]

where

avrols

vi.
is

29.

In

inserted

iii.

5,

after

xviii.

37,

awcKpidr]

W.H.
we

have

often

find

[6].

On

the other

hand

or [6] before 'lijaovs.

Perhaps where avrols or avrw

is inserted, referring back to the person spoken to,


often inserted to refer back to Jesus.
Johannine variations may be illustrated by the use of "John (the

a corresponding 6

is

more

[1968 r]
Contrast i. 28
Baptist)" which occurs with article (13), without (5), doubtful (1).
ev B....ottov i]v 6 'I. fiaTvrLguv (where there has been much said about John in
context) with x. 40 eh rbv rbtrov ottov

rjv

57

I.

to irpuirov fiairrlfav.

ARTICLE

[1970]

without the

article

One

to this.

is

and there appear only three or four exceptions


in xviii. 29 "There went out therefore

"Pilate"

the [governor] Pilate,"

mention of him
Pi/ate" where

and

Pilate")
2

governor

and

the

in

this

may

Passion,

"

be paralleled by Luke's

him

they led

first

to the [governor]

Mark has no article (" they delivered him up


Matthew "they delivered him up to Pilate

."

to
the

The other exceptions are indeclinable nouns i. 43 5


[1970]
He findeth Philip... now the [aforesaid] Philip was from Bethsaida...
Here "Philip"
Philip findeth (lit.) the Nat'hanael (rbv NaflavaifA.)."
"
is introduced, according to rule, without the article;
Nathanael,"
:

"

"We

against the rule, with the article: i. 45


a son of the Joseph ('I. vlbv rov 'Iohtt^)."

"Is not

this

In

'Iuxr?7<)?"

the

son,"

shewn

the

Jesus,
iv.

5
is

reading
be dative

to

son

[well-known]

have found Jesus,

Contrast this with


of Joseph

"the well that Jacob gave to


doubtful, and W.H. bracket

immediate clearness.

by
If

vlu>

airov,

but

the

[the]

tw.

article

it

seem

to Jesus

Joseph his
'Iwo-t^

is

to

is

"),

implied
but can

("a son of the


John would speak of anyone

article just afterwards

likely that

as distinguished ("the [great]

approach

42
vlbs

"Nathanael" were not indeclinable, we

be the meaning of the

Joseph"), and does

conduces

might suppose the article to imply distinction such as


in the words of the Lord (" Behold an Israelite indeed
this

('I.

(lit.)

vi.

Nathanael") when describing

his first

[1969 a] "Solomon" (x. 23 iv Tjj aroq. rov 2.) could hardly be said to need
In xviii. 40 "Not this man but the [great] Barabbas," it is the
"introducing."
" the
crowd, not the evangelist, that speaks; and the same applies to xix. 12
1

\great\ Caesar."'
'

has 6

[1969 /d Jn
II.

xviii.

invariably,

29, Lie. xxiii.

Mt. has

it

1,

Mk

except

in

xv.

t,

Mt.

xxvii. 2.

xxvii. 62 (pec).

Mk subsequently
Lk. has it exc. in

xxiii. 6, 13, 24.


Jn has 6 II. 19 times, and once, according to W.H. (xviii. 31)
as o may
simply II.
Probably W.I I. are wrong in following B here, especially
have been omitted after the preceding c in &YTOIC (1961. 2650 2).
,

rov 'lwa-q<p may shew traces of some tradition


45
[1970'/
Possibly
about "the carpenter Joseph," and the evangelist may intend a contrast between
the beginning of the <i<>>pel (when Jesus was described as v. tov 'lw<rr)<p) and the
:i

v'Cov

i.

development of the Gospel


[1970
in

LXX

case,

LXX

/>]

The

which Jesus was described as 6 v. '\uart<j>).


names of persons introduced for the first time is rare

(after

article before

but it occurs in 2 K. xxii. 3 to represent eth, the sign of the objective


The parall. 2 Chr. xxxiv. 8 has eth, but
before "Shaphan...the scribe."
omits t6v. For the article with names of places, see 2670 foil.
;

5*

ARTICLE
With

(iv)

"These
defile

gave

are

Synoptists, this construction is comparatively


1
it that smote thee (tis io-rw 6 n-aicras o-e) ?",

the

"Who

e.g.

and "is" or "are"

Participle
In

[1971]
rare,

is

"

were sown 2

that

they

[1972]

"These

are

the

things

that

ra koivovvto.) the man 3 ," " Who is it [really] that


4
o hov<;) thee this authority ?"
In the last instance,

Icrrtv

(ravTa

(tis <ttiv

Mark and Matthew have "Who gave thee?" The


some person
or thing defined as doing something.
Isaiah writes, "There is at
hand one-justifying-me" LXX renders this, "There is at hand he that
the

parallel

construction with the article assumes the existence of

Isaiah proceeds, "Who will contend


But
the
construction.
does not vary it,
against
varying
"
Who is he that contendeth with me (ti? 6 Kpivouevos jxoi) ? " The
"
God [is] he that
Epistle to the Romans loosely follows
5
who
is
he
that
shall
In
condemn
}".
classical
Greek it is
justifieth:
justified

me (o
me ? "

SiKcuwo-as p-e)."

LXX

LXX

"
one
necessary to insert the article in representing the Hebrew
justifying me." If d were omitted above before SiKouwo-as, the meaning
"

of the Greek would be

he

is at

hand, having justified

me

."

Whereas Luke scarcely ever uses this construction in the


[1972]
Words of the Lord 7 John uses it frequently as follows (i) v. 31 2
"
If I be testifying about myself my witness is not true.
Another

is

[really]

he that

Mt. xxvi. 68, Lk.

xxii. 64,

[1971 a] Mk iv. 16
explanation of the Sower.
2

in

iii.

[1971 ] Mt. xv. 20 (?Mk


3 ovtos ecrriv 6 prjOeis.

Lk. xx.

Rom.

20,

[1971c]

increasing,"'

scattering,
18, xiii.

2 parall.

Mk

viii.

make

vii.

xi. 28,

34 (quoting
In Proverbs

the

not

Is.

1.

Mk

in

Mt.

xiii.

15),

Mt.

etrrtv

(aAA.os

testifieth

concerning

(4901).
19

23,

comp. Lk.

not in Lk.

xxi.

paprvpuiv)

23

tLs crot

viii.

Mt. also has

12,

14,

the

this construction

tdwKev;

8) debs 6 diKaiQv, tis b koltclkplvuv;

xi.
24 (lit.) "there exists one scattering and yet
paraphrases, "there are those who (elalv o'i), [while]
things more," but Aq. and Sym. ian oKop-Ki<;uv, comp. Prov. xii.

LXX

7.

would probably be hard to find an


meaning e.g. "is scattering" unless
The instances given by Jelf 376. 4 are
the meaning were "is really scattering."
Plat. Legg. S60 E (and Demosth.
mostly from poetry and not in the present.
[1971 d"\ In classical Greek prose it
instance of eari and a participle, without

p.

6,

853. 29) TavTa. ovtws %x 0VT & e<rTiv means "these things are irally so.'"
7
[1972 ] Lk. xx. 17 ti ovv iaTiv to yeypa^p.ivov is (apart from the Parable of

Sower (1971 a)) the only exception, if it can be called one. Outside the words
of Christ, the constr. occurs (in Lk.) only in xxii. 64, xxiv. 21 oti clvt6s eanv b
the

/jl^Wuv \vTpovo~dai Tov'IcrparjX.

59

ARTICLE

[1973]

and then Jesus goes on to say


nor even the works that

me...,"

the

Baptist,

Father, invisible to those

would have

whom He

is

that this "Testifier"

He

not

is

Himself does, but the

addressing.

"AAAos

sufficed (like St Paul's Beos 6 SiKaiuv)

if

6 /xaprypviv

the

meaning

of "is" were not intended to be emphatic.


The meaning really is
twofold (i) "Another and distinct from myself is he that testifieth,"
(2)

"Another

he that

[really] exists

testifieth."

The

[whose existence ye perceive not], namely,

first

is

expressed, the second

is

"

suggested.

"AAAos means "another [of the same kind] (2675 7).


"
Do not imagine that I (emph.) (iyw) will
(2) v. 45
[1973]
accuse you to the Father.
There is [indeed] {lariv) he that accuseth
you, [namely] Moses...," i.e. "The very person to whom you look
for testimony in your behalf (because you claim to be observing his
1

the while testifying against you ."


[1974] (3) vi. 2>Z "For the bread of God is [not a thing of the
past but of the present] the [one] that is ever descending from heaven
law)

is all

and

offering

(comp.
it

may

life

1957/;)

to the world 2 ."

Here comes

sometimes inherent

refer to the

masculine noun

last

into play the ambiguity

6 with

in

the participle, since

mentioned, namely "bread,"

God is the [loaf] that is descending."


take
to
be
the meaning, for they proceed to ask
Jews
"Give us evermore this bread." But Jesus replies "I am the bread
of life."
'Eo-tiV is not here so emphatic as in the last instance
but

or "loaf," apros "the loaf of

And

this the

the

context

indicates

that

stress

is

laid

on the difference

being
of the historic past
and the ever
It is probable that John
present, ever descending, bread of life.
intends "the [one] that is ever descending" to mean the Man,

between the manna

detail

quite as much as the Bread, or, primarily, the


the Man regarded as the Bread.

[1975]

(4)

vi.

63

"The

Man, and

secondarily,

which giveth life (to TrveufiA


not profit at all 3 ."
The words

spirit is that

iani' to (wottoiovv), the flesh doth

1
[1973r/| Comp. viii. 50 Zoriv 6 i'rjrQv Kai KpLvuv, "There [really] exists he
/hut seeketh ..."
This and other passages, and the Johannine love of apposition,
are against the rendering " He that accuseth you is Moses," or "Moses is he that

accuseth you."
-

|1974,/|

A.V. "the bread of God

dpTOS TOV OfOV tOTlV 6 naTafiaivwv


''
1

1975

is

he which," R.V. "that which," 6 yap

Here N omits "the," before "spirit," so as to moan "That which


SS il'.tuk. marg.) has
is the Spirit that
of a spiritual nature."
to the body, bul ye ay 'The body nothing profiteth.'"
</

giveth

life is

giveth

life

"He

60

ARTICLE
might mean
all

"The

[1976]

the Holy Spirit) is [distinguished from


the
other spirits by being]
[spirit] that giveth life," repeating
:

n-vevfxa after

Spirit

Iwottolovv

(i.e.

and

may be

it

fairly

R.V. (against A.V.) has repeated apros


('the loaf

is

argued that similarly

in the

But

the [/oaf] that descends").

passage

last

quoted

in that instance there

a deliberate ambiguity, and possibly the primary


Here there is no question
did
not
require the repetition.
meaning
of any distinction between one spirit and another, but only between
"
and " the flesh."

was perhaps

"the

spirit

[1976]

The words

are

that

of very great

owing

difficulty

to

the

be attached, not only to them (taken

meanings
may
by themselves) but also to their context (2210 foil.). One meaning
"
may be It is the spiritual part of man that must give vitality to all
different

and this suits


doctrine by receiving it spiritually," as St Paul says
But we have to bear in mind that (i)
the antithesis of "the flesh."
,

the phrase "life-giving spirit" is rare, (2) it occurs here in connexion


"
"
with a preceding mention of
the Son of man ascending and it is

followed by a mention of "words" that are "life," (3) in N.T.


1 "
elsewhere it occurs twice: "The letter killeth, the spirit giveth life'
3 "
" The last Adam
a
the verb occurs

[became]

life-giving spirit

(4)

twice in John elsewhere concerning the Father, who ''giveth life"


and the Son who "giveth life' ." In the light of these facts does it
seem likely that John would use the phrase "give life" concerning
1

the Spirit of man ?


"
of Christ,
the last

Would he not more probably use it of the Spirit


Adam," the Son of Man in heaven ? If so, the

meaning here would seem


which giveth

Cor.

ii.

"

to be,

the

Spirit [of the Son]

is

that

life ."

13

14.

Cor. xv. 45.

Cor.

iii.

6.

Jn v. 21 (his).
5
[1976a] Perhaps there is a play on the word "spirit" as meaning also
"breath" in Hebrew and Greek, that cannot well be reproduced in English. As
there

is

life beneath the letter that killeth, so there is a spirit


beneath words that (taken literally) may "kill." The disciples of

a spirit that gives

that gives life

Jesus have to go back beyond the sound of His uttered words to the breath, spirit,
or personality, that uttered them.
Compared with the inner meaning, breath, or
"spirit," of a word, the outward meaning or sound may be called its "flesh."
"The words that I have spoken to you," says our Lord, "they are spirit and they
are life, because they have not been mere 'flesh words,' or external sounds, but

have passed, breathing life, into your


"Thou hast words of eternal life."

spirits."

6l

And

accordingly Peter says

(vi.

68)

ARTICLE

[1977]

[1977J Some such thought appears to have been in the mind of


the originator of the version in SS, " He [i.e. the Son of
Man] is the
that
to
the
He
arrives
at
this
giveth life
Spirit
body."
by repeating
"Son of Man" as the subject of "is," by taking to jr. to . as "the

and by altering the subsequent words.

Spirit that giveth life,"

The

may be

of value as testifying to a very early interpretation


connecting "giving life" to the dead with "giving life" to words,
and both of these with the Son of man.

version

[1978]

But

me.

viii.

(5)

50

and judgeth

(ea-Tiv

"I honour my Father and ye dishonour

my own

seek not

glory; there

kw

,r)Twv

is

[indeed] he that see kefh


as explained above

i.e.

KpiVwv),"

(1971
And
3) "there is, all the while, though ye know it not."
the "judging" is regarded as going on (iii. 18) "already.'"
Later
on it is said (xii. 48) " He that is rejecting me and not receiving my
words (prj/Acna. /xov) hath him that judgeth him (ex 61 TOV xpivovra
avrov),"

that

Logos

"The word (Xoyos)


him
in
the
last day."
The
judge
and
the
will
be
summed
judgment
judging now,
up

where a clause

spake that
is

the future follows:

in

(ckcivos) shall

hereafter.
viii.

[1979] (6)

" If

54

[indeed] my
ye (emph.) say that he is your
is

//

nothing.

him; but

{ethph.)

know him

."

should glorify myself,

Father that

is

is

my glory
whom

glorifying me, of

God, and [yet] ye have not recognised


Here the context indicates that the

emphatic "is," expressed by arriv at the beginning of a sentence,


describes an action going on in the presence of men ignorant both
The "glorifying" is manifested by
of the action and of the agent.
the works that

Son receives from the Father

the

to

do

in

the

presence of men.
[1980]

(7)

21

xiv.

keepeth them, he it
This follows
/xe)."

[1979 n]

iyu

'Ecti'

fie 61/ vfiels

5e oloa avrof.

u.

il

adds, in

eyw So^daw

ifxaxabv,

\tyere 6Vt Oeos

The

hath

my commandments and
me

(e/<eu'ds

v/xuiv

effect,

r\

56$a

(marg.

aya-n-wv

keep

my

" If
ye keep them, then,

and

fxov ovSiv eartu.


i]fj.wv) (<jtLi>,

the end of the

icmv
will

iariv 6 7rar?;p /xov 6

koI ovk eyvwxaTe avrdv,

first sentence is
quite unemphatic
were omitted, the following iartv mi^ht be
oi initial.
Moreover, the juxtaposition ol the two lays
"// really is my Father."
emphasis on the second.

(<ttlv al

and almost superfluous.


taken to be final instead

mm

it

that

that loveth

15 "If ye be loving me ye

xiv.

commandments," and

doi;awp

"He

[realty'] is

But,

if

it

62

ARTICLE

[1983]

"He

only then, will ye be really loving me," or, in the third person,
that keeps them, he and he alone, is really loving me 1 ."

[1981]

found

is

in

Besides occurring in the Words of Jesus, this construction


the words of the Baptist and other speakers.
Thus,

whereas the Synoptists represent the Baptist as saying concerning


the future Messiah " He shall baptize you," John gives the words as
11
He it is that is baptizing you"": and the Jews and others also
3

speak thus

But the phrase appears

have commended

to

itself

evangelist as especially suited to the Logos, who Himself


sees everything, and describes it to others, as it really is, going on

the

to

His

visibly before

eyes,

though not before

theirs.

With Non = Possessive Adjectives

(v)

The

[1982]

"

phrase,

e.g. (i

and emphasis

reduplication of the article changing a noun-adjective


"
"
the third day
to (2)
the day the third," adds weight
to

the

adjective.

In

Christ's

Matthew always

Resurrection

the

predictions

former

of

the

the
Luke,
gives
latter
of
the
latter.
The
is
also
used
one
these, gives
parallel
in the formal and traditional enumeration of the appearances of
in

to

Christ after death in

the First Epistle

to
"

Corinthians 5

the

The

the third living creature,"


Revelation has the former in speaking of
or "the third angel"; but in more solemn phrases we find "he

opened the
[1983]
of Christ

[1980

hadst

"the woe

the third,"

seal

In the Synoptists, the

apart
reduplication

and the Voice from Heaven

</]

Other instances of

known who

it [realty]

is

cometh quickly 6 ."


from words
Son my beloved")

the third

("My

with the participle and ecrrt are iv. 10 "If thou


that saith unto thee (ris <ttlv 6 \eyuu crot)...,"

where a aireipuv and 6 depifav are,


6 XaXwv p.era aou iKelvos eariv,
the subject is 6 \a\wv, and e/ceiVos is not (as mostly) repetitive but means "that
very Son of Man about whom you ask Who is he?' as though he were far off."
2
Jn i. 5^, Mk i. 8, Mt. iii. n, Lk. iii. 16.
3
Jn v. 12 "Who is the man that said...,?" v. 15 ''...that Jesus was (lit. is) he
iv.

37 aXAos

(ffrlv 6 aTretpuv /cat

in effect, nouns.

In

ix.

37

/cat

aAXos

6 depifav
idipaKas avrbv

/cat

'

that

had made him whole,"

xxi.

20 "

Who

is

he that

is to

deliver thee

upV

[1982 a] This excludes noun-participle phrases, e.g. "the people that [was]
sitting (6 Xao? 6 Kadrifxevos)," "the miracles that [were] wrought (al dvvdfieis ai
For phrases with possessive adjectives see 1987 9.
yevo/j.evai)'" etc.

The

Mk

has fMera rpeh imepas,


parall.
Lk. ix. 22 has rrj r. rj/i. in a prediction of Christ, and also in his account of what
But Lk. xviii. 33 (parall. to
the Saviour said (xxiv. 46) after the Resurrection.
Mt. xx. 19) has rrj tj/jl. rrj rp., the form used in 1 Cor. xv. 4.
6

[1982/5]

Mt.

[1982

Rev.

e]

xvi. 21, xvii. 23, xx. 19.

iv. 7, vi. 5, viii.

10,

contrasted with Rev.

63

vi. 5, xi.

14.

ARTICLE

[1984]
is

Lk.
very rarely used, except in a few special phrases.
Mark has often, and Luke twice

"her Son her firstborn"

42) "the spirit the unclean"


sixth" (ii. 26, iii. 22, also Mk
Spirit the

Holy

Luke has

iii.

xiii.

29,

(i.

26) "the

n, Mt.

has

(viii.

29,

month

the

ix.

ii.

xii.

32) "the

."

[1984] John, as a rule, reduplicates the article only in utterances


of the Lord or in weighty sayings about Him, as in the Prologue,
"This was the light, the true [light] 2 ." In the less weighty clauses

of the Lord's utterances he does not reduplicate it, as in "the true


3
"
4
I am the Vine the true
," contrasted with
[vine] ."

worshippers

One

[1985]

or two perplexing instances of reduplication in

John

may be perhaps explained by a desire to suggest to the reader some


"
latent thought, as when he says that Andrew
findeth first his
own

Simon 5 ."

Here the evangelist is supposed


Andrew's unnamed companion also found his brother,
"
"
first
found
James the son of Zebedee, but not till Andrew had
Antithesis is certainly expressed elsewhere in "his name
Simon.
brother his
to

mean

[brother]

that

own [name] 6 ," "his


"
at Cana
third [day]

his

glory
the

own

his

text

if

is

In "the day the


is
perhaps a

[glory] ."

correct there

"

8
In "the five loaves the barley [loaves] 9
and
mystical meaning
"the ear the right [ear]" of Malchus 10 symbolism may be latent,
apart from the fact that (comp. 1983 a) John is adding details not
.

mentioned by Mark and Matthew 11

[1983 ,7] Mk v. 7, [Lk. viii. 28] assign to the demoniac the words, "Son of
the Highest"; Lk. vi. 6, xxii. 50 -when adding facts unmentioned by
Mk-Mt., namely, that the "hand," and the "ear," severally, were "the right
1

God

the

one"
2

reduplicates
i.

the article.

9.

8
when the true worshippers shall
[1984a] iv. 23 "The hour cometh
worship the Father in spirit and truth." The italicised words do not predicate
anything about the Logos, and they are subordinate in emphasis to what follows.

xv.

vii.

iS.

10

[1985<?]

wiii.

io.

i.
ii.

41.
''

1.

v. 43.
vi.

13.

Luke may not have intended symbolism.

The two

evangelist- must be judged in the light of their several Gospels, taken as wholes.
11
[1985/'] In wiii. 17, the person previously described as (xviii. in) ''She

that kept the door"

is

now

called "the 'maid,'' she that kept the door."


This is
the evangelist wishes to retain the old

probably not emphasis but afterthought

Synoptic tradition that the Apostle was confused and abashed by a mere "maid,"'
whom he had previously described as "she that kept the door." The meaning,
" The maid, she
then, is,
[whom I described above as the one] that kept the door."

64

ARTICLE

[1987]

The

following are the instances in Greek


c/>dk to lxXtjOlvov.
Comp. VI. 32 tov aprov ck tov
(a)
I
XV.
tov
Contrast iv. 23 01
rj
?;
dpTreXos
dX-qdLvn.
aXy]6ivov,
ovpavov
[1986]

9 ^Hi' to

i.

See above (1984).

akyjdivol -rrpoo-KwrjTai

41

i.

(/3)

Comp.

(1985).

In

18 Lav.

In the

ra

ii.

i.'8ta

ttj

irpcoTOv

tw

iv

43

there

latter,

(y)

v.

these there

all

n-aTpi^L, x. 3

outos

ivpidKU

no

Tjp.ipa

txj

TpLTij

%Lp.tova

ttjv

iv.

44

iv ttj iSta

no expressed

antithesis.

8oav

ttjv

12.

till x.

yd/xos

is

l6lov

18

vii.

Contrast

where there

antithesis

ror

abeXfpov
ibia),

antithesis.

is

-n-po^aTa,

is

tov

oydpciTi tu>

iyevero,

but

marg.

T-fj

TpiVj/

(1982/;).

qfjiipa.

In

16, tov vlbv tov povoyevrj,

"He

gave his only begotten


to
18
ovo/xa toC povoyevous
son," the adj.
"
because he hath not believed in the name of the only
vlov tov 6eov,
(8)

iii.

more emphatic than

is

in

God "

Sou of God," where "

iii.

much of the emphasis.


context
lays stress on her
9 r\ ywi] 1) Sa/xapetri? (the
(e)
"
from me being a woman that is a Samaritan ").
Samaritan origin,
tlov ttIvtc dpTiov tQ>v kplOlvlov, "from the five loaves
() vi. 13 ek

begotten

attracts

iv.

that were, as

have

said, of barley."

This detail

is

not given by the

Synoptists (1985).
x.

(77)

KaXov

11,

140

iroLp,y)v

Contrast

6 koAos (3 times).

ii.

10

tov

(bis)

olvov.

(6)
(1)

xviii.

10 to wTupLov to SctioV (1985).

xviii.

160

p,a8r)Tr)<i

6 a'AA.09 6 yvwcrTo? tov dpx- (? distinguished

from Peter, who was not " an acquaintance of the High Priest
Contrast xx. 2, 3, 4, 8 d d'AAos p., xx. 25, xxi. 8 01 cIXXol p..
(k) xviii. 17-7
"the door-keeper"
doorkeeper ").

(vi)

7rcuSto-K?7

(fern.),

17

Ovpwpos (called previously

and now, "the maid

")

(xviii.

16)

that [as I said]

was

With Possessive Adjectives


The

frequently possessive, and, in that case,


Instances
is almost always accompanied by a reduplicated article.
are given below in Greek. The student will find in almost every case
that the phrase with the reduplicated article, e.g. x. 26
7 "the sheep

[1987]

adjective

is

that are

my own

(ra

on the owner than


xxi.

16

17

"feed

t<x ip.d)

it.

is

my

voice," lays

more

stress

laid in the phrase with the possessive genitive

my

sheep

to be regarded as unique,

with that kind of love


A. vi.

hearken to

is

(t<x

tt.

p.ov)."

The "love"

and the command


a "

to

of Christ is
" love one another"

new commandment," which our Lord


65

ARTICLE

[1988]

His own

call

might

special

Hence He

commandment.

says, xiv. 15,

" If
ye love me, ye will keep my own [special] commandments (ras
But this is followed by an unemphatic repetition of the
e. Tas ep.a's)."
clause because the emphasis is to be thrown on something else,
xiv. 21

them

"He

he

my commandments

that hath

i.

(tols

and keepeth

/xov)

that really loveth me."


So the emphatic is followed
in
xv.
10
in my [special] love (iv rfj d.
the
"Abide
9
unemphatic
by
If ye keep my commandments ye will abide in my love (iv
rfj ifx.fj)...
a.

j-77

it

where the

fxov),"

do

is

On

last

words amount

more

to little

"Ye

than,

the other hand, the unemphatic is followed by


the emphatic in xv. 10
12, "If ye keep my commandments (ras e.
/xov)... this is my [special] commandment (7} i. -q i/xrj) that ye love one
will

this."

Here, as often elsewhere, an


than
a
if-clause, being
emphatic
predicate, expresses ownership
in the unemphatic form.
[1988] The following are the instances in Greek

another even as

have loved you."

less

(a)

29 avTTj ovv

iii.

iva
is

tj

\<xpd

very rare.

rrjv

"

rj

X a P- ifiwv

yapdv

is

and "your joy

[own] joy

xvi. 22, 24, rrjv

Comp.

(/?)

V.

30,

viii.

(y)

v.

30,

vi.

(8)

vii.

harmony,
in xv.

1 1

'Yp-eVepos (1774)

TrXrjpuyOrj.

i/xiLv

"

and

13 Iva

xvii.

e^cuo-iv

16,

rj

Kpi(TL<i

tj

Strata (dXrjB unrj)

i/xr]

ccttu'.

38, to dek-q/xa to ifxov (antithesis in context).

On

6 6 Katpos 6 e'pds...d de Kaipos d Operepos (antithesis).

form

the writer (1987) adopts the less emphatic

vii.

epos Kcupos.
viii.

(e)

own

very
Contrast
()

ov

"

my
kcll

epr/ 7re7rXr;pa)Tat.

ij

rrjv i[X7]V TreTrXr]pii)p.evrjv iv eavrois.

yapdv

repetition
o

ep?) iv vp.lv

r\

ya-pa-

r\

not antithesis, between

There

*v

X P ^
0)

v.

iv

34, xviii. 31, d vdp,os vixwv

u/"Vj

($)
(1)

ixov,

43 Trjv AaAiav
XaXidv o-ou).

viii.

56

x. 26,

tw Aoyw tw

27

xvil.

iixov,

370

Aoyos o epos

17

Aoyos

tt;v

Contrast

i/xrji'.

rrpd/iaTa t

emphatic

iixd

emph.

iv.

in a

42

TTJV o-rjv

xii.

26 d Siaxovos d epos, "

my own

66

XaXidv

Messianic sense.

Contrast

x.\i.

TTpOfSaTLOL fXOV.

(k)

o-os.

viii.

ttjv T/pe'pav tt/v i/xr/v,


to.

(dju.wv).

epai,

51 tov ifibv Xoyov, 52 tov Xoyov


24 tovs Adyous fxov, xvii. 6 tov Aoyov aov,

24 rov Adyov pov,

viii.

tt/v

tjtc iv

43 T0V Xoyov tov

23 tov Adyov
J4 tov Ad-yov aov.
(77)

Se tw i5p.eTe'pu), "yea, and even in your


no antithesis but very strong emphasis.

1'dp.a)

is

31 eav vixeis pen

/xov, xiv.

(marg.

tu

There

51, x.

vii.

viii.

Contrast

/cal

17

law."

[true] minister."

16,

17 rd

ARTICLE
(A.)

XIV. 15

and contrast
(p)

ii>To\d<; tol? epas, XV.

ras

xiv. 21, xv.

XV. 9 /xeiVaTC eV

10 ras evToXa's
ayairi] rrj

T77

[1990]
\2

rj

ivroXr)

77

See 1987

cp?7.

yu.ou.

i/xfj,

{lb.

10) /xevetTe iv

rr} dydirr]

pov (see 1987).


(v)

xvii.

()

xviii.

$6av ti]v i/xrjr.


Contrast viii. 50, 54 vj 86a pou.
to
to
crov
6^i'os
(contemptuously emphatic on the
35

24

rrjv

part of Pilate).
xviii.

(o)

36

(3aa-iXeta

rj

antithesis implied
"
from

derived
officers

r\

between

this

world,"

There

(bis)... 01 VTvqpzTai ol epoi.

p.rj

is

"my own kingdom" and kingdoms


and the same applies to " my own

(1388 a)."

The non-reduplicated article before a possessive adjective


but occurs as follows iv. 42 oi Sia tt)v o-r/v AaAmv (marg.

[1989]
is

rare,

Xakidv

tt]v

crov) fairly

cause of our

own

hearing,"

In

eKeiVou ypdixixao-Lv.
(vii.

"
beemphatic, being antithetic to an implied

vii.

6) 6 Katpos 6 epos.

emphatic than

6 Katpos

47 tois epois

v.

8 6

The
p-ov

ep.os /catpo's

pijp.ao-iv,

antithetic to toi?

occurs after an emphatic

non-reduplicated form (though more


is
probably not so

would have been)

In vii. 16 77
emphatic as the reduplicated.
"
that which is [in one sense] my teaching
ifjL-r],

epr)

SiSa^r)

ovk

Zo-tiv

another sense]
not [really] mine," the first ip.ij is moderately emphatic.
In viii. 51
tov ip.6v Ao'yoi', "if anyone keep my word," the emphasis is moderate.
This construction seems to indicate an emphasis greater than that of
is

[in

the possessive pronoun but less than that of the possessive adjective
with the reduplicated article.
As regards xiv. 27 elp-rjvrjv ttjv epr/V,
which must be taken with its context, see 1993.
(vii)

Omitted, or misplaced

[1990] In

and Mary

xi.

19

(7rpos ttjv

"Now many
MdpOav

of the Jews had

koL Mapiap.)

come

to comfort

to

them

Martha
(am-as)

concerning their brother (7rept tou dSeXcpov)," we should have expected


T77V either to be omitted before MdpOav, or, if not, to be repeated
before Mapiap.
D omits it before Map#av: A has u to the household
3
{irpb<i Tas 7repi') of M. and M.," and so too has C (Trep-q): SS (Burk.)
has "went forth to Beth Ania that they might comfort Martha and

"

concerning their brother." The facts indicate that


Martha-and-Mary" was felt by some scribes to be a combination intended to mean lt the household" of the two sisters, and hence

Mary," omitting
"

the

they (perhaps influenced also by the proximity of [aij]Ta.9 7repi tov


d8e\(j>ov [Ptaken as an error for "the household oi the deceased brother,

67

52

ARTICLE

[1991]

The reading of SS
tot dSeX^o'i']) substituted ras we/oi for rqv.
rov
took
translator
the
aSekcpov to mean
that
[ai]-ras ircpl
suggests
as being "the household of the brother
"Martha and
t.

77.

Mary,"

"To Beth Ania" may have been supplied by SS for


(Lazarus)."
"
household," confused
sense or may be a further error arising out of
by SS with "house," Beth.
mss. have probably preserved the correct
[1991] The best Greek
to represent, by the unusual
text, the intention of the writer being
omission of the article, that Martha and Mary now made up one

78
Comp. i Thess.
Kol
iv rrj Molk. kou lv ttj 'Ax-.-.eV rfj
(R.V.) "an ensample to
in every
all that believe in M. and in A....no\ only in M. and A. but
in
is
omitted
where
the
article
place" (A.V. (Ins) "in M. and A.")

'household, of which Martha was the leader.


'

M.

Ax

i.

the second clause, partly because one abbreviates in repetition, but


more because there is, in the second clause, an antithesis between

"

M. and A."
[1992]

12 (W.H.)

ttoXl-s o
Trj iiravpiov 6 oxA-os

But

the variation of mss.


that

is

it

advantage

tradition, in order to

"

not

iw

i\6wv

of

some

In

xiv. 27 elprj\r)v

uncertain owing to

Mk

xii.

37 6 ttoXvs ox'W, and that


expression in ancient

irregular

shew that he regards the phrase

the illiterate rabble," but

[1993]

rr/v ioprrjv is

els

has been suggested above (173940)

it

written with allusion to

took

John

and "every [other] place."


'IouScuo.iv
o 0x^.0? ttoXvs k
ovv
Zyvu>

(as being one place)

xii.

" the multitude in

acpLTj/JLi.

as

meaning,

full force."

vfiiv, elpr]i'r)i> rrjv c'/at/v Si'Su^u vp.iv,

i.
r.
Jn had written, in the second clause, rrjv
would have suggested, for the moment, a reference

if

ifirjv,

the article

to the I in the

Instead of that, the


("the peace just mentioned").
writer breaks off to indicate that it is something more than the
common kind of peace: "Peace I leave unto you. Peace [do I say?
clause

first

mine I give you." In


with
the
this special context the phrase
single article conveys even
doubled.
article
the
with
than
the phrase
more emphasis
iv. 34 ipbv /3pw/xd hrriv iva ttoitJo-w... we ought not to
In
[1994]
but rather that the predicate is placed
say that the article is omitted

new kind of peace]

nay, a

[1991

<i]

When "the

the [peace] that is

chief priests" are mentioned before

"

Pharisees," the

omitted before "Pharisees" where the two classes are regarded as forming
" came to the
But the article is
one council in vii. 45
thief priests and Pharisees."
"
Pharisees" where they are regarded as two distinct classes comtted before
dTr^oreiXai', xi. 47 0-1^70701'. \i. 57
bining in hostility against Jesus (vii. y.
otdwKeiaav ^croXds).

article

is

68

ASYNDETON
1

before the subject


the will of the Father
.

[1996]

The words might have

that

is

food for

me

run otherwise,

(or,

my

"
disciples were saying to themselves, in effect,

Hath any man brought him aught

("

their implied question by putting

foremost

is

it

food?

to

it is

in

do the Father's

will."

his

is

My food,
The

With

John.

you ask: What

my

is

frequency

is

will".

Article with the Infinitive

almost non-occurrent in

is

deserves notice as being in striking contrast with


Luke, in whom alone there are more instances than

Its rarity
in

"

Infinitive

The

[1995]

subject of the sentence

the subject of Christ's thought, namely, doing the Father's


(viii)

food

to eat?").
And Jesus answers
foremost in His reply, because

it

"

their thoughts:

But the

food)."

What

"To do

3
the other three Gospels together

its

in

Asyndeton
Johannine use

(i)

of

sentence in Greek

is mostly connected with the


presome
This has the disadvantage of
one
by
conjunction.
ceding
sometimes defining rather narrowly the relation between one thought
and another: and a foreigner, writing Greek without a native know-

[1996]

But it
ledge of its conjunctions, might define the relation wrongly.
has great advantages, especially for readers of an ancient Greek

written

ms.

before punctuation had been introduced.

For

it

often

From the want o{


helps us to discern the beginning of a sentence.
such a conjunction springs the ambiguity noted by R.V. marg. in
the words " Without

[1994 a]

In

i.

debs

him was not made anything.

rjv

6 Xbyos, iv.

That which

24 irvevixa 6 debs, the predicate comes

for emphasis, and the subject, distinguished


rare to have a noun predicate thus before a

by the article,
noun subject.

is

placed

An

last.

adj. in

It is

(o)

first

very

such a posi-

Xbyos ovtos, "hard [indeed] is this


iriarbs and evXoyrjTos are often thus placed (though not in Jn).
" the."
2
[1994 6] In Jn iv. 43 (R.V.) "after the two days," A.V. has omitted
"
there
two
It refers to iv. 40
they besought him to abide with them and he abode
In
xviii. 3
those
and
no
more.
He
abode
there
two
means
that
and
it
days
Jn
days,"

more
saying," and
tion

is

freq., as vi.

60

<rK\rjpbs eariv 6

(R.V.) "the band (marg. cohort)," A.V. ("a band") has missed the reference to
"
"the band that regularly kept guard in the fortress called Antonia.
a

[1995 a]

Bruder (1880) gives to with

only 4, namely i. 48
tov tov Kbdfxov elvcu,

irpb
ii.

tov ae

<f>.

inf.,

Mk

(pwvrjaai, xiii.

24 Ota Tb ai'TOv yivucTKeLv.

69

19

c.

15,

irpb

Mt.

c. 24,

Lk.

c.

70,

Jn

tov yevicrdai, xvii. 5 irpb

[1997]

ASYNDETON

hath been made," where

many have taken

the

to be (as

meaning

text) "anything that hath been made ."


[1997] The omission of the conjoining words commonly called
conjunctions is called "Asyndeton," i.e. "not fastened together."
1

R.Y.

John abounds

in

instances of asyndeton of the most varied and


numerous to quote, especially with an initial

unexpected kind, too

"

verb ("[There] cometh Mary," "[There] findeth Philip Nathanael


etc.); with any form of the pronoun "this"', with the conjunctions

"if" and "even as"; with an adverbial phrase ("in him was light");
with a participle with the article ("he that believeth (6 -n-io-TevW'),"
"

or sometimes

begin

quently

everyone that

abruptly

with

(7ras

"

noiv

believeth
"

o)
"

or

").

Sentences
with

or

already"

fre-

the

emphatic "I" or "ye," expressed by Greek pronouns, which would


not be inserted if emphasis were not intended. There is hardly any
part of speech, or word, that might not come at the beginning of
a Johannine sentence without a conjunction, e.g. "Because I live ye

"Excommunicated

shall live also,"

The

[1998]

shall they

make you 2 ."

contrast in the use of asyndeton between the Fourth


is well illustrated
by what the evangelists place

Gospel and the Three


severally

water

Mk
"

after

the statement of the Baptist that he baptizes with

i.

Mt.

"

iii.

Lk.

II

hand{\ikv) bap-

baptize

water

tize

(5V)...."

"

on the one

baptized
you with water,
shall
he
but
I

you

iii.

16

/ia/uf(fiev)bap-

in

tize

Jn
"

on the one

you with

i.

baptize in

water

midst

of

you

(/xe'cros vfxcov

to

re-

water.^w/there

eth

pentance,

but

cometh

o-Tr/Kei)

(8 e')...

26

stand-

one..."

hethat(o8e)-"
[1999] Under the head of "Conjunctions, ko.6ws," instances will
be found where the absence of a ydp, Si, or /cat, makes it difficult to
tell whether xa#w's is to be taken as beginning a new sentence or

Moreover, in the same sentence, the


absence of conjunctions makes it sometimes difficult to determine
which is the most prominent of two or three clauses in it, or whether
continuing a preceding one.

each clause

[1996</]

conveyed by
2

is

(n

to be regarded as a separate sentence,

i.

34.

8 5^, or (if

The meaning "That

e.g.

"There

which..." would have been clearly

the writer disliked 8 5i as confusable with 68() by 6<ra

xiv. [9, xvi. 2.

70

5t.

ASYNDETON

[2002]

came

into being (iyivero) [as distinct from rjv applied to the Logos]
a man (ai'#p<o7ros) [as distinct from #eds applied to the Logos] sent

His name was John. This [man] came for witness ...."
The presence of asyndeton is most remarkable in the Prologue of
1

from God.

the Gospel

(i.

The absence

18) and

Prayer to the Father


very remarkable in xvi.

in the

of asyndeton

is

includes, as initial conjunctions, dAAd,

dAAa,

/cat,

Se,

(xvii.
2

8e,

26).

(which

dAA', dAA',

'AAAd, "nay," "but indeed," "but on the


ydp,
in
emotional utterances in Greek literature
often
occurs
contrary,"
Both
the
presence and the absence of asyndeton appear
generally.
Se, at, yneV, Se, 8e).

appropriate to the tenor of these two passages.

Classification of references

(ii)

The

following attempt at classification of instances of asyndeton


to the part of speech in connexion with which the

according

omitted

is

conjunction

may be of use

connexion between sentences


[2000]

xiii.

(1)

<ds

(a)

kcli,

fj.LKpbv

30,

7,

dpn,
xv.

(y)
(8)

iv eKeivr]

xvi.

15,

[2001]
^3^ x

(2)

2 4,

29, 35, 43,

for Sid tovto,

iii.

35>

20

and

ov

kolOws,

36,

xvii.

30,

27

xii.

7;

27,

en,

31

(bis),

xvi.

12;

22,

perd ravra

etc.

xii.

26,

v.

30,

vi.

vii.

xiii.

{bis), 22, 24, xviii.

Ka6w%

S.

12.

xii.

20, xvi. 26.

9> 4,

iii.

oi'tws,

12, v. 31, 43, vi. 51,

37> xi

xv. 6, 7, 10, 18, 19,


(f3)

iv.

r}8r),

24,

vi.

With Conjunctions

eaV, av, d,

(a)

i.

Tjj 7]p,pa, xiv.

See also 2006

4, 17, 23, viii. 19,

17,

xiv.

14,

7,

46,
28,

15,

36, xx. 23 (bis).

57, x.

15, xiv.

27, xv. 4,

9,

18, xx. 21.

(y)

on, XIV. 19 otl

(8)

oVtti',

[2002]
ii.

v.

3,

ov/ceVi,

16.

xvi.

T V bravpiov,

xvii.

vvv,

eirfira, elra, xi. 7, xiii. 5, xx.

(/?)

ix.

air

apTL,

xiv.

19,

to students investigating the

Fourth Gospel.
With Adverbs, or Adverbial Phrases
in the

16,
vi.

45,
(4)
V.

44

iv.

(3)
iii.

25,

iya> di kcu {i/xets ^r/crere.

viii.

5, x. 4, xv.

ix.

44,

With Imperatives

7, v.

8,

28, v.

39

Ipavvare ras ypa(pd<; (but see 2439

(?)

20, 27, vii. 24, 52, xii. 35, xiv.

With Interrogatives
7Tws, vi.

42

7rws, vii.

26.

1,

11, 27, 31, xv. 4.

ig ov Mwdct^s,
1

i.

6.

71

vii.

42 ou^

17

ypacprj.

(i)),

ASYNDETON

[2003]

With Negatives

(5)

8, v.

i.

30, v. 37 ovt,

44

vi.

vii.

ouSet'?,

viii.

7,

27,

29,

xiii.

18,

21,

25,

xiv. 6 ovSet?, xiv. 18, xv. 16, xvii. 9, 15, xxi. 12 ovSets.

xiii.

18,

xiii.

41,

34,

27

vi.

68,

viii.

ix.

41,

26,

{bis).

37.

Object qualified by Relative or Participial Clause,

(y)
XV.

xiv.

Object followed by Verb with Adverb or Clause intervening,

(/?)
v.

Object followed by Verb,

(a)
x.

With the Object

(6)

[2003]

or with Adj., xvi.

a7roo-waywyous

yu.etom TavTi]<; ayaTrrjv ouSeis

[2004]

With

(7)

aj'a7Tow ckcifos

oiirius,

13

xiii.

25
20

Article,

XX.

10,

XV.

et -

Participles

without

Participle

(a)

e'x

xiv.

v/xa?,

TroLfj<rov(Tiv

42

i.

6 <7Tpa(f)e2aa

e^At'i^as
eKt/'vr/

avrai,

Aeyci auraJ, xxi.

6 IleVpos.

i7TL(TTpu<f>l<;

(/3)
Participle preceded by Article (with or without intervening
Adverb or Adverbial Phrase), hi. 6, 18 {bis), 29, 31 {bis), 33, 36,

2 3>

xiv.

vi -

9,

(y)
xix.

(a)

vii.

5,

23.

18,

viii.

38,

47,

12,

by Article and

Participle preceded

With Prepositions
Preposition and Noun,

xi.

vi.

7rus,

xii.

25,

48,

45, xviii.

37,

26,

(a)

(y)

41,
(S)
(t)

xii.

yw

iv.

32, xiv.

ix.

31,

2,

viii. 15, 23,


eyoj el/ja) iv. 38, v. 43, vii. 8, 29,

dfxi vi. 48, 51, viii.


ix.

4
xix.

34,

(TV xxi.

fyuls

See also 2006.

v. 3, x. 9.

18, xvi. 33, xvii. 4, 9, 14, xviii. 20, 37.

xiii.

46,

77/Aeis
xii.

n,

10,

1,

With Pronouns:

(9)

eyw (apart from

10, 30,
(/3)

i.

*6-

Preposition and Pronoun,

[2005]

viii.

58.

24, xv.

^^ xvu
{(3)

x.

54,

12.

(8)

xvi.

35'

21,

22, v.

14, xv. 1, 5.

at

29;

24,

crv oI8as, crv yu'wcrKCis).

17 (^ai/Tci

iv.

n,

beginning of speech
iv. 22.
of
clause
beginning

(accus.),
at

18, x. 9,

ix.

33,

vii.

8, viii.

xiii.

15, 23, 41, 44,

13, xiv. 17,

xv. 14, xvi. 20.

vi.

()

aAA.o(t) iv. 38, v. 32, vii. 41, ix. 9 {bis), x. 21,

(q)

ttvro's ix.

(0)

e/ceu'os

(1)

ovros (apart from ravra)

50, 58,
(k)

viii.

TaSra

21,

40,

x.

28,

3, xxi.
vi.

xii.

29.

28 avTol v/xas

30, v. 35,

iii.

i.

iii.

59,

viii.

44,
i.

ix.

2,

9,
7,

xvi.

30,

14, xx.
iii.

2,

15.

iv.

18,

47,

v.

6,

14, 24.
viii.

30,

72

ix.

6,

22,

xi.

11,

xii.

16,

36,

ASYNDETON
xii.

21, xiv. 25, xv.

xiii.

41,

11,

xvi.

17,

[2008]
25, 33, xvii.

1,

xviii.

1,

1,

XX. 14 (for /nerd ravra, see 2006).

outos, TavTr;i', ravra etc. in

(A)
X.

6, xv.

2 avrrj iarlv

Forms of

[2006]
xvi.

tovto

<ka

(a)

xix.

15,

ivroXrj

77

agreement,

ovros with Prepositions

vii.

viii.

22,

ix.

47,

rovrov

(y)
(8)

fxerd tovto

ii.

(e)

fxera ravra

iii.

20, x. 18,

23, x.

xii.

17,

xiii.

39,

11,

viii.

32,

12, xix. 28.

22, v.

14, vi.

1,

1,

xxi.

1.

With Relative clauses introduced by

[2007] (10)
iii.

viii.

66, xix. 12.

vi.

e/c

iv toutu) xiii. 35, xv. 8, xvi. 30.

4,

11,

n.

(/?)

i.

ii.

ifxrj.

>)

xii.

21,

^6, xvii.

2,

oVou, ok, oVe

12.

With the Subject:

(11)

(a)
Subject followed immediately (or with intervening Adverb
or Adverbial Clause) by Verb
i.
15, iii. 8, 35, iv. 20, vi. 49, 63,
vm *3> 35> 5 2 5 6 ix. 41, x. 10, 11, xviii. 35, xix. 29. (In xvii. 17
the verb is aA^eia kcrriv.)
1

>

Subject qualified by Relative Clause or by Participle,

(/?)

vi

>

37, 63, x. 8, 12, 25,

i.

18,

48".

With the Verb (not including

(12)

[2008]

xii.

aVe*^,

el, or

Ae'yei)

(a)
xiv.

1,

(fi)

Verb absolute, or followed by Adverbial Phrase, iv.


28 (bis, the second time preceded by irdXiv), xxi.
Verb followed immediately by Subject or Predicate,

9, 40, 41,
xi.

45- 47,

35, 44,
(y)

xii.

22,

ii-

17.

x.

22,

iv.

7,

v.

50,

15, vii. 32, viii. 50, 54,

thus, but with

22 ej3\7rov

xiii.

fx.,

i.

(e)

XIV.

28
()

33,

or
34,

without
ix.

13,

6.

Verb followed by

oti,

viii.

37,

ix.

31,

olSa

and

oiSafxev,

rjKovcrare.

To

these add

<E>apio-a<W ravra,

xvii.

6,

xxi. 2.

Verb followed immediately by Object (with


intervening Adverb or Possessive Genitive),
42, vii.
xiii.

i.

4, 35,

Adverb or Adverbial Phrase

eis d\\7]\ov<s oi

(S)

30,

ix.

3.

23, xvi. 25, xviii. 25, xx. 18, 26, xxi. 13.

xiii.

Verb followed

intervening,

x.

30,

xvi.

where

vi.
e/<

45 ecrriv yeypa/A/xeVov,
twv <i>. is the Subject.

ix.

40 rjKOvaav

K t<2v

In xvi. 21 i] YW77 orav rUrri, a conjunction intervenes.


Asyndeton is also found in i. 39, iv. 7, xix. 14 wpa yi>, and x. 22 x^ 1 ^" V u
Asyndeton with these initial verbs is too frequent to permit or need a collec-

tion of all the references.

73

CASES

[2009]

CASES
Accusative

Adverbial

(i)

[2009]

This occurs

in

Jn

vi.

10 tov dptOjxov,

viii.

25

rrjv

apxWi on

25 Swpeai' (from Ps. lxix. 4) which needs no


comment. The present section will deal only with vi. 10 (R.V.)
"Make the people (tov<; dvOpioirovs) sit down... So the men (ol aj/Spes)

which see 2154

down

sat

in

Kio-xtAioi)."

" the
people,"

6, xv.

number about

distinction

is

thousand (tov dpiOfxor ws TrtvTaprobably intended by R.V. between

five

the whole number, including women and children,


and the "men" who are described by Matthew as (xiv. 21) "about
five thousand men (avSpes) beside women and children."
But, if this
distinction were insisted on in the R.V. of John, the meaning would
i.e.

be that although the Lord commanded that all the "people" should
be made to sit down, including the women and children, yet, for
some reason or other, only "the men" sat down. We can however
retain a distinction

between

dvOputiroL

W.H. marg. "they sat down therefore,


to the number of five thousand ."

and

avSpes by dropping ol with

[being]

men

[exclusive of

women]

the Three Synoptists in


[2010] "In number "is not inserted by
the Five Thousand narrative, nor by the Two in the Four Thousand.
" He numbers the me)i
Cramer quotes a Greek commentator,
alone,
2
following the customs of the Law "; and it is probable that John

John may have considered that Matthew was right in


"
numbering" that
inferring, from some ancient phrase about the
"women and children" were not included: but if the old Tradition
did not mention "women and children," and Mark and Luke did

means

this.

may have preferred to return to the exact


the
truth of Matthew's interpretation by the
while
words,
suggesting
contrast between "men" and "people."
not mention them, John

[2011) The noun "number," apart from Lk. xxii. 3 "Judas...


being of the number of the twelve," and Rom. ix. 27 (Hos. i. 10) is

(W.II.) aviirtaav ovv ol avopes^ tov dpt0/j.6v ws Trevraiuaxl^i-oi (marg.


"
Less probably, ovv, ol avdpes might be read,
01V, avdpes).
they s;U down therefore
the men {-were, or, being] five thousand."
1

(2009 n]

[2010a] Cramer

ii.

242 MapovcrCov 8t ywaiKuiv avv t^kvois

dpidfxt? reus Kara, rbv v6fxov o~vvrjdtiat.s clkoXovOQv.

74

/j.6vovs

tovs avdpas

ACCUSATIVE

[2013]

In the former, it is always (with


used only in Acts and Revelation.
and it
one exception) used to describe the growth of the Church
1

In
appropriate here in a narrative that is typical of that growth.
the Pentateuch, it is frequently used in connexion with numbering
But the
prescribed by the Law, and kclt dpiOfxor is frequent.

is

adverbial rbv api6p.6v rarely or never occurs in canon.

LXX~.

Absolute, or suspensive

(ii)

On

[2012]

vi.

39 iva

irau

airoXecro)

p,rj

i avrov

(where

v.

may

2), and on xv. 2 irav


possibly, but not probably, be accus., see 1921
2.
to Kapirbv cpepov KaOaipti avro, see 1920
K\rj/J.a....aipei avro... irav

(iii)

Denoting time, but not duration

[2013] iv. 52
i(386fxr]i') the fever

had
freq.

left

in

left

'"Yesterday, \abouf\ the seventh hour (wpav

The

him.'

father, therefore,

him] at that same hour (iKuvrj

LXX

in

the

phrase

Trjv

rfj

recognised that

s
u>pa) ."

The

[it

accus.

wpav Tavrrjv avpiov, which

is

was

apparently intended by the translators to mean "about this time


to-morrow" (but see Gesen. 453) representing the Hebrew "as the
"
"
and it occurs in Rev. iii. 3 " thou
time or " at the like of the time
:

know what hour

wpav) I will come against thee ."


"
" what time
If so,
It is perhaps vernacular, like our
did it happen ?
the servants speak in the vernacular, as well as loosely, not knowing
that their master wanted to know the time exactly.
Subsequently
shalt not

the dative

used to denote the exact point of time. The father,


words "about the seventh hour," recognised the

is

the

hearing
coincidence

between

''seventh'''

"
pronounced the words

Acts

Thy

iv. 4, vi. 7, xi. 21, xvi.

[2011 a]

Mace.

(ttoio.v

occurs in

It

5.

Mace.

and the exact hour when Jesus

son liveth."

The exception
viii.

is v.

16 oVras rbv

36.

(A

oi?i.)

a.

ea/acrxtX'ous,

i\^(pavras woTicrai outols rbv d. irevTaKoalovs, also in Susan. 30 of


attendants ocres rbv dpid/xov irevraKocnoi irapeyivovro (Theod. om.).

v. 2 rotis

the kinsfolk and

Gk it is freq. e.g. Aristoph. Av. 1251.


" The
father, therefore, inquired further
[2013 a] Strictly, the sense demands
and ascertained that it was not only about, but precisely at, the time when....'
In classical
3

according to nature. The father fastening on the word "seventh"


context says " That was precisely the number." See 2025 6.
4
In Acts x. 3 wael irepl iipav
[2013(5] See Ex. ix. 18, 1 K. xix. 2, xx. 6.
is
eva-TTiv r. T]/j.epas,
wanting, and W.H. follow the best MSS. in inserting wept.

But the

text

apart from

is

its

The

accus. of duration in

xiii.

35 /xfcrovvKTiov

is

Jn is too frequent and regular to need comment.


prob. an adverb (2678).

75

-Mk

CASES

[2014]

Cognate

(iv)

[2014] Such a cognate accusative as


requires no
construction should
k P luT

26

xvii.

dya-n-q rjv

-q

vii.

24

rrjv

SlkuUv

Kp[o-iv

comment.

But it is very unusual that this


accompany an accusative of the person as in
rjydir-qo-ds fie, and it is surprising that (according

no Greek uncial except D has substituted rj for


It is
ffv.
probably more than a mere coincidence that the only other such
combination of personal and cognate accusative is a similar
phrase,
Ephesians ll. 4 01a ttjv Tro\\rji> dydir-qv avTov rjv r/yaVT/crcj' 77/xas.
But
there the relative may have been attracted to the case of the
antecedent.
Here no such explanation is possible, and the dative
to Alford)

might have been used as

in iii. 29 x a pa
x a W e h "rejoiceth with joy"
Possibly the evangelist, in these last and most solemn words of the
Son's Last Prayer, shrank from
representing the love of God as
instrumental ("wherewith"). God, he says elsewhere, "is love," and
the love " wherewith " men would describe Him as
is
a

loving,

really

of Himself, emanating from Himself.


Therefore a cognate
accusative is preferred even though combined
uniquely in N.T.
1
with an accusative of the personal
object
part

With

(v)

(a)

special verbs

'Akoyoo

[2015] 'Akovw with accusative is sometimes to be distinguished


from a. with genitive, the former meaning "perceive
by hearing,"
"catch the sound of," while the latter means "understand
by
hearing," "catch the meaning of."
(/3)

See 1614.

rey'oMAi

[2016] Tevofiat with accusative occurs in ii. 9 (R.V.) "And when


the ruler of the feast tasted the water now become wine
(cos Se
eyeva-aro o a. to v8wp oh>ov yeyevqfxevov)

(but the servants which had

and knew not whence it was


drawn the water knew) the ruler of the

feast calleth the bridegroom...."

A.V. has " the water that was made

wine," which would require to to be repeated after v8tap. R.V. marg.


has " tasted the water that it had become wine."
This would explain
the construction here as parallel with that of
yei'o/x' meaning

I have not found in classical Gk an instance of


r/]
dyaTrav rwa with
But comp. Otiyss. xv. 245 6v...<f>L\ei (i.e. e^lXei) TravToi^f 0i\<5T?/ra, and
Soph. Electra 1034 tovovtov ^^os ix^Ll P'j} ff (yd.

[2014

&-yain)v.

'

76

ACCUSATIVE
"taste and see that," in

word of God

Hebrews

good

[is]

"

[2017]

Having

tasted

But that construction

."

[and
is

seen that] the

very rare.

The

there quoting from the Psalms, and perhaps erroneously, as


he differs both from the Greek and from the Hebrew.
writer

is

[2017] In Jn viii. 52 "he shall not taste of death," the genitive


used, and the question in ii. 9 is, whether the accusative is used
"
"
taste of" or to mean
taste and perceive
like the genitive to mean
is
used
with
accusative
that."
Outside
but in
rarely
yevofiat
is

LXX

LXX

the accusative

is

fairly

frequent

In N.T., ycuopu

is

never

used with the accusative except in Hebrews as above mentioned and


On the whole the grammatical evidence favours the view (of
here 3
.

R.V. marg.) that John would not have used the accusative if he had
"
tasted of the water."
But
not meant something different from
great difficulty in harmonizing with the context the marginal
For
reading of R.V. "tasted the water that it had become wine."
this is the first indication in the narrative that the water has become

there

is

if the taster knew that the liquid had


wine, and we should expect
"
tasted the water and found to his astonishment
recently been water
that it had become wine."
Besides, if John meant "taste and see

why did he use

that,"

the accusative

and not on

as

in

Proverbs

The context indicates that the taster knew nothing of


(2016 a)?
the conversion of the water to wine but simply pronounced the
wine unusually good.

is

life to be

xal

Heb. vi. 5 kclXov yevcra/j.ei'ovs deov prj/J.a (the nearest approach to


Herod, vii. 46 yXvKvv yevaas rbv alQiva. " having made us taste, i.e. perceive,
" taste and see that
sweet ") is a free quotation from Ps. xxxiv. 8
(yevaaade
In the context (Heb. vi. 4) yeuo/xcu occurs with
on.) the Lord is good."

[2016 a]

which

i'Sere

the ordinary genitive ("having tasted of the heavenly gift").


Tevo/xai means
" "
"
" taste
in Prov. xxxi. 18.
It also means
i.e. perceive that
[and see] that (on)
"discriminate the taste of" and governs accus. in Job xii. rr o-ira (parall. to
diaKpivei), xxxiv. 3 ppwaiv (parall. to ookl/jlo. j'et)
comp. Sir. xxxvi. 19 "As the
palate discriminates (yeverat) the flesh of beasts of the chase (0pui/j.aTa drjpas) so
doth the understanding heart [discriminate'] false words."
,

[2017a] Steph.

Suidas, yevopLdL,

quotes only

ainanKy.

yevofxai is found with (1 S. xiv. 29

Caryst., Leonid.,
the instances

(besides

43) fipaxv

and the dictum of


above mentioned)

t. fieXiros TOVTov...j3paxu /J-eXi, (Tob.


but always with dprov (1 S. xiv. 24, 1 S. hi. $?,
In LXX, the accus. with yevofxai is always neuter, except where it
Esdr. ix. 2).
See 2016 a.
parall. (Job xxxiv. 3) to So/a/udfet.
3
ix. 1, Mt. xvi. 28, Lk. ix. 27
[2017 ] The instances with genit. are

vii.

is

Antig.

LXX

In

ir) ov8ei>, (Jon.

iii.

7) fi-qSiu

Mk

9a.va.Tov,

Lk.

Heb.

9 davarov,

ii.

xiv.

24 y.
vi.

fxov r. deiirvov,

Jn

viii.

4 dwpeas.

77

52 davarov, Acts

xxiii.

14

jxi^oevos,

CASES

[2018]

These

[2018]

The

facts are

R.V.

difficulty of

text

almost conclusive against R.V. margin.

may be diminished by punctuating some

of the words as part of a parenthesis and by rendering yevofxat with


the accusative (as in Proverbs)
The writer speaks of "the water

" tasted

"

in

the sense of "tested."

[now] become wine," somewhat as

he speaks of the blind man of Siloam, when healed, in different


"the formerly blind," "the blind," "the man that had
phrases
So here, the wine might be called "the formerly
recovered sight ."
water" or "the now wine." The attendants brought it as "water,"
" wine." The
the master of the feast tested it as
evangelist combines

the facts thus

"
:

Now when

the master of the feast tasted the water

he knew not whence it was, but the


[now] become wine (and (/<at)
the master of the
attendants knew, they that had drawn the water)
This is almost equivalent
feast called the bridegroom and said...."
"
Now when he tasted the water [/say wafer, but] it had become
to
2

wine...

This brief and

."

Christ's miracles

in

statement

parenthetic

which the reader

is

let

of

the

of

first

into the secret in

two

words ("become wine") while the master of the feast talks, outside
the secret, in twenty
("Every man until now") is highly
the
Fourth
of
characteristic
Gospel.

TTpOCKYNe'cO

(y)

is used, first, with


[2019] Upoa-Kweoi in the following passage
and then with
with
then
doubtful
with
then
dative,
case,
again
dative,

Ye worship
iv. 21
3 "Ye shall worship the Father (dat.)
know 4 ...
we
which
we
know
which
(?)
not,
worship
[that]
(?) ye
[that]
shall worship the Father (dat.)... the Father seeketh... those worshiphim (accus.)
ping him (accus.). God is Spirit, and they that worship
it is shewn
where
See
164051,
must worship in spirit and truth."
accusative

the regular form in LXX, but the accusative in


"
dative emphasizes the notion of
the
classical Greek ; (2)
prostrating
oneself to a person, idol, or God," while the accusative means
that (1) the dative

is

" adore " without this


Here, as between the Jews and the
emphasis.
construction " Neither in this
the
Hebrew
uses
Samaritans, Jesus
1

ix.

13,

17, 18.

means " and yet," or " but," see 213645.


Codex a actually reads " aqua," but probably through
"
"cum autem gustasset architriclinus aqua vinum factum
-

'*

Possibly Kal

[2018 a]

[2019 n]

accus.

In

iv.

22

tt.

8 ovk oiSare

Heracleon (Orig. Conim. Iluet

8 oidanev,
ii.

213

be dative.

78

1!

the antecedent

i)8e<ra.v rlvi

scribal error:

may be

dat. or

wpocrKvvovai) took

it

to

DATIVE
mountain nor
"
and
Father

in

bow

Jerusalem shall ye

this is

repeated

"
:

[2021]

shall

They

yourselves clown to the


bow down to the Father

But when the doctrine


[not in any place but] in spirit and truth."
proceeds to base this prediction on the general statement that God
is Spirit, and seeks
such worshippers, the Greek phrase is used,
"those worshipping him (accus.)."

Dative f

II

Of instrument

(i)

7rAotapto)

(tuj

8 " But the other disciples

xxi.

[2020]

coming "in

rjXOov)" appears

the boat," the

(iv)

Tischendorf follows the

came by the little boat


mean something different from
In Mk vi. 32,
phrase used by Mark
to

authorities that

omit

iv

and there the

meaning may be that Jesus avoided the multitude by departing


" on
11
foot" which is mentioned by Mark
by boat," as distinct from
in the context.
contrasts "coming by the boat"
here
Chrysostom
with "

swimming

."

Of time (completion)

(ii)

[2021]
building,"

ii.

20 (R.V.) "Forty and six years was

Tea-a-epaKOVTa

generally taken by

crecrtv

supposed, was

still

temple in

this

wKoSofxtjOr]

modern commentators

it is

Temple, which,

kou

vads

as referring to the

ovto<;,

is

Herodian

being built at the time when

the Jews uttered these words, so that they would mean, in effect,
"
Forty-six years is it since the building of this Temple began [and
This would practically give a " dative of
it is not yet
finished]."

duration of time."

Ant.

i.

3. 5

to

iJSoj/d

Such a dative

is

found in

late

Gk,

Joseph.
Euseb. v. 1

e.g.

^/xepats TecraapaKovTa o'Acu? Kare^e'peTO,

but always in passages where there is no


the
dative of duration with the dative of
possibility of confusing

7toAA.chs eTea- iv...o'<.aTpu//a<;,

For the dative with special verbs,

e.g.

Triffrevw,

rrpoaKvviu, see the special

verbs in Index.
1

Mk

v. 21, vi. 32,

n-Xoiip (but

without the

with dicnrepdaavTos and dirTJXdov.


article) with dvex&priaev.

Mk

vi.
[2020 a] In
32 dirrjXdov iv
native
the text there varies greatly.

tu

irXoiy

W.H.

Mt.

xiv. 13 also has iv

ins.

iv

without

alter-

[2020

fi]

'AW

ovdi ovtws iKaprip-que

ry

Trapeyivero.

79

ttXoIu) irpbs

avrbv iXdetv a\\a vrjxb^tvos

CASES

[2022]
completion, which

is

the natural construction here, " was built [and


1

completed^ in forty-six years

."

the words to Solomon's temple.


out
that
Solomon's
Origen points
temple was built in seven years,
and adds that there are no means of clearly connecting "forty-six

Heracleon referred

[2022]

He takes it for granted that wkoSo/jltjOtj


"
means " was built in past times, but appears to give up the problem.
The Herodian theory he does not so much as mention. The details

years" with Ezra's temple

given by Josephus (Ant. xv. n. i foil, and elsewhere) make it clear


that a Jew would say about Herod's temple, "This work took from
eight to ten years to finish, and the completion was celebrated with
It is true that, after the great
great splendour in Herod's lifetime."
fire in the reign of Archelaus and some sinking of the foundations,

Temple constantly needed repairs but, even if we could suppose


with probability that the Jews were referring to these repairs as
"
building," the number of years would not suit the supposition.

the

For according

to Lightfoot (B.E. p. 31) the Jews, at the time of


the Passover, might have said forty-seven years, and, according to
It is against nature to suppose that
Westcott (ad toe.), forty-nine.

Much

they would have definitely understated this as "forty -six.'''


more probably they would have said " some fifty years."

1
[2021 a] E.g. there is no possibility of confusing Ezr. v. 16 d-rrb Tore 'ius rov
vvv uKodofirjOy] ical ovk eTeXiadrj, parall. 1 Esdr. vi. 19 dv ixelvov M^XP' T u v *> v

\a8e avvr^Xeiav.
Westcott does not mention Origen's and Heracleon's views, and the

oiKo5op.ovp.evos ovk
-

[2022 a]

is represented in Clark's transl. as saying "Someone else will say that the
to which the fortytemple. ..was. ..the temple built at the time of Ezra, with regard
But Huet gives, for the words I have
six years can be shewn to be quite accurate."

former

a61 Tpavuss rbv tCiv TeaaapaKovra tcai ? iruiv


(ii. 188 e) wepl ov ovk ^x/
" with
diroSu^ai dX-qdei'6/j.evov Xdyov, i.e.
regard to which we are not able clearly to
"
demonstrate that the statement of forty-six years is truly stated
implying that

italicised

'

Origen knew

that

there were arguments for

it,

but

not such as were

clearly

Clark proceeds, "But in this Maccabean period things were very


unsettled with regard to the people ami the temple, and I do not know if the
temple was really built in that number of years." But the words are, toim hk koX
demonstrative.

Kara

ret

ovk olda

/xaKKaBaiKa woXXr) rts aKaraaraaia ytyovevai


vaos.
e' iron
ipKodopLrjOr] toctovtols ZreaLv

irepl

rbv Xabv Kai rbv vabv Kai

Steph. gives fiaKKa.8a.iKd as

meaning "the hooks of the Maccabees" and ttot( appears to mean "ever" or "at
" do not know whether the
temple was ever built in this number of
any rate"

The Latin
years."
the words (Huet ii.

lias

"tunc'' (reading rbre).

"How

Origen introduces

all

this

with

the Jews [can] say they built the temple in


1S7 E)
able to say if we are to follow the history exactly," wQs t.
forty-six years we are not
k. I 'ireatv ipKoOop-TJo-aL (sic) <f>acri rbv vabv ol 'Iot'Satot Xtyovrai (marg. Xtytiv) ovk

ixoiitv ei ttj ioTopla. KaraKoXovO^aonev.

8(3

DATIVE

[2025]

"

forty-six years" can be explained


accordance with Jewish feeling, with the views of
Heracleon, with the chronology of Eusebius, with the text of LXX,
and with the language of Josephus. It was an error relating to

as

But the

[2023]
follows

definite

in

second temple, the temple of Ezra, which the Jews, among


themselves, would regard as merely repaired by Herod, not as rebuilt.
The edict for rebuilding was issued (Ezr. v. 13) "in the first year
But
omits "of
of Cyrus king of Babylon" i.e. 538 B.C.
"
"
Cyrus the king." And the Hebrew itself has
having
Babylon
"
gone further in Ezra i. 1 In the first year of Cyrus king of Persia"
the

LXX

But this is 559 B.C. Josephus {Ant. xi. 1. 1) says that the edict
was issued "in the first year of the reign of Cyrus" which is
he also says that the temple was completed in the
ambiguous
Now from 559 b.c. to 513 B.C.
ninth year of Darius, i.e. B.C. 513.
:

"
forty-six years," as is stated in the chronology of Eusebius
gives
from the second
extracted from Syncellius (vol. ii. p. 81)
was
it
sixth
the
Darius
until
of
fully completed...
[the temple]
year
1
within forty-six entire years from the first year of Cyrus ."

"Now

When the Herodian temple was destroyed it was not


[2024]
unnatural that Talmudic traditions should dwell upon its splendour
but it is very unlikely that Jews born in the reign of Herod the
:

Idumaean would recognise him as a Builder like Solomon or Ezra.


Possibly when it fell into disrepair they would console themselves
as with the proverb

"Rome

was not

built in a

day" by

reflecting

former times lingered through


two reigns, and by repeating to one another that " In the days of
Cyrus and Darius this temple took forty-six whole years to build.''''

that the building of the

Temple

in

Josephus, though his chronology may have led to this error, did not
himself commit the error and possibly our evangelist did not.
He
:

may have

taken

it

as the

mere chatter of the

"

"

Jews

whose ignorant

he elsewhere holds up to ridicule.


But, in any case, no reliance
"
can be placed on " forty-six as determining the date at which the
talk

Jews were speaking, or as evidence of the evangelist's presence


as an ear-witness.
He may have obtained this detail from books.
(iii)

Of point of time

iv. 53 "The father therefore recognised that


[2025]
[it was]
at that same hour (on Ikwyj rfj wpa) in the course of which (iv ?y)..-."
1
'Atto 5e deurepov grovs Aapeiov ews sktov dvew\ijpd}0ri...ev
rod TTpwrov Ztovs Ktipov.

A. VI.

81

p.S~'

treatf

6'Aots

dwo

CASES

[2026]

The

majority of MSS. (Alford) insert iv before

omission

Its

iKeivrj.

by the best mss. gives us "the dative of the point of time" and this
exactness is more suitable to the contrast, indicated above (2013),
with the accusative in iv. 52 "about the seventh hour," which the
:

"

precisely at the seventh hour."


"
" in
occurs in Matthew's
(iv) that same hour
[2026]
account of the healing of the centurion's son or servant, where the
parallel Luke merely says that the messengers returned and found
father interprets as

The phrase

So where Matthew says that the Syrophoenician's


"was
healed
from (curd) that same hour" Mark merely says
daughter
that she returned and found her healed.
These are the only two

the servant healed.

instances of healing at a distance in


proof needed an instance that should

fnding" with
at

healing

(2)

"at that

a distance

Matthew's and

which

Luke's

the

Evidential

Synoptists.

combine (1) "returning a?id


same hour" John's single tradition of
has

narrative

many

points

contains

"
should be added that " at that same hour

this

in

common

combination.

with
It

peculiar to this passage

is

of John'.

With

(iv)

God

"favour with

,"

which

irapd

The Synoptic

[2027]

is

7rapa dew

God

in the

phrases "possible with

"ye have no reward with your Father


4
rather gives
(txt) "of your Father ")
"in the sight of God." But the exact
is "by the side of"; and this may be
with a frequent use of irapd in Greek

,"

heaven" (A.V.

in

the impression of meaning


meaning of the preposition

interpreted (in accordance

meaning "in the house of" John brings out this, which
one may call "the domestic meaning," much more clearly, via. 38
"That which I have seen in the house of the Father," xvii. 5 "And

literature) as

now

thou me,

glorify

with the glory that


was."
The latter

Father, in thine

had

own

house (irapa crcavrw)


croC\ before the world

in thy house \yrapa

may be compared

with the saying of

Wisdom

about herself and the Creator, "Before his works of old... or ever
5
Both here and
the earth was... I was by him (rjp-rjv trap aur<3) ."

[2026 a]

Luke has "in

hour he healed

many

>f

"at that very hour,"

wpq.

(iv)

that

diseases."
x.

21,

xii.

"
once, vii. 21 "in that same
prefers ii. 38, xxiv. 33 avrrj 7-17
31, xx. 19 iv avry r. u., "in that

same hour
Hut

lie

12, xiii.

very hour."
2

Mk

x. 27,

Mt.

vi.

Mt.

xix. 26,

Lk.

:!

xviii. 27.
s

1.

82

Prov.

viii.

Lk.

22

i.

30.

30,

ii.

52.

GENITIVE
we might render

in John,

On

of."

the

7rarpos in

Jn

irapd

38, see 2355

viii.

the side of" or "in the

"by

between

distinction

[2030]

7rapa

tw

-rrarpi

bosom

and napa tov

7.

Genitive

Ill

Absolute

(i)

[2028] Mark uses this construction somewhat monotonously for


the most part to introduce the circumstances of a new narrative in

such phrases as "when it was late," "when he was going forth,"


In four of these instances the
"while he was yet speaking" etc.

Matthew and Luke employ the same construction 1

parallel

never uses

in

it

the Sower 2

Christ's

except once

words,

Mark

Parable

the

in

of

Matthew, in the Triple Tradition, uses it freely, like


[2029]
Mark, in the temporal clauses of narrative (often however with 8e
He introduces it thrice in Christ's words,
where Mark has kcu').

and one of
in the Parable of the Sower and its explanation
3
As in Mark, the implied conjunction
the three agrees with Mark
4
is "when" or "while," with perhaps one exception
In the Triple Tradition, Luke introduces it twice into
[2030]

all

Christ's Discourse
self

5
,

once

and once
use

words of our Lord

in the

causally in

it

they had lighted

terrified

6
preparation of the Passover

His

arrest

"There came

i.

Luke appears

Se

a darkness... the sun

55 "Now as
"Now as they

in

Except

yi.vop.ivwv)."

and parall. Mt.-Lk. The vb. is not


have not noticed more than these four agreements

Mk in about 30 instances of the genit. abs. in


almost always preceded by nai.

of Mt.-Lk. with
2

is

viii.
3
4
5

Mt.

xiii.

[2029 a]

Lk.
Lk.

TTrayere
7

Mk

iv. 17
13 kcu ev Kaipui

[2028(5]

Lk.

Lk.

three

these

32, ix. 9, xi. 27, xiv. 43,

in all these cases.

the clause

to

in xxii.

(irepia^avTuiv Se) a fire...," xxiv.

(e/x<^o'/3wi'

Mk

[2028 a]

same

the

44

xxiii.

at

him-

in insertions peculiar to

being eclipsed" and quasi-causally

failing, or,

were

on the Last Days

in Christ's instructions for the

elra. yevofxivrfs

dXiipews,

Mt.

xiii.

Mk.

In

Mk

21 yevoixivrjs 8e dXitpeus^

ireLpa.criJ.ov.

6, 19, 21.

Mt. xxvi. 60

/cat

ou'x tvpov

iroWQiv irpoo-e\dbvTiov ipevdofMapTvpuv.

xxi. 26 airoipvxovTuiv ai>dpd)irwi>, xxi. 28 dpxo/J^vuv Be


xxii.

10

'I5oi>

eiaeXddvTuv vp.Qv eh

tt]v tt6\ii>

(Mk

tovtwv

xiv. 13,

ylveaOai..

Mt. xxvi. 18

els ttjv tt6\lv).

xxii.

53

Kad'

i}p.ipau

ovtos

fiov

(Mk

xiv.

49

fifxi)v,

Mt.

xxvi.

eKa6e^6fj.T]v).

8s

62

55

CASES

[2031]
passages, Luke appears, like
or " while."

no case does

/;/

[2031]

is

("as'' or "because")
"
vi.

to imply

use the genitive absolute in recording

John

implied, probably or certainly, in

is

Though"

in

is

xii.

37,
certainly implied
19 "There cometh Jesus, the doors
though the doors were shut ."

17.

in

perhaps

"when"

Elsewhere he employs it with more elasticity of


found in the Triple Tradition. A causal meaning

Christ's words.

meaning than

Matthew and Mark,

xx.

ii.

xxi.

3, v.

13,

n, and

being shut,

i.e.

(?)

Objective or subjective

(ii)

"
the love of
In Greek, as in English, such a phrase as
God" may imply one of two propositions: (1) "God (subject)
"
" Man loves God
loves man, (2)
Of God" if it implies
(object)."
if the latter, an objective
the former, is called a subjective genitive
"The love of God" occurs frequently in the Johannine
genitive.

[2032]

1 '

v. 42 "But I know you, that


dAAd eyvwKa v^as on T571' dyaVv/v
where the question arises whether the

Epistle hut only once in the Gospel,

ye have not the love of


tov Otov ovk ex T

The following considerations


subjective or objective.
in
that
the
Gospel, as in the Epistle, it is subprobable

it

jective,

God

zavTols,

is

genitive

make

*v

in you,"

"the love that God gives

to

man."

N.T. is very rarely used with


It is never thus
once
or twice".
only
objective genitive, perhaps
[2033]

In the

first

place, dyu7ny in

"

"

is necessitated by the context in xii. 37


though
[2031 a] The meaning
" He
having wrought so many signs they did not believe" that is, ''though he
had wrought.'" This suggests that in Lk. xxii. 53 outos may be intended to
"
mean, though I was [in the temple by day, ye did not lay hands on me]."
2
[2033 a] Westcott, on 1 Jn ii. 5, says that thegenit. with d>. "once marks the
1

He omits Lk. xi. 42


10 17 ay. r?)? dX?;tfei'aj."
There it is possible that the words
aya^r/v rod deov.
mean "ye neglect God's judgment and God's love" i.e. the way in which God
" Ye
neglect the things that God condemns and God loves, and
judges and loves

object

of love,

7rap^px ecr ^ e T V V

Thess.

ii.

Kpicriv Kal rr}v

Hut Cyril
the things He loves, and love the things He condemns."
(Cramer) assumes the meaning to be dydirri 17 e/s debv (Winer and Alford are
"
[just] judgment
silent) and most people would probably take the meaning to be

condemn

and

love

toward God."

|2033/']

In

Thess.

iii.

"And

[may] the Lord guide your heart safe


"
the regular Pauline usage would
" the love
it means
of God [toward

(KaTevdi'vat vfiQu r. Kapdlav) into the love of God


of itself suffice to make it almost certain that
"
" the
of God
sometimes

men

(like

.shed forth in

peace
")
regarded (Rom. v.
man's heart, but here regarded as a goal or haven.

84

5) as a gift of

This

is

God

confirmed

GENITIVE

[2035]

used by St Paul, who always regards "the love of God," and "the
love of Christ," as, so to speak, divine inmates in man's heart, sent
"
As " the peace of God constrains a man to be peaceful,
from God.
"
" the
of the Holy Spirit
constrains him
and
[social] fellowship
to be social, so "the love of God" constrains him to be loving,

God his Father and to men the children of the Father.


"
" the love
the love of God" iti man,
of God" for man causes

both to

Thus

man

causes

i.e.

God

to love

or for Christ is not

But this consequent love of man for


what St Paul primarily means when he says,

God.

"the love of Christ constraineth

is

He means

us."

Christ's love as

This
the heart, driving out the fires of "this world."
in
of
the
the
Pauline
the
Epistles.
meaning
phrase
invariably
[2034] And this, almost (if not quite) always, holds good in the

a divine

fire in

very numerous instances in which the Johannine Epistle mentions


" the love of God."
The writer thinks of it as a gift, spirit, or germ,

comes from God not from ourselves ("Not

that

but that

He

enables us to see

It

"The

so the former remains "the love of God."

our heart,

like

we loved God

that

enables us to love, as the light of the sun


").
"
the light of the sun,"
but, as the latter remains

loved us

any other

vital

germ,

love of

needs to be

(i

God"
Jn

ii.

in
5)

"perfected" by responsive human action, and it cannot grow and


expand without pushing out the love of the world
1

Greek

[2035]

[feeling of] love,"

scholars,

familiar

may sometimes

with

>}

think that

meaning "the
John uses the article

dyd-n-r]

But apparently he never does. The context always indicates


"
"
" the
and " the Will ")
the Name
love" (as Jews used

thus.

that he uses
to

mean

"///<?

love of

God

revealed to

men

in Christ," or

"the

real

love as distinct from love so called by the world," or "the love


wherewith the Son loved us and bade us love one another." This

seems

to

be the meaning in

Jn

iii.

16 "Herein

know we

the love

by the use of Karevduvu in Lk i. 79 "guide safely into the way of peace' and by
?
general Greek usage (Steph.), especially by that of Clem. Alex. 654 (Steph., but
and by Ps. cxli. 2 (LXX) " Let my prayer^ straight
ref.) "guide the ship safe"
"
quoted by Clem. Alex. 857. In
[to heaven] as incense before thee (KaTevdwd-qru)
"
and " the love of Christ " always
the Pauline Epistles, both " the love of God
1

mean

''

God, or of Christ, for its.


But the writer does not speak of "the love of the world" as an
He prefers the
entity in the same way in which he speaks of "the love of God."
verb, thus (1 Jn ii. 15) "if any man love the world the love of the Father is not
" the
in him."
It is the Epistle of St James that speaks of (iv. 4)
friendship
of the world."
1

the love of

[2034a]

85

CASES

[2036]

Son of God] because he laid down his life for us,"


10 "Let us love one another as he gave
iv.
23

[revealed by the

and

in

Jn

iii.

commandment
Herein

the

one another, because the love


us to love one another] is from God
manifested in us because he hath sent his

to us.... Let us love

commanded
love of God was

[wherewith he

herein is the lone [of God], not because we


only begotten Son
have loved God, but because he loved us." Unloving conduct on

the part of a Christian


soul,

Jn

iii.

17

God

in

him

love of

is

a proof that this divine entity is not in his


shutteth up his heart... how abideth the

"Whoso
?

"

These statements about "the [real] love" or "the love


as an entity given to men and abiding in men, reach
[of God]
a climax in the doctrine that God Himself is " love," and that " the
[2036]

"

God "

has the power of expelling fear if only it is allowed


The writer begins by saying " And as
scope so as to be perfected.
for us, our whole knowledge, yea, our whole faith, consists in the love
that God hath in us'."
That is to say, as we are in the sunlight even
love of

16 ko.1 jj^eh iyv<n<afiev /ecu TTeiriaTevKaixev tt\v dydwrjv rjv ?x eL


writer seems to have begun with the intention of saying "
have a full knowledge of the love." Then it occurs to him that not only our
knowledge, but our faith is wrapped up in this "love." To have used the dative
"we fully trust to the love of God " would not have expressed the meaning, which

[2036 a]
6 8e6s iv irjixiv.

is

that, as

(2014)), so

Jn

iv.

We

The

we maybe
we may be

said to "love [with] love" (cogn. accus. dycnrdv dydnrfv


"
" trust
said to
(iricrTevaai irloriv), or rather to
[with] trust

,:

something more than trust to "trust [with] love (wLUTevaai dydwrjv).


the atmosphere breathed by faith as well as the object of knowledge.
[2036/^] As to 1 Jn iv. 16 ttjv dydirriv y\v x el ^ e s 6 " ^/""i Westcott gives

trust with

Love

is

several instances of

&

d.7.

^x lv

where

U none

Dl

of

d.7.

er

x e "'

%" Tlvl except

xiii.

Jn

35 idv dy.

phrase capable of being applied to intercourse hostile as well as friendly (Aesch. Prom. 200 ordcris r ev d\\r)\oi<riv but
mostly friendly, Mk ix. 50 elprpreAere iv d. Rom. xv. 5 rd avrb (ppovetv iv d.)
" in
appears to be disconnected from ix elv an d to mean
your dealings with one
another."
Perhaps "keep love" is intended to come as a climax xiii. 34 5

%XV T

d\\r)\oLs,

iv

dMiyXcus

"Love one another

as

loved you, love one another

thus shall

men know

you to be my disciples if ye keep love among one another." In Phil. ii. 1 2,


"Comfort in Christ. ..consolation of love... fellowship of the Spirit... having
the same love" the meaning seems to be that the Philippians are to ''keep" in
" love
their hearts one and "the same" quickening, consoling and comforting
[of
"
Christ]" as also the same
Spirit [of Christ]."

In

Pet. iv. 8 ttjv

els

iavrovs dy.

"
meaning is, keeping constantly in the full tension of exercise
and practice, not letting it become slack." By analogyuntil there can be found
"
we must take
some instances where dy. x w & ff L means " I have love for thee
|n iv. 16 "the love that God hath in us" to mean "the spark, or spirit, or
and
vitalising power, of love, which God keeps in our hearts as His representative
"

inTevrj

e'x

" 7 65

the

as our comforter."

86

GENITIVE
while the sunlight

"

God

us, so

in

is

Then he

with love.

is

it

[2037]
proceeds,

and he that abideth in the love [of God] abideth in


God, and God [abideth] in him. Herein hath the love [of God] been
perfected [working in our souls] along with us... Fear hath no
is

love,

'

existence in the love [of God], but the perfected love [of God] casteth
out fear
We (emph.) are loving [now, simply] because he first
loved us 2 ."

[2037]

seems

In the following passage, however, the objective genitive

at first sight intended,

are loving the children of

v. 2

Jn

3 " Herein know we that we

God when we

commandments. For this


(tra) we should be keeping

his

is

are loving

God

the love of

God and

(lit.)

commandments...."

his

doing

order that

in

Here some

"

Hereby we know that we


might suggest the following paraphrase
are loving God's children, not selfishly as our playthings or amuse:

ments, but genuinely as our brethren,

when we

God Him-

are loving

can only be shewn in

and doing His will for Our love of God


His 7vill3 .'" But the "effort," or purpose, may, in
For (1) it will be shewn (2093 foil.)
this passage, be divine, not human.
when
"This
is
our
Lord
that,
my commandment in order that ye
says
"
on the part
love
one
an
another,"
object," is implied
may
"effort," or
the
Son
the
the
and
of
for
good of men,
Johannine phrase avrrj kariv
(2)
'

self

the effort to fulfil

regularly introduces the definition of something that comes not from


man, but from God (2396 7). Hence we may with more probability
"
Hereby know we that we are
3 as follows
paraphrase 1 Jn v. 2

77

loving the children of God [with the real love] when we are loving
God in our hearts and doing His will with our hands :for this is the

meaning and purpose of


namely] that

the

love of

God [His

gift in

our hearts,
This

we should be keeping His commandments...."

agrees with what is said elsewhere,


how dwelleth the love of God in
object of the love of
will?"

God

in

" If a

man

him?"

does not do God's

So here, "What

is

will,

the

you except that you should do His

Jn iv. 1618 7? reXei'a dydir-q, i.e. perfected, or fullgrown, in us, corresponding to (iv. 17) TeTeXeiw/xevr).
2
I have
[2036 c~\ 1 Jn iv. 19 77/ieis dyawuifxev, on avrbs irpwros T)ydirt)aev raid's.
1

to these
Jn ii. 5 iv. 19 fully, because Lightfoot (2 Thess. iii. 5) refers
"
" it is
the meaning
to
seldom
as
that
separate
possible...
very
indicating
passages
a conclusion
"love of God for us" from the meaning "our love for

quoted

God"

from the one maintained above.


The words italicised are Westcott's paraphrase of

different
3

deov iva ras evrokds avrou

T7]pu/j.ev.

airn]

ydp icnv

17

dydin] rou

CASES

[2038]

We

return to the single mention of " the love of God " in


[2038]
the Gospel.
It follows the
Healing on the Sabbath.
Jesus charges
the Jews with rejecting Him on account of this act of kindness and

with refusing the testimony of His works: v.


37
42 "The Father
that sent me, he hath borne witness to me.
have
not his word
..ye

abiding in you (iv vfilv //.eWra), [I say this] because him


he sent ye believe not
ye desire not to come to me that ye
have life
I know you that ye have not the love
of God in

(A.0'701/)

whom
may

yourselves

(rrjv

ay.

Qeov ovk e^ere iv


iavrois)."

t.

Theoretically,

and

taken by themselves apart from N.T. and


Johannine usage, these
last italicised words
might mean, "Ye have no love for God," but
that this is not the case is
probable for the two following reasons.
[2039] (1) Whenever this writer describes a believer as 'having"
"
or "to have" something "in himself" he
always means
having in
his heart some vitalising
there
germ placed
Unstable
by God."
believers are described by Mark as "
having no root in themselves"
and Matthew follows Mark. Luke omits " in themselves 1 ."

Luke thought
is

that

"the root" of a Christian

a difficulty in defining

is still

God's, and

how

But John, though he

how

far

it

far the divine

is

now

that

shall

give

him

will

26 "as the Father hath

have

Epistle

Perhaps
There

seed in the heart of

when

it

man

takes root there.

metaphor of a seed, habitually


from God: iv. 14 "the water
become in him a fountain of water,"

life in

gift

himself"so also to the Son gave he to

in

himself" vi. 53 "Except ye eat the flesh of the Son


and drink his blood ye have not life in yourselves." So in the

life

man

of

God.

rarely uses the

regards the life-giving entity as a


v.

man's,

life is in

(iii.

15)

"no murderer

hath eternal

life

abiding in him (marg.

In one passage, the fountain of life is described not as


"in" the believer but as gushing forth from him (vii.
37
8) in
"rivers."
But in every case the evangelist, while
that each

in himself)"

insisting

believer must have this vitalising source "in his


for that
very self"
is the meaning of iv eaurw
it
as
the
always regards
gift of God, not
as the thought of man.

[2040]

have not

in

[2039^]

(2)

The second reason is the parallelism between "Ye


God" and the preceding "Ye have

yourselves the love of

In the explanation of

the Parable of the Sower,

filfav

Mk

17 ovk

iv.

pi^av iv eavroh, Alt. xiii. 21 ovk i'x" 5e plfav iv tavrw, Lk. viii.
simply
ovk ^wi".
[So Mark alone has (ix. 50) "Have salt in yours, Ires (iv

Zxoi'O-tv

iavroh) and he at peace with one another

88

(to

dU^Xou)."]

GENITIVE

[2042]

"
the Logos that proceeds from God.'"
not abiding in you his Logos," i.e.
in
here
the Prologue) that even before
assumes
writer
(as
the Logos came to "his own," bringing Light into the world, all men

The

had some
But some

Logos and some glimmerings of the Light,


sound of the Logos and shut out the Light, so

affinity to the

the

stifled

the moment for accepting or rejecting the


that when the crisis came
had
not a trace of the Logos in them, nor a
incarnate Logos
they
trace of the Love of God, that might have helped their hearts to go

forth responsively to meet the


"
this parallelism,
the love of

Love

God

incarnate.

In accordance with

would mean " the love that

"

proceeds from God": and this rendering agrees with the Johannine
"
have in
usage elsewhere and also with the contextual phrase
yourselves."

Partitive

(iii)

In

[2041]

with

phrases

partitive

never

John

ttoXvs,

uses

Matthew's and Luke's expression 7roAAoi Twr..., "many of the...'."


But he sometimes uses a modified form of it, interposing a verb or
"
participle,

e.g.

therefore having heard it [many L mean] of his


In such cases, the genitive is sometimes preceded

Many

disciples, said...."

2
iv. 39 k 8e rrj<; 7rdAew9
by the Hebraic e
i<eLvr]<; 7roAAoi iirio-rtvo-av
eis avrov rwv 2., VI. 60 iroWol ovv aKovaavres k twi'
uaOrjrwv avrov
:

eLTTav, xil.

ttoWol

1 1

oi

avrov virrjyov twv 'IouSattov, xix. 20 TOVTOV ovv


rwv 'IowSatW.
Comp. vii. 44 rives 8c

rov tltXov ttoXXoX dveyvwcrav


7}8e\ov e

avrwv indcrai avrov.

[2042]

construction almost

if

partitive genitive, with or without


or (b) with no governing word.
In

the Pharisees

context this

[some]."

not quite peculiar to John

c,
(b),

(a) before the

is

the

governing word,

k t<Zv <&apio-aiMv

means

''from

Obviously, with a verb of motion in the

create ambiguity, because the meaning may be


the
Pharisees
came, were sent etc.," (2) "They came,
(1)
were sent etc. from the Pharisees." This ambiguity (on which see

may

"Some of

Ellipsis,

2213

[2041 a]

Lk.

i.

16,

5)

occurs in the

first

IloWol rQv does not occur

Acts

iv. 4, viii. 7, xiii.

43

of the instances quoted below

at all in

etc., also in

Mk

Rev.

(Bruder) but
viii.

is in

Mt.

iii.

7,

11.

"
[2041^] The Hebraic
many from (Ik)" '"some from (4k)," which
used by the Synoptists (though very rarely by Mark) is fairly
frequent
"

especially in the Raising of Lazarus, e.g. xi. 19, 37, 45, 46.
from the selective e/c in classical Gk, e.g. dpurroi e/c.

89

It is

is

in

also
In,

quite distinct

CASES

[2043]

24

1.

Kai a.Tre<TTa\fJivoi rjcrav K

(?)

k tcoV ixaOrjTwv avrov 8vo, vi.

Ka.L

64 aXAa

vi.

r/OeXov,

tov

40

VII.

31
o%\ov ovv aKovcravrzs

71-0A.A.01

avrov Trpos d\Xt]\ov<;,

xviii.

ou'k a7TtoA.cra

A.oyajv

42 o/xws
I

7 t7rai'

auVw

ef

lo"nr]KeL 'I.

vfx.iav

is

rovrwv

els

avroV,
cAeyoi',

40 ^Koucxav ex twv

ix.

tivcs,

7rt(TTeuo"av eis auToV, XVI.

eTno-revaav

rwv

xii.

35

70 kgu e

vi.

01,

i.

kcu zk rtov ovjapioiv ocrov

ck tow ayAoi; 8c 7roA.A.oi

<>apicrautiv

ap^oi'rwj/

Qapio-aiiov,

(?) 6/U.ot'tos

16 lAeyov ow ck Ttov <Pa.pLcra.iiDi>


Tavra 01 par avrov 6VtS,

IX.

Twf

ctovv e vfiOv -rive?

vii.

otapoA.os etTTtv,

1 1

p.vroi kol

tcov

/c

ovv Ik rdv paO-qrwi'


ouSeVa.

Before Nouns

(iv)

[2043]

noun,

e.g.

article

and

The Synoptists place the possessive airov mostly after its


rbv lp.dvra avrov.
John frequently places it before the
1
its noun, e.g. avrov rbv l/xdvra
somewhat like the Latin

dative "loose for him the shoe-latchet": this throws the emphasis

from the pronoun on the noun.

See 2558

foil.

Special passages

(v)

With npooTOC and npdoTON

(a)

[2044] i. 15, 30 7rpwTo's p-ov


1901 and 2665
o-qKev, see 1896

latter

"me your

means

chief"

and

rjv,

18

XV.

where

7,

ip.e

it

that vp.G>v

is

is

irpiorov vp.tov

p.ep.1-

maintained that the

a possessive genitive.

TiBepiaAoc

(J3)

"
Beyond the sea of Galilee [i.e. the sea] of
[2045] In vi. 1
Tiberias" the apparently superfluous genitive (Tifieptdb'os) has been

thought by some to be corrupt.

But it is probably to be explained


of
instances
many
Johannine intervention coincident
Mark
with, or consequent on, Luke's deviation from the Synoptists.

as one of the

and Matthew always have "the sea of Galilee," Luke calls it "the
2
lake [of] Gennesaret," and afterwards "the Lake ."
But Mark and

Matthew speak of Gennesaret as a place at which the disciples


disembark 3
John mediates, as it were, between the two names,
but inclines towards the ancient tradition "sea of Galilee," only
.

it

explaining
variations

Mk

i.

Lk.

v.

by a

in

7,
1,

Lk.

name more

the application

iii.

16,

Jn

i.

27.

2, viii. 22, 23, 33.

familiar

of

to his

the term

readers.

Galilee

Perhaps
induced Luke

Top avrov [pavra would emphasize atVou.


Mk vi. 53, Mt. \iv. 34.
:t

90

GENITIVE

[2046]

But "Gennesaret" was supplanted by


Talmudic Tradition and the latter (which was also
used by Pliny) was preferred by John, who, later on, makes (xxi. i)
"the sea of Tiberias" the scene of Christ's last manifestation to His
substitute Gennesaret

to

"Tiberias"

in

vi. i is a genitive of possession ("belonging


sea" which must be understood as appositionally

T7/3epia8os in

disciples.

to ")-

governed by

"

repeated.

'H AiAcnopA toon 'EaAh'noon

(7)

" Will he
This phrase occurs in vii. 35
go to the
and teach
twv
the
Greeks
'EWrjvwv)
(tt/v Siaa-n-opav
Dispersion of
"
In LXX, we find " the Dispersion of Israel" and
the Greeks ?

[2046]

"the Dispersions of Israel*," as one might speak of "the church, or


But this phrase might be followed
churches, of the Christians."

by another genitive describing the


Dispersion belonged

"
:

or

city

country to which the

the Dispersion of Israel

of, i.e.

belonging

to,

Then "of Israel" might be


and so we might get (1 Pet. i. 1)

etc."

Pontus, Cappadocia

Egypt,
assumed, and dropped for brevity,
"to the elect sojourners of the Dispersion of Pontus, Galatia etc.,"
and here " the Dispersion of the Greeks" meaning, "the Dispersion

belonging to the Greek-speaking countries."


the sentence does not proceed thus,

Greeks"?

the

One answer may

be,

"and
"For

It

may be asked why

teach the Dispersion of


brevity."

But another

answer, and a more satisfactory one, is that the words are intended
to represent the Jews as unconsciously predicting the manner in

which the
disciples,

Spirit

of

the

would teach,

risen

first,

Saviour,

the

travelling

"

1
Gennesar," or
[2045 a]
also recognised as the popular

"

Gennesaris,"

name

among

Dispersion

and then the Greeks themselves (2645) 4

for the

is

abroad
the

in

His

Greeks,

used mostly by Josephus, and

Lake by Pliny

(v. 15)

is

" Plures Gene-

saram vocant."
2

est."
is

[2045^] Wetstein (Jn vi. t) quotes Erachin 32 a "Tiberiadi mare murus


"
Hot: Heb. i. 14.2 says that the lake called in O.T. " the sea of Chinnereth

called

"

in the

'

Targumists

the sea of Genesar, Genesor, Ginosar,"


"
the sea of Tibe?-iah.'

also in the Talmudists, but most frequently


;!

[2046 a] Is. xlix. 6 rr\v 5. rod


toO 'loparfk. Wetst. ad

^wa/j.ei>ovs)

airiaTeiXev

et's

rrp/

[2046(5]

In

Siaawopav tGiv
xii. 20,

it is

the

same

'

(Aq. and Sym. tovs


quotes Paralipom feremiae MS. 6 di Bapovx

'I<rpar)\, Ps. cxlvii. 2 rots 5.


toe.

iOvCiv.

" Greeks

"

means Greek

proselytes to the Jewish faith.

of these: and
congregations of the Dispersion would contain a large admixture
so the name "Greeks" might be given contemptuously to congregations of Jews

The

in Alexandria,

Antioch

etc.

91

CASES

[2047]

Ta

(8)

[2047]

BaIA TCON

The

(bOINIKOON
this

also

may

latter

xii.

phrase

^>otVtes, separately,

13

to.

t<2v

fiata

may mean

mean "palm-trees")

"

palm-

so that

of palm-branches."
One
would seem) might have sufficed. The LXX, with various

mean "palm-branches

the phrase might


(it

and

fiata

branches" (though the

word

about

difficulty

both

<f>oLviKwv is that

readings and accents, has fiaiwv, jScuv, /3aeoiv etc., and sometimes
d>oivi, but never /?aia <poiviK<tiv, except as an anonymous rendering
"
branches of palm-trees."
40
Possibly fiaia. may have
"
been loosely used for " bunches of twigs of any sort used in festal
The parallel Synoptists mention no palm-branches
processions.
in Lev. xxiii.

taken

in

8 mentions o-TtfidSas " bed-litter."


word kX<x.8ov<; for " branches," and these

Mark

the hands, but

Matthew has the common


Mark's " bed-litter

xi.

supposed to be strewn in the road.


In Mark, A, C, and Origen,
have aToif3a8a<;, where SS omits the clause, D has eor-n/foSas 2 and
some inferior authorities crrei/UaSa? and o-Ti>/3a8as. John's rare word

(like

Luke omits

are

")

mention of

all

"

branches."

has different forms,

(3aia

where Mark

would

errs,

Luke

Mark

(e)

omits,

/3aeis,

and possibly one of


If so,

into o-ti/?u'<W

and John

why John took

also explain

as belonging to

/3ata,

/3atva,

these has been corrupted by

intervenes.

it is

a case

This hypothesis

special pains to define the

fid'ca

<oiVi/ces.

TlApACKeYH TOY TTACXA

does not present any


were
used consciously as
phrase
grammatical difficulty.
it would be objective genitive.
the
Passover"
meaning "preparing
"
More probably it is possessive the word " Preparation having
come to mean "the eve [of]," and being applied to any feast but
most frequently to the sabbath, so that it is used in the second
[2048]

xix.

14

rjv

Sc Trapao-Kevr) tov Trda-\a

the

If

century absolutely to mean {Didach. viii. 1 and Mart. Polyc. vii. 1)


"
But what makes the phrase interesting is that John's
Friday."
insertion of tov irdcrxa- differentiates his use of irapacrKivij from that
of the Synoptists, two of

See Wetstein ad

Mace.
2

"and
and

xiii.

loc.

and

whom

connect

Mace.

xiii.

51,

it

with the sabbath, and

Mace.

x.

7,

xiv.

(comp.

37).

[2047 a] If an early (lurk Gospel used (Jelf 817) Ian 5' oi for ciWoi 5<f,
others [carried] palms," ea-nSoi/iruas, it might explain the readings of Origen
.

Hafa

(p.

may

be illustrated by L. S. on \vyos and

92

/j.6(rxot(ri

Ktiyouri.

NOMINATIVE
none with (2087

8) the passover.

Trapao-Kevr] o ecrrtv TrpocrdfSfSaTov.

to

Mark
If that

[2049]

42 is most definite, rjv


"sabbath" happened also
xv.

be the

first day of Unleavened Bread, Mark's


statement, though
Hence John might intervene in three
might be misleading.

true,

ways, (a) by defining the Preparation here, (b) by stating (xviii. 28)
lamb had not yet been "eaten," and also (c) by

that the paschal

saying

Thus
a

as

(xix. 31) that the approaching "sabbath" was "a great day."
the genitive in xix. 14 may illustrate
not grammatically but
of
methods
of
specimen
Johannine
dealing with Synoptic

tradition

IV

-the

genitive just discussed

(xii.

13

to.

fiaia

twv

cpoivtKwv)

Nominative
Special passage

(i)

(a)

'0 Kypidc moy

On the Nominative used suspensively see 1920 foil.


one
8 "'...and
Only
passage needs separate discussion, xx. 27
be not unbelieving but believing.' Thomas answered and said to
him,
My Lord and (?) my God' (6 Kvpios fiov koL 6 #eds /xov)."
[2049]

Here the nominatives

are said to be vocatives by Wetstein, who


use of d to represent the vocative, (2) classical
Greek usage of nominative for vocative. But (1) Wetstein alleges
no LXX instance (except one, explicable by special context) of 6
alleges (1) the

LXX

Kvpios thus used, although there are

many

and

is

LXX

instances of 6 0ed?,
the regular rendering of "
Lord our God 2 "). (2) In classical Greek, the instances of quasi-vocative
with 6 are (a) accompanied by ovtos, or <rv, or they are like our "Mr"

in

also of Kvpiz 6

0e6<; rjfx<2v

vernacular speech ("you,

(3) or else, as in
in poetry.

(4)

u>

For the

exception is
6 Kvpi6s ixov.

cricketer,

Mr

Yorkshireman

etc.");

"

metri causa ") only


they are found (Steph.
one instance of the combined quasi-vocatives

The

is

him, shewing

[2049 a]

Mr

cp[\os,

quoted by Wetstein
against

(which

Epict.
that,

ii.

16.

although

13

Kvpu 6 0eds which tells


could use d #cds

Epictetus

genit. gov. by aKotw, see 1614, gov. by yevo/xai, see 2017.


2 K. xix. 19, 1 Chr. xxix. 16, 2 Chr. xiv. 11, Ps. xcix. 8 etc.
The
Ps. xxxv. 23 "
God and
6 6e6s /nov ko.1
Lord (Adonai),"

My

In the preceding verse, "

my
my Lord

LXX

(Adonai)" is rendered Kvpie as it


is regularly in LXX when
applied to God (see Gesen. n a ref. to Gen. xx. 4,
Ex. xv. 17 etc.). But here, as it follows the nominatival form of the vocative,
6 6e6s fxov, it is rendered for
In Jn, 6 nvpios precedes
conformity 6 Kvpids fiov.
o 6e6s.
Steph. 876 c gives many instances of voc. (pl\os but all from poetry.

93

CASES

[2050]

vocatively, he could not use 6 kvP lo<; thus.

The Egyptian Papyri

use Kvpie freely, but never, so far as alleged, 6 kvP lo<;


vocatively.
Thus, a great mass of evidence from all extant Greek shews that, had
the vocative been intended, Kvpie would have been
employed.
confirmed by the Latin versions, which have "dominus."

This

is

"Lord" certainly cannot


[2050] What then is the meaning?
mean "Jehovah/' "My Jehovah" would be an unheard of monBut "my Lord" might mean "my dear Lord," or
strosity.

"my

dear Master" as the term

used by Mary Magdalene 1


And it
would be appropriate that this almost unique appellation should
be used by Thomas, as by Mary, in connexion with a manifestation
"
of the risen Saviour 2
If it is so used here, is "
my Master
is

art," or
io-TLv)."

subject

"
were predicate we should have to
Thou
supply
which is inserted in xxi. 7 "it is the Lord

or predicate?

If

it

"It is,"
But could

(d kv/ho's

i<TTLv

have been omitted there

In any case

it

could hardly be omitted here, since the meaning


required would be
"it is indeed my Lord," so that it would be emphatic 3
But if we
.

take
after

"

"

as subject, we may readily


[dear] Lord
imagine a pause
while the speaker, overwhelmed with amazement and
joy, is

My

it,

He might have
attempting to express his feeling about the Lord.
added "has indeed risen from the dead" or "has been indeed
restored to me," but he means a great deal more than that.
When
he has uttered "my Lord," he feels that "there is none in heaven"

whom

he could "desire

4
In
comparison" with this "Lord ."
effect, his Lord has become to him one with his God, so that he
"
may say My Lord is also my God."

in

[2051] This accords well with the frequency of the emphatic


John. As for the omission of eWt, it undoubtedly causes some
obscurity; but might not this seem to the evangelist to have the merit
Ko.1 in

of forcing his readers to think out the

which
1
-

Jn

as

is,

xx. 13,

it

were,

comp.

"My

Phil.

full meaning of
wrung from the Apostle in

iii.

this

confession

moment

of

8.

Lord"

occurs in O.T., like the French "monsieur," with the


" What saith
third person, in respectful address,
Josh. v. 4
my Lord(hvA not LXX)
unto his servant," Dan. x. 19 " Let my Lord
speak." But perhaps here affection

[2050a]

is

predominant over respect, and Thomas speaks about

his

Master

in the

act of

replying to his Master.


8

[2050
of Israel."
4

/>]

I's. lxxiii.

See Jn

i.

49 av d...<rv...d, "thou art the Son of God, thou art King

25.

94

NOMINATIVE

[2051]

Thomas, logically speaking, had no more


inspired conviction ?
"
"
his God
than a Jew
right to say to the risen Saviour that He was
would have

to say the

same thing

of their being manifested to

speaking, might feel (justified


to say

what he

said.

to

men on
is

he

whom

suddenly found

was,

at all

did not exist for him in heaven

We

or earth as claiming his worship.

Thomas argued, like St Paul,


God by the resurrection from

or Elijah, in the event

But Thomas, spiritually


not the right word but) necessitated

His Master

events, "his God," the equal of

Enoch
earth.

are not, then, to suppose that

that Jesus

was "defined

to be Son of
There may have been no

the dead 2 ."

According to the view taken above, Thomas,


arguing in the matter.
of
Nazareth
from the dead, was instantaneously
regaining Jesus
that his Lord was also his God, and
with
the
conviction
possessed
the conviction forced

its

way out

In N.T. the rule

[2051 a]

is

in

utterance

that 6 Kvpios

3
.

means " the Lord

article before Kvpios differentiates this confession

from Hos.

ii.

23

[Jesus]," and the

"Thou

[art]

my

God," Kijpios 6 deds fxov el <rv, Zech. xiii. 9 "the Lord [is] my God," tctipios 6 6e6s
" thou art "
At the same time it
fjLov, where some copies (Field) insert
(Kvpios el).
was hardly possible for John to write down the Greek words "my Lord and my
God" without considering their association in LXX to express "Jehovah our God":
and he probably desired to convey to his readers an impression of the providential
way in which the most unbelieving of the Twelve was led on by the intensity of
affection for his regained Master to utter words that suggested the highest Biblical
Both in Hosea and in Zechariah, the
expression of belief in His divine nature.
confession comes from penitents, who had gone astray.
2
[2051 b] Rom. i. 4 "defined as the Son of God with power, according to the
spirit of holiness

by the resurrection of the dead."

The mention

of "holiness,"

however, distinguishes the "defining" from any merely miraculous revivification.


[2051

c\

^.]7;[j't]

is

instances of Kvpie and 6 deos in Boeckh Inscr. 91 10 foil,


there is 9124 ("lapis in marginibus valde corrosus")
But the usual abbreviation for Kvpios
'0 K(vpi)os dvd[Tr]avuov.

Among many

with avarravaov,

viro/jivijaov etc.,

Ilaeti'ft] la.

not KOC but

KC

Moreover,

after the

month, and before avairavaov,

it is

usual

(though not invariable) to insert inA i.e. lv5{lktiGivo%) with a number. Possibly
this has been corrupted into OKOC, and avawavaov is used here (as it often is) without Kijpie or 6 6ebs.
The corroded condition of the stone and the exceptional form

OKOC make

it

probable that some error underlies

error for the very frequent


3

o 6c,

i.e.

OKOC

It

might be simply an

6 6e6s.

For xiii. 13 (puveiri jxe 6 5i5aand Rev. iv. 1 1 <xios el, 6 Ktjpcos /cat 6 9eos tiixwv, ought to have
been mentioned above. For these, and for further remarks on the vocative use of
6, indicating that Jn may have used it here exceptionally, see 2679 foil.
[2051^] But

this is not quite satisfactory.

(T/caXos ko.1 6 Kvpios,

95

CASES

[2052]

Vocative

(i)

Special passages
(a)

TTath'p

2
[2052] According to W.H. the word irar-qp is used vocatively by
our Lord (a) in the regular form Trdrep, in the Raising of Lazarus, xi. 41
8
''Father, I thank thee," {b) after the Voice from Heaven, and xii. 27
,

"What (2512/;

should

c)

say? 'Father, save

me

from

hour'?

this

name," and (c) thrice in the Last Prayer, xvii.


11 "Father, the hour hath come
1
glorify thou me, Father,... holy
Father (Trarep ayie), keep them in thy name." In all these cases 7raTp
...Father, glorify thy

is

But, towards the conclusion of the Last Prayer, when the Son
Church that is to be, He thrice uses the

used.

prays for the unity of the

form

xvii.

7raTv;p:

thou, Father,
that

where

The

final

7rarep

in

am

21

"that

all

[of

them] may be one even as

me... Father, that which thou hast given

they also

may

he... Righteous

Father

me

I will

(iva.ry]p oY/<aie)...."

remarkable contrast with Wrep ayie (if


the correct reading), the form and place of the adjective

is

instance

is

being the same in both, but the form of the noun different.
[2053] It will be found that the Johannine Last Prayer, in
earlier portion,

down

to the

words

(xvii.

15)

"Keep them from

its

the

of the Lord's Prayer in which the form


used by Matthew and Luke.
Possibly John desired to
draw a distinction between that part of the Prayer, which was merely
evil [one]," follows the lines

n-arep

is

for the present Disciples,

and the

latter part

which was

for the

whole

Church 3

probably not vocatively used, see 2049 51.


is called to the
readings of B, which have,
instance, been incorrectly given by Teschendorf.
[2053(?j 'O -rrarrip occurs in Mk xiv. 36, Mt. xi. 26, Lk. x. 21, and
1

"

In xx. 28, 6 Kupids

See 2053

c,

/xov is

where attention

:t

regular Hebraic vocative; but Alford and Steph. give no instance that
of TrarTjp thus used, without the article.

in

one

is

the

can find

[2053 /'] In xvii. 21, saOws av, irar-qp, ev Ifioi, might mean "even as thou [being]
And xvii. 24 irar-qp, 6 d^dwK&s /jloi may be
Father, art in me [as being Son]."
compared with X. 29 6 war-rip /xov 8 dtdwutv fioi. If x. 29. is to be rendered "that

may not xvii. 24 mean "that which thou, being


Theoretically, it would be possible to take the hi--! two
instances as appositional, at the end of the sentence xvii. 23 Katfws (fie T)yair-ri<ras
But though |ohn
var-qp.
TraTrjp, xvii. 24 6Vt -r/ydTTTjcrds fie irpb /cara/3o\^s k6ct/j.ov
which the Father hath given me,"
Father, hast given

me"?

is
extremely fond both of apposition and of abruptness, these instances would perhaps
go beyond his limits. All we can say is that he has some definite and distinctive

Q6

CONJUNCTIONS
Conjunctions

(1894*)

Johannine use

(i)

[2056]

of

The most remarkable

characteristic of John, in his use of


take the subjunctive mood, is, that he
makes very subtle distinctions between the tenses with which they
This is especially the case with eaV and 6Vav which will
are used.

[2054]
certain conjunctions

that

"Tense" and not under "Conjunction."


For the Johannine omission of conjunctions see 1996 2008. For
his use of the participle in their place, see 2271
3, and 2031.
therefore be discussed under

'A\\a

(ii)

'AaAa = contrariety, "not this but that, or, something more"


[2055] 'AAAa is used by John more frequently than by Matthew
(a)

and Luke taken together

One

(1708).

reason for

this,

is

that

it

is

the appropriate conjunction for such phrases as "not this but that,"
or "this but not that," and John (2598) is fond of stating a truth in
its

negative
or

difference,

and

positive

contrariety,

Theoretically, d\\d implies


mere negation of presence or

aspects.

not

the

Nevertheless, in most instances, a negative is expressed


or implied in the context of a Johannine a'AXa.
[2056] In vi. 9, the negative ("this is true but not that") is
"
There is a lad here with five barley loaves...
implied by a question,
1
i.e.
but they are not anything to the purpose.
but what are they...?"

absence.

In

vi.

the Jews say "give us this bread," and Jesus replies,


the bread. ..he that cometh to me shall not hunger. ..But

34

"I am

6,

you that ye have seen me, yet believe not." Here the
"
Ye have the bread visibly before you, but (as
to be,
seems
meaning
I

said unto

in the threefold use of irar-qp,

meaning
Lord's

[2053

Heaven

c\

The

question

is

complicated by the readings of

as well as the Last Prayer.

/j.e...raiJTr)v.

first

scribe

xii.

croi/

27

28

r. 0.

nor

comments on

W.H. do not give it


of B in both passages

province of grammar.

as

(W.H.)

Voice from
awaov
has, most distinctly,
in the

rl eilirw;

irarep,

photograph of B
and then var-qp in the accepted prayer.

neither reproduces irarijp (2653)

ovo/xa for
irar-qp.

In

irarep, Sb^aahv aov to ovop.0., the

7rarep in the rejected prayer,

txt of

following the threefold use of irarep, in the

last prayer.

an

though

it

[Tisch.'s

reproduces B's reading /xov to


as an error.
Alford does not mention

alternative.]

it

This confirms the view that the

recognising some distinction that goes beyond the


Perhaps both he and the evangelist reserved the nomiis

Codex D, in
native form as best suited to the most exalted utterance (2679 foil.).
xvii. 1
25, has irarep throughout, except where cv precedes the noun, xvii. 5, 21.

[2056 a]

A. VI.

Here and elsewhere

in this section,

97

" but" = &W&.

CONJUNCTIONS

[2057]

I said) ye do not accept it because ye do not believe."


But, as the
"
writer proceeds, the thought " as I said
becomes more and more

prominent, and passes from an implied parenthesis into an expressed


adversative statement
1

In

[2057]

"

26

vii.

Can

it

that

possibly be

(/j.y

wort.)

it

was

recognised by (eypoxrav) the rulers that this [man] is the Christ?


Nay, but [as for] this man ('AAAd tovtov) we know his origin...":
here dAAd implies something quite different from that which has

been suggested by the preceding context, and might be rendered by


our exclamatory " Why/" which often means "Why ask such a
"

question

In

vii.

48

"

Can

it

be said that a single one

rulers has believed in him, or a single

{firj

one of the Pharisees?

ns) of the

But (dAAd)

a reference to an implied negation


a single Pharisee has believed in him but the rabble are ready
to believe anything."
The next instance resembles the last two,
the
is
not
asked by yu.77, (" Could I possibly say (/xrj
question
though

this rabble... are accursed," there is

"Not

by Tt ("What should I say (ti ct7ra))?") (for the various


of
this see 2512^
xii. 27 "What should I
renderings
c)
say (ri elirw)?
Father, save me from this hour ?
Nay, but (dAAd) for this cause
t7rw)?") but

'

'

came

to

I,

[meet]

this

opposite, of a prayer that

hour."
is

'AAAd implies the

negation,

or

merely put forward as an impossible one

for the Saviour to utter.


'

(/3)

A AAa =

[2058]

difference, "nevertheless"

Passing over other instances (far too numerous to quote)


with an expressed or implied negative in the
is used
"[not this] but [the opposite]" or (2) ["not this] but

where dAAd
sense (1)

[something more]," we come to those where, without a negative in


it introduces
something different from the past, some-

the context,

thing for which the past has not prepared us, but which nevertheless
" I
knew that thou hearest me always, but
will take place, e.g. xi. 42
for
the
sake
of
the
multitude I said it," xvi. 20 "Ye shall
[nevertheless]
sorrow, but [nevertheless] your sorrow shall become joy," xvi. 33 "In
the world ye have tribulation, but [nevertheless] be of good cheer."
[2059]

It

is

sometimes

difficult

to decide

whether dAAd means

"nevertheless" or "on the contrary," e.g. xv. 20


1 "If they
perseIf they kept my word,
cuted me, they will also persecute you.
they
1

[2056/;]

Comp.

vi.

0^4 "The

you that lielieve not," where there


of it.
L;ift and the non-acceptance

is

words. ..are life.


But there are some of
a contrast between the offering of a
precious

98

CONJUNCTIONS
will

[2061]

also.
But all these things will they do unto you
name because they know not him that sent me." Does
If they kept my word they would keep yours
but on the

keep yours

because of my
"

mean

this

"

contrary, instead of doing

they will persecute you ? Or do the


italicised words point back to the earlier part of the section
(xv. 18
foil.) so that the d\\d does not refer to what immediately precedes,
this,

but to the tenor of the section, which is, to prepare the disciples for
persecution? In that case, the meaning is "Nevertheless [take
courage from the thought that] they will do all this to you for my sake
and because they know not God." In view of the above quoted
instances (xvi. 20, 33) where dAAd means "nevertheless" in Christ's
utterances

of

consolation,

this

meaning becomes

more

the

all

probable here.
Special passages

(7)

'AAAd means,

[2060]

at first,

"not

this

more"

bat

in xvi.

"

These [warnings about persecution] I have spoken unto you that ye


may not be caused to stumble. Out of the synagogues will they
more (dAAd), there cometh a time when everyone that
he is offering service [thereby] to God."
But
you
the following verses, dAAd (1) first means "but, though it cannot

cast you, nay,

will think

killeth

in

be avoided," "but nevertheless," or "but

events"; (2) then

at all

it

means "but," as usual, after a negative; (3) then, again, it means


"but nevertheless" (or "but still"): -xvi. 3 7 "And these things
But
will they do because they have not known the Father nor me.

at all events [though actions arising from such ignorance cannot be


hindered] I have spoken these things to you that when their time
shall
(Se)

come ye may remember that I said [these things] to you... And


now I go to him that sent me and none of you asketh me,
:

Whither departest thou? but


things
(dAA')

to

because

tell

have spoken these

the grief thereof hath filled your heart.


you the truth, it is profitable for you that

you,

In the

depart."
"

(dAA'),

last

sentence,

it

is

But
I

still

should

not clear whether the writer

cannot expect you to believe me, but still I tell you the
means
whether
the real contrast is between "grief" and "profittruth," or
I

able," so that the


it is

for

your

meaning

profit (as I

The

"
is,

Sorrow hath

filled

have truly told you) that

your heart, but still


I should depart."

the following passage seems in"Believe


me, woman, that there is
3,
nor in Jerusalem shall
a
in
time
when
neither
this
mountain
coming

[2061]

explicable as

it

use

of

stands,

dXXd

iv.

21

in

99

7 2

CONJUNCTIONS

[2062]

Ye worship that which ye know not, we


ye worship the Father.
[
worship that which we know, because salvation is from the Jews.'] But
there cometh a time and now is, when the true worshippers shall
1
worship the Father in spirit and truth ."
It has been shewn elsewhere (1702, 1713 m) that "Jews" in the
Fourth Gospel is almost always used in a bad sense, and that for this

and other reasons (1649

51),

the italicised and bracketed words

should perhaps be transposed and assigned to the Samaritan woman


Then our Lord's words
as her account of what the Rabbis say.

would be
and
spirit

Not

in

Jerusalem or

in

Gerizim, but in

truth shall the Father be worshipped."


It

[2062]

"

"

to this effect

is

hard to find a satisfactory explanation of

viii.

26

have many things concerning you to say and to judge. But he


that sent me is true, and [as for me] the things that I have heard
I

from him these do

"But, though there

speak unto the world."


is

much

Perhaps the meaning is,


judgment must wait till
is .the Truth.
His word,

to judge, the

He
the time appointed by the Father.
2
I utter (xii. 48), will be the judge ."

which

'AAA' INA

(8)

[2063] Where dAA' tVa is preceded by another parallel Iva


(expressed or implied) the verb in the first Iva clause may sometimes

be regarded as repeated

came
1

in

in the

order that (iva) he

second

might

Iva clause, as in

bear witness

i.

"

he

concerning the

u
[2061a] Westcott explains But" thus: "The old differences of more and
knowledge were to be done away." He apparently means that the

less perfect

preceding sentence describes "more and less perfect knowledge" and that "but"
But do the preceding words describe " more
introduces the perfect knowledge.
and less perfect knowledge"? Concerning the Samaritans it is said il ye know
u 7ve know." Is not this rather the "difference"
not"; concerning the Jews,
between knowledge and ignorance? On 1 Jn ii. 19 rifiCov e^ijXOav, dX\' ovk -qaav
of ei;rj\t>av.
(!; rj/J-wv, where the meaning of d\\d may be affected by the meaning
see 2110.
[2062a] Westcott explains "but" by a paraphrase differently thus: "The
utterance of these judgments will widen the chasm between us.
But they must be
spoken at all cost; they are part of my divine charge; he that sent mc is true..."

[2062/5] Chrys. says "I have many things both to say and to judge, yea, and
not only to convict but also to punish, but He that sent me, i.e. the Father, doth
no) desire this (a\X' 6 irifiipas /ue, tovt<jtiv, 6 \\a.jr\p, ov jiovXerai. toOto)." Theod.

of

leraclea (Cramer) says

day of judgment, yet He


requital

(k<ii>

els

vovv

fxr)

"Even

if

that sent

yc do not take into your minds at present the


is true, and He hath decreed the day of

me

XapL^dv-qre rbv tt)s Kplcrews Kaipbv, d\\' 6 irifxipas

dXrjdris {cttiv, 6s aipicre rbv rrjs diroobaiws Koupdf)."

IOO

This

is

yuf,

(pTjalv,

the view taken above.

CONJUNCTIONS
light...

he was not the

light,

but

[?

[2065]

in order that

came]

{akX

Iva)

he

might bear witness concerning the light." This, then, is perhaps


a case of ellipsis supplied from context, called below (2204
5) "con-

textual" ellipsis as distinct from "idiomatic" (2213).


Even where
there is no preceding parallel Iva, a preceding verb may sometimes
"
Neither this man sinned
perhaps be supplied as, possibly, in ix. 3

nor

but [he was born blind] in order that the works of


be manifested in him"
where "he was born blind "is

his parents

God might

regarded by some as repeated from the question of the disciples


"Who sinned, that he was born blind?" But there (ix. 3) it is
"
but [it was ordained]
perhaps better to take dAA' Iva as meaning
in order that."
And even in i. 7 8 dAA' Iva might have that

meaning.
[2064]
idiomatic

The

ellipsis

is

certainly

sometimes not contextual but

it

may

Instances must be considered separately, but generally


be said that dAA' Iva, even where it is a contextual ellipsis,
.

conveys a notion of divine ordinance.


is,

"And

knew him

knew them

manifested to

This

has

or

not were

For

Israel.

In

i.

him

whether

ordained] in order that he should be


cause came I baptizing in water."

this

"
for
advantage of keeping
where in John,

the

31, the best rendering

not, but [all things concerning

beginning of the sentence,

this
it

is

cause

"

the

at

almost invariably

placed (see 2006 and 2387).


(iii)

Tdp
(a)

Synoptic and Johannine use

In Matthew and Luke (when both are independent of


Mark) ydp
hardly ever used in strict narrative", but almost always
in the words of Christ and other speakers.
Out of Matthew's twelve
[2065]

is

instances in strict narrative, nine ("/or they were fishers," "for he


said... If I touch...," "for Herod
having seized John," "for John repeatedly said to him," "for the
wind was contrary," "for he was one that had great possessions,"
"for their eyes were weighed down," "for he knew that through

was teaching them," "for she

envy they had delivered him up


1

E-g.

ewpanaaiv

xiii.

18

eyw ol5a...d\\'

/ecu p.e /xuxrj k a aiv

..

.dXX'

'iva

")

'iva

agree verbatim, or nearly

i]

ypacpr)

irXijpwOrj 6

irXypwOrj, xv.

X670S

5 vvv
12.

24

See 2105

so,

with
5e

kolI

[2065 a] "Strict narrative" excludes the words of the Baptist, the disciples,
the Pharisees etc., which are included generally in the term "nan-.," as distinct

from "Chri." (1672*).

IOI

CONJUNCTIONS

[2066]

Mark

Tap is used by Luke altogether about a hundred times,


and by Matthew still more frequently, but almost always in Christ's
words (and in the words of other speakers).
In strict narrative Luke
uses it only eleven times
and in three of the eleven he agrees
.

substantially

Mark 2

with

times, and, of these, as

The use of yap,

Mark

many

uses yap altogether about seventy

as thirty or more are in strict narrative.

therefore, in strict narrative, is characteristic

Matthew and Luke), and the fact


Luke agree with Mark in so large a proportion of

(as distinct from

that

of

Mark

Matthew and

the few instances


which they use "strict narrative" yap indicates that
they have
copied these clauses from Mark.
in

[2066] John uses yap about twenty-seven times in Christ's


exclusive of its use (about nine times) in the words of other
speakers and about twenty-seven times in strict narrative, so that

words

he agrees (roughly) with Mark's usage.

But there is this difference,


what would commonly be
called evangelistic comment, e.g. iii. 15 foil, "...that whosoever
believeth may in him have eternal life.
For God so loved the
world that he gave... For God sent not the Son... and men loved
that John's " strict narrative " includes

the darkness rather than the light, for their works were evil.
For
every one that doeth ill hateth the light...." This use creates
ambiguity.
Many commentators have taken iii. 16 21 as Christ's

words.

woman

Samaritan
Similarly Chrysostom
the words, iv. 9 "For Jews have no dealings with Samaritans,"

[2065/']

Mt.

iv.

appears to assign to the

18, vii. 29, ix. 21, xiv. 3, 4, 24, xix. 22,

xxvi. 43. xxvii. 18.

The

exceptional instances are Mt. xxviii. 2 dyyc\os yap Kvpiov, which finds no
apparent parallel in Mk xvi. 4 r/i> yap fieyas <r<p68pa, and Mt ii. 5 ovtus yap
ytypawTai..., iii. 3 ovros yap icriv 6 pijdds....
2

[2065

f]

Lk.

viii.

29, xviii.

23, xx.

19.

Lk. uses yap twice

peculiar to his Gospel, of the mocking of Christ


(Lk. xxiii. 8, 12) and once in the Miraculous Draught (Lk. v.

in

the short

by Herod Antipas

account,

9).

[2066] Chrys. ad lor. TloSvi}yvrfj...'\yei,ILus<rv'I. u>u


Za/iape/rcus...
Kai wodev .ivop.i'i'ev .Ov yap iIttiv on "Z. rols I. ov airyxpuivrai d\.V 'Ioroalot IHa/xapeiras ov Trpoaievrai, i.e. "For she did not say that Samaritans have do dealings
with the Jews hut Jews repudiate Samaritans.''
Apparently Chrysostom thinks
.

that ov o-vyxpuvrat

means what

his hearer>

stronger (-re Steph.).


[2066/;] In other passages, the

would render ov

irpoo-UvTai,

which

is

litth-

ible

Iwiet

abundance of yap ought not

to be ignored as a

of evangelistic origin,
v. 21, 22, 26.
Here Ciairep yap
e.g.
uo-wcp is not elsewhere found in John, and it would he possible to
3, and v. 267 a- comment 011 the clauses addressed to the fews in

indication

regard v. 21
the second person.

I02

CONJUNCTIONS

[2068]

which are regarded by many modern commentators as a comment


of the evangelist, if not an interpolation.
Special passages

(/3)

interpretations have been given to


after the two days he went forth thence to Galilee

[2067]

"But

Different

iv.
:

43

for (yap)

Jesus himself testified that a prophet in his own country hath no


honour." Some have interpreted this (1), "He went to Galilee from

His own country, Judiea, because He had not been honoured in the
A second interpretation might be (2), "After having acquired

latter."

honour

in

Galilee His

which was not His own country, He went to


country, because He did not desire to gain honour

Judaea,

own

at the

expense of the Baptist, and

in his

own country does not

He had

testified that a

The

gain honour."

prophet

decision rests on

need separate discussion in a comparison


of the Four Gospels but the differences illustrate the vagueness of
the inferences deducible from the mere statement of a motive

several considerations that


:

with "for."
[2068] In vii.
others again said,

"Others

412

said,

'This

is

the Christ'; but

For can it be that (fxrj yap) the Christ is to come


from Galilee?'" we must supply "No" before "for." Or, more
l

the rule in such cases is that the preceding words


should be mentally repeated in some phrase (expressing astonishment)

accurately,

"

"

for
equivalent to a statement, after which
follows, introducing the
reason for this implied statement. ["This the Christ
Impossible !]
The same explanation applies to ix. 29 30 after the
for...."
!

Pharisees have said concerning Jesus " But as for this [man] we
"
not whence he is
where the man cured of blindness by
"For
is
herein
the wonder of wonders (iv tovto> yap
Jesus replies

know

know not whence he

to davfxao-Tov) because ye (emph.)

he opened

my

eyes."

The man

"[Ye 'know not whence he


is

the wonder...

[2068rt]

what

evil

So

."

in

Mk

'

is

But the

xv.

14,

text

is

and

[yet]

repeats the words of the Pharisees

A
is

wonderful confession
doubtful.

Mt. xxvii. 23, Lk.

herein
!] for
See 2393, 2683.

xxiii. 21

Pilate's reply

" For

demand "Crucify him !" may


For what evil has he done?" Comp.

has he done?" coming as a reply to the

be explained "[An amazing request!]


Demosth. 43 Xeyerai tl ko.iv6v [An amazing question !] yevono yap &i> tl /catdiKaia yap...;
6 aw okj... [An amazing statement !]
vorepov ; Soph. Ajax 1125
where Kaivov and 8Lkt) are, practically, repeated. So ttQs yap (or, yap ov) ; means
"
"
[A surprising question !] For how could it be so [or, otherwise]?

CONJUNCTIONS

[2069]

Consecutive or a

la)

In classical Greek.

'2069"

two

things,

somewhat
same

may

may mean

"
)

h'nd]'' or
be called

ribe the

calling attention to the second of


;
on the other he

of.

in the next p.

word

as our English

ve

' ;

in hind],"

i.e.

may mean

other"

because

narrative oe

sequence of events

is

it

The former
used

frequently

But

in a story.

another of the

opposite.

Eferent,

"

"

;i

in

to

sense John,

ses it
ike, very rarely
compared with Matthew
when
the phn~
He uses it much more fit
the latter sense, though not nearly so often as Matt "2070"
But there
r sense in which
John

as

introduce that which comes second not in point of time but


" His r.
of thought, as being the next point to note, thus

-aith

untc

-ever he

next point
saith

to note is that] there

unto them,

Fill

unto you. do

saith

rm

the Five Thousand, after recording the


lie down," John add-. "Now \the

much

the pla:
grass
introduce something of the
in

out. ..'Not this

And

six

-.

command,
.

A an

/:arabbas was a robbe:

bs

i;

Mak

Nt

thus

may

men

was

occasionci

epigram.
next point
I

.Jesus

Feeding of

note is that

this

Barabbas."

wa

Similarly in the

the waterpot-

Nt

it.

cried

.-y
ft

:onimplying
:he preference of a "rot
nation (amplified in the
This parenthetic or supplemc
to the Prince of Life.
for him to notk
to introduce to the reader the

that

.'-.

hardly found in
"2071"

I: is

t"

sometimes

adversative or consecutiv
four

portion^,

the tunic

for

difficult to

decide whether
s

hn

-.

garments and

is

r.

each soldier a portion, and the tonic


without a seam"'." where the r.

[2069
6

etc.

Br

gives

tc

The

especial

IO.

4.O.

IO4

CONJUNCTIONS
may be

"But

either

Now

[2073]

hand

the tunic on tht other

the

[as of;

point to be here noted is that] the tunic was


In any case it would be an error to suppose that the
events introduced with this particle are of secondary importance.

cloak]," or
seamless.

For

6e

r/r

is

[the

\ w

used to introduce Nicodemus

man cured

nun

there was a

Bethesda (or Bethsaida),


Lazarus, and perhaps the "nobleman" whose son is cured near
the

of

Cana

On

of

uses

at

see 2684.

o 8c in John,

The

2072]

and consecutive, may be

adversative

o,

only two instances

illustrated by the

body

the

Pharisees"),

of Luke's Gospel after

'Itjo-ows

which

in

without the

occurs

it

in

the

The

article.

introduces '-Jesus" as representing a new character entering on the


the second represents contrast between Judas
si
ge of public life*
The first of John's only two instances appears to be
and Jesus 8
j

adversative,

Jesus

('I.

oc)

The second

"They therefore took up


was hidden from them and went
introduces

Christ's

But

him.

at

from the Temple 4."


and follows an
words,
public

last

forth

comment on

the national rejection of the Light.


W.H.
evangelistic
a
tv.
between
the
for
loved
the
of
men
place
space
they
glory
rather than the glory of God.
But Jesus ('I. Se) cried and said...
.

not clear whether this merely introduces a new subject, and


interval (perhaps of time) or whether, as in the previous
and
case, it implies a contrast between the rejection of the Lig
It

is

marks an

Christ's protest against the rejection.

When

2073]

Se

is

used, without the article, after other

names, there is a somewhat similar doubt.


Probably however contract is intended
Mary being distinguished from the two disci;

who had entered


homes, one
near

tomb

the

Tho;
1

tomb of

the

at least believing

iii.

in the

outside

[2071 a]

and had retur:


words " But Mary (M.

the Saviour

weepii _
contrast Thomas,

v.

i,

5,

xi.

1,

and

iv.

tilarly

who had

two days"

The nom.

some
etc.)

(as

Lk.

xxii.

viii.

59.

But

of th

an

3
}n
and then
the sabbath"

place,

briarpe /''.... This


preceded by iii. 23 ko.1 otVij t\v 'I. apxop.evo$....
subject) has previously occurred without the article in Lk. ii. 43

Lk.

iv.

:+

VTrefieivev 'I. 6 ttous,


3

words,

introduces persons and circumstances. In ix. 14 " Now it was (r/v Se)
introduces a point essential to the comprehension of what follow -.
[2072 a]
the genea'i

-tood

not seen the

In

46 (marg.).

specifies time ("after these things," -'after the

the

-.heir
i

48

ii.

'I.

38)

52

'Iti<joCs

Se TrXrjp^s irvevnaros iylov

which

/cat 'I.

is

irpoeKowrev...,

Se tlrer aiV, 'lovSa.


5

xii.

iii.

23

/cat

ai'ros

I05

'I.

dpxou-fvoi
"

.11.

44.

tjv

x.\.

24.

CONJUNCTIONS

[2074]

with the rest of the disciples, who had seen Him.


In both cases,
the particle introduces a new event and one of the deepest interest.
And this, as a rule, is characteristic of John's use of Se' it draws
:

sometimes to the beginning of a manifestly great event,


sometimes to a detail, not manifestly, but really, important either

attention,

because of some latent symbolism.

in itself or

Ae, third word, or later, in

(/3)

The

[2074]
otocrco

crdp

rj

/jlov

16

viil.

avrov,

ecrTtv..., vii.

31

iav Kpivto

Se

/cat

i.

XV. 27 e/cetvos fJLapTvpyjaei 7repi ip,ov-

epwrco

xxi.

p.oi'ov,

ov/c

23

according as Se'
[2075] (1) In vii. 31,

classified

would

(1) is

/cat

Se',

Kat ev

tw

/coivouvta

Se

iq

not,

vofjuo
77

Se t<5

rjp,erepa),

Se ttap-rvpeiTe, xvi. 9

20 or

xvii.

avra) 6 'Iyycrovs

Se

et7Tv

viii.

/cat i!>uis

p.ev...7rept StKatocrw?7s

d/xaprtas

7rept

vi. 51 koI 6 dpTos Se 6V


eyw
tov d^Aou Se 7roA.A.ot e7rio~Tevo~av eis

eyw,

Jn

yiypairrai (comp.

t'tterepu)

clause

its

instances are as follows,

or (2)

is,

10

toijtwi'

7rept

Se

These may be
preceded by /cat.
.

d^Aou was perhaps avoided as it


stress on the preposition, which here means (in
e/c

Se tov

much
"some of" and

lay too

is so closely connected with tov d^Aou that


tov ox^ov might be regarded as almost a compound noun.
In

effect)
e/c

10, per and Se' are placed third after preposition and noun
In xvii. 20 ov Se' would have been against
frequently the case.
the rules of Greek.
dpaprttui' yp-uiv, oi
Compare 1 Jn ii. 2 7rept
xvi. 9

as

is

tw

twv

dAAd

But, in both, the unusual


Se
of
calls
more
attention
rather
to the context as
position
probably
to
be
In
xxi.
noted.
and
a, l>, ^,/etc. read Kat ovk
worthy
23, A, D,
?7Ti' for ovk etTrev 8c.
The weight of NBC 33 and Origen is so
7repi

T^aeTepaH/ Se p.6vov,

we must accept

that

great
text.

Se',

as representing the earliest

on the other hand,

But,

Kat'

Kat

where

we should

Greek

naturally

expect dAAd or iteWot -is so difficult that it can hardly be a mere


correction for regularity's sake.
So far as regards difficulty, it would

be more

likely that the difficult Kat

When

Se'.

Km

would be corrected by

a marginal

scribes began to transfer this to the text as a substitute

Se' after ovk, so


they would place it after
Possibly this very ancient tradition about the oldest of
the Apostles may have been current in the Galilaean Church in

for

ovk

they could not place

et7rev.

a form in which the


it

stands, ovk
1

[2075 a

Tr&VTO. 5t

et7rei'

Ae

is

oca dirtv

Hebraic

Se is

"

and

"

was used

perhaps without parallel

for
in

"and

yet."

As

Johannine Greek

1
.

irregularly used in x. 41 'Iwdv-qs ntv ffrjixeiov ewoirjo-ev ovdtv,


tovtov aWrjVij r)v.
But there the irregularity arises from

'I. Trepl

IO6

CONJUNCTIONS
[2076]

[2078]

In the combination of Kai and

(2)

have sufficed to express mere addition,

Se'

ko.L

would

seems to be devoted

to the

Se',

since

"
and... what
expression of emphasis, so that ko.1...8z probably means
is more," in the sense "and... what is to be specially noted."
Winer-

Moulton

553) indicates two opinions as to koL Se':


(1) that Kai
"
" and."
If Kai meant
also," (2) that Kai =
also," emphasizing the
"
I also,"
following word, Mt. xvi. 18 Kayw Se' 0-01 Ae'yw would mean
or "Even I"; and, in Jn vi. 51 Kai 6 ap-ros would mean "even the

53

p.

="

not

bread" or "the bread also"


cases where initial Kai

Kai

in a

Kai lav Kpiv<n


if"

special preceding context to


But, as a rule, Kai standing

"and," but "also" or "even."


sentence is to be assumed to mean "and."

be, not
first

Se'

but, if so,

in

viii.

16,

might possibly be emphatic (not connective) "Even


the best course would be to treat both Kai and Se' as

contributing to emphasis, "Yea, even

if I

should judge."

MeN...Ae

(7)
[2077]

and there

In Johannine Words of the Lord, ftcv occurs only twice,


follows.
Both instances occur in the chapter containing

Se'

words

Christ's last

to the disciples

...7repi 8iKaLoo"vvr}<; 84. ..7repi Se

\v7rrjv

There are

likely interpretations.

shewn by some

is

Se

7raA.1i'

e'^ere*

(1) xvi. 9

Kptcrews, (2) xvi.

oij/o/xai

v/jlols.

In

7repi

a/xaprtas /*eV

22 Kai vfxeU ovv vvv

xvi.

II,

7rep<.

KpiaeiDS

fxev
Se'

would have corresponded so exactly with the two previous 7rept


clauses as to produce an artificial effect
and perhaps the writer
wishes to call special attention to the clause "about judgment"
and effects this by a slight variation of order. MeV...Se' nowhere
:

occurs in the Epistle.


El

(v)

(a)

corresponding to

Ei,

Mark

[2078]

our

Lord

such sayings are rare

the position of

ixiv.

[2078 a]

days no

flesh

Mk

in

Words

of the Lord

Matthew) only once attributes to


what "would have happened ," and
Matthew and Luke 2
But in John they

(followed by

saying

might have expected

aim,

about
in

Ylavra dt would have corresponded to ly-q/xe'cov


or /xeVroi following 'I. without /xeV.

/xev.

Or we

dWd

xiii.

20 (Mt. xxiv. 12) "If the Lord had not shortened those

would have been saved."

[2078/0 Mt. xi. 213, Lk. x. 13 "If in Tyre...," also Mt. xii. 7 (pec.) "If
had
known. ..ye would not have condemned," Mt. xxiii. 30 (pec.) "Ye say, If
ye
we had been in the days of our fathers," Mt. xxiv. 43, Lk. xii. 39, " If the master

IO;

CONJUNCTIONS

[2079]

occur more often than


that

passage

in

the Synoptists together 1

all

comment

one

in

The only

which W.H.

omit aV,
"
If ve are children of
39
Abraham, then ye are doing (woteiTe)
the deeds of Abraham.
But as it is (jw 8e) ye are seeking to
requires

is

viii.

me

kill

."

Here B alone has

[2079]

hand) has added

first

(without av).

The

av.

and a

iroievre,

scribe

in smaller characters, so as to

reads

(possibly the

make

e-oien-e

adds
have "If ye were (^re)...ye would be
doing
67roieiT:

inferior mss.

SS renders

av,

eTroieirc,

eirouvrai, corr.

"

iroulre imperatively,

If ve are... do
ye
but no instance occurs in John of an
imperative preceding vvv oe, "but as it is," which requires before
3
it either
"ye would be doing" or something equivalent to it
We
(iiroielTe

av)."

the deeds of

Abraham

"

therefore have probably to choose between ttoicTtc indicative

and
and almost ironical way of
saying "in that case you are doing," or "of course you are doing,"
the works of Abraham.
The latter would be for iiroieire av. Omissions of av are found in John elsewhere 4
but they are always with a

The former would be a

liroieurz.

vivid

therefore to be preferred here.


In a similarly
Lk.
6
xvii.
ei
irregular passage,
exerc 7rarriv...eA.eyeTe av, many MSS.
alter the present tx Te
the imperfect ; and the
to do
IIoietTc is

negative.

'

tendency

same here would naturally be strong. If Codex B had been


and only a fair copy of it preserved, writing e noieiTe as enoieiTe,

the
lost

not a single Greek uncial MS. would now


preserve what appears to
be the correct reading 5
.

of the house had known..."

Mk

xi.

Lk. xvii. 6 has el ?x eTe frhmv...iX4yeTe &v, where


23 (Pparall.) has ^x Te tt'iotlv, Mt. xxi. 21 iav ^x r Te ttI<ttiv, followed by
In Lk. xix. 42 " If thou hadst known," the
apodosis is
)

future.

dropped.

[2078r]
is
-

v.

10,

36; also with


omitted.

xviii.

&v

iv.

46,

fx-q

in

El TKva tou A. iare,

to.

el

viii.

19,

? viii.

xv. 22, 24,

Zpya tov

ix.

39,

xix.

n.

"A. 71-oten-e

41,

xiv.

7,

28,

xv.

19,

In these last three instances

(marg.

etroielTe).

vvv dt ^rjTeiri ne

iiroKreivat.

In all these cases, the sense is, " If so[2079 a] ix. 41, xv. 22, 24, xviii. 36.
and-so had happened things would have been different
but as it is {vvv oe)...."
In xvi. 5, xvii. 13, the
but
it is
meaning is, "Things were different once
3

(vvv 64)...."

[2079/']

ix. ^t

xv. 22, 24, xix. 11

el firf in

every case,

ix.

is

not

saying

[2079 J Origen's present text, when he is not expressly commenting


uses (Huet i. 72, ii. 96) the
But
reading of the inferior mss.
comment on the passage he agrees about six times (Huet ii. 86,

on the

On

of Christ's.

&v omitted with indie, see 2213

,1

33

and 2698.

'

ige,

294

W.H.

txl,

twice

(i/>.

ii.

290, 293) with

W.H.
108

marg., comp. 2659

c.

in

6)

his

with

CONJUNCTIONS
Ei Ae

(/3)

Et

[2080]

[2082]

mh
8e fnj,

without a verb, in

almost always follows

LXX,

Apart from John, in N.T.


d
oe
it follows (i) description of what
as
/^'ye)
ought
(sometimes
2
In John, where it occurs
to be done, (2) precept, (3) an if-clause

an expressed or implied imperative

n" Believe

follows an

imperative in xiv.
[am] in the Father and the Father in me.
it

twice,

because of the mere works believe,"

on the ground of

if

i.e.

But

me

(d.

Se

fx.i]),

ye cannot believe me

personality and the words that

my

that

(p.01)

if not

then

utter,

because of the signs that I perform." This is according


But the other instance, which comes earlier in the same

believe
to rule.

not, at least, as translated in the


chapter, is not according to rule
"Let
not your heart be troubled: ye
text of R.V., thus xiv. 1
3

In

believe in God, believe also in me.

mansions
I

(6'rt)

if it

go

were not

so

Be

p,rj)

Father's house are many


would have told you for

my
I

And

prepare a place for you.

to

(TTopf.vop.ai)

(d

if

and prepare a place for you, I come again, and


receive you unto myself; that, where I am, [there] ye may be
(TTopevOio)

And

whither

go

that

is

ye

(vTrdyo>)

The

(1)

[2081]

passage

first

Se

this

also.

the way."

to

point
in

prj

know

go
will

be noted about

second instance as

this
in

difficult

the

first,

though here at a somewhat longer interval follows an imperative,


and the imperative of the same verb as above ("believe"). According to the analogy of the first instance, and of all Biblical usage,
endeavouring to connect d Se /irj with the imperative "believe,"

we must suppose
and the meaning

"
"
the clause about
mansions to be parenthetical
"
will be,
Ye believe (or, Believe) in God. Believe
;

[similarly] in me... hit, if

[2082]

(2)

The

[you can] not

then,...."

that

R.V. has

[rise to this]

next point to be noted

is

failed

drawn by our Lord here between "going


on a journey" (Tropf.vop.ai) and "going back, or home" (virdyw)
Earlier in the Gospel, the Jews themselves are dramati(1652
64).
described
cally
by John as failing in much the same way when Jesus
" I
says (vii. ^t,)
go back (vTrdyw) to him that sent me," and they
to represent a distinction

say

(vii.
1

[2080 a]

xxix. 6

may
2

35)

ei

oe

"Where doth he purpose

to go (TropeveaOai)

i.e.

journey?,"

The

/j.tj

exceptions are Gen. xviii. 21, Job xxiv. 25, xxxii. 23. In Sir.
follows eiw iax^' a VI n 2 S. .xiiiL 6 jcoiriafl^v
.d 5e /x-q, the verb
.

be intended to imply an imperative, "let us do."

Mk

1 Cor.

xi.

ii .

21, 22,

16,

Rev.

Mt.
ii.

ix.

17,

Lk.

v.

36^7

5,~ToT

IO9

Mt.

vi. 1,

Lk.

x. 6, xiii. 9, xiv. 32,

CONJUNCTIONS

[2083]

adding "Doth he purpose to go to the Dispersion of the Greeks?"


It is also noteworthy that, up to this point (xiv. i) in the Gospel,
Jesus has repeatedly described Himself as "going home, or back
"
to the Father, but never, spiritually, as "going [on a
(vTrdyu>)

journey

He

In the preceding context

(7ropeuo/u.cu)."

"

to the disciples twice

Where

has just said

go home

(virdyu>) ye
cannot come," and they have been perplexed and troubled, not

33,

(xiii.

36)

being able to realise the Lord's "going home

"

and

treating

it

simply

as a separation.
point Jesus Himself begins to speak of
Himself as "going (7ropt'o/Mcu)," and the context suggests that He
does this in order to adapt His language to the understanding of

At

the disciples
[2083]

this

1
.

(3)

third

point

is,

that

eiTrov

av

on

ip-lv

Tropevo/xat,

Greek usage in general as well as Johannine usage


unless some very clear prefixed
in particular, would naturally mean
"
I should have said to you that
context prevented the meaning
SS takes it thus.
I am going."
Chrysostom and many other
according to

do the same, but omit on

authorities
'

am

").

dismissed as
thought.
Se

firj

There

(" I should

2185

in

this

There

is

results

does not mean

have said to you,

6.

that

"

If

it

were

not so

had stated
the form of a supposition at once

would imply a supposition

that Christ

hardly in accordance with Johannine


a considerable negative probability, that

is

^ ovrws

8e

also a positive probability,

relates to the imperative

it

"

is

"

even

impossible

and

this point, see

Another consideration

(4)

have said]

an error

ct

On

'

going

[2084]
[as I

if

rjv

("but

the text

if it
is

were not so").

not corrupt, that

"believe" and means "otherwise,"

i.e.

ye cannot do this."
According to this view, the disciples have been unable
[2085]
to realise all that was implied in the Son's "going home" to the
It meant that He could take His friends thither, and that
Father.
if

the Father would find


or an

place,

inn,

to

room

which

them all. It was not a strange


was necessary that the Son should

for
it

make

Nevertheless, if
preparations for the disciples.
of
the
Son with the
the disciples could not understand the unity
Son's
in
the
not
trust
Father and could
power without
unreservedly

go

first,

to

detailed assurances,

He

was willing

His language to their

vir&yw (not in Pap. Index, but colloquial, so that it has passed into modern
and Troptvofxai, see 165264. Jn carefully distinguishes them.

On

to lower

no

CONJUNCTIONS
and

level

them

to ask

Him

perhaps suppose

me " somewhat
Believe

also

to

to

in a special

assurance.

to repeat, in thought,
"
in

but if not
abiding places
full extent, then believe me at least to this
extent.]
said to you [instead of speaking about
going home
:

'

going on a journey

This
[2086]
av means "

']

could have

was

that I

to prepare a place for you."

is

cTttov

We may

the precept "believe

Ye believe (or Believe) in God ?


me in my Father's house are many
if ye cannot believe in me to this
[i.e.

this effect

[similarly]

trust

[2087]

not wholly satisfactory.


For, strictly speaking,
should have said," not " I could have said."
But

the whole passage is surcharged with emotion, and Christ may be


represented as having two thoughts in His mind, (i) "If I had
known your weakness I should have spoken differently," (2) "If you
are so weak, believe me, I could have put things for you differently."
From the objective point of view, the Son does not "go to prepare
"

a place for the disciples

"prepared" (Mt.

xx.

because the places are already

23)

"by my

Father."

But,

(Mk

x.

40)

His

adapting

language to the weakness of their faith, Christ proceeds to say,


" And if to use the
even if I should
language suited to you
go and prepare a place for you,' yet I come again...." Literally, the

Lord can hardly be said to "go to prepare a place," like a courier


engaging rooms in an inn; and Jesus seems to have implied this
by His previous mention of "many abiding-places," as if He had
"
said,

hold

We

shall

be in

my home your home,

large

enough

to

all."
"Eirei

(vi)

'Enei TTApACKeyi-i hn

(a)

This conjunction did not appear in Johannine Vocabu[2087]


1
and
lary because it occurs, though rarely, in each of the Gospels
,

nothing grammatically remarkable in the two Johannine


instances of it.
But historically it is remarkable that Mark's only
there

is

it is in connexion with the


Preparation for the Passover, and
one of John's two instances is similarly connected. The Gospels
mention the Preparation, but differently: (1) Mk xv. 42 "since

use of
that

all

(iirec)

was the Preparation, which

it

came Joseph
1

Mt.

[2087 a\
(3),

Lk.

wapacrKevT]

is

'eve of the sabbath,' there

of Arimathaea," (2) Mt. xxvii. 62

Mk
(1

only once (xv. 42


1

marg.),

Jn

xiii.

eirel

r/v

"But on

TrapaaKevrj,

6 (<xtlv Trpo<rd[3(3aTov),

29 iwel to y\waa. elx e "

r\v.

II

the morrow,

'!>

x x
'

^ 7r

CONJUNCTIONS

[2088]

which is [the day] after the Preparation, there were gathered together
the chief priests and the Pharisees to Pilate," to ask him to guard
the tomb, (3) Lk. xxiii. 534 "he placed him in the tomb. ..where
no man had yet lain and it was the day of the Preparation and
:

the sabbath was dawning."


'E7ret means "when," as well as "since," and
[2088]
1
with
7rei8>7, "when," in Daniel, Luke, and Acts
changed

inter-

is

Matthew
here it meant
.

and Luke, who omit hcu above, may have supposed


"

when," not perceiving that

simply

that

the

stated

it

the

cause for

coming of Joseph. John intervenes, at great length. Whereas Mark


and Luke, in different ways, connect the day with " [he Sabbath,"
John, in the first mention of it, says (xix. 14) "it was the Preparation

He

adds that the Jews desired the bodies of the


(xix. 31) "since it was the Preparation,"
and that Joseph of Arimathea came hereupon and took the body
of Jesus, and also that the body was buried as it was (apparently

of

the Passover."

crucified to be taken

away

"
because of the Preparation."
Thus he
haste)
Mark's
of
which
is not
out
the
causal
eirei,
meaning
repeatedly brings

meaning buried

in

represented in Matthew and Luke.


"Etos

(vii)

Not confused with

(a)

(he

"Ews, with the present indicative, occurs perhaps once in

[2089]

Mark 2 but nowhere


,

else in

N.T. except

Tim.

iv.

13

ecu?

Ip^o/xat

I am [still'] coming [and not yet present]," and thrice in John,


ix. 4 "we must work... while (ews, marg. ws) (SS "while yet") it is
day" and xxi. 223 (bis) "while I am [still] coming." The
"white

"

While (cws) there is


Thesaurus gives many such phrases as
3
"
While he [still] has breath and power ," and
opportunity,"

[still]

with

(en)" inserted and verb omitted" While the

"still

sea

still

[is]

J
SS therefore
navigable," "while [there is] still hope" etc.
The importance of these facts
expresses the sense in adding "yet."
consists in their indication that, when John uses ws later on in \ii. 35

ois

to

<t>ws

[20SS<i]
iird
2

is

he means something different from "while" (2201).

XT,

Dan.

iii.

22,

Lk.

vii.

(v. r.),

Acts

xiii.

46

(v.

r.).

Esdr.

vi.

14

R.V. "after that," marg. "because that."


Mk vi. 45 (W.H. <xtto\vl) KBL have &>S ai'rds (L euVoi's)
the
has avrbs St d-rrokiu and the other MSS. curoXvcrei or -crij

v. 12 &<p' ore,
paraJl. to Ezr.

[2089 a]

diroXvtL,

In

where

parall. Mt.

xiv. 22

has ewj ov diroKvari.

[2089/'] Dem. 15- 5. Syncs. Epist. 44.


yevbfitvov bt TrXdrreiv ?ws iiypbv.
4
Time. vii. 47, viii. 40, also Xen. Cyrop.
I

12

'Earl

vii.

I.

is

om.

18 ws

in Plat. [.egg.

tn

aoi

ax^-

7S0 E rb

CONJUNCTIONS

[2092]

"H and r^p

(viii)

"H

(a)

[2090]

words

"or," is frequently used in Christ's


impressiveness ("tribulation or perseIn John,
"under the bushel or under the bed" etc.) 1

In the Synoptists,

rj,

for rhetorical fulness or

cution,"

where

In
seldom occurs, it is mostly outside Christ's words.
2
Once it introduces a direct
Christ's words it occurs only thrice
it

"

34 Sayest thou this from thyself, or (rj)


question as follows
"
did others say [it] to thee concerning me ?
[2091] This is our Lord's answer to Pilate's words, "Thou art
:

xviii.

"

which are probably (2234, 2236


seems] the king of the Jews
a
as
to
be
read
contemptuous exclamation expressed in an
foil.)
!

[it

interrogative tone.

It

is

clear that, as

says, our Lord's

Chrysostom

Pilate obviously did not say


not a request for information.
reply
In Greek questions,
Others had said it to him.
this from himself.
is

an absurdity is often put before the reality, thus: "When horses are
"In states, are rulers
injured do they become better, or worse?"
"
"
without error, or liable to error ?
Do you permit [a bad ruler\ to
3

or do you appoint another ?"


There is nothing in the literal
English rendering of our Lord's reply to indicate the meaning
conveyed by this Greek usage. But the meaning might be fairly
rule,

"
Will you venture to assert that you say this from
paraphrased as
yourself, or will you admit, as you must be conscious, that you were

prompted by others

"

"Hnep

08)

[2092] "Rirep occurs only once in N.T., namely in Jn xii. 43


"They loved the glory of men rather than (rj-n-ep) (marg. uVe'p) the
"
How
Chrysostom, in his comment, quotes (v. 44)
glory of God."

can ye believe... since ye seek not the glory that is from the only
"
the glory of
God ?" And perhaps this is almost the meaning here
:

men and

[2090 a]

In the

[2090

Two

whether

come
3

add
him

not the

/>]

it is

[2091a]
"

Do

God."

the

Mount

Compare

alone,

it

Mace.

xiv.

42

occurs about ten times.

"He
know

shall know...

not whence

return."

Steph. quoting Plato 335 B, 339 B, Xen. Cyrop. iii. 1. 12 (to which
let him [i.e. the bad ruler] retain his wealth, or do you reduce

you

to poverty

a. vi.

Sermon on

of

of these contain indirect questions, vii. 17


from God or I speak from myself," viii. 14 "Ye

or where

ib.

glory

").

CONJUNCTIONS

[2093]

"desiring [rather] to die nobly than [i.e. and not]... to be subjected


(OiXuw airoOavelv rjTrep. .wo^etpio? yeveaOai)," and the variously inter.

preted Iliad
77

1.

117

fSovXo/j.

eyoj

Aaov

(roov efxp.eiai

7*

was explained as being "for

(Eustathius says)

mean emphatically "than,"

not "or."

According

u7roA.e'o-#ai,

where

so as

rj-n-ep,"

to

to this distinction,

rj might have meant that they loved the glory of


but the glory of men more, (2) fxaWov rj-rrep suggests
that they loved the glory of men, and the glory of God they loved
not at all. Compare the only other passage where John uses p.a\Xov rj,

whereas

(i) fxaXXov

God somewhat

iii.

"The

19

hath

light

come

and men loved rather

into the world

the darkness than the light (/xaAAov to o-ko'to?

r}

The

to <ws)."

likeness,

and the unlikeness, are remarkable. The evangelist appears to condemn both "the world" and "the rulers," but the latter more

The "world" had perhaps some

severely.
"
"
rulers

had no love

at all for the glory of

love for the light:


1
See 2685.

God

the

"Iva

(ix)

"Ina, in

(a)

John, expresses, or implies, purpose

[2093] The frequency of Iva in John (2686) illustrates in part his


preference for colloquial as distinct from literary Greek, but in part
also the tendency of his Gospel to lay stress on purpose, e.g. on the
2
purpose of the Baptist's birth and mission on the purpose of the Son's
3
and words 4 and on the
of
His
actions
on the purpose
mission
Him
these
for
in
Father's purpose
actions*, which purpose
appointing
,

may

also be described as the Father's

actions are appointed for

do the

will of their

motive, namely, to

Father

do

"doing," having quite


doing,"

i.e.

purpose:

other writers

iva

men
;

will"'.

and

"

but in John

seems always

whatever

to retain

7,

iii.

"
7

'iva /AapTvp-qar),

17 etc.

comp.
4

i.

v.

may

In English, "to do often means


old notion of "to doing," i.e. "toward

[2092rt] "Uwtp ("than") differs from


ambiguous and emphatic. 'TWp, v.r. for
uncommon word and weakens the sense.
i.

that

the essence of the action consists in the

some

may be

r)

("or" or "than")

riirtp,

the case in

notion, or suggestion,

7
of purpose, or motive, as being the essence of action

is

doing them, they

that will.
lost its

view

John's

in order that, in

substitutes a

in

being nunfor an

common

31 iVa cpavepwdy.
8

34.

v. 23, 36.

'iva
40 tovto yap ianv to OtXrina t. warpds p-ov
infinitive of purpose with tov, or irpds t6, so that
use
the
does
not
|n
<?1
[2093
we might expect him to use Iva as a substitute. Hinder gives the article

vi.

a priori

114

CONJUNCTIONS
"Ina, in

(/9)

[2095]

John, never merely appositional


"

If iva were merely appositional like our


"
"
to
writers would be able to employ iva, like

English

[2094]

N.T.

to,"

irrespective of
"
in such sentences as
It is

of positive or negative
" I
command, or forbid, thee to do
good, or evil, for thee to do this,"
<s
with
this."
But iva can only be used
"good" and "command," not
or

good

evil,

The reason is that "goodness" and


with "evil" and "forbid."
"
"
a
command suggest positive object to be attained or a positive object
1

"Evil" and "forbid"


commanding; and object suggests purpose
do not or at least not to the same extent. In xiii. 34, R.V. marg.
has "A new commandment I give unto you, that ye love (Iva
even as I loved you, that ye also may love
ayaTrare) one another

in

Kal

(iva

v.

dyawaTt)

one another," apparently taking the

command

as introducing the substance of the

first

(" that ye love"),

'iva

and

It seems
the second as introducing its purpose "that ye may love."
better to give the same rendering in both cases, the second being an

emphatic and much more definite repetition of the first. The


"
meaning is, in both cases, My command is, and my purpose is, that
ye
is

But

love one another."

Even

defined ("
[2095]

avrov

Ti? rrjv if/vxyv

of

second clause the kind of love

you ").
13 "Greater love hath no man than

Similarly in xv.

(fj.ciova Taxnr]% dydirrjv

frequency

in the

as I loved

Or)) for

Johannine

'that

man

this

down

his life (iva

his friends," the iva clause (in

view of the

ov8el<s

e'x ei )

apposition)

best

is

lay

taken

as

being

in

and the inf. as occurring Mk (15), Mt. (24), Lk. (c. 70), Jn (4) (thrice irpb tov,
once Sid r6). "Iva occurs in Jn almost as often (1726) as in all the Synoptists
together.
[2093/']

In

xii.

40

" in order

represents the divine purpose of


this phrase,

Luke

(via.

/3Xe7roi/i7i,

that (iva) they may not see with their eyes"


blinding" those who do not wish to see: and

"

derived loosely from Isaiah


but not in the parallel

10),

supplemented by

made

xiii.

14 ov

(vi.

to), is

quoted by

Matthew who avoids


idrjTe).

/ni]

When

Mark
it

(iv.

(xiii.

13

12)

and

8ri...oti

once the stupendous

some sense may be decreed by God, there ceases to


be any difficulty in xvi. 2, "The hour cometh [decreed] in order that whosoever
killeth you shall think (56^) he doeth God service."
If persecution is "decreed,"
it must be decreed that some shall
persecute and the evil is not always made worse
admission

is

that evil in

by the

fact that

man

persecutes, thinking that

"he doeth God

service."

implied in e^u "I have no one [ready]."


1
[2094 a] In the following, there is a notion of some standard of excellence to
be attained, something desired or needed, some customary privilege that is prized
and asked for, i. 27 "I am not worthy that I should loose the shoe latchet," ii. 25
In

"He

v.

7,

Iva

depends on

Ztoi/ulov

had no need that anyone should testify," xviii. 39 "There


you that I should release...." See 2104a.

is

a custom

[established] for

115

82

CONJUNCTIONS

[2096]

apposition
tov Bilvai.

to

Taurus

[rrj<;

but tVa

a.],

rt?

Orj

is

not the same as

not "the laying down of life" but the


spirit that prompts the laying down or stimulates one man that he may
And this suggestion of motive or effort
lay dozvn his life for another.

is

For the love

latent in tva.

So, too,

is,

iv.

34

"

My

meat

in

is

order that

may do

"
meat
implies that the
(tva Tonjcrw) the will of him that sent me
"This
consists in the will to do His will.
xvii.
is
eternal
Comp.
3

"

"

in order that they

life,

(1) "the

effort to

know

may know
thee," (2)

"

thee,"

given

which perhaps combines

to

men that they may know

thee."

In answer to the question of the Jews, " What are we to


do in order that we may work the works of God ? " Jesus replies
[2096]

29) "This

(vi.

the work of

is

God

[namely] in order that ye

may

which appears to mean that the " works " are not of the
nature assumed by the questioners (e.g. sabbath-keeping, alms-giving
believe,"

but of the nature of motive or purpose and if they are to do


it will be because
they take into their hearts God's purpose
:

etc.)

the works

and

will,

which

an

is

effort to

make them

believe, literally, an effort

"in order that ye may believe." Similarly vi. 40 "For this is the
will of my Father [and His purpose and effort] in order that everyone that beholdeth the Son. ..may have life eternal," and xv. 12
34) "This is my commandment [and purpose] in order
may love one another." The following passages shew that

xiii.

(comp.
that ye

John, differing from Epictetus and others, never uses


on or ware (2697).

Ivo.

exactly for

Special passages

(y)

In

viii. 56 "Abraham, your father, rejoiced that he might


the
meaning is that Abraham, receiving the promise of
my day,"
the son in whom all the nations of the world were to be blessed,

[2097]

see

(Gen.

xvii.

hopeful

"

17)

faith, in

laughed" for joy, being strengthened by God with


order that, under God's providence, he might thus

"
the
the overruling will of God working for the salvation of
nations."
Philo (i. 602
3) compares the" laughing" of Abraham
fulfil

"

"

and,
laughing of the day in anticipation of the early dawn
playing on the meaning of the name of Isaac (i.e. "laughter") who
"
was not yet born, he declares that Abraham, so to speak, laughed
before laughter existed, as the soul, through hope, rejoices before joy

to the

and

delights before delight."


helped by God, performed a

The meaning is, that Abraham, being


"work of God," namely, "believing"
116

CONJUNCTIONS

[2101]

and "rejoicing,"

in order that he might fulfil a purpose of God,


See also 2688 9.
namely, might see the day of the Messiah

"

Rabbi, who sinned, this [man] or his parents, in


[2098]
order that he might be born blind?" is answered by Jesus in language
ix.

deny purpose but calls attention to an ulterior purpose


Neither did this [man] sin, nor his parents, but [it came to pass] in
order that the works of God might be manifested in him."
that does not
"

15 "Lazarus is dead, and I am glad, on


[2099] In xi. 14
account of you, that ye may believe, because I was not there 2 ," the
first question is, What is the verb,
expressed or implied, on which

there depends the clause "that ye

may believe"?

The

only verb expressed is ya'i?^ an ^, taken by themselves,


the words " Lazarus is dead and I rejoice in order that ye may
(1)

"

believe

my

'

"
I force myself to rejoice over it and to express
might mean
"
order that ye may believe
as a general, after the death

in

joy
of a brother in battle, might say to his soldiers, " I rejoice over it in
order that you may be encouraged to follow his example." According

Son

to this view, the

"

the triumph over death


that

He may

"

rejoices

being

over His friend's death-

foreseeing
by the Father with joy in order
for the strengthening of the faith of

filled

accomplish a work

the disciples.
[2100]

(2)

But we have not here ^aipw and

Iva consecutively,

"
For your sakes " intervenes.
(as above (2097) 77'yaAAtacraTo Iva).
Now "for your sakes" implies that the speaker desires something for
the sake of those

what?"
that ye

spoken

tl 8e\(uv;

believe."

may

to.

And,

in

answer to the question, "desiring

the reply would be 6e\wv Iva

Hence

Iva

7rio~Tevo-r]T,

may depend upon

6e\io

"desiring

implied

" I
rejoice for your sakes desiring that ye may believe."
The next clause to consider is " because (on) I
(3)
[2101]

oY v/xa?

in

not there."

(a) This

may depend upon

Then

"believe."

it

was

would

mean, "that ye may believe in me because your faith has not been
shaken at the spectacle of Lazarus dying in my presence when I, you
might think, could have healed him." In this spirit, Martha and
"

thou hadst been here,

Mary

say to Jesus,

died,"

and Martha may be supposed

If

to add,

my

brother had not

"Yet even now [though

A7a.Mtd0ju.cu is never used in the Bible with iva to mean "rejoice


Once, when meaning "rejoice to do," it is used with infin. (Ps. xix. 5)
"
For Origen's comment, see 2689.
rejoiceth to run {dpa/xelv) his course."
1

'

[2097 a]

(to do)."
-

Arifapos dwedavev, Kai xcupw, dY vpias,

have added a

comma

after xolpw.

117

'iva

iriaTevay)Te,

on

ovk

y]jxr\v

eK.

CONJUNCTIONS

[2102]

some might have been shaken] I believe that whatsoever


But is it likely that
thou shalt ask from God, God will give thee."
the faith of

would

Christ

rejoice in the prospect of a belief so negative

and

frail

depends upon His absence? More probably, if this were the


grammatical construction, there would be a latent positive meaning,
that

it

"That ye may

believe because

was not there

and because I shall consequently go thither


that ye

i.e.

believe because

may

consequence of

absence,

my

(b)

him from death


him from death"

to save

to raise

him from death

shall raise

Again, the words

"

because

as a
I

was

may depend upon "rejoice," the meaning being, "I


on
your account, desiring that ye may believe because I
rejoice
was not there," i.e. " I rejoice that I was not there, not for my own
not there"

sake,

not to avoid the spectacle of his death,

desiring that ye

may

On

but for your sakes

believe."

the whole

having regard

to John's frequent use


of Iva to introduce divine preordinance and to the stress laid on
Christ's knowledge of all that was happening to Lazarus, combined
"
"
with His determination to remain at a distance till His friend was
(4)

[2102]

we shall probably come closest to the meaning, if we take the


words as signifying that the Son rejoiced over all the circumstances
of the death of Lazarus, as He was ready to rejoice over His
dead

namely

own death, and for the same reason


the death would tend to the glory of
God.

in

faith

We

are intended

to

God
listen

that,

in

both cases,

by strengthening men's
to Jesus as the words

dropped slowly from His lips, clause by clause. The same shock
would have felt we also are intended to feel, when

that the disciples

we hear Jesus

"
say,

Lazarus

to be in part comforted by

" for
your sakes."
"
in order that ye

is

dead, and

His

affection

rejoice."

and

Then some reassurance


may believe." Then we

Then we

part bewildered

in

follows

are

by

when we hear

are plunged into be"


because I was not there." This is
wilderment again by the words
what we are to realise as the confused feeling of the hearers at the

But realising

time.

we

are

to

interpret

it

as readers, in the light of subsequent events,

the oracular words as meaning that the Son


Father revealed to Him, in the death, and in

rejoiced in all that the

His absence from His friend's death-bed, for the sake of His
disciples, and that the death, the absence, and the rejoicing, were all
ordained for the fulfilment of the divine purpose
2102

./

Why,

pray,

Chrysostom's comment is
on your account? Because

" Died ami I


I

Il8

foretold

1
.

rejoice

[it],

not

on your account.
being

there,

and

CONJUNCTIONS
[2103] In
T-qprja-rj

Xli.

7 "A<es

avrqv iva

avro, obscurity arises, not

"in order that she


context (which

from the

will,

possibility of

"Ina

(S)

may

[205]

eis ttjv ijp.pav

tov ivTatpiao-piov /xov

from the construction of

Iva Trjprjarj

keep," but from the doubtful meaning of the


hope, be discussed in a future treatise) and

some corruption 1

and Subjunctive, compared with

Infinitive

[2104] In xi. 50 "It is profitable for you (lit.) in order that one
should die for the people," and in xvi. 7 "It is profitable for
you (lit.) in order that I may depart," Iva follows a word that suggests

man

a profitable object to be pursued (as explained above 2094).


But
owing to the context, in each case, there is probably a notion of

For this reason, perhaps,


preordinance.
mouth
of the High Priest
into
the
put

Iva.

and the subjunctive are


utters the words

when he

his own ("not of himself") as being


but afterwards the evangelist, when referring to
these very words, uses the infinitive, xviii. 14 "Now Caiaphas was
he that gave counsel to the Jews that it was expedient that one man

under higher influence than


a divine decree:

should die (on

crvp.(pepL

iva avOptaTiov d-rroOavelv) for the people 2 ."

Omission of principal verb before

(e)

i'na

[2105] As the Iliad declares its subject to be the wrath of


"
"
Achilles but adds that the
purpose that was being accomplished
was that of Zeus, so, though in reverse order, the Fourth Gospel
"
a
Light and then, coming to
man," indicates that the purpose of the man's "coming" is to bear
witness about the Light.
To express this purpose the evangelist

begins with the Logos and

because,

when

shall

God and

have raised [him] up [from the dead], there will be no


Theodoras (Cramer ad loc.) says " I rejoice, He
For the fact that I was not there will contribute

suspicion (ovdeula tcrrai iiwo\pla)."


says, for your sakes (vfi&v frenev).
to your faith (to yap
if (ei

fi.fr)

fj.ii

elvai fie frei crvvTeXecret. irpcs rr\v -kIutiv tyjv v/J.eTe'pav) since,

had been present,

should have healed him while

still

ailing (appcoslight for the

gtovvto. idepairevov), but such a

wonder

manifestation of power."
1
On xv. 8 fr tovtcj} ido^dadij

6 iraT-qp fiov iva Kapirbv irokvv (pip-qre, see 2393.

am

On

would have been

" I
[2104 a] Jn's preference of 'iva to the infinitive is illustrated by (a) i. 27
not worthy that (iva)," contr. with "worthy to" in Lk. xv. 19, 21, Rev. v. 2,

4, 9,

and

as that

12,

and by

infinitive in

(b)

Mt.

ii.

25, xvi. 30,

iii.

14, xiv. 16,

ii. 27 xP ^ av ^X el " '" a contr. with x- ^X 6'"


Thess. i. 8 (comp. Heb. v. \2 tov diddaiceiv).

Jn
1

the infinitive with tov see 2093 a.

119

CONJUNCTIONS

[2106]

uses iva for the

time 1

first

As the man

is

described as "sent from

God," the purpose of the "coming" may be supposed


God, not of the man except so far as the man makes

to
it

be that of
his

own

as

"
then proceeds to subordinate the " man to the
"
8
in order
He. was not the light, but [
"light" by saying, i.
]
that (a'AX' Iva) he might bear witness concerning the light"

The Gospel

well.

How are we to fill the bracketed gap? R.V. supplies


and
"came,"
perhaps correctly: but the passage should be considered with others like it, ix. 3 "Neither did this man sin nor his
[2106]

parents,

but

manifested in him,"

know whom

(nVas)

18

xiii.

might be fulfilled...,"
world] hath nothing in

know

order that'1

in

the

God

works of

chose, but
xiv.

me

30
;

but

"And

all:

he

the prince of the

[i.e.

in order that the world

in order that the Scripture

love the Father and as the Father gave


ment, even so I do. Arise, let us go hence," xv. 24
that

should be

"I speak not concerning you

may

me command-

"

If I

had

not done. ..they had not had sin; but now (vvv Se) have they both
seen and hated me and my Father; but [
in order that the
word that is written in their law might be fulfilled, They hated me
]

without a cause."

Similarly

]n

ii.

19

"They came

(aAA.') they were not of us: for


originated] from us,
been of us, they would have continued with us, but [

but

that they might be

made

manifest

how

forth
if
]

[i.e.

they had
in order

that they all are not of us."

[2107] Attempting to supply these ellipses we may first take


In these,
those passages in which dX\d is preceded by a negative.
where we can supply a verb by repeating it from the preceding
"
i.
8
He was not the light
context, it will be reasonable to do so
:

but on the contrary [was, or was sent, or came\ in order that he might
bear witness concerning the light," repeating lyivf.ro, or arreo-ToAor rj\$ev, from i. 6
7 (but see 2112)
similarly ix. 3
/ttevos [y)v\

"

Neither did this

was born

[2105 a]

"

67

i.

nor his parents but on the contrary [he


order that the works of God should be manifested,"

blind] in

eh p.aprvplav,
for a witness

man

:!

sin

eytvero

'iva

iiaprvp-qorj...

to

the peoples."

avdpuiros
(.'(imp.

aireaTa\p.ivos

Is. lv.

"
4

[i.e.

-rrapa

Btov...ovTos

rjXdev

Jehovah] have given him

whole of this paragraph = AM' 'iva.


d\\d means "/>/// on the contrary [subordinated to
the light]" and aot, " but stili\m some way connected with the light]" is favoured
byjn iii. 2s or/, .,;..\V, "not... but on the contrary" uttered by the Baptist himself
:i

Hiu

2107

</

in order that," in the

The view
.

that

about his relation

to

<

Ihrist.

I20

CONJUNCTIONS
referring to the question of the disciples
born blind}" (but see 2112).

[2108] In xiv. 30

31

[2110]

"Who

did sin. ..that he

was

above quoted, the negative clause "hath


in me."
The opposite of

"
he finds no sin
me," means
would be "he finds righteousness
in

nothing

this
in me."
But instead of
supplying this or any clause, the best plan perhaps is to connect
"
But on the contrary... even so I do (ovrm ttouS)," so that
together
the meaning is, "Satan does not find sin in me
[and constrain me

to die because of

law

my

as the Father gave

and

but on the contrary

sin],

of sin or Satan] in order that the

is

[unconstrained by any
know..., and even

may

me commandment w /

voluntarily for His glory.

omitted but

world

do,"

i.e.

act sinlessly

In that case, the principal verb

is

not

placed at the end of the sentence.

[2109] In the following instances, where there is no negative


clause immediately preceding aAAa, the context
suggests the ellipsis
of some exclamation of sorrow for sin as
being "[evil indeed], but
yet [ordained] in order that" some divine purpose, or saying of

may be fulfilled xiii. 18 "I know that you will not all be
know whom I have chosen [evil indeed] but yet [it has
come to pass] in order that the Scripture may be fulfilled."
Similarly

Scripture,

saved
so

in xv. 24
trust,

aAAa means "but

upon

and the speaker


word that is written

still,"

the fulfilment of "the

falls

back, in

law"
have
both
seen
and
hated
me
"They
has been so ordained] in order that...."
in their

as being the only consolation:

and

my

The

Father; but s till

evil is

regarded as

[it

evil,

but as evil resulting in the fulfilment

of the Law.

[2110] In
interval, aAAa'

Jn

ii.

19,

where a negative precedes, but at some


still" and to suggest, in the

appears to mean "but

thought of a mysterious and divine


defection of disciples:

justice,

"They went

some compensation

out from us,

for the

i.e.

they originated
but they never really belonged to us. Had they belonged to
but [at all events
us, they would have continued with us
[evil, indeed]
an evil working for good] in order that they might be manifested.... ."

from

us,

[2110 rt] R.V. supplies "they went out" from what precedes, and takes it
"they revolted" or "deserted." "E^rfkOov might, in suitable context, apply
"
coming forth" either (a) as sons from a home, soldiers from a camp etc., or (b)

as
to

as

runaways, deserters, rebels.


Here, the following words, dXX' ovk r\aav e Vp-Qv,
rather suggest antithesis, "They [at first] came out from us [as children from our
home, or soldiers from our camp] but they were ?iot really [in heart] belonging to
us....

see Jn

For
viii.

[2110/*]

eepxo/J.ai k, irapd,

42,

xiii. 3,

aw6, meaning "originate from" or

"come

from,"

xvi. 28, 30, xvii. 8.

Origen, however (Huet

ii.

410D), commenting on the going out of Judas

121

CONJUNCTIONS

[2111]

[2111] There is but one instance of ellipsis with a'AA' Tva in the
It occurs in Mark alone, and the parallel
Synoptic Tradition.

Matthew and Luke

are of interest as shewing

how such

a missing

The Three Synoptists, after


clause might be variously supplied.
"
I was with you
that
said
Jesus
substantially agreeing
[day] by
'

day in the Temple and ye did not seize me," give His following
words thus
'

Mk

"

49
but in order that

(dXX' Iva)

tures

"but

come

the Scrip-

be

might

Lk.

Mt. xxvi. 56

xiv.

to

pass (yeyovev)
order that the

in

ful-

filled."

{hi) all this is

of

the

might

be

Scriptures

Prophets

"but

xxii.

(dXX')

hour

your

53
this

and

is

the

power of darkness."

fulfilled."

Here

would be an extremely weak interpretation,

it

in

Mark, to

repeat the preceding verb, "seize" (so as to make the sense "but
better course is to explain
[ye have seized me] in order that").

it

as above, as being an exclamation of mingled sorrow

and

self-

consolation at the temporary triumph of evil: "[evil and strange] but


yet, [ordained] in order that the Scriptures might be fulfilled."
"
Matthew takes it so, and expressly asserts that " all this (tovto
Luke, on the other
oAof) came to pass according to divine decree.

hand, seems to emphasize the fact that the arrest took place by night:
"Ye did not seize me by day; but [now ye seize me by night], this
is your
[appointed] hour, fit for a deed of darkness."
In the light of this passage we must perhaps be prepared
one at least of the Johannine instances (i. 8. ix. 3)

[2112]

to say that in

explained above (2107) by a repetition of a preceding verb, John


may have intended to supply, as Matthew does here, "now all this

came

man

to pass," so that the


(ix.

3)

would

be,

Christ's reply about the blind


particular sin of the parents or of the

meaning of

"No

child in any pre-existing condition explains the facts

the zvhole

was

ordained for the glory of God."


Possibly the same explanation
It
is
applies also to the saying about the Baptist (i. 8).
characteristic

of John's

after receiving the sop

style

from Jesus

that
(xii.

.^o)

he

so

says

often

uses

a phrase

riXeov i^rjXdev a7rd rod '\-qaov

'E^XOov i$ riixGiv, apparently illustrating the "going out" in the


Gospel by the "going out" in the Epistle, and taking the latter as revolt, or
inn.
According to that view, the rendering would be "They wen) out as
rebels from us.
(An evil, indeed,] but still they were never in heart belonging to
us," /'.c. but still the evil would have been greater if they had really belonged !> us
and had yet fallen away.

avaXoyov

t<

122

CONJUNCTIONS

[2115]

borrowed from the early Greek vernacular Gospel and


one instance by Mark alone of the Synoptists that
leaves the reader in some doubt as to what is alleged to have happened,
perhaps

retained in

but insists that


"In a

()

it

happened for a certain purpose.

dependent on verb implied


22

ix.

"He

36

answered [and

him

believe on

in question

said therefore to him,

"They
[2113]
that we may give an answer to
i.

them
said],

Who

thou

art

el;)?

(ti's

that sent us."

And who

is

he,

Lord, that

may

?"

(2157) "thou
"
before
that."
severally supplied

"Tell us," and

wilt

tell

surely

me,"

may be

"In a with indicative (2690)


(77)
that thy
[2114] "Iva with future indicative occurs in vii. 3 "in order
disciples also shall behold (deupijo-ovo-i)," xvii. 2 "in order that all

that thou hast given to

him he shall give

(8ajo-ei)

to

them

eternal

life."

But
This (comp. 1 Cor. ix. 18 <W 6ija-a>) is fairly frequent in N.T
1
Jn v. 20 "he hath given to us a mind that we may be recognising
"

stands on a different footing, being probably a mere


Compare
misspelling arising from the confusion of o and w (966 a).

(Iva yivwo-Koftev)

Gal.

vi.

with

12

KB*

Oepiaofieu

but

with what large

(2696)

Lightf.

(ACFG

SiajKaH'Tcu

(XCFG

(irrjXiKOLs,

but

%o/Av)

. .

Apyat.upe.da

(AB*

-d/*e0a)...

B*

tjXlkols) letters I

have written to you

that the

Apostle, like
)iiy
possible
writers in the Egyptian papyri, habitually interchanged o and w
ivith

It

W. H.

In the context, the writer says "See

etc. -ovTai).

own hand."

etc. -w/xi')...w; Kaipov c^w/aci/ (so

is

some
and

preserved some traces of


the interchange in the best Greek mss. (2691). This however will not
early reverence for the autograph

explain Jn

xvii. 3

some

(ADL

may have

(d cognoscant) where
be "so that they know."

etc.) Iva ytvuxrKovo-iv

scribes took the

to

meaning
possibly
In the difficult passage (1673 c) v. 20 Iva vp.zl<; 0avp.d(r]Te (SS "and do
In xii. 40 tVa p.-q l8ui(Tiv...Kal
not wonder ) xL have davp.dC,ere.
Idaop-ai ax>Tov%,

John

does Mt.

15.

xiii.

follows

Is. vi.

10

Compare Eph.

(LXX, but Sym.

vi.

la$fj),

and so

tVa ev o-ol yeV^Tat Kal

'ia-y

(which deviates from LXX both of Ex. xx. 12 and of Deut. v. 16).
This resembles W.H. rnarg. in Jn xv. 8 Iva KapTrov...<f>tpr]Te nal
a natural transition, but BDL have yivrjadz.
ytvTjo-taOz ip.ol p.aQt]iai

(6)

"Ina,

[2115]

connexion of
iva clause generally follows the principal verb, but see

2108 and comp.

xix.

31 (where iva occurs with a negative)

123

ol

ovv

CONJUNCTIONS

[2116]
lonouiot, e7rt

7T.

The connexion
77017 Trdi'Ta

i/v,

Iva

fx.7/

/xLi

i]

i]v

yap

.rjpwTi]aai' tov

IX

tVa...

doubtful in xix. 28 pe-ra tovto etSw? 6 'Ir/o-oiis on


TCTeAeorat iva TeXtiwOr) rj ypa</>r) Ae'yei, Aii//w.
Chrysostom
is

paraphrases thus, ciSws oiv 7raVra 7r7rA.?7pii>peva, Ae'yei, Aii^w, 7raA.1v


ivravOa Ttpo<pr]Titav irXrjpCjv, apparently connecting the iva clause with

and the rhythm of the sentence being like that of xix. 31


somewhat favours this view. If that were correct, the best interpretation would be that the Son felt the thirst and uttered the
Ayet,

expression of it in order that the Scripture might receive its fulfilment


(not that He deliberately uttered the word in order that a particular
But, on the other
passage of Scripture might be fulfilled (1722)).
side,

Johannine usage decidedly favours the rendering

all things were


perfectly

fulfilled''''

of these words.
I

say,

now

"

knowing

that

order that the Scripture might be


accomplished
that
we
read what follows in the light
provided
iti

Then

that the time

"He

saith, 'I thirst'" will

had come

for the

mean, "[Knowing,
supreme perfection of the

Father's will as expressed in Scripture] he saith, 'I thirst.'"


indicates (1) that all things were accomplished that

writer

The
the

Scripture might be fulfilled, (2) that Jesus knew this when He


uttered the words "I thirst."
He leads us to infer that Jesus
uttered the words as the crown of that accomplishment and with
a view to that fulfilment.
Our conclusion is, then, that according
to

Johannine grammar the

Iva clause

depends on TereXearat

according to Johannine suggestion and intention, the


to be repeated so as to depend on Aeyct.
(4)

but,

Iva clause is

"Ina...I'na

[2116] Such a sentence as "In order that x may come to pass


in order that y may come to pass" would naturally mean that an
immediate object x is to be attained with a view to the attainment

of an ultimate object

y so

that

the second iva clause

would be

But
grammatically (though not mentally) subordinate to the first.
the second clause may be reiterative y being another form of

expressing

-"in

order that

[I

say]

y may

take place," so that

'iva. nr) could not


depend on ripuiTTjaav, the principal
meaning into "asked Pilate that the bodies might not
remain." But they "asked" for something rather different" that their legs might
be broken and they might be taken away."
The sentence does not give grounds
1

[2115

1/]

In this sentence

verb, without changing the

apposing thai in ordinary cases (where 'iva


where do epurdv 'iva follows) fohn Mould place a
verl).

174

is

used without a negative and

iva clause before the principal

CONJUNCTIONS

first.
In xiii. 34 "A new
unto you, that (<W) ye love one another even
loved you, that (IVa) ye (v^eis) also love one another,"

the second clause

commandment
as (Kadws)

as

coordinate with the

is

give

the second clause

"even

is

[2117]

This sequence of iva...Ka8<6s...lva ("In order that ye


Even as I loved, that ye should love")

[How love?]

suggests that we should arrange in the same


to the question "How glorify the Father?")

over

way

(as being

an answer

"Glorify thy Son


him authority
as
thou
unto
thee
even
gavest
glorify
that all that thou hast given to him, he may give unto

Son may

all

by the definition,

reiterative (though amplified

").

should love

that the

[2118]

flesh,

xvii. 2

them life eternal." According to this view, we may briefly paraphrase


"
the latter part of the sentence thus,
[How say I that the Son may
I
that
the
Son
thee'?
may glorify thee by giving
mean]
glorify
It is implied that the
to others even as thou hast given to him."
'

Supreme Giver and that the supreme authority consists


Moreover the highest glorifying of the Father consists
Whosoever gives to others, as from the Father, gives what
in giving.
he has received from the Father, and glorifies the Father in the
"
see his good works and glorify his Father who
hearts of those who
1
is in heaven ."
Nearly the same sense might be obtained (but not
Father

the

is

in "giving."

in such accordance with

Johannine

by making the second

style)

tVa,

but dependent on toWas, and by taking


in effect, ko! ydp, "for indeed": "Glorify thy Son, that the
glorify thee for indeed thou hast given all authority to him

not parallel with the


Katfoj's as,

Son may

first,

in order that he

may

give

life

to others
to

third

[and that he

may thus glorify


<W clause as

take the second

arrangement,
grammatically subordinate to the first ("that he may glorify thee...
that he may give unto them eternal life ") would be quite contrary
thee]."

to

all

Johannine thought as well as

sequence

in

xiii.

to

the interpretation

of the

34.

[2118] A similar sequence of tVa, kolOws, and iVa, but followed


1
"But not about these alone do
by a third iva, is in xvii. 20
I pray but also about them that are to believe through their word

in

me, that

I in

1
-

all

may be one

even as (KaOws) thou, Father,

thee, that [I say] they also

Mt.

in us

2
,

in

me, and

that the world

may

v. 16.

[2118<7]

they also

may be

21 (R.V.) "That they also maybe in us," AM. has "That


one in us," reading 'iva ko.1 avrol iv tj/alv v wglv, with XAC 2 L.

xvii.

may be

125

CONJUNCTIONS

[2118]

that thou didst send me," where the second Iva clause
appears to be reiterative, and coordinate with the first, while the

believe

is subordinate.
The same sequence, but perhaps
not the same connexion, occurs in xvii. 22
3, which, if arranged
like xvii. 20
would
run
"And
I
too
have
1,
thus,
given to them the
thou
hast
to
me
that
be
one
even as
glory
given
they may

third Iva clause

(ko^?)

we

(^/xct?) [are] one, I in them, and thou in me, that they may be
perfected into one, that the world may recognise that thou didst
send me and didst love them even as thou didst love me." The

however, demanded in the latter passage seems to require


thee" [not "them"] "and thou in me"
if the words are to
be arranged thus.
If the words are not corrupt, it seems
necessary
to punctuate xvii. 22
3 as W.H., with no pause before Ka^uls

sense,

"I

in

" that
they may be one even as we [are] one, I in them and
thou in me, that [I say] they may be perfected into one." But,
even taken thus, the words seem to shew a want of parallelism. We

seem
and

they in

thou

SS

need

to

me," or (2) "even as

The

me."

in

"may

"a
possible restoration

be

"

meaning

that the world

" united."

may

On Kayu

them

in

and

thee

present text seems to confuse (1) and (2)

has a blank in the MS.

suggests

may be one... [namely] I


we are one, [namely] I in

either (1) "that they

believe."
see 2127

If

Burk.

b.

[2118 b] The passage may have been confused at an early date owing to ( 1 )
various possibilities of connexion, (2) the
juxtaposition of 6N meaning "in"
and 6N meaning "one," (3) doctrinal controversies as indicated
by
1

its

Epiphanius

and 69, 743 A and 793 b). Clem. Alex,


quoting xvii. 2123 as
"gospel" and as "the Lord's utterance," says (r4o)"Ei>a p.kv avrbv [i.e. rbv Qe6v~\
" 'iva wdvres
Sv w<ti Kadios av, irdrep, iv ipiol, Kay Co iv aol- 'iva Kal avroi iv
Xe-yet,
(Haer.

rjpiiv

lxix.

iv ucri

19

'iva

\eiwfxivoi eis iv."

w<nv

But

iv, icaOws r)p.us iv, iyio iv

in the

whole of

this

avro?s Kal av iv

quotation there

i/xoi, 'iva wcri

rere-

nothing that contains


is one," unless in av,
irdrep, iv and av iv, Clement read iv
" one with
for iv. iv ifiol
might perhaps be taken to mean
me," as ets is used with
a dat. by Plutarch (Mor.
1089 a) "having drunk from one and the same cup with

a statement that " God

is

[that of] Epicurus (e\- p.ias oiVox^s


in connexion with the

'EmKovpy 7re7rwK6res)." Origen uses iv dp.a


ad Mart. 39) " Hecome worthy of becoming
one with (tov iv yeviadai dpa) Son and Father and
Holy Spirit, according to the
Prayer of the Saviour saying As I and thou are one {'tis iyio Kal crv iv icr/xev) that
they may be (?) one with us (iva Kal avrol iv rjjjuv iv ucrt, where " deest iv in edd.
Wetst. et Kuaei").'" Here the last words
may mean "in us" or "one in us," or
if iv takes a dat., like rb avrb "one and the same with us."
So Origen spr.ikpassage, {Exhort,
'

of (Ce/s. viii. 12) rb'Eytlj Kal 6 TTarr\p iv iapav, Kal to iv


ev\rj ripynivov
viou tov dtov iv Tifj, '(Is
iyio Kal <tv iv io-p-tv.

[2118

Jn

r-

xvii. 21

rod

the text of Clement, in the extract given above, now


quotes
it is not at all certain that he did so in the
original text

Although
3 as
A.V.,
in

virb

126

CONJUNCTIONS
the text

"

me

thou in

"one"

correct, the best plan will be

is

may be one."
The underlying thought is,

[2119]

"one" means "God," and that the


cause of unity.
But how can God
Only

to take

"I

in

them and

as an appositional clause explaining the meaning of

"that they

in

if

[2120]

the Son dwells "in" men.

the Father dwells


logically) that

God

perhaps, as Clement says, that


indwelling of God is the sole
the Father dwell

If the

"in" the Son,

" in "

men ?

Son dwells "in" men, and

follows (spiritually as well as

it

the Father dwells in men, which

means

also that

Probably this is the


unity dwells in them, so that they are one.
text
and
the
the
but
precise
grammatical exmeaning
precise
planation of it, must, at present, be given up as unascertainable.
[2120] The following instance has been placed last, out of order,
:

owing to
you, and

its

set

special character, xv. 16 "Ye chose not me, but I chose


you [in the vineyard] that (<Va) ye might go [the] way

60) and [that ye] might bear


whatsoever ye ask
abide that

fruit and
[that] your
the Father in my
might
(tva)
name he may give you." "Fruit," as always in John 1 means the
vintage or harvest of souls, which elsewhere the Apostles are said to

[that I go] (1659


fruit

of his work.

long extract would naturally be conformed by scribes to the


pains about it than about a short quotation

They would take more

canonical text.

or allusion.

Origen (Dc Princip.

he mixes up

xvii. 24, 21, 22, giving, as part of the

i.

6) quotes xvii. 22, 23 correctly, but, later on,

quotation

(id.

ii.

3. 5)

I and thou are one, these also may be one in us (? one with us),"
(id. iii. 6. 1) "and that as thou and I are one, they also may be one

that, as
still,

where Jerome confirms Rufinus

"and

and, later
in (?) us,"

in his translation of this

quotation of Origen's
(Clark transl. vol. ii. p. 264). Epiphanius, too, quotes as a saying of Jesus (Haer.
" and the
743 A)
saying, The two of us are one, that they also may be one' (ical Sri,
"
and (id. 793 a) " Make them that they may
Oi duo iv ifffiev Iva Kai avrol iv waiv)
'

be

me

in

us Kayu

(?
teal

one with me) as I also and thou are one (iroirjaov avrous 'iva
"
cv 'iv ifffxev) and (id. b) " the two of us are one (oi dvo iv

uxriv iv ifioi
io-/j.ev)."

W.H

'iva ucriv iv nadws rj/xeis 'iv, iyw iv


[2118 d] xvii. 22
3 is thus given by
" that
avrois Kai av iv ifxoi, but by K.V.
they may be one, even as we [are] one ; I
in them and thou in me," SS begins a new sentence at xvii. 23 thus
"...that they
:

may
the

be one even as

we

are one.

new sentence with "

in illis")

and

I."

and/("Ego

I shall be with them and thou with me"


Similarly

Migne

Many

in eis").

"

All these facts indicate early differences of connexion.


" sicut
noting that a, d, and f, have (at the end of xvii. 22)

before iyd>.

worth

"quomodottf nos"
1

introducing

Et ego
prints both a (which has
Gk and Lat. authorities ins. icr/mev

was "gain"

to die

gain souls for

may

be

nos," e
facts that suggest confusion between KaOus, Kai us, and us Kai.

iv. 36, xii.

[2120 ]

It

24, xv. 2

16.

Comp. Rom.

and be with Christ, but

Him.

127

it

was

(Phil.

i.
i.

13.

22)

To an
"

fruit

"

et

Apostle,
to live

it

and

CONJUNCTIONS

[2121]
"

"

reap," but here they are said to

its

clusters

"

as a vine-branch bears

it

The

[2121]

" that
your

be spread

bear

question

Is

does not the sentence end with

Why

might abide,"

fruit

is,

not that worthy

Church of Christ might

that the

i.e.

be the ultimate object

to

Is

not

it

bathos to say to Apostles "in order that (iva) the Church of Christ
"
may be spread in order that (Tva) your prayers may be answered ?
It certainly would be bathos if we did not assume the last words to
that your prayers for more fruit and for more
souls
of
may continually be answered." Thus taken, the
gaining
It reminds the Apostles that the more they
clause is not bathos.
must remember that their success depends
more
the
they
succeed,
on God's answer to their prayers, and since divine answer to

mean "in order

on the
with divine will
prayer depends on human unity
the
this
view,
oneness of their will with His.
meaning
According to
" That
that [I say] your prayers for the souls
is,
ye may save souls
2
of men may ever be heard ."

human

Ka9<6 s

(x)

Suspensive

(a)

suspense
so

do ye

in
suspensive, keeps the reader's attention
I...
as
"even
later
verb
the
he reaches
on, e.g.
principal
or explanatory, it follows the verb
when

Katfak,

[2122]

till

"

supplementary

as

ye.. .even

("Do

when

I").

Ka^s

is

used suspensively

never

in

Luke uses it thus thrice in the Double Tradition, where


Matthew.
the parallel Matthew has Zairep etc."
John has suspensive k<x0w?

It

[2120/-]

vintagers."

applied to
'

that

hardly possible

<ptpi}re

freq.

24) the grain of wheat, (xv.

4, 5)

(xii.

2,

can

mean "carry home

tcapirbv

(pipei

in

the

as

context
this.

vine-branches, precludes

16 "If we know that he heareth us whatJn v. 15


Comp.
we ask, we know that we have the petitions that we have asked of him. If
1

[2121rt]

soever

is

Apart from other reasons, the

In xv. 16,
a sin not unto death, he shall ask...."
any man see his brother sinning
" in order that
is
the
by saving
the
to
is
subordinate
1st,
meaning
if the 2nd ha.
souls, ye

in order that your prayers for souls


acquire apostolic strength

may

may

more completely heard." This would be in accordance with the law "He
Master.
So, he that gains "talents" for his
thai hath, to him shall' be added."
"
But the coordinate
more.
may be said to gain them "in order that he may gain
more in accordance with Johannine usage.
interpretation is
be

still

Lit. vi. 31 ica0

'

[2122</]
enrols b/u>lus,

Ml.

i.

_3

xi.

may

30, xvii.

(Mt.

vii.

26 K aOin

12

iro-vro.

tyfon

possibly be suspensive.
I.'X

I.k.

ovv otra iav) 6i\ere

(Mt.
xvii.

xii.

40,

xxiv. 37

2S has o^-olus

xadus

irotetre

wvrrep).

CONJUNCTIONS

[2124J

about a dozen times, always in Christ's words, and mostly indicating


a correspondence between the Father and the Son, or between the

whom

Son and those

Followed by

(/3)

"
[2123]

Son sends

the

or

kai'

Even as"

in

ka^ m

1
.

apodosis

naturally prepares

protasis

so" "al(l)so"

the

for

way

apodosis ("even as you


In the Johannine Gospel, exhibiting the
do, he also will do ").
correspondence between the Father and the Son, as proclaimed by
"precisely so," "altogether

the latter, and between the

in

Son and the children of the Father, cases

of this idiom are necessarily frequent, and, in particular, "Even as


he [the Father] does.../ also (ayw) do." In English, there is no
"
"
ambiguity except that we may not feel quite sure whether also is

intended to suggest " besides


"

"

"

or

in precisely the

same way."

But

"

is represented by xai, which regularly means


also
Greek, where
"and," the words will be manifestly liable to ambiguity, if the sense
admits of the rendering "Even as he does. ..#*/ [even as] I do."

in

Ka#ak followed by Kayw occurs


[2124]

(i)

57

"Even

on account of

(Kayw) live
eateth

vi.

me

(kcu 6

rpwywv

in

the following five instances


Father sent me and
:

as the living

(Sta) the Father, he also (R.V. so he) that

/xe)

he

also [I say]

shall live

(ko.kcivo<;)

on

Here R.V. agrees with A.V. in rendering Kayw


" and I" but
Chrysostorn and Severus of Antioch both render it "so
I" and this makes good sense " Even as the living Father sent me,
so I live on account of the Father" [i.e. so I, corresponding to His
will, live (2297 foil.) merely to do His will, or on His account], "and
he that eateth me shall [in the same way] live on account of me 2 ."
account of me."

[2122

b~]

and

KaOws

in

i.

23, vi. 31, vii. 38

(?

2129),

xii.

14 introduces (or follows)

supplementary, but is suspensive in iii. 14, v. 30, vi. 57 (Chrysost.


agst. R.V.), viii. 28, x. 15 (21256), xii. 50, xiii. 15, 33, 34, xiv. 27, 31, xv. 4, 9,
" Not as the fathers died
xvii. 18, xx. 21.
In vi. 58,
[shall ye die]," the verb
should probably be supplied after ov Kadics (as in xiv. 27 ov Kadws 6 /c6o>os bib'wo'i.v
Scripture,

e'yw didufju),

is

and

in that case

Kadws would be suspensive.

introduce Scripture, and it is supplementary


comment, not words of the Lord (2066 />).
-

[2124 a] See

but

it

may

In

v.

it

23

does not

possibly be evangelistic

Cramer and Chrysost. ad

The words might,

in theory,

loc. fw ^70; ovtcjs <hs 6 HaT-fjp.


vi. 56
be connected with what precedes
:

6 rpdiyuiw fiov tt\v crdpKa. kclI irivwi' ixov to alfia iv ifiol [xivei. Kayoi iv avrui, a<z#ws
But it would be against the
aireareiXev /j.e 6 'cCiv narrfp kcljiI) fu) 8ia tow waT^pa.

suspensive

usage of Kadws, and

instance, however,

a. vi.

R.V.

is

in

other respects improbable.

In the next

treats kclOws as non-suspensive.

129

CONJUNCTIONS

[2125]

Ka0w? is taken as explanatory (not suspensive) by


"I am the good shepherd; and I know mine
own, and mine own know me, even as the Father knoweth me,
and I know the Father; and I lay down my life for the sheep 1 ."
[2125]

R.V.

(2)

in x.

14

15

But the generally suspensive use of

and beyond
taken as

in

Father, and

lay

in Christ's words,

Gospel would suggest that it is


the Father knoweth me, even so know

"As

A.V.,
I

ko.6u><;
2

this point in the

down my

life

for the sheep."

up

to

to

be

the

It is true that there

an attractive symmetry and equality in a kind of double proportion


between four terms in R.V. "/know mine ozvn and mine own know
is

knoweth me and /know the Father." Moremay have been somewhat influenced by inferior mss.,
"
which alter "mine own know me into "I am known by mine."
me, even as the Father

over A.V.

But

still

who

says that "the knowledge is not equal" between the shepherd


"
"
the sheep but that it is
between the Father and the
equal

and
Son 3

there

is

something to be said

for the

view of Chrysostom,

to

According

[2126]

this

view,

there

would be (one might

"
mine own know me,"
suppose) a distinct pause after the words
while Jesus is preparing to teach His disciples for the first time what

This has not yet been mentioned


implied by personal knowledge.
"
has
He
spoken of knowing
by Him, though
concerning the
is

teaching whether it be of God," of knowing "the truth," and even


4
."
of knowing "that I
According to the Greek doctrine,
summarised in the epigram at Delphi " Know thyself," the knowledge

AM

own nature was the highest knowledge. According to the


Synoptic doctrine of Christ, some knowledge of one's own defects
(the beam in one's own eye) was but a rudimentary preparation
of one's

"

for

"

to help one's

seeing clearly

neighbour.

Johannine doctrine, the highest knowledge of


1

'E7C0 eipib

yivwoKei

fxe

7rot/U7)e 6

ko\6s, Kai yivucrKU

According to the
was that knowledge,

Kai yivuxrKovcl

6 ttclttip K&ylo yivwiTKOj tov TraTepa, Kai ti)v \pvxv v

Trpoft&Twv.

is

to. ep.d

all

/xol/

Lie to. e/xd,

Kat)w$

Tidrffii virtp

[2125 </] Kafuis supplementary apart from quotations of Scripture (2122


almost confined to the Last Discourse (212832).
Chrys. (Migne) (reading as A.V.) "Akovgov tL iirrjyayt' Kai yivdbiTKU) to.

rwv

/>)

:;

Kai yivuxTKO/xai inrb

&Kovcov

trG)s

twv

(/xuip

Efra, iVa

/j.t)

rr/s yvucreuis iffov

t6 /xirpov

Siopdovrai avrb rrj iiraywyri' WvwaKti) to. epa, cp-qai, Kai yivuxrKOfxat.
'AXX ovk icnj i) yvuiais' a\\a wov (V77 ; 1'j7t tov Ilarpbs Kai ep.ov.

virb tGiv ip.wv.

'Eku yap, KaOios yivwo~KU


4

vii.

e/xa,

vo/j.iar}s,

7, viii.

Lit

6 llarrjp, K&yio yu>ibo~Kw rbv Ilartpa.

j8, 32.

ISO

CONJUNCTIONS
or understanding, between the Father

mysterious way, implied self-sacrifice

[2128]

and the Son which, in some


I know mine own and mine

"
:

own know me.

It is a mystery to be
[But what is this 'knowing'?
perceived through experience, and to be felt and acted on, not to be
Even as the Father
expressed or comprehended in mere words]

knoweth me

know the Father and [this knowledge is the


so
reason why] I lay down my life for the sheep."
[2127] (3) In xv. 9 (R.V.) "Even as the Father hath loved me,

I also

too

have loved you abide ye in my love 1 ," (A.V.) "As the


Father hath loved me so have I loved you," W.H. txt places only

(/<ayw)

comma

before "abide," so that the meaning would be

"Even

as

me and I loved

you, abide in (/aci'votc hi) my love."


But, if that were the meaning, might not John have marked the
2
And is not
apodosis by inserting "ye also" (fxeivare kcu v/acis) ?
R.V. (and A.V.) more consonant with the general meaning of Kayia
the Father loved

in these sentences,

and with the

fact that

John says "abide

in

my

love" (not "in our love")? (4) In xvii. 18 "Even as thou didst
send me into the world, / also (*cayw) sent them into the world,"

R.V. and A.V. agree in "As thou. ..even


"Even as the Father hath sent me, I also

In (5) xx.

so... I."
(#caya>)

21

send you," R.V.

and A.V. have "As... even so send I you." A comparison of the five
instances confirms the view that A.V. is right in (2) and that in each
of the five /<dyw should be rendered

"even so

"

also"

or,

more

idiomatically,

I."
4

Supplementary

(y)

Outside Christ's words, supplementary Ka8o)<s occurs early


"
"
even as Isaiah said and " even as it
Gospel in the phrases

[2128]
in the
is

written," and, later on,

the custom 5 ."


1

'-'

me,

say

to you,
to

you

[2127/']
(?)

"even

as

it

is

Christ's words,

fie 6 irarrip,

K&yw

written" and "even as

is

the earlier portion of the

v/mas riydTrriffa,

(marg. riydTrr/aa-) fxeivare

ipLrj.

Comp.

[2127 ]

have done

Jews

But,

KaOibs riyain)av

ev rrj ay&Trr] ttj

in

In

also in

ye

xiii.

also

" For
15
(/cat vfxets)

have given an example to you that, even as I


" And even as I said to the
xiii. 33

may do,"

also (k. ufuv)"


xvii. 21

thee

(comp. xiii. 34).


"in order that all may be one

in

order that they also

may

even as

be

,"

thou, Father, in
the connexion is

It may be an exception.
But it is quite consistent with John's
words "even as thou [art] in me, so [am] I in thee," may be a
" One."
parenthetic explanation of the divine unity implied in

doubtful (2132

a).

style that the


4
5

This section includes doubtful cases.


i-

23, vi. 31, xii. 14, xix. 40.

131

92

CONJUNCTIONS

[2129]

Gospel affords hardly any instances. The first is v. 23 "that all


the Son even as they honour the Father."
There are

may honour
some

indications (2066 b) that this


8 " If any
(?) vii. 37
he that believeth on

[2129]
and drink

may
man
me

be evangelistic comment.
thirst let him come unto

even

me

as the Scripture said


1
rivers from his belly shall flow, of living water ."
Here it is imto
tell
what
or
passage
possible
passages of Scripture the writer has
in view (1722 /C*), and whether "even as" refers to what precedes or
"
"
follows.
is Isaiah's invitaPerhaps the most probable
Scripture
"
tion
Ho every one that thirsteth come ye to the waters," with the
:

context describing the fertilising of the wilderness as the result of the


of God 2
"He that believeth on me (i.e. in the Word)"

Word

"
If any
appears to be parallel to

and

"

man

thirst

[i.e.

for the

"

"

Word]

"

"

the Scripture may refer to what precedes (i.e. the


thirsting
"
"
"
or
or
believing ") as well as to what follows (i.e. the
flowing
cannot confidently say that /<a#ws here is suspensive
diffusion).

We

or supplementary.
[2130] In xiii. 34 "A
(t'va) ye love one another

new commandment

even

one another 3 ," R.V.

also love

If the

suspensive.

give I unto you that


have loved you, that (<W) ye
and A.V. agree in making k<z#ios

as

txt

second "that" had been omitted,

be manifestly suspensive ("Even

Katfojs

As

I... so

as

would

after
is,
ye").
"
the
that
the
writer
to
seems
giving
simple precept
ye love,"
repeat
it
emphatically in order to define the nature of the love of the

brethren for one another and to shew

of the Son for them

"
:

that ye love

its

correspondence

one another

it

to the love

[/ mean']

even as

I have

loved you, that ye also love one another."


It would be very
weak to take /caucus supplementally and the last clause as a mere
"

repetition,

that ye love

also [I say, likewise] love

one another as

have loved you

that

ye

one another."

[2131] The last quotation, shewing an emphasis laid upon the


nature of the New Commandment of Christ, prepares us to find

'Edf

tis OLipq. epx^aOu)

6 irurrtvuv
wp6s /me /ecu mvirw.
avrou pevoovviv iidaros fruvros.

els

e/xi,

Kadws

tlirev

??

ypaipri, TTorafjioi in rrjs KOiXias


2

Is. lv.

i 13.

dldufxi Vfuv iva dyairare aXkJjKoVS kcl6ws rjya.VTj(ra


W.I I. have a comma after aW^Xocs.
aWrfKovs.
K.V. marg. gives tlie last clause as "that ye also may love one another, "apparently
"
"
Hut that does not interfere with the
in order that ye may love
(2094).
ning

i'p.as

[2130
'iva

</]

nai

'Ei>to\t)i>

v/xth

ko.ivt)v

a-yairare

suspensive nature of kclOws.

13;

CONJUNCTIONS
Him

[2133]

defining the future love that the brethren are to have for one

another by reference to the past love that He has had for them
"love one another even as /have loved you." And, as a fact, in the
Last Discourse, the hitherto almost invariably suspensive construction
:

occasionally exchanged for a supplementary one,

is

r
.

xv. 10

my commandments

ye keep

ye will abide in my love even as


of the Father and abide in his

"If
have

commandments
love,"
is my commandment that
ye love one another even
have loved you." Of the same character are the next four
the

kept

12 "This

xv.

as

instances of kolOws in

[2132] This

xvii.

2,

n,

truth that, "even

as"

doing, this or that

on

verge of completion,

earth,

16.

14,

As long

not unnatural.

His work on

to

fonvard

is

as Christ is looking
impresses on His disciples the

He

this or that is in

He

heaven, so

He

will do, or

But when His work on earth

earth.

refers

references to Scripture, "even as

to
it

it

is

the

(after

is

is

on the

manner of Jewish

written ") mentioning

as an

it

accomplished fact, a new Law for His disciples, "obey even as I


have obeyed," "love even as I have loved." And this view prevails
Discourse except when He is looking forward to the
earth, not now for Himself, but for His disciples (xvii. 18
21), "Even as the Father hath sent me I also send you"

in the Last

future

and

on

xx.

which

is

the last instance of

all

Ka(

(xi)

(a)

Kai' in

narrative (Hebraic)

[2133] The opening words of the Bible exhibit a frequent Hebraic


use of "and," e.g. "And the earth was. ..and darkness was. ..and the
1

The

[2132 a]

occasional difficulty of distinguishing suspensive from supple-

mentary xadws may be


'iva
'iva

illustrated

wavres iv waiv, Kadics av,


6

ko<t/j.os

Kadws

it iffTevr]...

Jj/xeis ev,

Kay

iii

by

xvii.

21

2,

punctuated by

W.H.

thus,

iraT-qp, iv ifioi Ktxyw iv col, 'iva Kai avrol iv rifxiv wctlv


tt)v

iyio iv avrois Kai

tjv

MSoiKas

iv i/xol,

'iva ucriv

Sb^av

o~i>

fioi

5i5wKa avrois,

TereXeiiofievoi els ev,

'iva

uaiv iv

'iva

ytvuxrKri

6 Koff/Aos....
Here W.H. differentiate their punctuation, making the former clause
apparently suspensive but the latter supplementary. Some reasons for this migh
be alleged, based upon rhythm and possibly on the use of Kayu in the first sentence
:

but the difference

extremely subtle.
In the Epistle, Kadus (total
is

ii.
27
9) is sometimes suspensive, e.g.
sometimes supplementary, e.g.
even as he taught you, abide" (1915 iiii>)
Its most
iii.
23 "That we may love one another even as he gave commandment."
noticeable use is in the phrase "even as he" where He means Christ, always
"
as
expressed by inetvos (2382), in passages bidding Christians do, and be, "even

[2132/']

'

And

their

Lord

(ii.

6,

iii.

3, 7, iv. 17).

133

CONJUNCTIONS

[2134]

spirit

of

saw the

God moved. ..and God said... and there was


the light... and God
light... and God divided

light.

..and

God

called... and the

darkness he called... and there was evening and there was morning."
Bruder, referring to this use of ko.l as "in oratione historica ex
simplici
that

The

Hebraeorum narrandi modo

,"

shews,

by

his tabulations,

John uses it very rarely as compared with any of the Synoptists.


2
short Gospel of Mark has it more than 400 times
John less
,

John does not deal much with


That holds good also of
narrative, but mainly with discourse.
Matthew, and in some degree of Luke, so that it does not explain
than 100 times.

It

may be

said that

John's abstinence.
[2134] Besides, if we take the first and the last chapters of John,
both of which consist almost wholly of narrative, how are we to explain
that in the last chapter, consisting of twenty-five verses, Bruder gives
the Hebraic kcu as occurring only once 3 whereas in the
,

verses of the

first

first

twenty-five

chapter we have about eighteen instances?

For

example, the Prologue begins "...and the Word was with God and
the Word was God.. .and without him was not anything... and the life

was the

light.

..and the light shineth...a^ the darkness apprehended

The usage continues even when the writer brings us down


from the Word to the testimony of John, "^4;/</this is the testimony...
and he confessed and he denied r\oX....and they asked \\\m...and he
The explanation is probably this.
saith...a;^ he answered" etc.
it

not."

In the opening of the Gospel John follows the style of the opening
of Genesis, not in affectation, but with a symbolism natural to him,
sympathetically describing what was "in the beginning" of spiritual
Being, as Genesis describes what went on in the beginning of

when the Apostles


to convert the
forth
before
are receiving their morning meal
going
" all
are
become new,"
as
well
as
whole world, Greeks
things
Jews,
material creation.

But

after

and the old-world Hebraic


use of

ko.1 in

narrative,

the Resurrection,

style

is

thrown

meaning "and"

[2133]
His

He

inserts

list

refers the reader

[2133//]

Of course,

aside.

The Johannine

(as distinct

from "also,"

(for on) in i. 16 and omits Kal in i. 4 /ecu ij


elsewhere for the special phrases /ecu eytvero,
But these are not Johannine phrases. If they were included,
Kal &ttcu, /ecu Idov.
Some of Bruder's
[elm's abstinence from rai would appear still more clearly.
but his statistics suffice as a rough lest.
instances might be otherwise classified
1

r/v.

<;wr)

by error

ical

in

Mk.
:1

Mt. has

it

part explained by the


about 250, I.k. about 380 times.
this

is

in

xxi. uj Kal tovto dirCov \4yei.

134

predominance of narrative

CONJUNCTIONS
"even"
detailed
in

etc.) seldom if ever causes ambiguity and calls for no


comment. The following sections, which will deal with nai

speech as well as

entirely to

in

will

narrative,

cases where the

where the precise emphasis


(/3)

[2136]

meaning
is

confine themselves almost

is

ambiguous or obscure, or

doubtful.

and negation

Kai connecting affirmation

[2135] In Hebrew, "and"


would use "and yet" or "but."

is

used where

English
usage in many
"
"
and has
cases, especially where one of the clauses connected by
"
a negative, or a word implying a negative:
i.
10
ri
The world
frequently

John adopts

was made through him and

this

world knew him

[yet] the

not.

He came

unto his own [house] and [yet] his own [household] received him
-12 "That which we have seen do we witness and
not," iii.
[yet]

our witness ye receive not.... I told you and [yet] ye believe not"
iii.
32 "What he hath seen and heard, this he witnesseth, and [yet]
vii.
19 "Hath not Moses given you
none
of
doeth
the law?" vii. 30 "They sought
you
[yet]
therefore to seize him, and
no
one
laid his hand on him because
[yet]

his witness no one receiveth,"

the law,

and

"

hour had not yet come," viii. 49


I honour my Father and
[yet]
^honour
has
a negative force), viii. 54 5
me"
a.
ye
(where
(aTi/Aa'Te)
"
Of whom ye say that he is your God, and [yet] ye know him not"
viii. 57 "Thou art not
yet fifty years old and [yet] thou hast seen
Abraham?" ix. 30 "Ye know not whence he is and [yet] he hath
his

"

opened mine eyes," xiv. 9 Have


knowest thou me not, Philip?"

been with you so

xiv.

24

"He

long,

and

that loveth

[yet]

me

not

keepeth not my words and [yet] the word that ye hear is not mine
but the Father's who sent me," xvi. 32 "There cometh a time.. ..and
ye shall leave me alone ; and [yet] I am not alone, because the
Father is with me," xx. 29 "Blessed are they that have not seen and
[yet] have believed."
(

7)

ai

"

and yet

"

[2136] Kat is thus used in some cases where both the connected
clauses are affirmative, or affirmatively interrogative ("is it not?"),
but the sense implies contrariety: iii. 19 "The light hath come....
and [yet] men loved the darkness," iv. 20 " Our fathers worshipped
in this

mountain, and [yet] ye say that in Jerusalem

is

the place....,"

49 "Your fathers did eat the manna...W [yet] they died," i.e.
and yet it did not save them from death, vi. 70 "Did not I choose
vi.

135

CONJUNCTIONS

[2137]

you the twelve, and [yet] one of you is a devil?" ix. 34 "Thou wast
"
"
x. 39
They
altogether born in sins and [yet] thou teachest us
!

and [yet] he came forth from


"The Jews but now were seeking to stone thee

[therefore] sought again to seize him,


their hand,"

and

xi.

"

[yet] thou goest thither again


[2137] Contrast the Hebraic "and" used in the manifestation of
!

the risen Saviour to

used

Mary Magdalene,

with the Hellenic "however''''

Seven Disciples:

in the manifestation to the

(1)

xx.

14

"And

she beholdeth Jesus standing and [yet] knew not that it was Jesus,"
the disciples did not however
(2) xxi. 4 "Jesus stood on the shore
;

(ov /xcVtoi)

know

that

it

was Jesus."

[2138] Perhaps the construction with "and" is sometimes preby John because he wishes to emphasize the mystery of the

ferred

ways of Providence. At all events, on two occasions, after saying


that people wished to seize Jesus, or that He was teaching in the
Temple, (vii. 30, viii. 20) "and no man" arrested Him, he adds

had

"because his hour

no such reference
construction

of that] (dAA') no

man

[2139] Whatever

is

he does not use the Hebraic

"hour,"
wished to seize him, but [in spite
laid hands on him."

Now some

44

vii.

But elsewhere, when there

not yet come"

to the
"

his

motive

may

be, the statistical fact

is

un-

deniable that the phrase "and no one" (kcu ou'Sets) (unbroken by


intervening words) is not often (perhaps only thrice) used by
John in what we should call its natural sense, i.e. additively or
consecutively,

able to snatch

(about

e.g.

"My

Father... is greater than

them out of

six times)

it

my

may mean

"

hand ."
and yet no one."
Father's

and no one is
More frequently

I,

The same rule does not apply so frequently to the


Johannine use of "and not," which is used in varied contexts,
not" "They have taken the
e.g. "A little while and ye behold me
not
where
of
and
we
know
the
Lord
they have laid him,"
body
[2140]

[2139 a] Jn x. 29.

The preceding context


and no one (ko.1 ov...tis)

The

text

and the translation are doubtful

has the words


shall snatch

(x. 28)

"they

(see 2496^).

shall assuredly not

them out of my hand."

The

be

lost...

other instances

On iii. 13 see 2141. [In xvi. 22 "and your joy no one


viii. 33, xvii. 12.
In xvi. 5 the meaning
taketh," the phrase is broken by the intervening words.]
"
may well be You are full of sorrow at the thought of my departure and yet not
" And
1
otu of you {koX ovdels 0; u/j-Qv) asks me whither I am departing."
nothing
arc

" Is
in vii. 26
not this he that they seek to kill ? And yet (icai) see! he
It might be fairly
speaketh openly and nothing (ko.1 ovbiv) do they say to him."
maintained that the "yet" implied in the preceding aal runs on to the second ko.1.

occurs thus

I3 6

CONJUNCTIONS

[2141]

"

Thou knowest all things and hast not need," " Ye have neither
seen him and ye have not his word abiding in you."
Still, the
instances in which "and not" is, or may be, adversative, slightly
exceed the non-adversative
Nor is it fanciful to say that this curious
1

Johannine characteristic
its double nature of

the

reflects

writer's

view

of

the

world

and darkness, its disappointments,


incongruities, and pathetic paradoxes, which he feels to be often
expressible better by an "and" than by a coarse, commonplace,
obtrusive "out"
"He was in the world and the world knew him
" He
unto
his own, and
his own received him not."
came
not,"
light

Special instances of kai

(S)

"

and yet

"

[2141] This general preponderance of adversative meaning must


weigh in the interpretation of particular passages of which the mean"
The light shineth in the darkness and [yet]
ing is disputed, e.g. i. 5

the

darkness apprehended

"and

the darkness overcame

it

it

not" (1443, 1735^ foil.) [instead of


In iii. 13 "If I told you
not"].

and ye believe not, how shall ye believe [i.e. ye will


not
And [yet] no
assuredly
believe] if I tell you heavenly things ?
man hath ascended into heaven except him that descended out of
earthly things

meaning appears to be, "Ye will not believe and yet


In
you by him who alone knows the truth."

heaven...," the

the truth

is

told

39 40 ("Ye search the Scriptures, because ye think to have in


them eternal life, and they are they that bear witness concerning me,
and [yet] ye have no desire (kcu ov OeXere) to come unto me that ye
v.

1
[2140 a] This conclusion is reached by reference to ov in Bruder (1888) and
by examining instances of kcli ov. An examination of the same phenomena, under
the same heading, in Luke, reveals very different results.
In the first place, John
uses ov more frequently than Luke does in the proportion of about 4^ to 2%
a testimony to John's predilection for contrasts and opposites. In the next place,
whereas John exhibits this predilection even more in his Prologue than in the rest
of his Gospel, Luke does not use koll ov adversatively till the end of his sixth
"
chapter in the words of Christ,
Why call ye me Lord, Lord, and \j'et] do not the
that
I
things
say?" Subsequently he uses it fairly often, mostly in words of Christ,
or in parables, or in passages where he follows the
Synoptic Tradition, especially
" He came
in such antitheses as "They desired to see and
[yet] they saw not,"
"
and
he found
shall seek and
shall not be able

seeking
to find

"

[2140/;]

"and

not,"

[yet]

They

[yet] they

etc.

In his

they had no

understood not,"
instances, there

first six

ii.

"

and not" i. 7
freely uses the additive
his parents knew no/," ii. 50 "and they

Luke

"and

43
he ate nothing.'''' Later on, in Luke's adversative
probably not one that presents any ambiguity.

iv.
is

child,"

chapters

"and

137

CONJUNCTIONS

[2142]

may have

"ye search. ..and

life")

"Search... and" (2439


[2142] In vii. 27
of Jesus,
"

But

Messiah,

correct than

the Jews first declare that they know the


that consequently He cannot be the

8,

implying

[man] we know whence he is, whereas


he comes, no man is to know whence he

[as for] this

the Messiah

(Se)

more probably

is

(i)).

origin

"

when

is."
Jesus replies, apparently repeating their assertion of knowledge
as an exclamation of His own, and shewing its
falsity: "(lit.) Both

me

know and

come

'

'

"Ye say ye know my origin, and


whom ye know not ."

i.e.

And [jet] I have not


whom ye know not,"
come from Him who is

ye know whence I am
from myself, but he that sent me is true,
'

'

ye

yet I

Truth

[2143] In x. 35 "If he [David] called them gods. ..and [if] the


Scripture cannot be broken," the meaning might be "and [if nevertheless, in spite of so difficult a meaning] the Scripture- cannot be
annulled." But ov, before Swcn-ai, may be regarded as d in dSwaros,

and

StWrai

kcu ov

ahvvaTov

8e.

may be regarded as differing


And this perhaps is the best view

them gods and [all know


how can ye accuse me?"

from a parenthetic
" If the Psalmist called

little

that] the Scripture

cannot be annulled

"
[2144] In some cases the choice between "and" and yet"
be called a mere matter of taste, as in the following
:

Mt.
"
...they

reap.. .yet

vi.

26 (A.V.)

Lk.

sow not neither do they


(koI) [R.V. and] your

and

Isaiah

vi.

"

Hear ye indeed but (Heb. vaw,


"and") understand not."

AXXot tovtov

oi5a/j.ei>

reap...

God

feedeth

LXX

"

[2142 a]

sow nor

[R.V. and]

them."

R.V.

(/cm)

may

24 (A.V.)

"...they neither

heavenly Father feedeth them."

yivuxTKfi irbdtv iar'iv.

xii.

and Mt.

xiii.

By hearing ye

14 (R.V.)

and

shall hear

(comp.

Acts

shall in

no wise understand."

irbdev tariv

'

xxviii.

26

"and")

6 Si xpiOTos orav ZpxrjTai oudtls

"FjKpa^i> ovv...\iyu}v KdfJ.t oi'Sare nai otSare tt60(v el/xi

/cat

" Both
dw' ifnavrov ovk i\rj\v6a, dXX' Zariv d\7]0iv6s 6 Tri/xxf/as /Ue, 6v i'/xeis ovk oidare.
is
intended
the
know"
of
me do ye
to reproduce
the original which may
ambiguity
be either exclamatory or interrogative.
ix.

20
-

30
>n

i)

'*

'

YVc

know

ypa(pri, see

'

not....'

1722

Ye

OlHare repeats oiSa/xev ironically.

know

k.

138

not...

'"
!

Comp.

CONJUNCTIONS

[2146]

[2145] Apart from all questions of taste it is certain that our


Lord, speaking in Aramaic, used the ambiguous vazv, capable of

meaning "and" or "and yet," and certain also that any Greek
translators of Aramaic Christian traditions or of Hebrew Gospels
would have the alternative of rendering vazv, when used in the latter
sense,
"

either

however

"

by nai or freely by words meaning "but,"


There results a reasonable probability that John,

literally

etc.

writing

many

which

seldom

years after the circulation of the Synoptic Tradition,


uses the Hebraic Kat in the sense "and yet,"

deliberately resorted to it as one of many means of forcing his


readers to reflect on the many-sidedness of the Lord's doctrine

and on the occasional inadequacy of the letter of the earliest


Gospels to reproduce the living word. Whatever may have been
his

or

motive,

the

motives,

fact

with a
the Greek

remains that he uses

frequency and boldness unparalleled in the Synoptists


additive conjunction in a non-Greek adversative fashion

to introduce

adversative clauses with a suddenness that heightens the sense of


"
I have come in the name of my Father and
paradox, thus v. 43
:

ye do not receive me,"

v.

and the

44

"

How can

ye believe, receiving glory

comes from the only God ye


do not seek?" vi. 36 "Ye have both (/cat) seen me and ye do not
believe," vii. 36 "Ye shall seek me and ye shall not find."
from one another

glory that

(e)

Kai introducing an exclamation

[2146] Kat occasionally introduces an exclamation that may be


treated as a question, implying incongruity with a previous state-

ment

20 "This temple was built in forty-six years: and [yet]


ii.
thou (emph.) (Kat av) in three days wilt raise it up " viii. 57 "Thou
art not yet fifty years old, and
[yet] thou (unemph.) hast seen
:

Abraham (emph.) (Kat 'A. ewoaKas marg.


"
The Jews but now were seeking to stone
;

1
(unemph.) goest thither

[2146(7]
grace,"' the

In

kclI

i.

16

K-at

'A.

thee,

"

ewpaxev

and

o-c)

xi.

[yet] again thou

"
!

"From

does not

his fulness did we all receive, and grace for (avri)


mean "namely," or "that is to say," but "and, what is
"yea" (see dim, 2284 7). There is probably no instance

more," "and indeed," or


Jn where /ecu' means "namely." "Receive" is used absolutely (comp. 1315 and
A both i. 3, 4, 7 etc.), and /ecu introduces a new statement about the nature of the
in

reception.

139

CONJUNCTIONS

[2147]
"

Kai

"

meaning also
Kat
before a noun or pronoun, corresponding to our
[2147]
"also" after a noun or pronoun, is sometimes used
by John to
predicate again, what has been predicated before, about a different
()

Where "not only" precedes


person or thing
to "also" and there is no
ambiguity or
1

attention

is

called

But the meaning


obscurity.
liable to be missed in passages where the
previous predication is

is

implied (not expressed) or expressed at a considerable interval,


"

e.g.

Depart to Judaea that thy disciples also (W xal ol /*. aov)


"
may behold thy works," i.e. Here in Galilee, among thy countrymen
and kinsfolk, thou hast no disciples worth
mentioning go to Judaea,
where thou hast disciples, that they also may behold
works 3 ."
vii.

thy
the chief priests took counsel that
they might kill
Lazarus also" the reference is to xi. 53, the
meaning being, in
"
I have said above
From that
effect,
forth therefore
(xi. 53)
In

xii.

"But

io

'

day

they took counsel that they might kill him [Jesus]


4
they included Lazarus also in their plans ."
Kai in

(77)

Apodosis

after ,

ei,

ka6coc

'
:

now

say that

etc. in Protasis.

[2148] This construction is frequent in John because he dwells


on the principle of correspondence between the visible and the invisible, between the incarnate Son below and the Father above
v. 1926 "For what
things soever he [i.e. the Father] doeth, these
the Son also (koL 6
uio's) likewise (6/Wws) doeth.... For as the Father...
:

raiseth up, so (ovtws) the Son also


(koi 6 wo's) quickeneth....For as
the Father hath life in himself so
(ovruis) to the Son also (ko.1 t<3 vl<2)

gave he to have
1

[2147

life

in himself,"

This construction

<z]

is

viii.

most

19 (comp. xiv. 7) "If ye

freq. in

Lk.

In Jn

it is

knew

about as freq. as

in Mt.
-

[2147/0 "Not only," 06, or fx-q. nbvov (adv.), Jn v. 18 before verb, ov (x6vov
(\ve, elsewhere before noun, xi. 52 oi'x bwip rod ZOvovs ijlovov, comp. xii.
9, xiii. 9,
xvii. 20.
This precise constr. (Bruder) does not occur in the
exc.

Mt.

xxi. 21.

When

Mt.

they have ovk iw apry

fj.6v<?

(adv.) are always separated,

alone"
3

Lk.

iv. 4,

iv.

(adj.) (as

"not

4 quote Deut.

LXX).

viii.

In Jn

xi.

Synoptists
bread alone,"

"Not by

20, 01' and fxovov


" not because of
fesus

52 xvii.

for the nation alone,'"

etc.

r] Comp. Rom. i. 13 "that I might have


v/xtv)n.s also (ko.8ojs Kal) in the rest of the nations,"

[2147

some

fruit in

"

you

also

(ko.1

iv

"
in you also
where
would
not have been quite clear unless the writer had added the
subsequent words to

make
4

it

clear.

[2147

18, xix.

<f\

Kal, meaning "also,"

19, 39, xxi.

25 [But in

ii.

is

preceded by

2 Si Kal

8i in

ii.

may mean "now

I4O

2,

iii.

23, xviii. 2, 5,

both..."].

CONJUNCTIONS
me, ye would know
I am there shall be

my Father
my servant

h-ov)" xii. 26
6 Sicxkovos 6 c/xo's) 1 ."

also (k. toj/

also

[2151]

(k.

it.

"

Where

Kai YM6IC

(6)

Kai vfiels, v/aus etc., meaning "ye also," "you also" etc.,
[2149]
2
so frequent in John that the frequency almost suffices of itself to
determine the sense in xiv. 19 "...but ye behold me because (0V1) I
is

ye also (Kai vfiels) shall live." Here R.V. marg.


"
and ye shall live." But this, whether rendered " ye behold
gives
me... and ye shall live," or " because I live and [because] ye shall live"
(emph.) (yw)

live,

makes

R.V.
very weak sense.
In
accords with Johannine usage.
sorrow. ..and ye (R.V.)

therefore

makes

txt
xvi.

22

sense

and

woman

hath

perfect

21-

"the

have sorrow," might, and

(ovv)

probably should, be rendered "ye also therefore have sorrow," since


xat implies correspondence, and not mere addition.
Kai in Crasis

(t)

Kai

[2150]

always combined by crasis with ey<o (freq.), with


and with I/ac (twice, vii. 28, xvi. 32) except in

is

(once, xvii.

fioi

6),

24 Kat kfiX Kai tov iraripa


54, but not in ii. 12, iii. 22,
is always combined, except in

antithesis xv.
in

cKt

xi.

cKtvos

For

it

/xov.
vi. 3.

xix.

is combined with
With the masculine
35 on which see 2383.

It

koV, see 2160.

Kakginoc 8

(k)

[2151] After a subject expressed by a participle, eKeZvos is sometimes used appositionally for emphasis, "he and no other" and where
Kat is prefixed to it, the meaning is "he also" or "he i?i the same

vi. 57 "He that eateth me, he also


way," or "he on his side" etc.
on
account
of
shall
live
me," i.e. just as I live on account
(KciKelvos)
of the Father (see context); xiv. 12 "He that believeth on me, the
works that I do shall he also (koikco/os) do," i.e. as well as I myself.
:

In

am

29 "I

vii.

from him
"

meaning
1

is

[2148 a]

aVeo-retXcv)

On

may mean "also"


see 2124
2

and he (emph.)

sent

me

and the

is

the possibility of ambiguity when /ecu, after a clause with Kaduis,


"and," see 2123, and on Kadus followed by K&yw in particular,

or

47, ix. 27,


4
iroieire, see 2193
3

avrov)

7.

vii.

[2151 a]

(2383).

Kat

probably additive,
that Jesus comes not only from the presence of the Father

[i

(Kajcctvos

(irap

the

In

Kat

xvii. 6,

xiii.

14, 15, 33, 34, xiv. 3, xv. 20.

On

viii.

38 Kai

v/xels ovv...

and 2359.

e\'?j/os

KA

never occurs exc. in xix. 35, where NA read


here with CD again differ from W.H.
e/xoi

Kai

141

Kcuceivos
Ka/xoi.

CONJUNCTIONS

[2152]

but also by His express sending, "and he, and no other, sent
In x. 1 6 "And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold

must

also (/mKetva)

"and them must

I bring...,"

am

(emph.)

meaning might be

."

them

(theoretically)

bring," but John's predilection for asyndeton, and


of the meaning "also "here, indicate that ko.1 is

the appropriateness
emphatic, not additive.

where

the

me

The

only other instance

they also (ko.klvol)

xvii.

is

24

"

may be together with

that

me

the phrase
I, may be there";
(/xcr epov)"
same
in
the
to
not
that
are
be
place but
only
Her ifxov suggests
they

"that they, as well as

i.e.

"together"

in

mind and

Kai, "also,"

(A.)

"also," before nouns

Kat,

[2152]

spirit.

connexion of

and pronouns, has been

dis-

Kat, "also," before a verb, is sometimes liable


Thus, Sia
to be confused with xai before the subject of the verb.
tovto Kat VTrrjVTrjcrev avr<2 6 o^A.os might be confused with Sia tovto

But

cussed above.

aura) koL 6 ox/Vos.

virrjVT-qaev

Yet the former means

(1)

"For

this

cause the multitude went also to meet him," i.e. besides doing, or
act.
The latter
having done, something else, it did this additional

would mean

(2)

there went to meet

"But

him the multitude also"

the multitude, as well as Christ's disciples, or companions.


18 Sta tovto
is ignored by A.V. in xii.
[2153] This distinction
where A.V. has "for this cause the
vTTTjvT-qo-ev airr<5 o ox^-os,

i.e.

ko.1

also."

people

R.V. has "for

this

cause also the multitude," which

"

for this cause as well as for other causes."


would naturally mean
But the words ought to mean that the multitude, besides doing other

things

or actually,
noising abroad the raising of Lazarus) also,

(e.g.

took the extreme course of organizing a procession in Christ's


him-."'
honour, i.e. "went also to meet him," or "actually went to meet
Kai "also" in

(//,)

25
"
in viii. 25
They therefore said
great difficulty
art thou?
Jesus said unto them, [In] the beginning

[2154] There

unto him,
1

Who

[2151/0

viii.

is

Asyndeton

("He

construction, the sentence and

because

(unemph.)

am from

If that were the


also") is less probable here.
" I
context would mean
[emph.) know him

its

his presence:

he,

on his

side,

sent me.

represented a distinction
between two multitudes, (t) xii. 12 6 by\o% iroXvs, which came out oj Jerusalem,
which accompanied Jesus
xii. 17 6 oy\o% 6 wv fxtr avrov ore top A. i(p^vqctv...
-

[2153 a\

Possibly A.V.

may have considered

that

ko.1

(2)

John does distinguish


into Jerusalem, and which is said to have (//'.) "testified."
But koX here has nothing to do with emphasizing
between these two multitudes.
the distinction.

142

CONJUNCTIONS
whatever

speak unto you

also

punctuated by W.H.
explanation

Even

txt

"

Now

me

from

fall

are ye unworthy to understand also

am

quotes Cyril thus, "I

XaXw

kol

otl

vp.1v,

marg. affirm.)." Chrysostom's


what he means is to this effect,

at all to hear the words that

much more

dpxv v

(rrjf

interrog.,

as follows,

is

[2155]

ye are unworthy,

who

justly punished, says [He],

am

Cramer

."

because

made

a beginning even of [receiving] word[s] from you, because I have


addressed to [you] aught of the things that know [? 6iAot6on
"

to profit [you] and took counsel


"that seem likely
[how] to deliver [you], I have been counted thus cheap in your
2
It will be observed that the two do not agree.
estimation ."
?

eoiKOTooN

Chrysostom apparently takes

dp\v v as oAw?, "at

tt]v

all,"

but Cyril

takes it as "beginning."
Chrysostom's interpretation would require
tl
or
some
/ecu,
ov, or
negative context, which is found with t?/v

dpxqv when

it

means "at

"not at all"

all" (" never at all"

etc.)

[2155] As regards on, Chrysostom apparently takes it as the


neuter pronoun ("that which I even speak," paraphrased by him
as "the

Cyril

words that

takes

it

as

from

fall

my

"because"

Neither of them takes

lips," rwi/

("because

otl interrogatively.

Xoywv

made
Of the

tlqv -nap

ip.ov)

beginning").

instances alleged

by Westcott here for interrogative on, one is probably corrupt, and


4
Even if the intertwo are not parallel to the instance in question
it
would
be alien from
in
Mark
could
be
use
proved,
rogative
.

Johannine usage (2231


1

e).

Tov 6Xws aKoueiv tQv \byuv tQv

[2154 a] "O 5e \e7e1 tolovtSu iari

dvd^Loi eare, htjti ye Kal fiadeiv


"

[2154

/']

TroLritTa.p.r)v

Cramer ad

apxr)v,

otl

i(3ov\evad/jLT]v, ei'reXTjs

loc.

Scrm iyu
AiKaia

7rpoo~we<pwvriKa.

ovtu

Trap' e/xov

eifii.

ttclctx^,
tl

tujv

4>T)<riv,

ddorwv

\e\6yL<rp.aL Trap' vlllv.

Kal \6yov

otl
(?)

wap

ti^eXetp, Kal

vp.uv

dcacrdi^eLV

Perhaps there should be a

full

Cramer also has a comment (resembling Chrysostom's) quoting


stop after dpxwthe text as "rr/p dpxv v ' Tt Ka-l \a\Q iip.lv, iroWd ^x w 7rct P' vp.Qv \a\elv Kal Kplvetv.
3
[2154 c] It is very doubtful whether such a negative could be implied here
from the tone of the answer ("[You ask me who I am. I give you no reply.
I tell you not] at all even that which I say [much less that which I am]").
[2154

if]

No

negative

v.r. is

given by Alford.

SS

(Burk.) has

that I (enip/i.) should speak [myself] with you," a "initium

"The

chief

[is]

quod loquor vobis,"


b "inprimis quia loquor vobis; cum...," d "initium quoniam et loquor vobis,"
f "principium quod et loquor vobis," gat. and mm. "principium, quod loquor,"
e and Vulg. "principium qui et loquor vobis."
4
[2155 a] In Mk ix. n, 28, otl is preceded by ewqpthTUv, and the best translation would probably be an affirmative
3tl or \e~yovTes otl being simply used to
introduce the statement
"They questioned him saying, 'The scribes say Elijah
must first come. [How is that?']," "They questioned him saying 'We could not

H3

CONJUNCTIONS

[2156]
If

[2156]

on

is

that Jesus identifies

a relative pronoun the meaning would seem to be


Himself with that which He speaks, i.e. with the

He

words which, as

says

Him. Then, perhaps, the

48),

may be

where He has
so
the meaning

/ am
From an
word."

"shall judge" those who reject


explained with reference to what

"
If ye believe not that
said to the Jews,
"
is,
[/ am] that which I also speak."
" I am as
as

precedes
"

(xii.

ko.1

that

ordinary person, this would mean


From a prophet, it might mean "

my

good

am

the messenger of
from the Logos who

God, nay, the message of God." But coming


is both the Word and the Act of God, the Messenger of righteousness
and justice and also the Righteous Judge Himself it implies a
unique and mysterious identity between the Personality and the

As John

Word.

the Baptist says

(i.

23)

"/ [am

not to be accepted

as the son of Zachariah the priest, or on any other personal grounds,


"
I am [not to be
but as being] a voice (eyw $>wq)" so Jesus says
at
or
of
born
as
the
Son
Bethlehem, but
David,
Nazareth,
accepted
as being] that which also I speak from the first,"
He had spoken it from the first, consistently 1

i.e.

the Logos, as

Kai'

(v)

meaning "[indeed], and...?"

"And who is he, Lord, that (2113) I may


the question (uttered by the blind man whom
Jesus had healed) follows the words, "Thou believest [dost thou
The man is startled by the unusual
not] in the Son of man?"
In

ix.

36

[2157]
believe in

him

cast

[How was

tone,

it

out.

and

"

that?].'"

In both cases, the question

in the verb "questioned" which makes

all

is

implied in the
In Mk ii. 7

the difference.

ev rah Ka.p8ia.1s avrwv, Tl ovtos ovtcjs Xa\e?; W.H. print on only in


marg., and Swete gives, as the authority for it, only B (whose authority is weak on
See 2231 d e.
insertion and omission (2650) of O) and one cursive.
The adv. apxri" (and tt)v a.pxv 1') when meaning "at all" appears always
diaXoyt^'ofj.ei'OL

It is implied in Clem.
(Steph.) to have a negative context expressed or implied.
Horn. vi. 1 t'l Kal ttjv apxw oiaXeyopiai ; i.e. ov Set 8ia\tyeadai. Comp. ib. xix. 6.
1

Without a negative,

it

means "at the first

"

as in Gen.

xli. 21, xliii. 18,

:o,

and

Just. Mart. Apol. 10 {bis).

So Nonnus,

Tls ov

Aeis

; koX
Xpiords dviaxev, ottl irep tofuv 'E
This, though probably not an actual uttermay be a Johannine and mystical paraphrase of something expressed
differently by the Synoptists, according to whom, Jesus expressed His desire to go
back to the "beginning" of things, before the Law of Moses was given "because
He also said that His "words" would "never
of the hardness of men's hearts."
1

[2156 a]

apxvs ddptfop,
ance of Jesus,

Zxw

7r

vy)pLdp.a SiKafciv.

claimed for "the Son of man" that He was "Lord also "i
Combining these statements we shall arrive at a claim on the
Son of man to identify Himself with the Father's Law or Word.

away."

He

the Sabbath."

put

oi

the

I44

CONJUNCTIONS

[2159]

phrase ("believe in the Son of man"), and he craves additional


explanation "[Thou sayest this] and [thou wilt surely
is

Somewhat

he?"

about the

similarly in

answer to Christ's

spiritual disability attendant

on

and who

tell

me] who

startling statement

riches, the disciples reply,


1

Probably,
"[Thou sayest this]
[then] can be saved ?"
later on, John finds a parallel and a contrast between this question
asked by a believer and the question asked by the unbelieving Jews,
34) "Who is this Son of man?" and the surprise of the former,
together with his readiness to believe in what surprises him, brings
out clearly the nature of the man's faith.
He is ready to believe
(xii.

anyone that Jesus bids him believe in. In


had spoken he already believed, heart and
in

effect

soul,

before
in

Jesus
Jesus as a

divine incarnation of kindness and power.

an (See also

Kai

(f)

[2158]
sand... only

(i))

22 "For though thy people Israel be as the


has kqX lav yiv-qrai.
remnant shall return,"

In Isaiah
a

25135

x.

LXX

yevrjTai, has (Rom. ix. 27) e<xv 17 (A.V. "though,"


R.V. "if"). Probably St Paul used eav with the consciousness that
the apodosis gave it the meaning "even if," and
intended kcu
In an author like John, much given to asyndeton,
to mean "even."

St Paul, for

k.

I.

LXX

there

is

an antecedent probability
"

would mean, not

and

if,"

(in

but " even

Kai lav occurs as follows:

[2159]

doubtful cases) that

/cat

e'a'v

if."
viii.

16

"I judge no man,

(R.V.) yea, and if I judge (kcu lav npivw Se eyw), my judgment


" and
is true"
yet if I judge").
Perhaps, "yea, even if I
(A.V.
7 (R.V.) "I am come. ..that whosoever believeth
judge"; xii. 46

on me may not abide in the darkness. And if (ai eav) any man
hear my sayings and keep them not, I judge him not," better,
perhaps, "Even if any man hear and disobey, I judge him not";
xiv. 3 (R.V.) "And if (*ai eav) I go and prepare a place for you,
I come again, and will receive you...," better, perhaps, "Even if
There is great
(or, And even if) I go... [yet] again do I come."

Mk x. 26, Lk. xviii. 26 (Mt. xix. 25 ris &pa). So Xen. Cyrop. v.


" 'You are
'[Indeed] and what might
passing over a still greater marvel.'
that be (nai rt 5r) tout i<rriv;)?"
And, in reply to Cyrus's orders as to the
drawing up of soldiers for an attack, an officer replies (ib. vi. 3. 22) "[Indeed]
1

[2157(7]

4. 13

and doyon
l-eu>)...?"

'And

think

we

shall be strong

Similarly, in English

where
A. VI.

am

to get it?'"

enough (Kai ooKodfxev crot, 2<py, w Kvpe,


we might have "'Give him what he
So /cai irus ; freq. (Steph. 2305 B).

I45

IO

'iKavQs

asks.'

CONJUNCTIONS

[2160]

about the whole of

difficulty

"I should not myself


back to the Father
I

do

'

know

It is
"

used with

(see 2515

meaning

in

(i)).

Jn

ii.

"

(2080

indie, in

but

it

R.V. "and
2,

v.

15 kcu

if

we

have a Paraclete."

zve

It

is

not

The meaning
a Paraclete."

Kan

Kav occurs

[2160]
certainly in
I

"and

e'av oioap.^v

does not seem adequate to the


"I write... that ye sin not. Grant however

that

(o)

"But

mean

to

if"

we have no Paraclete if we do not sin.


"Even if we do sin [let us remember that] we have

meant

seems

In the Epistle, *ai eav occurs

6).

Jn

that one sin (kcu idv tis dp.dprrj)

is,

passage,

it

go,' yet I will return

twice.

this

going on a journey (Tropcvofxai) but going


however, to use your word, even if
(v-rrdyu))
call

viii.

x.

14,

know him

"

John and means


and possibly in viii.

four times in
xi.

38,

25,

the Father]

[i.e.

and

if I

even

55,

should say

"
if

(R.V.)

{kq.v crn-co)

It is true that *o,v


I know him not, I shall be like unto you, a liar."
means "and if" in Luke, and in the Mark- Appendix 1 and three
Johannine instances are hardly enough to establish the necessity
of a similar meaning in the fourth.
Yet, having regard to the
so
far
as
and
to
the
instances,
frequency of asyndeton in
they go,
and
to
the
and
force
John,
abruptness of the thought,
extraordinary
;

the balance of probability inclines slightly toward the latter rendering:


"
Even if I say I know him not [what then ?] I shall
I know him.
be a liar."

(73-)

K<m'...k<m',

In

vi.

[2161]
both seen [me]
kwpa.Ka.ri

[/i.c]

"both... and"

36 "But

unto you that ye (unemph.) have

I said

and

do not

[yet]
koX ov iricrTcveTe,

believe," dAA' uttov

v/j-lv

on

ko.1

A.V. has " ye also," which would

R.V. omits "both." The word "both" increases


require ko.1 v/aus.
the abruptness of the paradox, as in xv. 24 (where R.V. inserts it)
2
"
Possibly
they have both seen and hated both me and my Father ."

in

[2160rt]

Mt.

Kdf,

in

Mk

xxi. 11, xxvi. 35,

J as v. 15 (on

v. 28, vi.

"even

if."

which see Mayor),

$6 means "though it were but," i.e. "merely,"


Hut in I.k. xii. 38, xiii. 9, Mk-App. [xvi. 18],

means "and if." This evidence, so far as


would always use the word in one sense as

it

goes, favours the view that John


the case in Mk, Mt., and Lk.

it
is

[2161 rz] In vi. 36, yu f s om by almost all authorities exc. HP. prob. because
"
not because
the scribes did not understand that the reference was to vi. 26
'

ye saw signs" combined with

vi.

"

29

this

146

is

the

work of God that ye

believe."

CONJUNCTIONS

[2163]

R.V. omits it here because it is contrary to English idiom, and


because the paradox is expressed by rendering the second kcu " and
This however does not give the suspensive force of the first
\yef\."

which might be freely rendered ''though'" ("though ye have seen


ye do not believe").

kcu,

me yet

is almost peculiar to
John in N.T. Other
represent (i) the same verb applied to two
"
or (2) the same
"healing both the blind and the lame

This usage

[2162]

books use

Kai... Kai to

nouns,

e.g.

"

noun or pronoun applied to two verbs, e.g. he began both to do and


But these and other instances ("both hungering and
to teach."
and
even "both to be filled and to be hungry 2 ") are unlike
thirsting,"
"
the Johannine coupling (with
and [yet] "). Sometimes also John
couples, not opposites, but correlatives, or correspondent statements
"
like that of St Paul,
God both raised up the Lord and will raise up

us

,"

where the text suggests that Redemption

is

one great

fore-

ordained plan including past and present.


Thus the Voice from
Heaven says xii. 28 "I have both glorified and will again glorify," i.e.
as

it

was, so

it

shall be.

37 "Thou hast both seen him and he that is speaking


he 4 ," is the reply of our Lord to the man born blind,

ix.

[2163]
with thee

is

asking who "the Son of man" is, in whom he is to believe.


Jesus
does not at once say, as to the Samaritan woman, " I that speak untothee am he."
The words "Thou hast seen him" coming to the
blind man from Jesus, who had just made him "see," and whose
voice he would recognise, could hardly fail to be clear.
The blind
man could hardly think of asking, "But of all those whom I have

seen since

received sight a few hours ago, which

is

he?"

Perhaps,

" seen " the Messiah


"
"
manifested by signs
implies that the Jews had
"
"
"
the latter, that, in spite of this
believe
and needed
seeing," they still did not
" believe."
to be commanded to

The former

Mt.

[2162 a]
viii.

27.

eTriT&aaei.
/ecu... /ecu'

Comp. Mk
Luke in the

[2162/']

41

"

parall.

vdari, not
" even... and."

/ecu tcjJ

as

iv.

(?)

/ecu r.

Phil. iv. 12 otda

both (R.V. even) the wind and the sea," sim.


25) by a difference of order (/cat reus due/Mots

(viii.

/cat

ave/xois k. t. v5olti.) perh. indicates that

Tcnreivouadai, olda

/ecu

TrepiaatveLv

is

he takes

interesting

shewing the Apostle in the act of writing Kai to.it. Kai irepiffa. and then changing
as Lightf. says, Kai t aw ewovcrd at was "shaped in anticihis mind, inserting olSa
"
pation of the Kai TrepLcr<reveiv which follows.
as

1
Cor. vi. 14 6 8e debs Kai tov Kvpiov ijyeipev Kai r}/j.as etjeyepu (B
B's reading would mean that " God both raised up the Lord and (ipso
facto) raised up us," as part of one plan.
4
Kcu ecipa/cas avrbv Kai 6 \a\G>v /xera crov eKeivos ecrriv.

[2162

r]

i^rjyeipev).

147

IO

CONJUNCTIONS

[2164]

Chrysostom has not chosen the right epithet in calling the


."
But it is purposely preparatory and incomplete
as though beginning from the physical and passing to the spiritual.
As, after the feeding of the Five Thousand, the Saviour says (vi. 63),
"The flesh profiteth nothing, the words that I have spoken to you
therefore,
"

obscure

clause

are spirit and are life," so, after the healing of the blind man, Jesus
does not say, "I that healed thee am he," but describes the Son

man as "He that is speaking with thee." He thereby suggests


He is not only the Healer, but also
another aspect of the Messiah.
of

the Speaker of the words of God


[2164] Kat is not immediately before the verb in
.

xvii. 25 (lit.)
world
both
the
did
not
Father,
(/cat)
recognise thee
righteous
but I (cyw 8e) recognised thee and these (kol ovtoi) recognised that
thou didst send me." Here the first k<u is intended to keep the

"O

3
and
suspense, aware that the meaning is incomplete
"
perhaps the sentence starts with the simple antithesis, Whereas (Kai)
the world did not... on the other hand (/ecu) these did."
But the

reader in

sentence is broken by a parenthesis ("but I recognised") and this


perhaps suggests the reason why "these did [recognise]," namely,
because the Son imparted to the disciples His power of recognition
so that a new connexion is introduced, " but I did and consequently

these did 4 ."

These words

[2165]

the saying
verbally

(xvii.

in the

25) resemble

spiritually,

though not

Double Tradition, "I confess unto

thee,

Father... because thou hast hidden these things from the wise...
and revealed them unto babes. Yea, Father, for so it hath seemed

Kai ewpanas
Chrys. Ovk elireVy'Yiyd) eifjii' dXXd fxiaos Zti kcli inreaTaX/xiuos.
Tovto Zti adrjXov r\v 5ib rb o~a<pt<TTepov iirriyayev '0 \a\wv fiera (rod,
iKeivds ion.
By ixiaos he seems to mean "going halfway."
clvt6v.

vi.

Comp.

68 "

Thou

hast the

words of eternal

life,"

which implies " Thou

art the Saviour."


s

it

the world,"

thus,

ibut

As

this, would mean


would make good sense to rentier
"Even the world, even God's own creation, did not know Him*";
would not be appropriate in a context where "the world" is clearly

[2164 a]

" Even

this

rule,

and

Kai 6

in

regarded as an enemy.
4
[2164/'] See 2162 b' on

K6crfj.os,

in

some contexts

Phil. iv.

\i.

such a position as

it

Injn

xvii.

16, the

words

Ktd iyvdtptcra...

might begin a new sentence (like xii. 28 Kai (do^a<ra...Kai tt6.\iv


have both made known. ..and will make known," and this hypothesis of

Kai yvuplau

"
i'o^d(ruj)

is more in accordance with


Johannine
" a nd"
repeated thrice after Kai "both."

asyndeton

4S

style than the hypothesis of Kai

CONJUNCTIONS

[2166]

good in thy sight ." There, too, the context says that no man
knoweth the Father save the Son and he to whom the Son reveals
Him. So, we might paraphrase the Johannine " righteous Father "
1

meaning substantially "I confess the righteousness of that which


hath seemed good in thy sight." The Johannine antithesis between
"
"
the world
and " these " corresponds to the antithesis between
as

Also the parenthesis "But I knew thee"


that thou didst send me," suggests

"the wise" and "babes."

"and

followed by

Luke express that

what Matthew and

knew

these

the

knowledge of the Father

peculiar to the Son and to those who receive the gift from the Son.
The Kai in the Fourth Gospel supplies the connexion between
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
wise (i.e.
the world meaning
the worldly")
hiding from the
and the revealing unto " babes " (i.e. the little ones of Christ, whom
"
the Fourth Gospel calls
these ").
The two are parts of one plan.
"
"
"
"
In John, hiding and revealing are expressed by " not knowing "

is

and "knowing."
In

[2166]
tovtu)v Kal

The thought

xxi.

24,

ypou//as

2169 and 2429

see

outo's

Tairra

35.

suppose that this means,


p.apTvp<2v Kal ypdij/as.

"This

"also":

[i.e.

is

same

the

icrrtv

Matthew and Luke.

as in

fxa6r)Tr)<;

is

the reading of

It

would be against
that both testifieth

"he

B.

Kal /xaprvpwv

On

Trepi

the context,

Greek usage
and wrote,"

to

6 Kal

In B, therefore, we must take the first Kai as


beloved disciple above described] is the

the

disciple that also [besides seeing the Saviour in the

way described

concerning these things," i.e. he not only saw the


2
testifies to what he saw
After these words the

testifieth

above]
Saviour but

"and

the one that wrote these things," making


a pause after tovtwv and deliberately separating the two statements.
As a rule, an apostle would "testify" and his amanuensis or
evangelist continues,

interpreter

would write

in this case the

but

(as in the case of St Paul's Epistles)

"beloved disciple" did both 3

2.
Mt. xi. 25
7, Lk. x. 21
"
" These
[2166 a]
may perhaps not refer to the whole of the contents
things
of the Gospel, but to the events just described, like ravra in xii. 16 (2621 2)
"
Codex a has " de Jesu and e " de ihm," but these are perhaps confusions of " de
2

" de ihs."
[2166 /'] Kat would naturally be omitted by scribes before fiaprvpuiu because
it would seem to them, if
and this it could
genuine, intended to mean "both"
not mean.
If we omit it, the rendering will still be as above, only
omitting the

his," read as
3

emphatic "also."
[2166

c]

If

we adopt

the

two marginal readings of W.H. and assume

I49

[6], in

the

CONJUNCTIONS

[2167]

Ka'i

(p)

[2167]

45

(iv.

r*p
in John twice.
Once carrot intervenes
"
for
also
went
rjkOov,
they
") perhaps receiving

Kai ydp occurs

kcu airol

yap

special emphasis from


iv.

"For

The

intervention (2692).

its

the Father also

6 7rarrjp)

other instance

is

seeketh such for his

(ko.1 yap
worshippers (toiovtovs ,r)Ti rovs TrfjoaKwovvTas aurov)," R.V. txt
"for such doth the Father seek to be h. w.," marg. "for such the

23,

Father also seeketh."


here, than

"

This rendering ("for... also ") is more probable,


"
Kai ydp may mean " for indeed
empha-

for indeed."

when there
sizing the cogency and truth of a causal proposition
no noun or pronoun that comes close after7vards.
But where there

is
is

such a noun or pronoun the force of Kai is to emphasize it, as in


11
For I also am under authority ." Taken thus, the words are
1

appropriate as a reply to the Samaritan woman, whose tone suggests


that she may have thought it a mark of weakness in man, much more
2
Mark
"seeking" implied want and need
"
records a saying of the Son about Himself,
For the Son of man also
3
(Kai ydp 6 v. t. d.) came to be a minister ."
John here records

in

to "seek," since

God,

a similar saying of the Son about the Father, and with the same
"For the Father also (Kai ydp 6 rr.) seeketh 4 ."

conjunction,

On

Kai. ..Se

see 2076,

Kai omitted

(cr)

and on

ovre... Kai see

2258

9.

between two adjectives

[2168] Such collections of adjectives as we find in the Pastoral


Epistles (2 Tim. iii. 2 foil.) "Self-loving, money-loving, boastful,

haughty etc." are not to be found

in

John, where two contiguous

second, to be part of the text, the translation will then be "This is the disciple
"
that also testifieth concerning these things, the [disciple] that also wrote
But
the possibilities of combining various readings are so numerous that
while to enter into further detail.

it is

not worth

" for
[2167 a] Mt. viii. 9, Lk. vii. 8. Comp. Mt. xxvi. 73
thy speech also,'" i.e.
besides other suspicious circumstances, Mk x. 45 "for the Son of man also," i.e.
He as well as others, not exempting Himself from the duty of common men,
Lk. vi. 32 " for sinners also" i.e. as well as the righteous, etc.
2
"
Give me to drink and had then perplexed
[2167/'] Christ had said to her
1

7 '

He could give her to drink. The evangelist here represents the


"
Give me your
Give," just as a father might say to his children

her by raying that

Son

as saying

hearts," and
thus

face"
Lord,
1

will

Mk

"

jusl

as (lod

is

represented in O.T. as saying to Israel "Seek ye my


in the hope that they may reply "Thy face,

"seeking" them

seek."
*

x. 45.

ISO

Jn

iv.

23.

CONJUNCTIONS
may always be explained by

adjectives

[2170]

special circumstances.

In

3, vdpBov ma-TLKr}^ (1736 d) (perhaps intended to suggest an inward


symbolical meaning) may be taken as a compound noun followed by
xii.

In

tvoXvtl'ixov.

xvii.

3, ere

tov fxovov dXrjBtvov deov

may be

illustrated

by Rom. xvi. 27 p.6vw cro^w 6ed>, where p-ovos perhaps implies (1895,
2664 tf) an adjective ("One") and an adverb ("uniquely"). It is
characteristic of

John

of saying " the

that, instead

last

and

greatest

"
day of the feast," he should say (vii. 37) Now on the last day
of the feast (ev o"e rrj io-^dry yp-epa
great one [too]
rfj paydXy

iopTrjs),''

adding "the great one" as a parenthetical remark

the

t?/s

1
.

Mt'v, (j-evToi

(xii)

The Johannine

[2169]

use of

p.iv

is

mainly in

interesting

its

bearing on the question whether oTdapav in xxi. 24 may have been


taken by Chrysostom as oTSa /xeV, on which point see 2429
35.

tXtyov .dXXot [Sc], and xi. 6 Tore pikv tpmvev


generally followed by Se, as in xix. 24 ol p.kv
7Tt Se TOV 'I.,
OVV (TTpa.TLWTai...l<TT7]Kl<Tav Se, xix. 32 TOV p.ZV TTpWTOV

Apart from

vii.

12 01

...errctra para, tovto,

p.\v

it is

XX.

30 7roXAa

ovv

p.lv

k.

dk\a...TavTa

oi8ev, Trdi'Ta 8e 6<ja

iiroir](Tv

et7rei/

Se.

In

IoxiVt/s

X.

41 'Iwav^s p-tv
7Tpt tovtov dXrjOij

o"r]p.uov
rjv,

the

by the beginning of the sentence is "John on


the one hand did no sign, but this man, who was predicted by John,

antithesis suggested

has

"

^but the subject is changed in


order to emphasize Trdvra.
The two remaining instances of p.i\> are in
words of the Lord, xvi. 9 Trepl dp.apTia<; p.v...TTp\ StKatotrui'^s 8e...Trepl
fulfilled

(2077) ok

all

John's predictions

Kpi'creojs,

and

xvi.

22

k. v/xeis

ovv vvv

oxpopai v/xa?, where, in strict regularity, the

p.kv Xvir-qv X eTe

'

^dXtv 8e

second verb should have

in the second person ("but hereafter ye shall rejoice "),


but the writer passes off to the cause of the future joy.
[2170] McVtoi occurs nowhere in the Synoptists, but five times in

continued

John.
in xx. 5

In

iv.

"

He

27 "No one, however, said, What seekest thou?" and


did not, however, enter in," a feeling of reverence is

suggested in vii. 13 "No one, however, spake freely about him," the
In xii. 42
after
reason is added- "owing to the fear of the Jews."
having said "they did not believe" the evangelist says "yet
:

1
[2168 <?] Some Latin translators have been perplexed by the Gk article and
"
by taking eoprr) as feast-day; a has in novissima autem magna die festi Judaeorum,"
but b "in novissimo autem die magno ac solenne," e "in die autem novissimo
magno die festo," d andjf" in novissimo autem die (^f+illo) magno diei festi,"
SS "and on the great day of the feast."

151

CONJUNCTIONS

[2171]

however

owing

(o/xw<;

even of the rulers

fxtvToi)

believed in him, but


In xxi. 4

many

to [fear of] the Pharisees they did not confess him."

"Jesus stood on the beach. The disciples, however, did not know
it was
Reviewing the
Jesus" is the only remaining instance
whole, we may say that fxivToi is never used except where the context
1

that

prevention of some action by fear, or reverence or


some mysterious restraint. As bearing on the last instance comp.
Lk. xxiv. 16 "But their eyes were holden that they should not know

indicates

him."
"Ottov

(xiii)

In

[2171]

classical

Greek,

ottov

is

used after a

not

definite

mention of place, as it is in John, e.g. i. 28, "Bethany, beyond


Jordan, where (ottov) John was...," xii. 1 "Bethany, where Lazarus

was"

18

Compare especially xix. 17


called in Hebrew Golgotha, where
etc.

"...to the place of a

they crucified him,"


This
almost equivalent to, "a/id there they crucified him."
ottov
is
rare
from
where
so
the
use
is
not
borrowed
LXX,
Johannine
skull

(ottov)

i.e.

Nor
it is non-occurrent in the Pentateuch, Joshua and
Kings.
But Mark uses it thus four
does the Thesaurus give instances of it.
or five times, and Matthew
probably sometimes borrowing from

that

Mark uses

it

about thrice 2

In connexion with the Resurrection,

[2170 a] Out of Jn, it occurs only 2 Tim. ii. iy 6 p.. arepebs


reXelre f3acriXiKbv, Jude 8 bp.oiios p.. koli ovtoi.

dep.eXt.os,

Jas

ii.

it

ei p.. vbp.ov
2

Mk

[2171 ]

ii.

ariy-qv Sttov r)v...Tov KpafiarTov Sttov 6 TrapaXvTiKbs

tt\v

15 oi irapa tt\v bbbv ottov aTrdperai b Xbyos, ix. 48 Y^epvai' ottov 6


avrdv ou TeXevroJ, xvi. 6 see below (21716'): Mt. xiii. 5 (definite) to.

KariKtiTO,
crKil>\ri^

(?) iv.

TTfTpwOr) ottov ovk elxev "YV" TroXXr)i>, but

TrerpQSes

[tcai]

ottov ovk

Mk

which implies " the palace of Caiaphas."


Mt.

[2171/']

Mk

Sttov in
is

(payu,

[2171

vi.

19

xiv. 14

20

Mt.

r.

Mt.

xxviii. 6, see

7-7)1/

vi.

20)

o7toi; kX^ttttjs

is

below

Ka<.a.<pa.v

(2171c").

33) is of a somewhat indefinite nature, and


(Mt. om.) ttov iarlv rb KaraXvpia. p.ov ottov...

Qeo-aaXoptKriv, ottov..., xx. 6

uses ottov five times, but never as


to be recognised in Lk. xii. 33 (where Lk. follows

(W.H.

ovk

inserted) to

xii.

11)

interrogative, and, so far, indefinite.


in xvii.
c] "Ottov occurs, in the Acts, only

Tpy&da... ottov
above, unless an exception
(v.

(Lk.

xxii.

(Lk.

iv. 5 (indefinite if xai is

In Mt. xxvi. 57, Sttov follows

dx*" yv v ToXXrjv.

ov).

Lk.

lyyLfrtL.

[2171c/] The Johannine combinations of ottov with up.i above, as well as the
non-use of el/u "go" in N.T., and almost complete absence of elpi.i in O.T., shew
that

o7roi; dp.1

vii.

36) although the

been where

(not dp.i)

"go,"

must be read

Jews

i'Tr&yio

in vii. 34,

" where

am

"

(rep.

by the Jews

in

If the meaning had


35 as TropdxaOai.
or Tropevop.ai would almost certainly have been em-

refer to

it

in vii.

ployed (as Jesus frequently uses both).


'where 1 am, there ye cannot come.''

A
152

strong incompatibility

is

suggested by

CONJUNCTIONS

[2173]

Mark and Matthew in an angelic utterance ("see the


1
in John in a description of two angels in the tomb
but
place"),
Here Matthew approaches a dependent interrogative, but Mark and
occurs

in

John do

not.

John frequently uses

[2172]

scene of some notable action:

made

the water wine,"

with or without a preceding


already been the

ottov,

now mentioned had

toVos, to denote that the place

iv.

46

"

Cana. .. .where (ottov) he had


(ottov) they ate

23 "near the place where

vi.

vii. 42 "Bethlehem the village where David


[once] was,"
40 "the place where John [once] was, at the first, baptizing," xii. 1
"
He came to Bethany where was Lazarus," i.e. " where (as I said

the bread,"
x.

xi.
1), Lazarus lived, whom Jesus raised from the dead."
not been for the other passages quoted above, this last might
have been supposed to mean "where Lazarus was" at the time when

above,

Had

it

Jesus

"came."

inserted

In

28,

i.

thus

"

comma

(2277a) be

should perhaps

These things came

to pass in Bethany
where
was
(lit.)
beyond
John
baptizing (/3a7ri-ia>i/),"
(fjv),
and tjv may mean "was and had been for some time" (2648).
Under ordinary circumstances we should translate ottov ckci-to in
171',

Jordan

"

xx. 12,

to

after

mean

where lay the body of Jesus," but


"

ivhere

had

it

it is

shewn by the context

lain' ."

"O-rrws

(xiv)

This (1695) occurs frequently in Matthew and Luke, but

[2173]

only once

Mark

in

(iii.

"

that they

might destroy (aVoAeo-wo-iv)

him") and once in John (xi. 57 "that they might take (-mao-iao-iv)
him "). Matthew's parallel to Mark iii. 6 agrees with Mark verbatim,
but Luke's differs 3

tov

[2171
tSttov

rod

Mk

<f]

8ttov

Elsewhere, Matthew uses oVws (but

xvi.
Zkcito,

l'5e,

Jn

xx.

t6ttos

12

ottov

deiopei

id-qKav

b~\jo

Mt.

clvt6v,

ayy\ovs...6Trou

Luke never)
xxviii.

txeiTo

to

i'Sere
aCofxa.

Irjffov.

"

"

Etam where (?v9a) Samson lived," is


where-clause," e.g.
[2172 a]
in the Onomasticon of Eusebius, and such clauses are natural in works
about sites of interesting scenes. But in John something more than this is apparent
-

common

emphasis laid by him on the fact that the public work of Christ begins, and
almost ends, in two places of the same name, Bethany. There is, perhaps, a
feeling that history repeats itself and that things appear to move in a circle

in the

even when they are really going on, as when the Son
he was before" Comp. i. 28 ottov r\v T. fiaTTTi'fwv and

(vi.

x.

62) "goeth up where


ottov rjv I. to TrpQnov

40

{iaiTTifav.
3

[2173 a]

rep 'Itjoov.

Mt.

On

xii. 14.

7rtdj"c<;

Lk.

see 1723 c

vi.

11 has

8u\d\ovv

and Ox. Pap. 812

153

-rrpos

a\\r]\ovs tL

ai> Troir/aaiei'

(B.C. 5) TreTriao-Tai Xoxpiwv.

CONJUNCTIONS

[2174]
in

similar contexts

Mark-Matthew

1
.

These

facts suggest that

or

ensnare, Jesus," and


adopted, this method of expression.
destroy,

oVws was current in

traditions about the plots of the

that

Jews

"

in order to

Luke avoided, while John

See 2693.

"On 2

(xv)

'On

(a)

(i) suspensive, (2) explanatory

'On

is used
[2174]
by John much more frequently than by Luke,
and somewhat more frequently than by Mark and Matthew taken
One reason is, that John deals largely with causes, and
together.

uses otl very frequently in the sense "because."


In theory,
ambiguity might arise from the fact that Ae'yw, ttio-tcvw, deiopiio etc.,
followed by otl, might mean "I say, believe, behold,
that," or, "I
In practice, however, such
say, believe, behold, because"
ambiguity,

though not infrequent, is not very


important passage to be considered

serious,
later

on

in

except

one

becauseperhaps
John adheres

Greek usage, which would not sanction the conjunction


such verbs, except to mean "that," introducing the
object of

to regular
after

the verb.

[2175]

KaOws (2122
shall

more

serious

32) may be

live") as well

"because

Where

occurs,

The

live").

"

as

cause of ambiguity is that


used (t) suspensively ("because

on

like

I live

ye

explanatorily ("ye shall live" [why?]


former construction is comparatively rare.

(2)

because

"

ought to be, so to speak, protected from


the preceding sentence by a
or other conjunction as in Gal. iv. 6
"But because (otl 8e) ye are sons, God hath sent forth his Spirit."
it

"

Else,

because ye are sons

"

might be connected with the

last

words

of the preceding sentence.

In the following passage the first on is


the second on is probably suscertainly suspensive after ovtws
pensive but not certainly (owing to the absence of a conjunction)
Rev. iii. 16
17 "Thus (ounos), because (otl) thou art lukewarm... I
:

am

about to spew thee out of my mouth. Because (otl) thou sayest


'I am rich...' and knowest not..., I counsel thee to
Here
buy...."

the construction might be "Because thou art lukewarm I purpose to


spew thee out, because [/ say] thou sayest...," and "I counsel"

[2173/']

OavaTuGwoiv.

Mt.

xxii.

15 bwu>% avrbv Kayifevawoiv iv \6yifi, xxvi. 50 ottws avrbv

"

for the sake of variety"; but the


:n) on Jn xi. 57 says
repetitions of Ira in 2116- 20 are against this view.
<>ro' is discussed under Tense, Aorisl and Present
Subjunctive (2531 5).
lilacs (p.

154

CONJUNCTIONS

[2177]

might begin a new sentence ; and the English Hexapla prints the
words thus in all versions after that of 1380 a.d. 1
.

suspensive use of on in the Greek Testament is first


[2176]
found in Genesis iii. 14 "And the Lord God said unto the serpent,

The

cursed art thou," and iii. 17 " Unto


Adam he said, Because (on) thou hast hearkened... cursed is the
ground." In the second case, it would be quite possible to take

Because

thou hast done

(otl)

this,

words of the speaker, " Unto Adam he said


Thou hast hearkened... Cursed is the ground.'" It is perhaps
[that]
for this reason that in Deuteronomy (i. 27 "and said, Because the
otl as introducing the
'

'

Lord hated
which Luke
In N.

'

")

where the Hebrew

also has (xviii. 5

"

is

the same, the

Yet because

this

LXX

widow

has Sia to

troubleth

me ").

almost confined to the Johannine writings


and the Apocalypse, and it is one of a few very interesting similarities
of style suggesting that the author of the Gospel may have been a
T., suspensive otl is

disciple, or

2
younger coadjutor, of the author of the Apocalypse

[2177] In John, the ambiguity of suspensive on is greatly increased


his
excessive use of asyndeton, e.g. xiv. 19 "But ye behold me.
by
Because (otl) I live, ye also shall live." Here it is possible, theo-

connect " because

"

with what precedes, and R. V. marg.


connexion, so as to give either (1) "But ye behold me
"
But ye behold me, because
live; and ye shall live," or (2)

retically, to

assumes

this

because

and [because] ye shall live." If the words occurred in a


Synoptic Gospel, one of these marginal renderings would be probable.
But in John, regard being had to his suspensive use of on elseI

live

It might
[2175 a] The suspensive construction is preferable (as in R.V.).
also be adopted in Rev. xviii. 7
much soever she glorified herself. ..so much
Because she saith in her heart, I sit a queen
give her of torment and mourning.
1

"How

'

am no widow and

and

no wise see mourning,' therefore (5lo. tovto) in one


day shall her plagues come...." Here, however, all the English versions have
"
" Therefore." "On is
"for she saith in her heart and begin a new sentence with
also suspensive in Rev. iii. 10 "...that they may know that I loved thee.
Because
(otl) thou didst keep the word of my endurance I also (K&yu) will keep thee...,"
where it would be quite possible to render the words " that they may know that I
"
loved thee because thou didst keep... and I
That is to say, it would be
But
no
one
familiar
with
the style of the author would so
theoretically possible.
render
2

15

it.

[2176 a] Besides Gal. iv. 6 (above quoted) otl suspensive occurs in i Cor. xii.
16 (bis) "If the foot shall say, 'Because I am not the hand, I am not of the

body'
are

shall in

it is

not therefore not of the body," and


seed, are they all children."

Abraham's

1;
:0

Rom.

ix. 7

"Neither, because they

CONJUNCTIONS

L2178]

"

and to his habitual use of (2149) /cat vfieh to mean


Ye
the
also,"
rendering given above, which is in the main that of R.V.
text, may be pronounced the only possible interpretation.
where

"Oti introducing (i) cause of action, (2)

(ft)

ground of statement

A doubt may

sometimes exist whether on, "because,"


[2178]
introduces (1) the ground or motive of an action ("he does this
because he likes it") or the proof of the truth of an assertion ("You
did

know]

this, [I

because

you were caught

the act

in

where

"),

(in

"
for."
Such a sentence as x. 5 " They
English) we should mostly use
will fee... because they know not," introducing a cause inherent in the

persons spoken

of,

presents no difficulty.

And

in this

way

"

because

"

would generally be used where it connects two verbs in the same


person ("you (or, they) do this because you (or, they) do that").
But the meaning is not so clear in v. 38 "Ye have not his word
abiding in you because (on)

mean

whom

he sent him ye believe not." Does

and refused to believe


Him, the Jews darkened their minds and made it impossible for
the word of God to "abide" in them?
In that case, on introduces

this

(1) that, because they rejected Christ

in

the reason
"

the

why

"word" did

Or does

?wt "abide."

it

mean

(2)

not his word abiding in you [I know this] because whom


he sent him ye believe not"? In that case on introduces the cause

Ye have

of the speaker's kno7vledge, the proof of his assertion.


to

mean "[I

The

use of

on

so
say this] because," "[And
true] because,"
frequent in John that the latter (2) is the more probable explanation.
If John had meant the former (1) he would have probably written "For
this

is

ye have not his word abiding


formula with him'2

this cause (Sta. tovto)

a very

common

is

in

you because"

[2177a] Comp. i. 50 6'rt elirov crot, xx. 29 on ewpaKcis fJ.e, where ort is
suspensive and initial.
Suspensive on is also initial with 6V in xv. [9, and d\\'
on is initial and suspensive in xvi. 6. In viii. 45 eyu 5e otl tt)v a\rjdciav Xeyw, ov
1

iTLo-TeueTt

one

hand

fj.01,

the 5^ introduces an antithesis to the previous sentence: "Ye on the


and move in falsehood as your

are the children of the Father of lies

atmosphere: but
believe
-

on the other hand

just

because

say the truth, ye do not

me."

Westcott says (ad toe.) "For (because)....]


ground but as the sign of what has been said. Comp.
Luke vii. 47;
John iii. ij.." The former passage ("her sins. ..are forgiven
because she loved much'") states the cause of being forgiven, in accordance with
the Law of Forgiveness: the latter ("we know that we have passed from death...
because we love the brethren") stales the ground of "knowing," which may be

This

[2178a]
is

R.V. and A.V. "for."

not alleged as the


1

56

CONJUNCTIONS

[2180]

[2179] In ii. 18 "What sign shewest thou because thou doest


"
"
the meaning of on seems to be
these things ?
[We ask thee this
1
question] because ," and similarly in vii. 35 "Where doth this man
to
purpose
go, [we ask this] because [according to what he says] we
"
"
The word that I spake, the
In xii. 48
shall not find him ?
9,

same

judge him

the last day, because I spake not from


the
but
the
Father...,"
meaning may be explained by turning
myself;
"because I spake" into "because it is spoken." "The word" will
shall

in

judge you, and will judge you, because it comes


"from
not
myself," but from the Father, the righteous
ultimately,
"But the hireling... fieeth, and the wolf
In
x.
12
13
Judge.

have the

right to

snatcheth

and scattereth

authorities insert

"

them

because

the hireling fieeth

supplies these words in italics


" the wolf
scatters the flock

"

he

is

"

before

but the sense

very well be that


the shepherd is a

may

because

Why ?]

some

a hireling,"

because," and R. V.

Similarly the laziness of a sentinel is a contributory cause


and an enemy may be said to surprise a camp "because

hireling."
to disaster,

the sentinel was asleep."


of on.

The passage

illustrates

John's varied use

18, a complicated passage in which connexions


[2180] In i. 14
of thought are broken by interventions of parentheses, on occurs
thrice, and in each case seems to base a new statement on some

preceding similar one, with a curious mannerism frequent in the


Fourth Gospel but particularly noticeable here. "On seems to mean
in

each case "

[I

"
this
say this] because of that" where

"

"

and

that

"

and "fulness" "first" and


and
thus:
"before" "grace"
"grace")
(a) "He is become before me,
"
"
because
he
was
in
the Logos
[/say before ']
first
regard to me
(b)

are similar or identical words (like "full"


'

tabernacled
fulness did
because,

among us...full of...- [/ say fuW\ because from his


we all receive"; (c) "...and grace (or grace, [I say grace']
'

whereas the

Law

[of

God] was given

[as a preparatory

grace

also called the cause of knowledge.


The analogy of both of these would seem to
point to (1) rather than (2): but Westcott seems to favour (2), if "the sign
means "the sign of the truth of."

of

less probable would be "In consequence of your taking


do these authoritative works you must be certainly intending to
prove your authority to us by working a sign what is that sign?" See 2183 a.
before me")
[2180a] The intervening verse (i. 15 "John beareth witness
is
It is so printed by W.H., but not
probably to be regarded as a parenthesis.
by R.V.

[2179a]

upon yourself

Somewhat
to

157

CONJUNCTIONS

[2181]

or preparation for grace] through Moses, the [real] grace [of


the truth [of God] came into being through Jesus Christ."

"On

(7)

in

"that" or "because"

(?)

"On

[2181]

by R.V.,

iii.

interpreted "because" by Chrysostom, but "that"


"And this is the judgment, that (avT-q Se eo-nv 77

is

19

on) the light hath


darkness rather than the
Kpto-is

ment

"

God] and

come
light."

into the world

and men loved the

Here Chrysostom

taking "judg

condemnation bringing punishment with it paraphrases


"
What he means is to this effect, For this cause (Sta tovto)

thus,

as

punished because they did not desire to leave the darkness


But the use of a similar phrase in 1 Jn i. 5
to the light."
14 "And this is the boldness that we have
[namely] that..."

they are

and run

and

v.

men

on here means

confirms the view that


love darkness

is

their

condemnation.

The very

"that."

fact that

Similarly (2187)

iii.

18

more accurately
rendered "found guilty of not having believed" than "found guilty
because he has not believed": and Ammonius (paraphrasing "found
guilty" as "punished") suggests this view of on in his comment:
6

/at)

TTLarevoiv

"Disbelief
[2182]
"

He

will

is

KeKpnai on

rj&r)

of itself a punishment

in

."

say this because" in xvi. 8


convict the world about sin and about righteousness and
in the first place (/teV)

me

about

sin,

[/say

this] because

next place (Se) about righteousness,


I go unto the Father and ye no longer behold
the next place (Se) about judgment, [/ say this] because the

they believe not on


[/ say this] because
;

is

"On probably means "I

about judgment;

me

TreTriarevKev

/at)

in the

of the defining
prince of this world hath been judged." The absence
clause a\nq Se' ea-TLv differentiates this passage from iii. 19, and the
statement " I will judge the world about these three things" suggests
to the reader "Why about these three in particular?" so as to
" I
"
because."
say about sin,
prepare the way for a threefold
unbelief is at
and
are
because it will be shewn that they
unbelieving

say about righteousness, because it will be shewn


out of the world, and to be driven out of the
out
unjust or unrighteous world "as Aristides the just was driven
"is a proof of justice or righteousness"; I say
of unjust Athens

the bottom of sin


that they drive

me

about judgment, because the prince of


1

this world,

Cramer ad loc. avrb rb diriaTUv k6\cl<tIs can.


Heb. xi. 37 "Evil entreated, of whom

Coiii|).

wandering

in deserts...."

[58

the

who

world

by

-.ens

means

not worthy,

CONJUNCTIONS

[2184]

will have judged and sentenced


of his agents, Pilate and the priests
me to the death of a criminal, will himself have been judged and cast

into hell, so that the

and condemned

judgment of

world

will

have been judged

."

R.V. and A.V.

[2183]

this

differ in ix. 17

"What

dost thou

say

(o~v)

about him, (R.V.) in that he opened thine eyes?" (A.V. "that he


The object of " sayest " has preceded
hath opened thine eyes ? ").
(" IVAat say est thou?") and the blind man has already said (ix. 15)
in

effect,

naturally

"he hath opened mine eyes."


expect on to introduce, not the

a reason for the saying

Consequently, we

may

object of "sayest," but


"
In consequence of this cure what do

"

At all events the blind man takes it in this


you say about him ?
and not, as the A.V.
for
he
replies "[I say] he is a prophet,"
way,
I
that
he
did open my eyes."
would
"Yes,
say
require,
rendering
But, if R.V. is right, it would be better not to insert a comma (as

R.V. does) before "in that" but to run the words on thus, in effect,
"What sayest thou (emph.) about him for having [as thou sayest]
"
The comma of R.V. before on might lead
opened thine eyes ?
the reader to give

indeed

"

on

as though

the force of

"we

ask this because" or " for

the questioners acknowledged the miracle

but

2
the next verse shews that they did not acknowledge it
[2184] In the following, on certainly means "that"; but the
.

may be

conveniently placed here, because, as in the instances last discussed, on follows ri and a question. R.V. punctuates
It represents what the
the sentence as two questions, A.V. as one.
instance

"

Jews
3

Jesus

"
"
to one another while they
kept looking for
kept saying
He
would
come
whether
to the Feast, in
another
one
asking

"

view of the attempts, mentioned in the context, to

[2182(7]

The "judgment"

(or

kill

or capture

"condemnation") of "the prince of

this

world," would be regarded by Christians as demonstrated primarily by the


But external signs of it would
Resurrection of Christ and its triumph over death.
also be looked for in all that subsequently befel Pilate, Herod Antipas, and the
rulers of the Jews,

who would

be regarded as the agents of "the prince of this

world."
2
[2183 a] According to this view, this passage differs slightly from ii. 18,
where a comma precedes &ri "What sign art thou about to shew unto us \we
Here the position of the
ask this'] because thou doest these things (2179)?"
authoritative ftfuv, in t'i arjixdov SeiKvvets ijfj-'iv, indicates that the sign must be
shewn "unto us," and that "we" have a right to ask for it.

xi.

56 imperf.

ei~riTovi>...Z\eyov.

159

CONJUNCTIONS

[2185]

Him

xi.

the feast

"What

56
"

ov

prominence

That he
eXOy

(xr)

"

appears to be

But the text

is

to

intention

courage in the face of

think

dream of venturing

to

[Do you

text

think, as

come to the feast?

"

The passage, however, comes


how complex may be the considerations on
6Vi may depend, and how even the Greek

not quite certain

usefully here as shewing

The

and the meaning of the

What do you (emph.)

do,] that he will never

come

assuredly not

will

cts rrjv lopTr/v;

to Christ's

recognised by everybody,

dangers

we

on

vfj.lv;

to give

is

certainly

think ye?

Tt WokzI

which the meaning of


commentators may be puzzled by John's use of it.
[2185] Other instances in the Fourth Gospel where A.V. and
R.V. differ in this respect are unimportant e.g. iv. 35, (R.V.) "Lift
up your eyes and look on the fields, that (6'n) they are white already
unto harvest 2 ."
of A. V.,

Here A.V. has "/or they are white"; and, in favour


might be fairly argued that if John meant "behold that..."

it

"
behold that the fields are white," as elsehe might have written
where (vi. 5) "beholding that (on) a great multitude cometh 3 ."
1

[2184<z]

Tt 5oKt

5o/ceiYe, a, b, e, AoKetre, "Do ye suppose?" (instead of


"Do ye suppose that perchance he cometh not to the feast?"
He
first ri vluv 8oku ov
Z\8r)... ("What do you think?

reads Tt

SS has

vlliv;).

Origen ad loc. has at


never surely come

fx-q

though quoting correctly afterwards.


Chrysostom (Migne) ad loc. has doKeire, and "in the course of (eV) the Feast."
He adds Tovriariv, 'T&vravda, avrbv e/xireo~e7i> 8eT, tov Kaipov k<x\ovvtos avrbv.
Cramer has ri vluv ooKei, on ov /xr/ 2\6r) els tt\v kopTqv, adding 6 Se \e7et toiovtov
will

[will

he]...?")

tOTiv, ivravda avrov eLnreaetv Set tov Kaipov koKovptos avrbv.

"temere

efxirlTTTw absol.

irruere."

Chrysostom uses

ifx-ireo-eii*

about coming to a feast in the midst of excitement.


[2185 <?] In iii. i\ (A.V.) "that his deeds may be

Steph.

iii.

882 gives

again (on Jn

made

vii.

10)

manifest, that they

God," R.V. has txt ''that" marg. "because." In vii. 52 (A.V.)


"Search and see, /or," R.V. has txt "that," marg. "for." In viii. 22 (A.V.)
"Will he kill himself? because he saith..." i.e. "\_We ash this'] because," R.V. has

are wrought in

"that" he

On

(presumably attempting to correct not the sense but the English).


2186 foil. Cases of "not that" meaning "not because" are not

saith

xiv. 2 see

included in this
In

[2185/']

has,

"Thou

translation

'

list.

xviii.

sayest

Tlwu

sayest that I am a king," R.V. marg.


a king," on which Westcott justly says, "The
rightly), because I am'' seems to be both unnatural as

37 (R.V.

[it]

because

sayest

(i.e.

txt)

"Thou

am

In xxi. 23 ovk
a rendering of the original phrase, and alien from the context."
elirtv 5e avrw 6 '\r}crovs tin ovk atrodwrjo-Kei, SS has "for that" i.e. because, "but
In such cases, the Latin quod,
|e-u>. ii"i for that he was not to die said he [it]."
or quia, would often reproduce the ambiguity of the Greek.

2185 1] &eao-0al ti 8tl foil, by indie, (like v. 42 tyvwKa vp.as on ovk ?X eTt )
Westc. says '-lor, rather that," but
does not appear to exist elsewhere in N.T.
ons; Thayer recognises ri as the ordinary accus., apparently favouring
A. V.; Alloid lias no remark about the construction.
;;

l60

CONJUNCTIONS

[2186]

But perhaps R.V. is right in judging that John (even when an


accusative intervened) would not use on (2174) after any verb of
"
that," because to use it in any other
perception in any sense but
sense would, as a rule, involve obvious and immediate misunder1

standing

[2186] In all the passages bearing on on, up to this point, no


instance has been found of Ae'yw closely followed by on meaning " I say
.

because." This makes

it

all

the

more remarkable

that in

one passage,

according to R.V., John has used i7reiv on to mean, "say [it] because,"
on which is based the following rendering (xiv. i 2), "Let not your
heart be troubled
ye believe (or, believe) in God, believe also in

me.

In

my

I would have

Father's house are


told

you ; for I go

to prepare a place for you."


8e

el

/XT]

(2080

were not

way

Even

so."

(el 8e

fxi]

6),

that there

[olJtus

if it

171']),

many mansions
(el 8e fir/,

It

du

e?7roi'

were not

if it

vfxlv

on

so,

-rropevofxat)

has been shewn, under the head of

no authority

for the rendering "if it


were allowable to supply the sense in that
it is doubtful whether such an
ellipsis could
is

be repeated as a second ellipsis, so as to make the sense " I should


"
have said to you [that it was not so] elirov dv vfuv [on ov^ ovnos
No authority has been alleged for this 2 But, apart from all
eortv].
.

these facts, the regular Greek and Johannine use of Xeyew or el-n-elv
on, "say that' should oblige translators to assume, in the first
7

instance, that,

if

the text

not corrupt, the meaning here

is

should have said to you that

I a?n

For on equivalent to ware,

[2185</]

is,

going*."

in xiv. 22, see 2694.

In Jn xx. 13 R.V. and A.V. have ''Because they have taken away
W.H. txt has \4yei clvtoTs otl 'Hpa^ (marg. "On TJpau), which

Lord," but

my

" I

being more impassioned and more like xx. 18 otl 'Ewpa/ca is prob. correct, in
spite of the fact that the words are an answer to the question "Why weepest

thou?"
2
[2186 a] The instances, Mt. xxviii. 7 "Behold I have said [it] to you,"
Mt. xxiv. 25 "I have said [it] to you before," Jn x. 25 "I said [it] to you and ye
believe not" all refer to something preceding, and more or less definitely expressed.
For example, Jn x. 25 "I said [it] (elirov) to you" refers to the preceding words
"If thou art the Christ say [so] (d-rrbv) to us." In xiv. 29 "I have said [it]
(dp-qua) to you" (better than "I have told you") probably refers to xiv. 28

"I

said (enroi') to you, I depart."


3

[2186

/>]

For the new meaning

that

would be given

this interpretation the reader is referred to


added that several authorities (including a

(including SS) has


is

omitted after

A. VI.

"I

"I should have

'

and

said that

said" in Ps. xxx. 6

"I

l6l

5e

whole passage by
Here it may be
omit on, and that the Syriac

/jlti

e)

go."

to the

(2080

In

6).

LXX,

otl

"recitativum"

said I shall never be removed," xxxi.

II

CONJUNCTIONS

[2187]

"On mh

(S)

[2187] In one instance, on pif in the Gospel curiously contrasts


with otl ov in the Epistle: Jn iii. 18 "He that believeth not
(6
n-icTTeviDv) hath been judged already because he hath ?wt believed (on
firj ircTrto-Tcu/cev) in the name of the only begotten Son of God," i
Jn

io "

v.

him a

He

God

that

God

that believeth not

(6

/at)

tw 0cw) hath made

-ino-Tevwv

say this] because he hath not believed in the testimony


"
testified (on ov Treirio-TevKtv fi? tt)v
In the
fxaprvpiav)

liar

[I

on

ov states the fact objectively


in the former, on firj states it
subjectively, as the judgment pronounced by the Judge, "This man
latter,

is

"

guilty in that he hath not believed'' so that the

hath been pronounced guilty of not


believing:'

Oyx

(e)

meaning

almost

is

See 2695.

oti

on often means "not only" and


explained as "not [only do I say] that," so as to prepare the
"
way for a'AAa Kai but [I] also [say this]." But in N.T. it never has
that meaning.
When it comes immediately after a statement that is
in danger of
being misunderstood, ov\ o'n might be explained as
"
not because...," (2) " [7
to
say
that...:
(i)
[I
this],
do] not
In classical Greek, ov^

[2188]

may be

[mean

The

latter is generally the

()

"Oti

"

recitativum

more probable.

See

say]

Ellipsis,

2218

9.

"

[2189] "On "recitativum" is a Greek way of expressing our


inverted commas, or the Hebrew "saying," as in i. 20 "he confessed
that (otl)

This

is

I am

not the Christ"

very frequent in

i.e.

"

saying 'I

Mark, frequent

in

am

not the Christ.'"

John, somewhat

less so in

1
The use of otl 'Eyw in
Luke, and comparatively rare in Matthew
the case of the Baptist above and of the blind man in ix. 9
lAeyci/ on
"
"
'Eyw elfj.L, may be contrasted with the omission of on when I am
.

is

uttered by Jesus in

xviii.

Ae'yci

avTols 'Eyw

dfj.L...Lo\

ovv

elirev

avTols 'Eyw elpL.


Neither here nor elsewhere except in two or
three instances where sayings of Christ are repeated for the second

12 "I

said... I

am

cut off," xxxii. 5

influenced the scribes that omitted

it

"I

said

here.

If

will
it

confess"

This may have


would indicate that

etc.

did, the fact

the scribes regarded 6n as meaning "that" not "because."


The mss. vary, and editors print the same text differently
[2189 a
eyw and on 'E>u>) so that it is difficult to obtain exact statistics. W.I
1

Mt.

x. 7 K-opixraere

X^ovres 8n "HyyiKev but Lk.


yip to tdvos TffxCiv....
,

irapi^ri tovto, dyairq.

l62

vii.

4 \tyovres

on

(e&
I.

8tl

print

a$i6s iariv

CONJUNCTIONS

[2190]

time (2190)
does John use otl before direct speech of the Lord after
"he said": consequently when we find "7 said" a little later on,
xviii. 8 Uttov vfjuv otl lyu> elfit, there is some reason for thinking that
1
"
There are many
is
I said to you that I am ."
reported speech,
instances of this phrase (" I said that ") because John (differing from
the Synoptists) frequently represents Christ as referring to what He

this

Himself has previously said, e.g. i. 50 "Because


(otl) I saw thee under the fig-tree," vi. 36 "But

I said unto thee that


I said to you that ye

24 "/ said... to you that ye shall die in your


not say to thee that, if thou wilt believe, thou
"
shalt see the glory of God ?," xvi. 15
For this cause I said to you
that he taketh from that which is mine and [that he] will declare

have seen me,"

it

"

40

sins," xi.

viii.

Did

In

unto you."

is nothing to shew whether


speech; but W.H. print the
and their view agrees with the general absence

all

these passages there

otl introduces (1) direct or (2) reported

text as the latter,

of otl recitativum elsewhere after " he said

"

introducing words of

Christ.

"
Even as I said to
[2190] The text varies somewhat in xiii. 33
the Jews that Where I go, ye are not able to come,' [so] to you also
I sayfor the moment"; but if the text is correct- and if the
'

reference

to

is

viii.

then otl recitativum

21,

The

quotation of a saying of the Lord.


xviii. 9 Lva irX-qptoOrj 6

[2189 b]

Lord, see

vi.

Aoyos ov

For the omission of


20 \^y

clvtols

'E7W

otl

here used in exact

quotation

elsewhere before iyu

and

not exact in

is

otl Ov<; Sc'Sojkci? /xol ovk a7rcoAecra

ei-rrev

elfu,

is

in

elfxi,

words of the

35 elirev aureus 6 'I-qaovs 'Eyui

vi.

eZ/xi

e'ytb

tipTOS TT)V j'WJJS.

[2189

In the Baptist's words,

c]

W.H.

print

28

iii.

Xptcrroj, dXX' 6Vt 'ATrearaXfi^vos el/xi tpLwpocrdev eKeivov.

seems

to blend (1)

"I

said

'

am

'/am

say
2

the Christ,' but I said,


[2190 a] "Oti is ora. by

come.''

ND

Christ

had

said in

vii.

not the Christ but


1

1 am
b,

e.

one

am

elirov [6706]

However
one

Ovk

elfj.1

printed, the text

sent,''"

(2)

"I did not

sent.''''''

SS has

"Where
read "sum"
34

"that, where I go they cannot


am, ye are not able to come," and
in xiii. 33; b reads "eo" which may
I

(perhaps for this reason) a and e


be intended for /u accented elfu "I go" (in vii. 34, a renders elfd "I am" by
"vado" and sim. SS "go"). Another instance where on is omitted by Bruder

XA) but ins. by W.H. is xiii. 11 dia. tovto elirev 8ti Ovxl TrdfTes Kadapoi
What Jesus had actually said, was 'T^ueis Kadapoi tore ctXX' ovxJL Trdvres, so

(following
ioTe.

In view of a future consideration of Johannine


is not exact.
worth while noting that (a) vii. 34 Sirov eifii e'yw v/xeis ov duvacrde
eXdeif is exactly repeated by the Jews in vii. 36, that (b) viii. 21 otrov eyih vwdyoj
vfAels ov ovvacrde eXOeiv is exactly repeated by the Jews in viii. 22, and that (c) the
second of these sayings is exactly repeated by Christ, with 6tl in xiii. 33 otl "Ottov
that this quotation

quotations

it

is

yu...e\&eli'.

l6T,

II

CONJUNCTIONS

[2191]

i$ avrwv ov8eia, which is a certain instance of on recitativum before


words of the Lord. It is assumed by Westcott and Alford that the

reference
...ko.1

But there

"Those whom thou hast given me


name which thou

(2544

foil.).

does

Why

lost."

This

exactly?

question
does not

It

is

not

ovojxaTL o-ov

Se'SwKas

a great difference

fJ.01

between

not one of them" and "I

I lost

kept them in thy

them was

tw

to xvii. 12 irrjpovv avrovs iv

is

oiSeU i avrwv cnrwAeTo.

hast given me... and not one of


the evangelist give the words

must be considered under "Variation"


come under the present heading except so

suggests a possibility that the writer may sometimes use on


"
when he does not propose to give the
[to this effect] that"
exact words in a quotation '.
far as

to

it

mean

(xvi)

(a)

05v

In Christ's words

[2191] Ovv, in Matthew and Luke, when used by our Lord,


introduces a precept, or inference, as being based on something that
precedes (often a parable or statement of considerable length) of
"
a very cogent nature
Be not ye therefore anxious," " Look to it
therefore whether the light within thee be darkness," "If therefore ye,
:

[2190^] Thus our Lord says to the Jews ix. 41 \4yere tin WKiwo^v, and
36 Xiyere tin B\a<T<prjfieis, meaning "Ye say in effect." In reality (1) they had
not said, "We see," but "Are we blind also?" and (2)
they had not said "Thou
1

x.

blasphemest," but

"We

stone thee for blasphemy and because thou,


being a man,

makest thyself God."


be found that almost all Jn's quotations and repetitions, with
are given with variations (2544 foil.).
But tin introduces an exact
quotation (soon after the passage last quoted) in x. 34 Ouk Zanv yeypa/j./xevoi' ev r
vow v/xCiv on 'Eyw elira Qeoi iare, where a short saying is quoted exactly to
[2190 c]
or without

It will

tin,

illustrate the

pervading thought

that those to

whom

ayy^Wovua

the

in the

in

rots fiad-qrah tin "EwpaKO. t6v Kvptov

of Christ's Resurrection are

have seen," and then the

first

fact that

summed up

He

calls "your own Law,"


some sense "gods." In xx. 18

whole of what Jesus

word of God comes are

in

elirev avrrj,

kclI tclvto.

the tidings

one phrase of direct speech "I

said certain things

is

expressed

in

reported

speech.
[2190</] In xvi. 17 tL eanv tovto S \iyet tjixIu
rbv waripa, tin is probably "because."

~S\.iKptiv

Kai ov...Kai

"On

i-rrdyu

Jn would hardly omit on recit.


before "MiKpdv and insert it before 'Tttciyci;
if both were the first words of
quota"Because" may be the first word of "Because I go to the Father" repeated
tions.
from xvi. 10 "because I go to the Father and ye no longer behold me." Several
authorities interpolate the italicised words in xvi. id, and it is clear thai these
n-pbs

took tin as "because."

164

CONJUNCTIONS

[2192]

gifts to your children, how much


unrighteous mammon ye were not
1
John (1883) uses ovv very
faithful, who shall entrust to you... ?"
in
times
in
his
about
all, but in Christ's words
195
Gospel,
frequently
most
times.
It
occurs
8
frequently when He
very rarely, only

being

know how

evil,

"If

more...?''

to give

good

therefore in the

arguing with unbelievers or doubters ; but He uses it twice in the


Discourse with the disciples before the Passion, and, for the last
time, to the soldiers arresting Him. He has twice asked them "Whom

is

And

seek ye?"

He

Now

they have twice replied, "Jesus of Nazareth."


" I told
if
that I am he.

you

replies (xviii. 8)

it is

Therefore,

"Therefore," in R.V., has the advanwould


sometimes be preferable.
but
"then"
of
uniformity,
tage
that ye seek, let these depart."

The other instances in Christ's words are as follows


"Doth this cause you to stumble? (lit.) If therefore ye should
beholding {lav ovv Oeojpijre) the Son of man ascending where he
:

[2192]

vi.

be

62

it

Mt.

[2191a]

as follows

vi.

mostly

31,

Lk.

35, Mt.

xi.

in Christ's

words

Mk
iv.

24 [3\eTreTe

iv.

30

/cat

11,

Lk.

xvi.

i\eyev, ITcDs

xiii.

v.

31

13

xxi.

ri TToirjcrei

10 oudi

omits

ypacprjv

T7]v

xxi.

clXXtjv wapafioX-qv

rb aXas

ecrri

v/j,els

42

xiii.

xiv.

34 Ka\bv oZv to aXas

Xiywv Ofxola
e Xdrj...Ti

xx.

Xiyec avrois
Ovdeirore dvi-

XX.

40 brav ovv

Trier.

ravrrfv aviyvwre

often inserts
it

18 (SXiirere odv ttwsI


18 fXeyev ovv, TivL

ttol Tjcrei

xii.

Luke

viii.

Mk

Lk.

om.

50 Ka\bv to aXas

xii.

Mt.
ri...

ir.a.

ix.

vii.

where the parall

ovv

15 ri
avrois

OVV

ri

17

iroirjcrei

iffTLV

TO

yeypap.fj.ivov

yvwre
xii.

20

eirra. d.

xxii.

qcrav

25

xii.

23

iv r. a. rivos aii-

rCiv 'iarai

xxii.

iirra.

28 iv

xx. 29 eirra ovv d. rfaav

irap'

d.

xx. 33

odv rivos

rfj a.

tQv eirra

yvvq

be

y)crav

r\plv

i)

71*71 ovv iv T.

d. rivos

i-arai 71*77

avrQv yiverai

71*7}
xii.

xiii.

37 Autos A.
avrbv KvpLOV

eiirbv

ravra
xiv. 61

wore

xxii.

45 el ovv A. KaXel
aVTOV KVpLOV

xxiv. 3 as

piov KaXel

Mk

xxi.

airoXvaw

xxvi. 63

el

o~ii

el 6

arbs b vibs

xxvii. 17

cr

XP L

xxii.

deov

t.

irbre

ow

70 (perh.

aii

ravra

ovv

el

parall.)
vibs t.

deov (see context),


16, 22 iraidevcras

vvr)yp.iviov ovv

avrQv elirev

i/fuv

to-TCLi

el 6 xp7Tos 6
rod evXoyqrov

OiXere

44 A. oZv avrbv kv-

xx.

'icrrai.

Su

vibs

xv.

rjfiiv

\iyei

xxiii.

ovv avrbv diroXvcrw

.riva 6i-

Xere airoXvcrw

In the

last five

passages of Lk., only Lk. xx. 44

result indicates a general preference of ovv in

165

Lk.

is

in Christ's

words.

The

CONJUNCTIONS

[2193]

was before

Here

".

there

is

an

ellipsis

of the apodosis

The passage
ye do?" or "What is to happen?"
obscure (221012) but the meaning appears to be

will

is

"What

extremely
if

that,

they

stumble already at the truth, they will, as an inevitable consequence,


In viii. 24
stumble again when a higher truth is set before them.
"
"Ye are
after
in
shall
die
I said therefore to you 'Ye
your sins,'"
"
lieth
v.
world"
"this
that
assumes
of this world," Jesus
19)
(1 Jn
of sin and death, so that
wholly in the evil [one]," i.e. in the hands
"
" are of this world " will "
in
in their sins
who
those
therefore die
"
The Son abideth [in the house] for ever. If therefore the
viii. 36
Son shall free you, ye shall be free indeed," it is assumed that what
;

the Son of the house does will be ratified by the Father, and

fore" will be permanent and "real."


difficult passage, ovv
[2193] In the following

"

there-

help to decide

may

between the alternative renderings given by R.V., (viii. 37 S) (lit.)


"Ye seek to kill me. ..The things that I (emph.) have seen in the house
of the (irapd tw) Father I speak
the things that ye heard from the

ye also therefore

(kol u/xs *"0

do (a rjKovo-are
(-rrapa tov) father, ye
"
" and
has
V.
txt
Here R.
ye also do
n-apd tov Trarpos Troupe)."
ko.1 by "and," olv by "also"), but R.V. marg.
(apparently rendering
In
"'do ye also therefore the things which ye heard from the Father."
from
works
the
do
the
that
suggested
R.V. txt, it is
Jews
affirmed

" the father "

in R.V. margin, the Jews are


exhorted to do the works suggested by the Father, God.
of the former rendering (" ye do ") there is the
[2194] In favour
ku lyxeT? ovv quoted from xvi. 22 above (2149, comp.
of
precedent
a cor21967) with the indicative, where it meant "ye also in
So here, the meaning seems to be that there is a
responding way."
between the conduct of Christ and that of His

the devil,

who

is

to

them

correspotidence

persecutors.

are as consistent in evil as

They

He

in

good

'The
law

ye, by the

I have seen in the house of Light


speak
not say ye 'speak,' but,
of your nature as I by the law of mine I do
more than that the things that ye have heard from the house
of darkness, ye do ."
I

things that

children of darkness;
[2194a] It is implied that they "see" nothing, being
"the
but they execute the whispered suggestions <>f evil that come to them from
are
of
Satan
the
as
of
darkness
of
the
house
mutterings
father"
(somewhat
Milton as coming to Eve in her sleep). There is a paradoxical
sented
1

by

antithesis:

[2194A]

do."
see,
speak] what ye hear, ye
lor "the father" used to mean "Satan," comp.

"What

166

viii.

44

"Ye

are of

CONJUNCTIONS

49 50 "The Father that sent me he hath given


commandment what I should say and what I should speak. And
In

[2195]

me

[2196]

know

xii.

that his

commandment

that I (emph.) speak

speak

is eternal life.
The things therefore
as the father hath said
[them] to me, so
has excellently expressed the force of ovv
by

even

Chrysostom

I,"

the paraphrase " //

not natural (ovk e^ei

is

<f>vcriv

to Trpayixa) that the

Father should say one thing and I utter another." The meaning is,
"
I not only know what I am commanded to
say, but also know that
it

is

my

Life,

therefore that I

ment a

Life Eternal,

to fulfil the

commandment,

must speak the Father's words."

fortiori in

xiii.

There

it
is

follows

an argu-

14 "Ye address me [with the


'the
and ye say
such
am.

'the
Teacher'
and
'the
Master'
your
13

Teacher' and 'the Master

titles]

well, for

(Kupios),'

feet
washed
also
are
bound
to
wash
each
other's feet."
In Matthew and Luke
ye
"
"
this cogent
therefore would perhaps have been accompanied by
"How much more!" and SS has something like it here "And if

If therefore I

I,

your Rabbi. ..how much doth


2 "The
[2196] In xvi. 21

travail (orav TiKTrj)

it

behove you...!"

woman

when she is in
come but
she remembereth no

wife]

[or,

hath sorrow because her hour hath

when she hath given birth to (yewrjarj) the child


more the anguish because of the joy that a man is born into the
world.
Ye also therefore (kou v/acU ovv) now indeed (yvv fxiv) have
sorrow but I will see you again and your heart shall rejoice and
"
"
your joy no man shall take from you," we may explain therefore
:

in a

broad and general way by saying that the argument takes child-

the father the devil."

As

according to the context, so

in

French

may "the

''the

head" means "my, your, his head"


and the writer deliberately

father" in Greek

uses the ambiguous expression "the father" in order to prepare for the defining
climax in viii. 44, (1) "the father," (2) "the devil," (3) "your father."

[2194

c]

The view

that Troielre

analogy of xvi. 22, but also by the


twice or thrice with valuations, and

is

fact

indicative
it

is

is

in Jn's

supported not only by the


to repeat a statement

manner

we find the indicative again in viii. 41 "ye do


the deeds of your father," viii. 44 "ye are fain to do the lusts of your father."
Moreover the imperative rendering, "Do ye also the things that ye heard from the
Pather,"

i.e.

God, would imply that the Jews had heard the Father's

voice,

which

(though theoretically arguable as referring to the Law of Sinai) is somewhat


inconsistent with v. 37 and viii. 43.
The statement in viii. 37 "ye seek to kill
me" implies, "ye are doing the work of your father Satan," as appears from
viii. 44 ("he was a murderer from the
12 "in
beginning") and from 1 Jn iii. 10

this the children of

God

the evil one and slew his

are manifest and the children of the devil. ..Cain


brother.''''

167

was of

CONJUNCTIONS

[2197]

fundamental law in human nature that all deep


must be reached through pain and sorrow. But
probably there is a more definite reference in the evangelist's mind.
For Micah combines the prophecy about the Messiah from Bethlehem
with a mention of affliction and temporary abandonment of Israel.
" He will
give them up until the time that she which travaileth hath
birth as a type of a

and

lasting joy

"

and the phrase "birth-pangs of the Messiah" is


associated with this prophecy in the Talmud, where it occurs several
2
times

drought forth

[2197] Mark and Matthew represent our Lord as saying, just


before His prediction of persecution for the disciples, " These things
are the beginning of travail-pa?igs (wSiWv) 3 ."
Besides the "travail"

pangs of the Church collectively, it was necessary that there should


"
be " travail-pangs in the soul of each believer before it could give
4

birth to the idea of the spiritual Christ


and both these doctrines
may have been in the mind of this evangelist, who is the only one
that records, in exact words, the doctrine that a man cannot enter
:

kingdom of Heaven unless he is "born from above." Thus


number of considerations, not present to modern readers, may

into the

have suggested the thought of inevitable consequence


"Ye also, therefore, now indeed have sorrow."

words

to Christ's acts

Oyn applied

(/3)

in the

[2198] Setting aside instances where ovv introduces words of the


Lord, we find that it either introduces an act of special solemnity, or
else

as

is

journeys.

[2196]

most frequently the case it is applied to His various


The writer perhaps had in view the objections of con-

Mic.

come unto me he

v. 2

"But thou Bethlehem Ephrathah...out

of thee shall

whose goings forth are from of old,


Therefore will he give them up until the time that she which

that

is

to he ruler in Israel

from everlasting.
travaileth hath brought forth.
Then the residue of his brethren shall return unto
the children of Israel, and he shall stand and feed his flock in the strength of the

Lord."
2

[2196/']
3

[2197

/rl

Levy ii. 5a refers also to Schabb. 118a, Pes. 118a.


Mt. xxiv. 8. The parall. Lk. omits this, but inserts

Sanhedr. o8.

Mk

xiii.

8,

(xxi.

1:1

"Before

all these things,'

''

perh. intending this as a paraphrase of the

metaphor,
4
[2197/'] That appears to be the metaphor here, the "soul" being regarded
as the mother in travail.
From one point of view, the "new birth" is that of the

Soul itself: from another,

transforms the soul into

it

lis

is

that of the idea of Christ within the soul,

image.

168

which

CONJUNCTIONS

[2200]

troversialists, some of whom, like Celsus, might regard Jesus as a


The first
vagrant exorcist, or as a fugitive escaping from arrest.
instance of all (iv. i " when therefore the Lord knew ") represents
Him as departing not from pursuit but from too much popularity.

The

next two

the

at

well

(iv. 5,

actions

His coming

6) represent

to

Sychar and

sitting

providentially arranged with a view to the


conversion of Samaria.
The words (iv. 46) " He came therefore

to Cana," introduce the healing of the nobleman's son.


In vi.
occurs the first instance that does not apply to journeying, "Jesus
therefore took the loaves," of which the symbolical importance needs

no comment.

In

vi.

multitude sought to

15, the

He

make Jesus

a king

In the Raising of Lazarus, ovv is


four times used, first, paradoxically, " When therefore Jesus knew "
of the sickness of Lazarus, "he abode" at a distance three days;

by force; "therefore"

He

"therefore" when
four days in the

retired.

He

arrived,

tomb";
troubled himself"; some

"found

that

Lazarus had been

seeing Mary weeping Jesus "therefore...


of the Jews ask, in effect, why Jesus did

not save Lazarus, "Jesus therefore .. .cometh to the tomb 1 ."

The

fourfold conjunction sounds strange in English.


But the intention
of the narrative as a whole is to represent the
Raising of Lazarus as
foreordained and this repetition of " therefore " may be intended, in
;

shew how the Son, step by step, moved forward in


a regular and predetermined sequence to do the Father's will in
to

particular,

performing the

last

and greatest of His "signs."

The next two

[2199]

instances refer to Christ, as

and then confronting

peril,

Him:

xi.

when

it,

54 "Jesus therefore

first

avoiding

the Jews took counsel to

kill

no longer walked openly among the

1
"Jesus therefore came to Bethany" following imon
the
statement that the chief priests had taken steps
mediately
to seize him
It is not surprising that Chrysostom alters this
second ovv to 8e.
But the meaning, perhaps, is, that both in

Jews,"

xii.

avoiding peril and in meeting


not the ways of ordinary men.
[2200]
(xiii.

it

Jesus followed the Father's

will,

After the instance in the sacramental Washing of Feet


cometh therefore to Simon Peter"), the next is in the

"He

narrative of Gethsemane, where,


soldiers (xviii. 4)

upon him, went

upon the

arrival of

"Jesus, therefore, knowing

forth

and
1

said to them,

6,

17, 33, 38.

169

all

Whom

Judas and the

that was

seek ye?"

coming
There

CONJUNCTIONS

[2201]

remain but two more instances. One ("Jesus therefore \v ent out")
"
introduces the exclamation of Pilate " Behold the man 1
The
!

other introduces the

first

manifestation of the risen Saviour,

"When

was evening... came Jesus and stood in the midst 2 ." The
"
as a whole indicate that, although " therefore
is an exaggerated

therefore
facts

it

rendering of

ovv, yet

acts of Christ,

is

the particle,

when used

in

connexion with the

often intended to suggest a sequence of cause

and

effect

'V

(xvii)

'Qc

(a)

(?) for

eooc

"while" by R.V. in xii. 356 "Walk


[2201]
white ye have the light... white ye have the light, believe in the light."
Several mss. and authorities read ews for ok, but the difficulty of the
'O?

is

translated

and its double occurrence, demonstrate it to be the true


"
is
made highly
But that ok does not mean " while
"
I must work the works of my Father while (ecus)
probable by ix. 4

latter,

reading.

It is scarcely credible that a writer like John


(marg. ok) it is day."
should use ok twice in precisely the same sense in which he has used
W9.
*f2s in Gal. vi. iows xaiphv (x M lxer i s doubtful.
Lk. xii. 58 ok

yap

{i7rayeis

is

not quite parallel 5

Taking the

text as

it

stands,

2
See 1960 and 2645.
xx. 19.
These instances are taken from Bruder (1888) with whom, in each
case quoted above, W.H. agrees.
There may be other instances in W.H. not
included in Bruder. The list given above does not include vi. 5 etrapas ovv,

xix. 5.

[2200 a]

12 "Ore ovv 2vi\pev tovs wSSas avrQv, xix.

xiii.

26

'I.

o$v idtbv rr/v fnjrepa, xix. 30

01V ZXafte to ofos, xxi. 15 6re odv i)piOTr\aa.v, because the principal verb that
follows is, in each case, "said " (not a verb of action).
Perhaps, however, there
might have been included (on the ground that "cry aloud" is a kind of action

tire

distinct
vii.

25

..no

from mere saying)


"Is not this he

man

28 'lKpa.^v o$v iv t$ iep<f>. This occurs as follows


they seek to kill? And, lo, he speaketh openly
knoweth whence he is. He cried aloud therefore in the temple...."

See the context.


of the words 'no

It is

man

vii.

whom

uncertain whether the "therefore" means "in consequence


knoweiA,'" or "Accordingly, speaking openly' in spite of
'

attempts to kill him." On ovv used after parentheses, or resumptively, see


26315. Of course it must be remembered that ovv, being used by Jn freely
tin-

(1) to introduce action of any kind, would naturally be used by him (2) to
introduce actions of Christ without any intention to express providential sequence.
with the actions of
Still, if the actions of Christ introduced by ovv are compared

Christ introduced by 5^ or by asyndeton,


class are specially important.
4
On lis, "when," see 1776

e.

See 2696.

I/O

think

it

will

be found that the

first

CONJUNCTIONS
we may make
Compare 1 Jn

fair

of

sense

"As

27

ii.

xii.

35

[2202]

by rendering

(cos) his anointing teacheth

present]... and even as (kolOws)

"as."

<Js

you

the

[in
1

in
[in the past], abide
This harmonizes with St Paul's precepts, "Walk by the Spirit,"
"
Live up to the standard you have reached [hoping for a higher

it."

and

one]

So here the meaning

."

best text

"Walk according

is

it

taught you

or, at all events,

the

meaning of the
This

to your light as far as

rendering of w9 enables us to take

7repi7raTtv

it
goes."
with an implied

oirrw?,

"
Walk [thus, namely] as ye have light [to walk]," and delivers us
from the necessity of taking it absolutely, " Walk [in the paths

of righteousness]."

*Qc "as

(/9)

In

[2202]
it

were in

that

were"

10

"He

went up

[to the feast]

not openly but as

"

like one going up


not actually in secret but in a manner resembling
Compare St Paul's words to Philemon (14) "in order
secret (cos lv kpvtttw)," the

in secret,"

secrecy.

vii.

it

is

meaning

i.e.

thy good deed

The

avayK-qv)."

not be as

may

may be

particle

and

it

were compulsory

(cos

/an-a

way of saying "people

short

perhaps inserted with a view to the


vindication of the Johannine view of the publicity of Christ's life,
"
as in xviii. 20, " In secret spake I nothing
and in this very feast

might

call

Christ

is

it

so,"

is

it

(vii.

28)

26) "speaking openly (irapp-qo-ia)" and


in
cried aloud
the temple teaching." According to this

described as

"he

view, "as

it

were

(vii.

in secret"

means

that Christ refused to take the

advice of His brethren and to go up with them to the feast accom"


"
panied by such a multitude as attended Him when He went up

This going up was " comparatively

finally.

iti

secret."

But, in case

any opponent of the Christians might refer to the saying of Christ's


brethren (vii. 4) " No man doeth aught in secret and himself seeketh
to

be

in publicity," the

evangelist wishes to

shew

that there

For

nothing "in secret" in the exact sense of the term.


he inserts cJs here and Trapprjo-ia later on.

this

was

purpose

"Abide," imperative. The writer has admitted that it does (ib. 27)
them, and that they "have no need that anyone should teach" them.
But still he does teach them as St Paul does after similar admissions (1 Thess.
iv. 10 and elsewhere).
See 2437 9.
[2201 a]

"abide"

in

Gal. v. t6, Phil.

iii.

16

eis 5 e<pddaafj.ei'

ry

cu'tuj cttolx^v.

[2202 a] Comp. 2 Cor. xi. 17 ws kv a<ppoauvrj,


ix. 32 o6k k iriarecos dXX' ws e
Zpywu, the meaning
or "as though it could be attained from works."

171

xiii.
is

"on

ws

&56kl/j.ol.

In

Rom.

a false basis of works,"

ELLIPSIS

[2203]
"ila-Tt

(xviii)

This conjunction, which

[2203]

Matthew, and four times

in

is

then with a unique construction, thus,

in Mark and
John only once, and

found frequently

Luke, occurs
iii.

in

16 ovtws yap

rj-yd-n-qcrev

tov vlov tov fiovoyevij <l8wki>. In the rest of N.T.,


#eos tov
"
ware occurs either (i) at the beginning of a clause ("so that meaning
"and so") with an emphatic indicative or imperative (Mk ii. 28
KoafjLov cocttc

"And so the Son of man is lord of the sabbath,"


"And so (or, Therefore) comfort one another ") or else

Thess.

iv.

18

(2) post-initially
1

with an infinitive (Mk i. 27 "so that they questioned together")


But ware never occurs
Both these constructions are frequent.
.

with an

post-initially

indicative

except

in

John

iii.

16 2

This

unique use of ovtws and wcrre with indicative is common in the


3
but it is unlike the style of any evangelistic
best classical authors
It is one of many proofs that the passage under
tradition in N.T.
,

consideration was not regarded by the writer as a saying of the Lord,

but as an evangelistic explanation (see 2066 and 2697).

Ellipsis 4
Of two kinds

(i)

[2204]

"leaving out," or "deficiency," may exist


out that can be supplied from the preceding
"I said, Go. But he would not [go]," "You have
Ellipsis,

(1)

when something
context,

e.g.

is left

my book and

taken

[2203 a]

and the

left

W.H. and

classification

is

your own [book]."

ellipsis

may be

in some cases punctuate differently from Bruder,


some extent a matter of taste except where Coare is pre-

R.V.

to

ceded by

01/rws,

ui5e,

initial.

Hinder

i8<S8 prints ucrre

els

This

tchtovtov etc., so that the

ware cannot possibly be called

"in principio periodi" separately, and always with

or imperat. but he prints Gal.ii. 13 crvi>VTreKpidr)<mv .wart Kai B. aKvawrix^Vy


under the same heading as Jn iii. 16 oiirco yap i]yaTn)<Tti> .ware .ZowKtv, and marks
iridic,

I should
these as the only two passages (in the group) where the indie, is used.
take Gal. ii. 13 quite differently, "And the consequence zvas that even Barnabas

was
-

carried

away."

Acts xiv.
ey^fTO...\a\TJaai ovtus uxrre wtcrreDcrcu..., is the only
other passage in N.T. where diare is preceded by oiirws. Heb. xiii. 6 uxxrf Oappovvras ri/J-ds \ytii> rather suggests what we may say than states what we do say.
See Steph. viii. 212^ <;, ami, in particular, the first definition of "log[2203/]

''

"

r-

-lliiiy

TrpdiTovs
4

"

in
01

Plato

i~~,

1.

oiirus

ayairSicri

av eKacrraxov eTraivuxriv

Steph. (quoting Athen.

14,

p.

Praetermissio, Omissio," adding

roi'S

tTratvtiras

uicrre

irpocnrapaypdcpovji

airrofa.

644 A o-jjera/uoOs k-ot' 2\\et T'tv tov &pros)


" Potest vero et Defectus reddi."

1/2

calls

it

ELLIPSIS
"contextual."

called

(2)

Ellipsis

may

[2207]
consist

the

in

customary

omission of words (apart from contextual influence) in certain con"


"
or
for " [Go] away
the first of the
densed phrases, e.g. " Away
month" for "the first [day] of the month." This 1 may be called
"

"

idiomatic."

Contextual

(ii)

This
[2205] iv. 256 '"Messiah cometh...'I am [Messiah].'"
"
It
must be distinguished from (a) vi. 20 " I am," rendered by R.V.
"
"
"
is
I
It [that you see, or, hear]
is I
like our idiom in English,

and

AM

with Hebraic associations.


any special use of I
The present instance may be illustrated byxviii. 5, 6, 8 "I am [Jesus
"
which refers to the preceding mention of the name
of Nazareth]
also from (b)

"'Whom
am [(ix. 8)

seek ye?' 'Jesus of Nazareth "and also by


ix. 9 "I
'the man that used to sit and beg']."
Here
the Samaritan woman
who is described as saying aloud " Messiah
cometh " is to be regarded (comp. Lk. iii. 15 "reasoning in their
'

in xviii. 5

hearts... whether he might be the Christ") as saying in her heart


"
Can it be that this is Messiah ? " and Jesus answers her silent

"I am [Messiah]."

question,

[2206] iv. 523 "They said. ..[that] 'Yesterday, [about the]


seventh hour (on 'E^cs uipav 2 k^ofx-qv) the fever left him.' The

had left him] at that [same] hour


Phrase
In v.
12
wpa)...."
mentally repeated.
that made me whole, he [it was that] said to me, Take up

father therefore recognised that [it

(on eKeivy
"

'

He

thy bed (*pa/3aTTov) and walk.'


that

said to thee,

3
object of the verb

insert

[2207]

They asked him, 'Who

is

the

man

Take
is

and walk?,'" the omission of the


[it] up
somewhat harsh, and many mss. and versions

"bed."

is true,

Trj

On

viii.

because

16 "Yea, and even if I should judge, my judgment


I am not alone but
[am to be regarded as] I and the

this, see 2220.

[2206 a]

On

question, "Dost
to reply "Yes."

Contextual

ellipsis is

sometimes called " brachylogy."

the change of case, see 2013, 2025


6.
In v. 67, after Christ's
thou desire to be made whole?" we might expect the sick man

But the

man

takes the question as an implied reproach on his

It is not a
sluggishness, and replies, "I have no man to put me in the pool."
case of ellipsis but of an answer made to the spirit, rather than to the letter, of a

question.
3

[2206

b~\

No

other instance in this group omits the object thus.

word here used by the sick man and previously by our Lord,
avoided by Luke and condemned by Grammarians as vulgar.
the

Kpd/3arros,
is

173
OF THE

N\

(1736

(?)

ELLIPSIS

[2208]

Father that sent me," on

/xdvos ovk

aW

elfit,

eyw kcu 6

7r//.i//as

fx.e

"

Chrysostom says, Hereby he hinted (yviiaro) that it was


Himself alone that was to condemn them (on ovk euros /u.oVos

[iraTtjp].

He

not

"

and Cramer quotes Amavrovs KaraStxa^t) but also the Father


monius to the same effect. In that case we should have to supply
"
I and the Father that sent me [are together
the sense as follows
But the simple repetition of cI/ju, so as to mean " But
as Judges]."
/ and the Father " seems more in accordance with Johannine
[I am]
:

and with Johannine theology.

ellipsis

words

This

latter view,

to declare the eternal unity of the Father

taking the

and the Son, would

also include their unity in the act of judging.

[2208]

'Except
(fxrj)

[wash]

xiii.

wash

my

"'Thou

shalt assuredly not

wash

my

feet.'...

no part with me '...'Lord, do not


alone but also my hands and my head!"

thee, thou hast

feet (ir68a<;)

Here, /x-rj implies an imperative, and the accusative


"
let not my feet (nom.) be
shews that the construction cannot be
washed alone," so that the grammar combines with the context to

Verb repeated.

make

the elliptic construction clearer than even in

"Abide

In

English.
2

me, and I (or, I also) [abide] in you ," the verb is


"
Your abiding
to be repeated, and the meaning may be paraphrased
"
in me shall be mine in you," or
Cause yourselves to abide in me
"
and [thereby] me also to abide in you." The two " abidings are

xv. 4

in

3
regarded as inseparable
"
Desire ye therefore that
40
[2209] In xviii. 39
unto you the king of the Jews?'. ...Do not (fxij) [release]
.

(tovtov)...," as in

xiii.

'

9,

the

fx.rj

this

implies that the verb

repeated imperatively, but instead of repeating the object


fiacriXia

r.

'I.)

a pronoun (tovtov)

Or we might supply

that sent me.'

<ttI,

"But

[it is

is

substituted

more

release

is

man

to be

(/u.?)

t6v

so that the Jews

correct to say] 'I and the Father

"

[2208 a] There follows an ellipsis of 5vvaa6e Kapirbv <ppetv a<p' eain-Qv, which
has to be mentally supplied after ovSi v/j.eis from the preceding Si'varai k. <p. a(j>

tavrov.
3

[2208/'] In xvii. 21 "that they may be all one: even as (kci0u>s) thou, Father
me and I [am] in thee, that they also may be in us,*' if the punctuation

[art] in

were "that they may be all one even as thou, Father, [art] in me," it might be
contended that "art" is supplied from what precedes. Hut, if a fresh sentence
begins at "even as," "art" is omitted in accordance with Greek idiom and must
be supplied in accordance with it without any reference to what precedes.
So
it would not fall under this
group of ellipses. See 2127/', 2132 a.

174

ELLIPSIS

[2211]

21 '"Follow me'
avoid calling Jesus "king." In xxi. 19
8e
denotes antithesis and
[My] Lord, but this man, whatV" the
"
implies a preceding yueVclause,
but
this
do this that thou sayest]

My

Lord,

[I

man on

am

to

-what

[is

on the one hand

the other hand

The preceding context describes Peter as first


?]
"
the
Follow," and then (while apparently in
command,
receiving
"
"
and seeing the unnamed disciple
the act of following) as
turning
Hence the meaning might possibly be "I am
also "following."
following thee as thou commandest, but this man, what [is he doing,
he to do

following without command}!" But the subsequent context ("If


I will that he tarry till I come...") points to the future as the object
and both Origen and Chrysostom take it thus
of Peter's question
1

'Ean oyN 6eo3pHT6

(a)

(vi.

62)

[2210] Perhaps the following extremely difficult passage


62 " This [it seems] causes
contextual ellipsis, vi.

of

is

a case

you to

If (edv) therefore (ovv) ye should be beholding (OeioprJTc)


2
."
the Son of man asce/iding where he was before
The interpretation turns on (r) the connexion implied by "therefore," (2) the
stumble

meaning of "behold," whether

literal

or spiritual,

or bad, (3) the nature of the "ascending," whether


(4) the words omitted in ellipsis.

[2211]

(1)

"Therefore,"

following

and

in

literal

good sense
or spiritual,

an implied statement

"ye

would naturally introduce an argument a fortiori,


"Much more, therefore, will ye stumble" (see ovv, 2192) or some"
"
Behold Oeutprjre (for which Chrysostom
thing equivalent to it.
(2)

stumble

at this,"

reads to^re) has been shewn (1598) to include vacant, unintelligent,

and

"
unspiritual

"

beholding."

(3)

Ascending

to

heaven,"

when

previously predicated concerning the Son of Man in this Gospel


(iii.
13 "No man hath ascended into heaven but only he that

descended from heaven, the Son of man


"
lifting

up of the serpent

sacrifice for sin.

"

in

If that is the

")

is

the wilderness,

meaning

here,

connected with the

and apparently with


"ascending where he

On this Origen says (Huet


[2209 a] 'AkoXovOu fioi...Ovros 8e tL ;
K<xl t6 Kara tov
Iwawr]i> reXos, and Chrys. ad toe. ov
68bi> rj^et;
For an altera, ellipsis o( yevrjaerai see 2386 c.

ii.

405 D)

(3ov\6p.vos /xadelv
7]fiiv
2

ttjv

avrr/v

[2210 a] ToOro vfias tTKavdaKlfrei; iav ovv dewprJTe rbv vlbv tov avdpuirov dva6ttov t}v to TrpoTepov;
SS has "but if," a has "quod si," b and e "quid

^aivovTa

si,"/ "si autem,"^" "quid ergo cum."

X om.

Though

otv.

175

has ^d? ovv,

has "quid si."

ELLIPSIS

[2211]

was before

which

: '

"

means

raises

up
Son

in

the flesh that supreme sacrifice

to

the place that

offering

the incarnate

He

had

the

in

bosom

of the Father as the pre-incarnate Word."


But the offering
up of this sacrifice in the flesh is described by Jesus, in the passage
under consideration, as giving His " flesh and blood " to be the food
of men
and it is the announcement of this that has caused them to
;

"stumble

."

The explanation

[2211 a]

"exalt" and of

their relation

of the Johannine use of the words "ascend" and


to Jewish thought does not strictly belong to

Johannine Grammar but some remarks on these points are necessary here. The
Jews were familiar with the thought of the Deliverer "sitting on the right hand"
of God, and with the image of one like unto a Son of man "coming with the
:

clouds of heaven," as also with the Psalmist's apostrophe to the everlasting gates
open and admit "the king of glory." Jesus appears from the Fourth Gospel

to

To Him "the everspiritual interpretation to these metaphors.


were the gates of self-sacrilice. The "glory" was service. To
sacrifice Himself for men was, relatively to men, giving Himself up
entirely, to
them and for them. But, relatively to God, it might be called the "ascending"
of the Son to the place " where he was before."
[2211 /'] The whole of Christ's life might be accurately described as a sacrifice,
to

have given a

lasting gates"

or a "glorifying" of

term "glorifying"
rection as

God, or as a process of "ascending" to the Father but the


more particularly used for the Crucifixion and the Resur:

is

summing up

the essence of the

we know from Artemidorus' Manual

The punishment of Crucifixion (as


Dreams and from Jewish sources) was

life:

of

frequently referred to as a "lifting up"; and similar allusions are found in the
Fourth Gospel, never in the Synoptists.
Hence, when the Jews stood round the

Cross of Christ "staring and gaping" upon Him, as the Psalmist says, they were
"
really
beholding Him going up to the place where He was before." And some
thought of this kind some notion of unintelligent "staring and gaping" may

have been

in

when he described

John's mind

the soldier piercing Christ's side, as

prophecy "they shall look on him whom they pierced."


the late Jewish use of "lifted up*' for "crucified," or "hanged,"
see Levy i. 549 b (quoted in 1003 c).
Artemidorus, too, writing in the second
"
century, connects dreams about
lifting up" and "stretching out of hands" with
fulfilling the

[2211

c]

On

i.
76 el dt tis v\f/ij\bs iwi tlvos opxoiro, et's <p6(3ov Kai 8eos 7re<rn-cuKdKOvpyos 5 wv ffTavpuOrjcreTai 5ia rb ihpos ical tt)v tQiv x i <-P& v ^KTaaiu, and again
in his special section on dreams "about the Cross" (ii. 53) ayadbv 5e Kai TrtvrjTi-

crucifixion, thus,

Kai

yap

for a

feed

man also; for


many" means to be

grim allusion to the fact


COIVOS"), which he refers

"the

marriage, "bul not

at
a

woWovs

the crucified

rpe<pei, i.e.

is

'lifted

to in the context, ras

crucified lose their flesh."

cross also prevents

"

Such a dream betokens good


"
To
up' and he 'feeds many.'"
But it also contains a
a rich man with plenty of slaves.
"
that the crucified " fed the crows
("noil pasces in cruce

u\pi]\bs 6 crravpwSeis Kai

poor

all

aapKas diroWvovtriv oi OTavpudivre s,


For a bachelor, he adds, the cross betokens a

a profitable one," by reason of the

man From going forward

staying where he would like to stay.

To be

176

{i-Rifialvw)

"binding"

The

on the land and from

crucified in a city [ii.) "signifies

ELLIPSIS

[2212]

[2212] According to this view, Oeupeu) is used here, as in some


"
beother passages of the Fourth Gospel (1598) for unintelligent
holding," seeing with the eyes of the flesh and the meaning of the
:

passage

"
is,

Doth

this

cause you to stumble, [the mere setting forth,

doctrine of a self-sacrificing Messiah] ?


[ What]
how much more grievously will ye stumble\
1
in act, of my doctrine, not your doctrine,
if ye behold
[the fulfilment,
of the Messianic glory ; if, instead of gazing at the King of glory

in

word,

of the

therefore \ivill ye do, a?id

splendour on the clouds of heaven, ye stand


staring and gaping' at] the [crucified] Son of man, [going down as
2
ye suppose to Sheol, but in fact] going up where He was before ?"
'

going up

in visible

some

corresponding to the place wherein the cross


&.v fi 6 t6itos ev u3 6 aravpbs eaTr/Kev)."

office

ar)/j.aivei.

is

"carrying (/3aordfei^) and being carried (fiao-Tdea6a.i)"

Some

the cross.

erected (apxv v Toiatirqv

In a later section about

ofos

(ii.

56)

he again

refers to

"thou
bind) thee, and
18

of these details are curiously similar to xxi.

shalt

shall
hands, and another shall (2) gird (i.e.
to which is added, "this he said signifying
(3) bear thee where thou dost not desire,"
by what death he [i.e. Peter] should glorify God." See 2642 b.
1
[2212 a] The present subjunctive may, perhaps, be regarded as prophetic
present, or it may denote continuance, "what if ye find yourselves beholding...."
(1)

stretch out thy

2
[2212/^] Chrysostom, reading av ovv iSrjTe, likens this mention of "ascending"
to Christ's promise to Nathanael ("thou shalt see greater things than these...
[angels of God ascending]") and to Christ's argument with Nicodemus ("No man

hath ascended to heaven except the Son of man..."). He seems to reject the interpretation given above, saying "Doth He knit perplexities with perplexities?
But by the grandeur of His doctrines, and by their abundance,
No. God forbid
!

He

desires

iirayayiadai

to

attract

them

(rili

/u.ey<:da.

tuv

ooyfiaTwv

/cat

ti2

irXrjdei

avrovs

/3oi'>\ercu)."

[2212 c\ This feeling (namely, that Christ is looking forward to a time when
the disciples will not "stumble") has probably caused the alterations in the text
mentioned above (2210 a). For, if 8i be read for ovv, then contrast replaces

" This
something of this kind:
-what will ye say] if ye should
be [soon] beholding the Son of man visibly ascending [in triumph] where He was
before? [Then ye will cease to stumble]." There is much against this.
It
involves an alteration of a difficult text to a less difficult one.
Moreover, though
all Christians (like the martyr Stephen) might be represented as
seeing Christ at
the right hand of God, only an exceptional few (Acts i. 2
13) could be repre-

inference,

and the whole meaning

(emph.) causeth you to stumble

is

changed

but [wait a

to

little,

Him

It seems to take dewprjre as


in the act of ascending to God.
being a fleshly "beholding" and yet as one that will remove a stumblingdjlock.
It does not tell us who will thus "behold"
or when, and how, they will be

sented as seeing

delivered from "stumbling" by the "beholding."


Ascension, implies that a small number witnessed

The
it.

was now addressing were apparently a large number, for


"There are some of you that believe not," and then it
disciples went back."
A. VI.

I77

Acts, which relates the


But those whom Christ
He says to them (vi. 64)
is added "Many of his

12

ELLIPSIS

[2213]

Idiomatic

(iii)

Ellipsis of

(a)

"

some "

[2213] The most important elliptical expression in John is the


Graeco-Hebraic use of " I am " (without any predicate expressed or
There are two or
implied in the context) for which see 2220 foil.
three omissions of av with the indicative, which need little comment 1
But the omission of "some" in the phrase "some of" requires
.

For the most part

notice.

"that.

is

it

not lose [any]

may

..I

in

vi.

39

airoXiaw i$ avrov),"
would be supplied, not n, vii. 40

where, strictly speaking, /xrj8ev


"[Some] of the crowd, therefore
these words, said...," xvi. 17

from ambiguity, as

free

of

it

{Iva...^

(eV rov

ox^ov

ovv),

having heard

"There

said therefore [some] of (elirav


ovv k) the disciples...," xxi. 10 "Bring [some] of (otTro) the fish."

The

[2214]

is

following

R.V.

ambiguous,

i.

24 Kat

a7ro-TaX/i.eVot rjaav

"And

they had been sent from the


Pharisees," R.V. marg. "and [certain] had been sent from among
In favour of R.V. marg. are the following facts.
the Pharisees."
Zk

t<Sv 4>apicraiW,

The

(1)

txt

partitive use of e

is

2
very frequent in John

John has

(2)

who sent the deputation (i. 19 "The Jews


"Some of the Pharisees" makes excellent sense.

already told us

him

(3)

").

sent to
"Priests

"

alone have been as yet mentioned and they (we may


suppose) have asked their questions, and have been silenced.
They

and Levites

are on the point of going back to those who sent them, carrying
a merely negative answer ("I am not the Christ" etc.). But now it
"
"
Pharisees on the deputation, men learned
is added that there were
in the Law and the Traditions, given to ask "By what authority?"

and not so
"

easily silenced: these therefore intervene with the question,

baptizest thou then

Why

but they

make

roil' 4>.

[2213 a

^7roien-e)

see 2078

9.

to read, with

"Ac

is

said to be

W.ll.

in

have had no
-

It

is

sin."

[2214c/]
airTTa\nivoi.,

is
it

(not,

p. 382) regularly
freq.

in

with

W.H.

omitted

later classical

in

viii.

marg.

modern

Greek.

It

adds force, "they would assuredly

See also 2698.

Jn as in Mk. Mt. Lk. together.


Chrysostom and many scribes of various MSS. read ol before
"
as A.V.
they which were sent," so as to leave no ellipsis.

about as

II

txt, -rroielre

(Winer

such instances, and the omission


might also be a Latinism.
Perhaps in N.T.

Greek

In

xv. 22, 24 anapriav ovk eixocrav, xix. ir ovk elx^s (^ovalav.

we ought probably

39,

These arguments are not conclusive,


"
is an ellipsis of
some 3 ."

probable that there

40 "[Some] of the Pharisees heard these things (r}i<ovo-av


those that were with him (en /act' avrov oVre?)
and
Taura)
ix.

[2215]
ex

it

"
?

freq. in

1/8

ELLIPSIS

[2216]

Are we also blind?" A.V. "And [some] of the P. which were


"Those of the Pharisees which were with him."
use
of apposition (1928
47) combines here with
John's frequent
said,

with him," R.V.

make an ellipsis of nves almost


comment ("There say unto Him [some]

his frequent use of partitive Ik, to

certain.

in his

Chrysostom

Him

of those that were following

")

apparently takes

it

thus,

and

he suggests that the evangelist added the clause ol ixer avrov to


shew that they were the same that had previously revolted and
This construction ("[some] from,"
afterwards tried to stone Him 2
.

"

Hebrew and fairly frequent in LXX.


[some] of")
In both, it gives rise to ambiguities, e.g. Lev. xxv. 33 (R.V.) " If o?ie
"
redeem from the Levites," where
of the Levites redeem," marg.
i.e.

frequent in

is

LXX

takes the latter view, but Aquila and

(jrapa.)

the former

Symmachus

(ck)

3
.

of "gate" (v. 2)
" Now there is in
Jerusalem by the sheep [gate]
[2216] v. 2 (R.V.)
a pool...," A.V. "by the sheep [market] (marg.
(lirl Trj TrpofiaTiKr})
Ellipsis

(/3)

(?)

The text is probably corrupt. But in any case no solid


grounds have been alleged for the hypothesis of an ellipsis of "gate."

gate)."

(1) Eusebius,

Jerome, Chrysostom, and the ancient Latin and Syriac

make no mention of "gate" in connexion with this passage.


(2) Nehemiah mentions all the gates of Jerusalem, the "sheep-gate"
among them, where the context would make his meaning quite
clear without "gate"; yet the noun "gate" is never omitted by
4
his narrative in Hebrew or Greek
(3) No instance of such an
versions

ever been quoted from Greek literature (although it


ellipsis
would probably have been frequently used if it existed in that
(4) Wetstein has shewn that a Jewish
language, as in German).

has

1
-

e/c

[2215

d.7rXt!;s

<?]

Oi)x

<aptcratW ravra
ffe

dvafxi'Tjcrrj

paStws

ets

ol /tier'

6Vt ovtoi

.[2215//]

rv<p\ol ecfxtv ;

r\aav

vporepov airoaravTes, elra \16do~avTts,

ol

/cat

In

(?

[2216 a]

LXX

Neh.

6 Theod. e/c "of the number <?/"" =


e/c rod yivovs
Esdr. v. 45 ol e/c alters the sense of the Heb. of Ezr. ii.
awb rod. In 1 Esdr. i. 8, e/c tQiv (SaaikLKuiv "from the king's

In Dan.

LXX

/cat rj/meis

eKeivo:

ii.

LXX

i.

king's officers)
"
his princes

gate,"

Mtj

evayytXiariis ifj.vy)[ibvev<Jtv, ort f/Kovaav in tG)v


avrov ovres, /cat elwav
Mtj /cat rjfieis rv<p\oi eafxev; d\X' 'iva

[treasures]

5e

Tovvavrlov uera 3aAA6 uei'oi.

"descended from.''''
" some
70
of,"

And

rCiv &Ko\ovdovvTcov <xvtu),

Aiyovffiv avTip

"2

13, 14,

omits the whole;

iii.

Chr. xxxv.

1,

has

3,
rrjs

"from the

king's substance.

In Neh. xii. 31 "the dung14 etc.


Kowpias, with rrjs wv\r]s superscr.

13,

179

12

ELLIPSIS

[2217]

similar to irpofiaTiKi] (and perhaps transliterated from

word

mean

use to

"

bathing place."

where

was in

in the
(Ko\vp(3ij6pa)," besides being transliterated
"
bathing place."
(6) On the three occasions

Greek as "pool
text as

it)

This might be interpreted in

(5)

irpofZaTiicq,

7rpo(3aTiKy occurs in

LXX

happens to be joined

it

to Tv\rj

39) so that the adjective might naturally suggest


"
the interpolation of gate" to any persons perplexed by the apparent
use of 7rpo(3aTLKi] as a noun.
(7) Thus the two words might be
iii.

(Neh.

1,

32,

xii.

combined so as to give the sense of a "pool" near a "sheep-gate."


There may not be quite enough evidence to support this explanation

but, in

any

case, so far as

the Greek language, there


1

"gate

is

we

are acquainted at present with


at all for the ellipsis of

no evidence

."

Ellipsis of

(7)

"

"

daughter

(or

" wife
"?)

The
[2217] xix. 25 (R.V.) "Mary the [wife] (r,) of Clopas."
almost universal practice in Greek writers is to use tj toS 'A. to mean
"
the [daughter] of A."
In a few special cases, where the relationship
was historically known, r? tov 'A. might mean "the mother, or sister,
In Latin,
or wife, of A.," but these are not to the point here.
"Verania Pisonis" is used for "Pisp's [wife] Verania," and such
but
a use of the genitive is current in some parts of England
"
would
to
confusion
if
could
it
lead
Clopas's Mary"
obviously
mean indiscriminately either " mother, daughter, or wife, of Clopas."
The reasons for believing that >) tov must here have been intended
:

to

mean

"

daughter"
must be deferred to another work.
'&

(S)

'AAA' ina, see

(e)

Oyx

20634 and 210512.

oti

Some

is omitted in connexion with


oix
6 (R.V.) "Every one that hath heard
45
from the Father, and hath learned, cometh unto me. Arot that (ot^
cm) any man hath seen the Father, save he which is from God, he

[2218]

oti as follows:

[2216/']
fidvov [deov],

1895.

As

verb or phrase

(1)

regards the

vii.

possible ellipsis in

v.

and the question whether "the Alone

For the

ellipsis of i/xariois

warrioov<Jiv...iv XevKoh,

Lk.

vi.

25 iv fux\a.Koi%

in

and Arteniid.
Wetst. on Jn

xx.
ii.

v.

44

12 iv XevKOtS,
3 iv

180

COmp.

Rev.

iii.

4 7rept-

XtvKoh K(pipea6ai, also Ml.

44 supplies

as Greek.

56^av r-qv wapa tov


here used for God, see

tt)v

is

more

xi.

8,

instances, Latin as well

ELLIPSIS

[2219]

," (2) vii. 22 (R.V.) "For this cause hath


Moses given you circumcision (not that it is of Moses but of the
and on the sabbath ye circumcise a man " (A.V. " not
fathers)
2
because it is of Moses")
Compare 1 Jn iv. 9 10 (R.V.) "Herein

hath seen the Father

God manifested in us, that (on) (A.V. because that)


hath sent his only begotten son... Herein is love, not that (ou^
3
In
6V1) we loved God but that (dXA' on) he loved us and sent... ."
the Epistle iv tout.. .on appears to mean " Herein... [/ mean in the
was the love of

God

fact] that"

and

"

iv tovtu>...ovx oti

Herein... [/ do] not [mean in the

fact] that."

As regards the two passages in the Gospel, it is not


"
demonstrate that on means " that (and not " because ")
in English, it is not possible sometimes to decide whether the

[2219]

possible to
just as,

"
not that I wish means " [/say this] not because I wish
expression
or "[/do] not [mean to
But, having regard to the
say] that I wish."
4
classical and the Pauline 3 uses of ovx on, and to the contexts of the
"

"

two Johannine passages, we may conclude that "/say" (whether


in the sense of "I mean" or
otherwise) is to be supplied in both
of them.

That being the

case,

it

be more in accordance with

will

1
[2218 a] lias 6 aKovcras irapa tov Trarpbs Kal p.a6Ccv ^p%erat irpbs efxe.
ovx on
tov waripa ewpanev tls el p.rj 6 uv irapa. [tov] deov, outos ewpaKev rbv irarepa.
Origen (Huet ii. 293 a) 6 uv wapa tw irarpi, and so SS "he that is with God,"

1st, 6 wv irapa tov deov, 2nd, 6 wv 4k tov deov.


[2218 b] Aia tovto ~Mwvo~rjs dedwKev vpuv tt\v TrepiTo/m-qv,
oi'X on e/c tov
Mwutrecos ecrnv d\\' K tlov iraTtpwv,
Kal [e^] 0-aj3j3aT<p irepiTe/x.veTe avdpunrov.

Chrys.

SS "not

because. ..but because," b, c, and /"not because," a om. "because."


[2218c] 'Ey tovtu) i<pavepwdr] 77 d7(Z7r77 tov deov ev J)fuv, oti. tov vibv avTov tov
/xovoyevrj ave<jTa\Kev 6 6eos...ev tovtix) ecrrlv t/ dyairri, ovx on i]fj.e7s 7jyaTrrjKap.ev t6v
:i

But Jn ix. 30 ev tovtlo yap


be explained differently, since "in this" means "in
your not knowing"' (comp. "we know not") and on means "because." See 2393.
4
[2219(7] In classical Greek ovx 0Ti means (1) "[I do] not [say only] that"
i.e. "not only"; (2) "[I do] not [mention the fact] that" i.e. "I pass over the
/ take no account of the
fact," e.g. Plat. Protag. 336 D "Socrates will not forget
fact that (ovx r ') he jokes and says he is forgetful," i.e. "although he jokes,"
comp. Gorg. 450 E. Similarly, but with 'iva yvr\ \lyw <roi 8ti, Philem. 19, "not to
Bebv, d\\' oti avrbs rjydwT]aev ?j/xas Kal aTreareiKev....

to davy.a<TTbv

e<XTiv oti is to

say that you owe me also yourself."


5
[2219//] In 2 Cor. vii. 9 "Now

and there

is

no

I rejoice,

not because,'" the meaning is clear,


we
5 "This great confidence

and prob. in 2 Cor. iii. 4


and 2 Thess. iii. 7 9: but

ellipsis,

have. ..iwt because...,"


in 2 Cor. i. 23
4 "I gave up
my plan... from a desire to spare you," the best meaning of the following ovx 0TL
is attained
by some insertion of "say" as "[/ say this] not because," or "[/ do]
not [mean to say] that," and so in Phil. iii. 10
11, 17.
12, iv. 10

I8l

ELLIPSIS

[2220]

general Greek usage if we supply Ae'yw not before ovx on, but before
on, giving Xe'yw the sense "I mean to say," which it repeatedly has
"
in N.T., and in Greek generally, so that ou'x on is equivalent to
[/ do]
not [mean

both passages,

in

Then,

say] t/iat."

to

it

will correct

"
In the former, vi. 45
from
6, the words
possible misapprehension.
the Father"
naturally meaning "from the home of" (2356) or "from
the side of," the Father
might suggest a person seeing the Father

This

face to face.

is

disclaimed by the words "[/do] not [mean] that


In vii. 2 2, there is a similar disclaimer,

any one hath seen the Father."

"Moses hath given you circumcision


he originated

(0
20

was from the

it

"

Ellipsis after

am

cyoj

6i/xt

"I am [my

not [mean to say] that

fathers."

"

In the Walking on the Waters

[2220]
vi.

but

it,

[/ do]

means "/ am

it

is

usual to assume that

[indeed that which

I appear

to

very self]" or, according to our English idiom, "It is

This would accord with what

is

stated in the parallel

TV'

Mark-Matthew,

namely, that the disciples "thought they saw a phantasm"."


opposition to this, Christ

be]"

In

"
I am
might naturally be supposed to say
But
is no
there
that
the
proof
[myself]."

[not a phantasm but] I


Greek words can mean this.

And

there

is

proof

that, in the

Discourse

on the Last Days, Mark uses eyco eifxi to mean "/ am [the Saviour,
Moreover in that Discourse Luke (who
Deliverer, or Christ].'
1

''

omits the Walking on the Waters) agrees with Mark in the use of
and Matthew shews that he understood the phrase thus by

e'yw dfxi,

Lastly, Luke indicates


supplying the ellipsis, "/ am the Christ ."
that he would not have agreed in rendering iyo> el/xi "I am my
3

very self" by the fact that elsewhere, when he actually attributes a


meaning of this kind to our Lord, he adds auroV.

The N.T.

[2221]
is

"/ am"

/J.T)

Mk

to

mean "/ am

Deuteronomy and

the

Saviour"

Isaiah,

where

interpretation

Jn

<po(3cicrde.

vi.

in

is usually given to Mk vi. 50, Mt. xiv. 27 Oapaeire,


20 om. dapcreiTe.
49 Zoo^clv otl (pdi>Ta(Xfj.d toTiv, Mt. xiv. 26 irapaxOrjcrav \4yovrts Sri

The same

iyuo elfM,
-

use of

accordance with passages

in

vi.

fyavraoixa gtiv.

Mk

''

(2220r/|

Mk
tin-

xiii. 6,

Mt. xxiv.

5,

Lk.

xxi. 8 all

have iroWol (Mt.-Lk.+yAp)

(Mk + 8n) 'Eyd

In
(ifj-i (Mt. + 6 Xpiaros).
not used absolutely hut answers the question "Art thou
Christ t" where the parall. Mt. xxvi. 64 has cru d-n-as and the parall. Lk. xxii.

iXtvoovrai

t-rri

tu

xiv. 62, iyili

6770
*

has,

ist,

6v6p.arl fxov \ey6vres

tlfxi

t'di'

is

bfiXv tiirw...

Lk. xxiv. 39 eyJi

and, 2nd,

v/xeis

d(j.i ai)r6s.

182

Myere on

iyd> el/u.

ELLIPSIS
eyw

Hebrew "/ [am] he [to whom all must


The LXX uses the same phrase to
of Nineveh in Zephaniah, "/ [am], and there is
me 1." Nor is there (as at present alleged) any

corresponds to the

eiyu.i

look]" and

applied to

is

render the boast

none

beside

else

shew

solid evidence to

God.

Hebraic sources

"I am

gives no instance of the

(on Mt.

el/xt

the Saviour, or Deliverer."

meaning "I am

my

very

The Thesaurus
self."

Wetstein

27) quotes authority for phrases in the context, but


in this sense.
Westcott and Swete quote none

xiv.

for

could bear, at least in the first


meaning derived through LXX from

that eyoj

century, anything else but this

none

[2222]

"lam"

to the point

2
.

[2222] If therefore we are to be guided by evidence, we must


suppose the meaning to be, not "I am myself, Jesus of Nazareth,"

am

3
your Saviour ." It is to be interpreted as a vestige of
the poetic and Hebrew element underlying the story of the Stilling
of the Storm, in which the disciples saw the form of Jesus, and

but "I

Him

heard
It

is,

saying, "I

AM

in the sense of "I live"

of

[HE]," meaning "I am He that helpeth."


"
meaning is not "I am
an
or "I exist-eternally*."
There is
ellipsis

then, a genuine case of ellipsis, for the

HE

in

meaning,

more than

this,

"

Deliverer," but also implying

the

next Johannine instance of

Jewish tradition,

as will

appear

in

"I am."

Deut. xxxii. 39,

two, and simply

"/"

Is. xliii. 10,

Zeph.

ii.

15.

The Heb. has " I he"

in the first

in the third.

[2221a] Swete (on Mk vi. 50) says "eyw ei/u='It is I,' cf. Lc. xxiv. 39,
avrds, and the use of "OH,
iyu in the O.T. (B.D.B., p. 59)." But
Lk.'s insertion of avros separates his usage from that of Mk, and Gesen. p. 59
2

iyjj

LXX

ei/jLi

merely says that Heb. *JX (LXX iydo) is used "alone in response to a question"
Gen. xxvii. 24 "Art thou my son Esau? And he said I [am]" 6 Se tlirev,

e.g.

'E7W.

None

[2221/;]
(ix. 9), xiii.

of these instances are to the point.


" It is I.
vi. 20) says,
Comp. iv. 26, viii. 24, 28, 58,
But (2205) these are
19, xviii. 5, 6, 8 ; Mark xiii. 6, Luke xxi. 8."

Westcott (on Jn

and technical meaning, I AM


and indeed Westcott himself (on viii. 24) distinguishes the technical usage from
"cases where the predicate is directly suggested by the context."
3
[2222a] Comp. Orig. on Mt. xiv. 27 (Huet i. 242 A b) Tapaxdyvbp-eQa- T~plv
Tpavuis KaraXa^eif on 6 awrrip rjpuv eTn8e5rifj.7]Kev, which suggests how "Saviour"
and "Jesus" might be interchanged, especially in translating from a language in
which "Jesus" meant " Saviour."
4
[2222/5] The Syr. of iyw eipu is a reduplication of "I," which pronoun (Thes.
Syr.) also represents the copula, so that "I I" may mean "I am."
either cases of contextual ellipsis or else of special

183

ELLIPSIS

[2223]
viii.

[2223]
in

your

24

.'"

"Ye

Isaiah, as follows,

in

are

my

AM,

'Who

therefore said to him,

art

The words "believe me and understand

occur

'"For except ye believe that

'[From] the beginning that which

said to them,

you

They

sins.'

ye shall die
thou?' Jesus
also

speak to

AM HE"

that I

witnesses, saith the Lord,

and my servant whom I have chosen, that ye may know and believe
me, and understand that I [AM] HE... Yea, since the day was, I [AM]
HE-." In the Psalms, this use of HE occurs with an ellipsis of
"
"art in addressing Jehovah, "Thou [art] HE and thy years shall not
3
fail ."
The Song in Deuteronomy says "See now that I, I, [AM]
"
4
HE," where LXX has See, see that I AM ." Here Philo paraphrases

AM as

Universe

"

that there

is

from the beginning a Cause of the

Ibn Ezra (on Isaiah

."

different

from

real

its

form"

alone

is

Truth and also Perfection.

to

mean "I am he

HE

[AM]

God

that

is,"

"This

says,

is

the

for every other

apparently meaning

other things deviate from their ideal,

Hence God

13)

God

sublimest expression of the unity of


is

10

xliii.

is

that,

being
whereas all

true to the Ideal.

Apparently he takes
i.e.

is

really,

eternally,

and unchangeably.
In

HE

Hebrew

I
is
regularly rendered iyw
and
so
once
presumably always".
elfXL.
"
is so
In Hebrew, the personal pronoun " he
frequently used as a
"
"
substitute for the verb "to be" that Greeks might well translate
he
"
"
"
he is used for
by ci/u in this phrase. In Aramaic also (Levy)

[2224]

LXX,

the

Aquila certainly rendered

it

7
Hence any
the copula" as well as for the personal pronoun
Semitic Logia of Jesus using this idiom would probably be rendered
In the Psalms,
in "Thou
in (ireek for the most part by eyw el/xi.
.

HE

[art]

HE

HE"

once rendered

is

The

8
awds, "the same ."

Semitic

perhaps latent under iyw efyu euro's, assigned to Christ by


Luke alone". But the text is doubtful (2699 foil.).
1

vfiQv.

is

dirodaveicrde iv reus a/xaprlaii


/xi] Trt<rTevcrriTe 8ti iyw elfu
"the beginning" and "that which I also speak," see 21546 and

[2223 a] 'Eai> yap

As

to

2225.
2
:t

Is. xliii.

[2223

27

/'J

paraphrases

Sri

[2224
render I

10

13, comp.

r/]

HE

Levy

(2224a).

'E7W

eifu lotTe

In Is. xlviii.

by iyw

C/i.

(lit.

he may be presumed
7

xlvi. 4, xlviii. 12

Heb.) R.Y. "Thou art the same."


Philo i. 258 on 'iari ti sal i/wapxti rb

l's. cii.

el/u,

to

as Ttjk

195*.

virap^iv

Deut. xxxii. 39.

6\wv

atriov,

and he

deaaaaOe.

12, where I. XX om. the phrase, Aq. Syni. and Theod.


and Aq. is so consistent in his general renderings that

have been consistent


s

i.

ifii^v

tQiv

Ps.

cii.

27.

184

in this

particular one.
9 Lk. xxiv.
39.

ELLIPSIS

[2226]

That John, when writing "believe that I AM," did not


exactly "believe that I am the eternal God," may be inferred
from several facts,
(i) Christ's hearers (until they heard the words
[2225]

mean

" before

Abraham

")

did not take

would have stoned Jesus

AM

Else they

in that sense.

The words

are put by the


false Messiah that might say, in

at once.

(2)

Synoptists into the mouth of any


"
I am the Deliverer."
effect,
(3) John always represents the Son as
and
to be one with the Father, but never
the
Father
to
reveal
claiming
It is not so easy probably it is
as claiming to be the One God.
to
define
exactly John's positive meaning: but some light
impossible
it
be
thrown
on
by the first of the passages in which Isaiah uses
may
"
Ye are my witnesses, saith
the phrase.
It runs thus in Hebrew

my servant whom I have chosen, in order that ye may


know and believe in (lit. to) me, and may understand that I [AM] HE 2 ."
The Targum has (after "Jehovah ") "my servant Christ whom I have
chosen that ye may know and believe before me and may understand
Jehovah, and

that

HE

[AM]

that

is

from

But

ginning."

this

is

if we, as it were,
of
I
and ask
meaning
that is from the be-

the beginning."

interrogate the speaker in Isaiah as to the


"What art thou?" the Targum answers

Thus,

HE

"HE

curiously like the question

and answer

on the necessity of believing " that


The Jews had asked "Who art thou?" and the first word of
had

after Jesus

insisted

in

John

AM."

Christ's

"[In] the beginning (rrjv dp^r/V) ."


[2226] There are several interesting resemblances between the
Hebrew doctrine of the I
(or the Greek doctrine of the I AM)

reply

is

HE

in Isaiah

and the Johannine doctrine about the unity of the Father

and the Son.

viii.

For example,

"My

Father worketh from the beginning

58.

The Targ. paraphrases

[2225 a]

39 (Heb. "I,

(Jer. Il) "I in


in Is. xliii. 13 Heb.

in Is. xlvi. 4

"Even

"From
to old

the

age

10.

elsewhere as follows,

Deut. xxxii.

He who Am and Was, and Will be"


Ps. cii. 27 "Thou [art] He that created us"
day I HE" is (Targ.) "From eternity I HE";
HE " = Targ. "Even to eternity I HE." Perh.

HE") (Jer. 1) "I


my word [am] He"

I,

Is. xliii.

HE

[am]

the Targumist regarded "from eternity" and "to eternity" as attributes, and
therefore did not in these last two passages insert such predicates as "that created

us" or "that
shall

HE

is

from the beginning"

know my name,

etc.

Comp.

therefore [I say, they shall

Is.

lii.

know]

6 "Therefore

my people
day that I [AM]
proclaim, Behold it is

in that

me" (Ibn Ezra "when I shall


Swete punctuates theLXX otl eyw elfu avrbs 6 \a\Qv
many ways of combining the words. The Targ. is (Walton)
that speaketh, behold

I ").

sum

qui loquebar et

Verbum meum permanet."


I8 5

Trdpet/xi,

but there are

"scietis,

quoniam ego

ELLIPSIS

[2227]

"I and yet not I, but I and the Father that sent me,"
the present passage ("I AM.... From the beginning
with
combined
that which I speak unto you") appear to represent the Son as "from
and

work,"

"working" the work of


we find, in one and
in
man.
So
and
Isaiah,
redeeming
supporting
the same context, "I AM," together with "from the beginning" (in
Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek ), and "I will work-, who shall hinder
the beginning" at one with the Father in

speaketh

One of the most spiritually minded of the early Rabbis,


who flourished about 130 a.d., extracting the words

Saul,

AND HE

out of a passage of Scripture where they have no

existence, paraphrases

He

that

."

[2227]

Abba
I

HE

Another passage introduces "speaking," "I [AM]

it?"

them

merciful and kind,

is

Commenting on

"I

thus,

so

will

be

Him

God]: as
4
too be merciful and kind ."

will

like

[i.e.

(Is. xlvi. 3) that describes Jehovah


Ezra
as carrying His people, Ibn
says "The idols of Babylon are

the Isaiah passage

but I, the God of Israel, carry the


"
"
This conception of man as being in the arms of God,
"
"
and not as crouching under the arm of God, his

carried by their worshippers


Israelites."

Father

his

Chastiser, pervades

the whole of the

Fourth Gospel.

may be

It

taken as certain that the evangelist attaches some meaning of this


in virtue of their association with the
kind to the Greek words I

AM

thought of

God

carrying

man

His bosom.

in

It

would be bathos

" I am the bread of life " and " 1


to suppose that Jesus, after saying
"
am the light of the world," now comes down to the bare " I am

implying nothing more than

mere

existence,

conceivably bad as

well as good.

[2226] The Ileb. is (Is. xliii. 13) "from the day" (R.V. txt "since the
" from the
beginning." The Aramaic has
day was"), which is rendered by LXX
here "from eternity," and inserts in xliii. 10 "he that is from the beginning."
[2226A] The Heb. of Is. xliii. 13 "work" is regularly rendered ipyd^ofiaL
1

(though LXX renders it "make


Father worketh and I work."'
[2226rJ

with

AM

that

day

The

"

thou

which

is

the

word

in

Jn

v.

17

".My

curious juxtaposition of "know" and "believe" in connexion


xliii. 10, and the phrase (Is. lii. 6) "[they shall know] in that

in Is.

[am] he that speaketh"

Peter's confession (Jn vi. 689)


and believe that thou art the holy
4

here)

(ttoiQ)

be compared with the Johannine form of

may

"Thou

hast words of eternal

life,

and we know

one of God."

Is. lii. 6.

See 1022.
like,"'

Bacher {Die Agada,

ii.

367) shews that

but prefers the above.

186

some versions have

"Be

ELLIPSIS
Much more

[2228]

probably we

may suppose

AM

to

come

a climax after the previous declarations about


and the " light " conveying a great mass of meaning

here, absolutely,
"
"

bread

the

as

[2228]

that would not be fully intelligible to any readers that had not
pondered on the meaning of the divine I AM, and perhaps on
the meaning of "I ."
On the one hand I
means more than

AM

am

"I

the Deliverer";

the eternal God."

on the other,

Taken by

itself,

it

means

less

"Believe that

than "I

AM"

am

might

as it means in Deuteronomy, "Believe in the unity of the


Supreme God, the Deliverer of Israel": but, taken here, along
with other declarations about what Jesus IS, it seems to call
upon the Pharisees to believe that the Son of man is not only the

mean,

Deliverer but also one with the Father in the unity of the Godhead.
Many may be unable to believe that our Lord actually uttered these
precise words in this sense and may yet find it quite possible to
believe that they represent the essence of His doctrine, namely, that

the Father

He

is

may

at

revealed to

is

one) and not

believe that Jesus

in

men

in the ideal of

a written law.

felt

Himself

to

humanity (with which


may go further, and
be thus absolutely at one with
Others

the Father.

[2228 a] The doctrine of Epictetus (ii. 22. 15


20) concerning the "I" is
worth noting in this connexion. Wherever the " 1 " and the " Mine" are, there,
he says, will be every creature's inclination (compare "Where your treasure is
"
there will be your heart also")
Every creature loves its own
profit (av/jLcpepovY'
above all things, "This, i.e. profit, is father and brother and kindred and country
and God." If therefore a man "identifies 'profit' with piety and honour and
country and parents and friends, these are saved, all of them" if not, they are
This identification of the "profit" of the "/" with
outweighed by "profit."
1

what a Jew might express mystically by saying "/ am He."


(id.) that we must needs desire to destroy anyone
brother,
that comes between us and "profit" ("Unless a man hate his
father, child
own father. ..he cannot be my disciple") but that if the "I" is identified with
virtuous purpose, he will become a perfect friend, son, and father (Mk x. 30 "he
shall receive a hundred fold... mothers...").
[2228 fi] The Synoptic form of these doctrines may have influenced Epictetus
and may have led him to think that virtuous philosophers might find their Son of
" I will not lose
man in
each man in his own heart
soul
I
Goodness,

is

Epictetus

adds

'

themselves,

my

that

may
worship my own soul, my own higher purpose, my spirit
contending against the flesh." John may have written with some regard to such
conclusions, putting the Synoptic doctrine in a new aspect, or developing it in an
find

it.'

will

old aspect neglected by the Synoptists, in order to

man,

if it

was

philosophic

to

shew

that the regeneration of

be based on "I," must be based on a different one from the

"Ego."

187

ELLIPSIS

[2229]
Ellipsis of ecTi

(rj)

In

[2229]

ii.

an

4 ri

xal

e'/xoi

and

croi,

22

in xxi.

ti tt/jos a-e;

there

ellipsis
tt/dos
(of which Wetst. ^ &c alleges
few
comparatively
instances) presents no difficulty, as meaning
"What [is it] in relation to thee?" i.e. What does it concern thee?
Wetst. quotes Glycas, Annal. iv. p. 255, Anthol. mss. i. 1, and
is

of iari

Ti

ere

Epictet. (but without reference)

and

tl 77-pos
i/xe

Ti

[2230]

does

kolI

ifjLol

"what does

croi

me and

concern

this

ovScV

n-po<ri\6ij<;-

eVn

77-po's

o-e

(sic),

might, theoretically, be rendered "What


thee?" for ti p.01, by itself, might mean

concern me?" as

it

/xrj

in Epictet.

22.

iii.

66

(foil,

by

infin.).

Hebrew and Greek (Wetst. on Mt. viii. 29)


"What [is there] to me and thee?" always implies "to me and thee
in common" so that the
meaning is, "What have we to do with one
But, as a fact, both in

another?"
2

K.

xvi.

omits
in

kui,

Joel

[Wetst. compares Josh. xxii. 24, 2 S. xvi. 10, 1 K. xvii. 18,


Chr. xxxv. 21, Joel iii. 4.
But in Josh. xxii. 24,
2 K. xvi. 10 is a repetition
(by error) of 2 S. xvi. 10, and

LXX

10, 2

LXX

iii.

has (as

ti

Heb.)

It

e/W;]

fyiets

occurs in

Aristoph., Demosth., Epictet., Achill. Tat., Anacreon etc., and none


of Wetstein's numerous quotations adds an
explanatory phrase except

Synesius,

o^'/aw -yap 8rj

was so common

ai

<pi\oo-o<f>i<i.

tl 7rpos dA.A77A.ous

no contemporary (2642
had to be supplied

that

that 7rpos a\\ij\ov<;

a)

The phrase

Greeks could doubt

The

of

[2230 (i)]
ellipsis
phrase ti /aikooV is found
no Gospel but the Fourth, xiv. 19 " Yet a little (Iti
fxiKpov) and
the world no longer beholdeth me
behold
me." The
ye (emph.)
Epistle to the Hebrews, quoting from prophecy, says, "Ye have
need of patience, that having done the will of God ye may gather
in the

co-ti

in

iyu

[2230a]
5e

^u

fxaprvpias

person for

In
TVV

before
his

v.

36

" The witness that

fJ-aprvpiav

rod

work

'I.

in

fxelfa

rod

Somewhat
vernacular

'I.,

have
there

is
is,

similarly

English

(as

greater than [that of] John,"


perhaps, no ellipsis of ttjs

we sometimes
well

as

in

substitute

the

ami (Ireek)
rather like Gains-

Latin

especially when speaking about a picture or poem, "This is


borough," "better than Linnell," "almost equal to Tennyson," "He was better
than his word," " How very like /lint to say that !" etc.
Winer explains in the
same way (Mt. v. 20) " Except your righteousness (lit.) abound more than the
scribes," and ^ives frequent instances in Greek and Latin.
Probably the meaning
" The witness that I have is
here is all the
for the omission of

stronger
above the level ofJohn."

Tij'i p..

icS8

ELLIPSIS
the promise, For yet a

in

(KOfxiaijcrde)

cometh

that

[2230

come 2 ."

will

This

(iii)]

just a little, [and] lie


the regular use of the

little,

illustrates

phrase in O.T. in predictions announcing the approaching doom


of the enemies of Jehovah and the deliverance of His people, who
little ."

of

ellipsis

not mentioned in the Thesaurus and appears to

is

Hebrew
O.T.

come

after

hi

from

spring

sources.

Similar ellipses of "are," with mention of time, occur

[2230(h)]
in

The

are exhorted to wait "yet a

in

connexion with the judgment of Jehovah that


"

to pass in

yet seven days,"

Compare the thought in


and the harvest cometh '?

iv.

35

"

"
yet forty days,"

"Say ye

Behold,

and contemplate the lands how

will surely

yet a year

"

etc.

'Yet are four months

not,

say unto you, lift up your eyes


that they are white for reaping.
I

and gather fruit for life eternal."


"
months " with a subAs the Gospel connects
numbering of
"Within
does
of
so
Isaiah,
yet a year as
"hire,"
sequent mention
"Within
three years,
elsewhere
he
a
and
the year of
says,
hireling,"
as the years of a hireling, and the glory of Moab shall be brought
receive hire

Already doth the reaper

this

into

contempt

that Israel

meaning apparently

,"

counted the days

"like the days of an hireling, as a servant that earnestly desireth


6
the shadow, and as an hireling that looketh for his wages ."
7
[2230 (iii)] As regards the period of "four months," it appears

agricultural year into six periods of two


"
seed-time," "winter" "winter-solstice"

Jews divided the

that the

months, the

first

"harvest."

It

four being

might therefore be

common

for farmers

and labourers

[2230 (i) a] Not quite the same as "receive," see L.S. quoting Dem. 304.
26 rous napTTotis KeKOfxiade " ye have reaped the fruits," and Herod, ii. 14 Kapirbv k.
"gather in corn."
1

"

Heb.

x. 37 tri

yap

see

[2230

(i)

b]

Comp. Rev.

Is. x. 25, xxix.


4

[2230

i]p.epu>v

(ii)

a]

i-KTa iyui

ws

i.

Gen.

p.iaduTov, K\el\p(i.

[2230

^]

Job

" that
they should

Hos.

i.

xxvi.

20

rest yet

little

time" and

4.

4 (R.V.)

LXX
vii.

(by error) ri rpeis

2.

r)p.tpai nai

So Ibn Ezra

(Is.

xvi.

who

Hor. Heb. on Jn

Is.

(LXX).

X. KaraarpacpriaeTai.
lt

14)

As

the years of

daily counts when the end will come ; so the prophet


he sees that the time of the calamity of Moab approaches."

hireling,

when

(ii)

3 foil.

lit.

Is. xvi. 14.

(!

11

33,

ii.

"For yet seven days and I will..." tri yap


"to days" and om. "and"), Is. xxi. 16 "Within yet
hireling and all the glory of Kedar shall fail," In iviaurbs
t. vlQv K., Jon. iii. 4 "Yet forty days and Nineveh
ij 56S;a

vii.

(Heb.

be overthrown,"

oaov oaov, 6 epxbp-evos ?/ quoting from

vi.

Ii.

17, Jer.

a year as the year of a


shall

p.iKpbi>

oaov and from Hab.

airoKpvfi-qOi /xinpov oaov

iv.

35, quoting

Baba Mezia 106

189

b.

is

satisfied,

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES

[2231]

"
Yet four months [i.e. winter
say
and the harvest cometh," and from agriculturists

at the conclusion of "seed-time" to

and

winter-so Is tice\

the saying might pass into a proverb inculcating patient expectation.


It is to be noted that Jn iv. 35 foil, is the only place in this
Gospel
is mentioned.
The meaning may be paraphrased
not the farmers say, Four months precisely, as the days
of a hireling and then cometh the harvest? But I say to you,
Lift up your eyes, and see the harvest already white, and the hire

where "hire"
thus:

"Do

of the reapers already present

."

Imperative, see Index


Infinitive, see Index

Interrogative Sentences
Interrogative particles

(i)

[2231] John's use of the interrogative ov


seldom causes ambiguity and requires little
of oi

and ovkovv are unique

firj

2
,

oi^i, 7rws, iroOev,

comment.

N.T. as follows

in

and

But his uses

"

Be therefore long-suffering. ..the husbandman


[2230 (iii) a] Comp. Jas v. 7
In Jn iv. 35 TeTp&ii-qvbs i<m, there is no ellipsis; hut the thought
waiteth..."
1

similar to that of the ahove quoted passages from O.T.


[2231a] In xix. io e/j.01 ov ActXeij; "To me thou speakest not!" ov has the
As regards ov\i
force of alpha privative, "Thou refusest to speak to me!"
is

which (1861)

is

taken together
in

xi.

Jn

Mk

W.H.

has

there are abundant

In

9.

never used by
vi.

'luarjcp...;

Comp.

ovx ovtos

<ttlv...;

42,

Mk

vi.

and

is

more

N.T. of its use interrogatively as


mar g- oi>x) ovrds ecnv '\r)oovs 6 vlbs

instances in
T

ovyp

3 oi>x ovrds ioriv 6 t^ktujv...;

Kai...oi>xl-.-;

Lk.

iv.

22

oi'xi

.Mt. v. 46, 47, vi. 25, xii.


1, the par all. Lk. rejects
interrog. elsewhere, in traditions peculiar to himself,
1

x.

29.

On

vios

teal

ovk...;

eariv

'lwar)<p

Mt.

xiii.

ovtos

55
In

Rut Lk.

of>xl.

and also

freq. has ovxi


in the parall. to Mt.

'

ewx negative, see 2265


1

:;

[2231

Lk. than in Mt. and Jn

freq. in

/'|

On

xii.

27

ri

(i).

eiVw, see 2512 b

r, which (the view taken in 933 being


" What should
In iv. z-t tI
say...?"
without alternative, and Westcotl makes no
wast thou saying?'" The Latin mss. also

retracted) accepts the ordinary rendering

A.V. and R. V. give " Why"


comment. SS however has "//'//,?/
XaXels,

have "quid loqueris" (following "quid quaeris") clearly meaning "what" (but
Chrys. has ovk -qpwTriaav rr\v airlav).
[2231<r] As !.. tlir interrogative use of rl generally, it has been noted (939/')
that Jn never uses iVa tI.
Aia rl he never uses without a negative.
Ti, "wAy?"
he

thus.

frequently.

"On, interrogatively used sometimes

in

I.

XX,

In never uses

'

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES
Oy mh

(a)

"The cup

[2232] xviii.
not assuredly drink

it is

it

(ov

fir}

Father hath given me shall


See 9336, 1007, where
cwto)!"

that
tto

my

this rare interrogative is rather

maintained that

than an interrogation, and that it means


to drink it [according to your desire]!"

many

[2232]

literally

"I

an exclamation

am

of course not

confirmed by
section shewing John's proneness to the exclama-

details in this

This view

is

and it also helps to explain (1508) one aspect of


iv.
of
48 "Except ye see signs and wonders ye will
meaning
"
addressed to the nobleman
not
believe
(ov
TriarevariTe)
assuredly
tory interrogative

the

Chrysostom suggests that "ye" may mean "ye


citizens of Capernaum," and that our Lord is chiding and stimulating
But the words
his faith as being weak like that of his fellow-citizens.
from Capernaum.

LXX

uses it to express a great number of Hebrew


otl, the
often represents Heb. "Why?" "For what?" "Is not?" etc.
But there is often v.r. tl otl; and, where otl introduces a speech, confusion may
arise from the use of otl recitativum, e.g. Gen. xviii. 13 elwev K. wpbs 'A. "On

[2231

1/]

particles,

As

and

regards

it

"
Wherefore did S. laugh?" Comp. Judg. ii. 2 v.r. ore,
l5ov
ovx
(where Swete marks no interrog. and on may mean
Judg.
"for indeed"), 2 S. vii. 7 v.r. tl and tI on, xii. 9 v.r. tl, 2 K. viii. 14 (Swete 6'
" v.I.
for
but Swete
no
xxvii. 12
Blass
eyeAao-ei' 2.

tl,

(D

iv.

14

called

by

tl otl)

v.r.

rl,"
(in AB)
gives
instances are extremely numerous.

The

v.r. Ota tL de etc.

v.L),

Job

LXX

Greek (and Greek


other Greek, as to the use of 8n in particular and
Blass says (p. 176) "the employinterrogative and relative particles in general.
ment of ocrrts or even of o's in a direct question is quite incredible, except that b, tl
These

[2231c"]

influenced by

special

LXX)

from

circumstances differentiate

all

'

'

Blass (p. 331) mentions,


appears to be used as an abbreviation for tl 6, tl why.'
as quoted against him, (1) Plut. De Sera Vind. 14 p. 558 E: but this is best punctu-

ated to ye aa(pes...ov5' ...ao-(pa\ws elirelv Hxop.ev, otov, 5ia tl..., rj ttclXlv 5l rjv airiav
(2) 2 K. viii. 14 (see 2231 d) which should not be mixed with non-LXX Gk,
(3) [Justin]

Cohort,

ad

Graec. 5 ad

fin.,

where the

txt

is

doubtful, but there

is

high authority for paraphrasing thus, '''For the same reason for which (di r\v clLtLciv)
you say Homer speaks the truth when he is on your side don't you think he speaks
the truth when we prove (a.irofyyva.fxi'vujv for airo<p7)i>a/j.evos) from Homer a view
opposite to yours?"

(4)

Euseb. P.E.

tu \6yLt> otl ere eKwecpevyev ...,


the reasons for which...": but I should prefer:
for which I have introduced these matters
[it
irpoffeurqveyKa.

added Euseb. P.E.

(pai-qs

av

tovto

vi.

de

7. p.

bwbdev

"Tell me this. ..Do we


whence we know this."

we know this?"

The

256

c, eKetvb

"And now
is]

to

because...."

come

To

to the reason

these

may be

\{ye...apd ye tl ia/xev eyto re klu 06;


I should suggest a repetition of X^ye.

fj.0L

where
;
you and I

Lo-fxev

2$jd) i2v de eveKa Tavra


rendered by G. "But do you ask

12 (Giff. p.

vi. 7.

but [tell me]


yes, you say of course
Gifford renders, in note, "But do you ask whence do
facts confirm Blass's conclusion.
exist,

IQI

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES

[2233]

apply to men of the world generally, "Ye that are rich and great will
not believe without signs and wonders [Is it to be so with thee'?]'
!

Oy'koyn

(j3)

37 (R..V.) "Pilate

xviii.

[2233]

thou a king then (ovkovv

mean
so

"Not

(1)
it

[is

that

In

not?]"

accented
so

therefore," (2) "It

can

last

the

drops

it

ovkovv,
it

this

be

in

used,

is

not,

sense,

him, Art

Ovkovv, unaccented,

then?"

and

"Then

(3)

which

in

negative
the sense

unto

said

therefore

/Sao-tXevs el crv;)?"

is

it

then,"

it

is

commonly
force,

interrogative

"well

may

even

with

an imperative, as in Kings (Heb.) "Be content, take two," where


"
Well then, take," ovkovv (A olkow, sic) XdfSe 2
Symmachus has
It may
In such cases it means, "You'll do it, then, won't you?"
.

"come" when Persephone

be paraphrased as
to

make

cure

Protesilaus

this

young

again,

coaxes her husband

Come, husband, prithee do thou

also 3 ."

ill,

In

[2234]

"

cannot be understood

37, the force of ovkovv

xviii.

All
without reference to context (and perhaps to the Synoptists).
the four evangelists agree exactly in words and order as to the

question addressed by Pilate to Jesus, "Thou art [it seems] the king
4
But as to our Lord's answer, "Thou sayest [////V] 5,"
of the Jews !"
the Synoptists assert that

answered

Jesus

at

it

once,

followed at once, whereas John says that


?"
"Sayest thou this from thyself

Moreover, according to John,

this

answer provoked a contemptuous

reply from Pilate, which led to Christ's explanation:

"My

kingdom

1
[2232 ] Comp. 1 Cor. i. 26, which says that "not many mighty, not many
noble," are chosen, after stating that (i. 22) "Jews seek signs and Greeks wisdom."
'-'

lavai
4

[2233/']

Lucian,

v.

Other copies have

23.

De

A/or/,

xxiii.

(i.

iirieiK&s XdySe,

p. 428) ovkovv,

kindly take."
avep, ai>

/3.

2ii

[2234/']

(xviii.

elfii.

On

instances of

bad news ("

Xiyeis,

37)

in

el 6

tovt"

/3.

r.

but Jn has dirb aeavrov <ri> tovto \eyeis at once, and


answer to the question, ovkovv fJaoihevs e I o"l) cri) \iyeis

<ru \4yeis,

as a formula of assent, see

"vos dixistis"
Niim mortuus

are from

'

est

instance from

Ok

prose

no bad news

is

in

Xcn. Mem.
the

WetsL on Mt.

Talmudic sources.

context.

xxvi. 25. His


express assent to

They
Vos dixistis ' ") which

'

Rabbi?'

Respondit

a messenger shrinks from repeating to a questioner.


rdd' ovk Cfxou k\v(is and fr. 379 (not in Hind.) <rv 5i
is

ko.1

afterwards

there

"

Steph. quotes also De Mort. x. 4, xxiii. 2 with imperatives.


[2234(7] Mk xv. 2, Mt. xxvii. 11, Lk. xxiii. 3, Jn xviii. 33 ZSu

'Ioi'Sat'wi'

on

K.

[2233a]

10.

iii.

The

Jewish sources.

KJ2

ille,

So

352 cov
tcuV, ovk eyw. I lis only
15 avrds, ^(pt]> tovto \eytis, where
use in the Gospels is prob. from
in Eurip. Hippol,

\e"yeis

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES
not from this world."

is

He

[2235]

Then, when Christ had thus admitted that

had, in some sense, a "kingdom," Pilate replies


dropping "Jews"
and "the" "Well then (ovkovv) [we will not dispute about details,

such as "the king" and "the Jews"] thou art a king." To this, and
according to John does Jesus assent by replying

only to this

"Thou

sayest that I

am

a king."

Mh

(ry)

[2235] M77' ("it is not so, is it?"


interrogatively in the Fourth Gospel

"can

be that?")

it

is

used

more frequently than in all


the Three Gospels taken together
but whereas the Three (Mark
only using it once) restrict it to the words of Jesus, John almost
1

restricts

of

words of others.

to the

it

in Christ's

it

words, one being

(*ai viAels) desire to

There are but two instances


"

"Can

toe)

The

[2235 b]

"^x e

'

Tl

it

be that

(fjnj)

ye also

go away ?"

being (933//) not to the point).


as interrogative,

Can

67,

occurs about 17 times injn.


In Jn v. 45

It

[2235 a]

vi.

Mk
/xtj

uses

it

done'ire,

only in

ii.

19

imperative,

(Mk xii.
SS takes

-,

/u.y

ye suppose?"

other

is xxi. 5 llaidia, p.rj ti irpoacpdyiov %x T S


Field says (ad
the usual question... answering to our 'Have you had any sport?'"
to the usual phrase, the negative expectation is emphasized, "You

>

By adding yu.77
have caught no

is

have you ?" But ought we not to read /mrjri (2702) ?


^x ere Wetst. ad loc. quotes conclusively Schol. on Aristoph.
Nub. 731, and Field adds, from Nonnus, 77 'p ^x^ v n J where Schol. has apa
ed7ipa.<Tau.ti> ti ; but the statement quoted by some from Euthymius that iraidia is
[2235

fish,

On

<]

>

a term freq. applied to labourers (Zdos yap tovs epyariKoiis ovtios 6vop.d^eiv)

is

not

proved (so as to be applicable to xxi. 5) by Aristoph. Ran. 37, Nub. 132 iraidiov,
"
"
" servulus." A Greek could
boy
rightly explained by Steph. as
say iraidiov
"
"
to the
the
of the house he was visiting, but not iraidia to strangers
door]
boy [at
Acts ofJohn 2 represents Christ Himself as
fishing.
Chrys. and a omit iraidia.
See 2701.
appearing on the bank to James as a iraidiov.
!

On

irpocxcpayiov, Field, quoting A.V. "any meat," and R. V. "aught


Rather, Have ye taken any fish ?
Steph. shews that irpoacpdyiov
was a vernacular word for irpoo-6\pijua, oypdpiov (or 6\f/ov, which Clem. Alex. 104

[2235(/]

to eat," says

"

'

'

'

when quoting

this passage): and these words, though


meaning
food," were frequently used for "fish," in places where the
habitual relish was "fish."
In Oxyr. Pap. 736, irpoo-<pdyiov is rendered "relish''

substitutes (2307(7)

literally "[relish] to

"a relish half an obol," and again


days two and a half obols." Similarly 739 "
relish for the builder" thrice,
498 "each of us shall receive one loaf and a relish
per diem." In 736, the editors also give "sauce (6\papiov) one obol. ..sauce (oxpov)
one obol, sauce (ox^apiov) one obol." These entries are on three consecutive days,
after

"beer, leeks,... asparagus, a cabbage"

''relishes for the

women on two

and vegetables being excluded here by the mention of them in the context it
would seem probable that oypov means nearly the same thing as 6\pdpiov and as
irpocKpdyiov, namely "fish" in some form.
Comp. Fay um Pap. cxix. 31 "forG.'s
A. VI.

193

13

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES

[2236]

Interrogative tone

(ii)

There

[2236]

In the

is

ambiguity in sentences where the


1
expressed not by a particle, but by tone

frequent

if it exists, is

interrogation,

two of the following instances there

first

a suspensive

said unto thee I

a protasis with

is not
50 (R.V. and A.V.)
saw thee underneath (A.V. under) the

the third there

in

6'n,

"Because (on)

is

i.

thou shalt see greater things than these " xx. 29


(R.V. txt and A.V.) "Because (on) thou hast seen me thou hast
believed: blessed [are] they that have not seen and [yet] have
thou

fig-tree believest

believed" (R.V. marg. "hast thou believed]");


Believe) (Trio-revert) in

believe (marg.

me

in

God

believe

"

(R.V.)

Ye

(irKjrevere)

also

xiv.

j?
.

The

[2237]

following facts bear on the

last

(xiv.

1)

of these

The meaning of the ambiguous form of the


when it may be (theoretically) either interrogative

instances.

ambiguous

2 pers. pi. in -ere,

is largely determined
by special custom.
would naturally be interrogative, "Do ye
'AKovere and iSXerrere would naturally be

or affirmative or imperative,
e\ere, (3ov\ea6e, ooKelre,

"Think ye?"

desire?"

"Hear

imperative,

ye,"

"See

ye."

Apart from such special custom,

where the context does not


the ordinary meaning of -ere would be
decide otherwise affirmative in classical Greek, because the ititer-

rogative force, if intended, might have been expressed by


particle,

and because the imperative might

expressed by the unambiguous

birthday feast send

(?)

aorist,

mo-revo-are*.

e.g.

fish (d>\f/dpia) (sic) (edd. delicacies)... and

bread"; and Oxyr. 531 roh

b\papiois

an interrogative
cases) be

many

(in

e'^XXafas ^uas

(?)

an artaba of wheaten

"you won me over by

the

The editors add that certain "cloaks" mentioned in the


fish (edd. dainties)."
context may have been "in exchange for the b\J/apia.^ Either interpretation would
be compatible with the rendering "fish." Possibly, as "pickles" with us means
"pickled (vegetables)," so the three Greek words above mentioned came to mean
in certain localities, "[/ish] for eating [with bread]," but different terms may have
been applied to different kinds of fish, fresh, salt etc. Oxyr. l^ap. 736 perhaps
resembles Jn
the

same
1

ffi'i

xxi. 5

But

thing.

[2236^;] This

in

in

much more

is

fxov vlwTfis roiis 7ro5as;


2

[2236/']

rovrwv

i.

50

xx.

6\f/r],

irtorevoavTis, xiv.

th rbv Oebv Kal


:|

[2237

different

in

els

1st npoo<t>a,-)iov

using

Jn the word

and 2nd

b\p<xp<.oi>

to

mean

nearly

may have

frequent

in

" Thou dost wash

a symbolic meaning (2703).


Jn than in the Synoptists, e.g.

my

xiii.

"

feet

"On elirbv aoi on elSbv oe vwokoltw t?i$ o-vKr/s Triorevets; fieli'dJ


ISbvres ko.1
"On ewpaK&s fie TreirlarevKa's fj.aKa.pioi 01

29
1

Trio-revere

ifJ.?

et's

rbv debv, ko\ eh

/.'A]

(fue

mo-revere, marg. Trto-reOere,

wiarevere.

The unambiguous
meaning,

differs

aorist imperative,

sometimes

l"l

little

though theoretically somewhat

(in

practice)

From

the

present

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES

[2240]

and
imperative twice in Mark
thrice in John (apart from the instance (xiv. i) under discussion).
St Paul's exhortation to the jailor in the Acts, "Believe in the Lord
1

riio-Tei'cTe

[2238]

is

certainly

"

Jesus

But

it

is in the singular besides being in the unambiguous aorist.


reminds us how frequent would be the plural imperative use

of the

verb

conversions

among
in

during the

evangelists

period

[2239] On
of Christ's words previous to His healing two blind men
capable of meaning "Believe" or "Believe ye?" or

before
suppose"
it

numerous

of

the early Church.


the other hand, Tnarevere occurs in Matthew's version

the words "that

am

theoretically
"Ye

believe \_I

4
able to do this ."

Here

might have been plausibly argued that Jesus used the imperative

He

("Be of good
would
be
cheer, only
incompatible with the
answer of the blind men, "Yea, Lord," which necessitates in ttio-tcvctc
to stimulate their faith, as
5

meaning

either

("Ye

indirectly

stimulates that of Jairus

but this

believe "):

directly

believe [I

("Do ye

interrogative

assume before going

believe?")

further]?").

used in English {e.g. "You will come with


come with me, then?" for "You will come with me

latter is frequently

"You

will

or

The
me?"
[will

you not?]").
This last disconcerting instance from Matthew shews the
and the danger of laying down a rule including all books
of N. F.
Each writer may have his own usage. But the usage of
John (and of Mark, with whom John curiously agrees in some idioms)
[2240]

difficulty

makes

probable that

it

(xiv. i) TTiareveTe

is

in the third

Johannine instance above quoted

imperative, "Believe in God,...

fi

."

v. 36 irlcrtve Lk. viii. 50 iriaTevoov, and Sir. ii. 6


imperative.
Comp.
Kiartvcov avrf, ii. 8 m.rjTe'uaa.Te avrw, xi. i\ wlareve ry Kvpiy, with little apparent
difference of meaning.
Some writers may be more strict than others in dis-

Mk

Moreover, in particular verbs, e.g. Hpxo/Mxi, trie use


criminating between the two.
of the present and of the aorist imperative may vary according to special circumstances (2438^).
1

Mk

Acts

Mk

15, xi. 24.

i.

xvi. 31 irLarevaov.
v.

36,

Lk.

viii.

,^o.

Comp.

Mk

Jn xii.
Mt. ix.

36, xiv. 11 {bis).


28.

24 "whatsoever ye pray... believe

xi.

ye have received them."


[2240a] Chrys. ad loc. says, "ILiffTetiere...ical

(iricrTeveTe) that
K

els

ep.

TrttfTetfere."

tovt4<jti,

ra dava (Cramer, wavTa (p-qal irapeKOfiu 8eirai (?) to. deiva).


Triaris kclI t6v yeyevvTjuoTa SwarcjT^pa rCiv etnbvTWv iari (Cramer

irdura. TrapeXeutrerai

'H yap

ei's

rvyxdva)

e/j.e

xai ovdtv edaei. KpaTrjaou tCjv

favours the rendering "Creditis in

dvax e P ^"'1

Deum
195

et

in

On
me

this

Erasmus says
Atque ita

credit! s.

3 2

that

it

legisse

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES

[2241]

The

[2241]

other two instances

and agree

third,

on ("Because

suspensive

and

seen..."):

together,
I

in

and

turns

ask what

this leads us to

that the verb in the apodosis

scale

the

"Because

said

favour

in

unto

John's usage after other


shall find that there are

is

We
is

1
always affirmative
i.

This

50 and xx.

saw thee under the

with

protasis

"Because thou hast

of an affirmative in

thee,

being preceded by

said unto thee...,"

Johannine instances of suspensive on.


four,

29) differ from the

50, xx.

(i.

fig-tree,

29
thou

"Because thou hast seen me, thou hast believed' !"


[2242] Similarly in the Acts, Paul says to Agrippa "Thou
believest (7rtcrTcveis) the prophets [is it not so?]," and goes on to
believest*."

add the answer to this suggested question, "I know that thou
believest 3 ," and the Epistle of St James addresses a controversialist

"Thou (emph.) (av) [of course] believest that there


God 4 ?" assuming, before the writer goes further, that this

ironically thus,
is

one

but putting the assumption as an affirmation with an


In the Fourth Gospel, 7rto-Tcrjis is used by
tone.
5
Jesus to Martha, "thou believest this [is it not so?] ," and, with

must be

so,

interrogative

videtur ex interpretatione sua Chrysostomus, quasi Jicfes

quam

habebanl.

.illis

abunde

"
But might it not be consistent with an imperative rendering:
prsesidio esset.
"Be not troubled. Continue to believe.... That is to say, Your tenors will all pass

For the belief in me and in the Father is stronger than your enemies"?
Erasmus says that Cyril interprets both verbs imperatively. SS and a have
"creditc.et creditis," i.e. "believe in God and then ipso facto ye will believe in
me"; but if this had been the meaning, would not Jn have written "the Father"
The
and
of
have " creditis... credite "
away.

Vulgate
f
have "credite...credite."

"God")?

(instead

Syr.

(Walton),

b,

d,

and

Diatess.,

Erasmus enumerates four

possible interpretations (1) "creditis... credit is," (2) "credite...credite," (3) "creditis
To this may be added (5) (W.H. marg.),
...credite," (4) "credite... creditis."
"credite, in Deum et in me credite" taking the 1st irLa-revere absolutely; and possibly
"creditis in

(6)

Deum?

believe also in me."

Johannine ambiguity.
Jn viii. 45, xiv. 19,
1

[2241 a

Et

The

in

me

credite,"
is

passage

xv. 19, xvi. 6,

But the tone in

i.

"Do

ye believe

in

God?

Then

one of the most conspicuous instances of

comp. Gal.

50, xx. 29

is

iv. 6.

quite different from that of ordinary


live, ye also shall lire" where the

xiv. 19 "Because (on) I


sentence ends and the reader rests on "shall live" as a natural consequence.
In
the two instances above mentioned, the sentence goes on to a contrast, and there

affirmation, e.g.

is

an implied exclamation:

"Thou
''

hast believed

[it

is

"Thou
true,

believes!

|l>ut

on how

slight

ground]!"

but not with the highest belief]!"

Acts xxvi. 27.

W.H. punctuate interrogatively, Mayor prefers an affir[2242*/] Jas ii. 19.


m.ition.
The emph. aii seem-, to mean, ironically, "thou, the orthodox disputant."
5

xi.

26 "...he shall never die.

Thou

believest this?"

I96

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES
a different shade of meaning,

Thou (emph.)

said,

[Jesus]

crv

irio-Tevzvi

believest

refers to the

facts

in

[2243]

to the blind

the

man

Son of man 1 ."

to the blind

"He
This

man's defence

preceding
apparently
of Christ against the Pharisees, to his avowed belief in well-doing,
"
and to his confidence that " God heareth those who do His righteous
If so, the

will.

of

man

,"

and there
In

[2243]
rogative
I

meaning

xiii.

"He

have done

"

Thou \I am sure] believest in the


or nothing of the interrogative tone.

is,

is little

12

although

said unto them,

to

R.V. and A.V. agree


(R.V.)

you?" the imperative

is

Know

Son

in the inter-

what
somewhat more probable,
ye

(yivcoo-Kere)

"If the world hateth you, (R.V. marg.) know ye


hath hated me..." (1901, 26657), i.e. "understand,
recognise, that the world hated me." The
usage rather favours the
3
In any case, we could not explain yivwaKeTe in xiii. 12
imperative
in view of xv. 18,

(yivoWre) that

it

LXX

35-

[2242 /'] It may be said that Jesus could not have meant this, as the next
words of the blind man are "And who is he, Lord?" But it may be replied that
the blind man virtually believed in the ideal Son of man already, and that the

Logos was supposed by the evangelist to discern this


expressed it in the words (ix. 38) "I believe."

belief even before the blind

man

mean "know"

[2243a] Tivuo-KeTe does not

but "begin to know,"

"come

to

therefore quite different from eyvuiKare (which is probably


never imperatively used). Ytuwaisfre is imperatively used in the LXX, after eav
yap a-rroo-TpacprJTe, in Josh, xxiii. 13. It is also imperative in Dan. iii. 15, 3 Mace,

know," "recognise."

It is

LXX

vii.
the only indicative
9 (and the sing, imperat. yivwuKe occurs in
4 times)
instances are either with vfiels inserted (Gen. xliv. 27) or in the phrase "Do ye
know so-and-so?" (Gen. xxix. 5, Tob. vii. 4). In the Synoptists, the imperative
;

and the

indicative are about equally balanced.


In 1 Jn ii. 29, yivdoaKere is taken
by Westc. as prob. inoperative, but by Lightf. (on Gal. iii. 7) apparently as
In 1 Jn iv. 2, the mood is doubtful, but taken by Westc. as indicative.
indicative.
In Jn xiii. iNit is generally taken interrogatively; it certainly cannot be
affirmative.
In'xiv. 7 and xiv. 17 it is preceded severally by aw' dpn and v/ieis

and

is

been

indicative.

In Heb.

xiii.

set at liberty," yivuxrKere

Pauline

initial

uses of the

word

"know ye that our brother Timothy hath


almost certainly imperative, and the only two
Cor. viii. 9 y. yap, Gal. iii. 7 7. &pa) indicate

23

is

(2

would seldom be placed at the beginning of a clause indicatively without


some word such as yap, apa, vpeis etc. to denote that the word is used affirmatively
that y.

or argumentatively, or to emphasize

fact.
Indeed, in one of these two passages
and A.V. have the imperative. In Phil. ii. 22 tt\v oe 8oki/j.7]v
avrov ytvuiffKtTe, the verb is non-initial, and the meaning appears to be " Ye are
"
alive to his tried worth
(not quite the same as eyvuKare)
Chrys. paraphrases it
as v/xds avrol (v.r. avrbv) ewiaraade.
But even there it is not certain that the
Apostle is not bespeaking respect for the somewhat retiring Timothy, whose quiet
unselfish labours might fail to obtain due
recognition even from those who (like
the Philippians) were familiar with them: "For all seek their own interests, not

(Gal.

iii.

7),

R.V.

txt

197

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES

[2244]
like Trio-TeviTe

above, as

'

know

Ye

excellent sense.

Origen (ad

loc.)

And

[do ye noff\?
I

In two instances, a conditional clause

[2244]

the rendering,

have done to you," makes


allows both renderings.

"Understand the meaning of what

("if. ..as

you cannot

way
something incongruous with that
deny") prepares
which incongruity is expressed by an interrogative or
exclamation of amazement: vii. 23 "If circumcision is received on
the

for

condition,

the sabbath

me

the face of that fact] are ye angry with

[in

(ifxol

x. 35
6 "If he called them
XoXuTe) for healing on the sabbath?"
gods... and the Scripture cannot be broken
[in the face of that fact]
do ye (emph.) (ifxeis) say (Xeyere), Thou blasphemest?"
Here the

"
emphatic "ye means ye the guardians and interpreters of Scripture."
Only under special circumstances could v/xas Ae'yere, "ye (emph.)
say," at the beginning of a clause, be used interrogatively.
"

An interrogative or exclamatory tone may be suggested


words that imply incongruity or the need of explanation,
"From Nazareth can any good thing come 1 !" "Thus answerest thou
[2245]

initial

by

the

Priest !"

High

"Your king am
and

in this mountain,

worshipped

that in Jerusalem

is

the place 4

to crucify

!"

"

ye say
Thus, an initial av

[yet] (2136)

!"

Our

fathers

(u/xei? Aeye-rc)
A.e'yei?,

where

no incongruity between the person and the utterance, would


naturally mean "thou (emph.) sayest"; but an incongruity would

there

is

make

all

the difference,

e.g.

"Dost thou

[the General] say,

'Murder'?"

"Dost thou

[the Priest] say,


thyself sayest thou this or did others say

"From

'Flee'?"

Also such a sentence as


it

to thee?"

may be

But as for his tried worth, I would have you recogiiise it,
those of Jesus Christ.
because, like child with father, he did laborious service with me for the Gospel."
It

in mind that the pres. imper. yivwaKcre "be recognising,'" "try


would naturally be distinguished from yvtorc "recognise [once for

must be borne

to recognise,"
all],"

by a

careful writer (2437 -9).

means "recognise [the facts of life etc.],"'


TavOpuweia (coin p. Hec. 227, Ale. 418, Hel. 1257) whereas 7. in
2nd pers. indie, does not occur except interrog. Her. 630. Also, in Xenophon
and Lucian, the imperat. ylvwoKe (Steph.) is freq., especially in the phrase ovtoj
ylvuxjKt "make up your mind to this," which Lucian has 111 2nd pers. pi. (i- 337,
[2243

Inns

fr.

Pluto

/>]

In Euripides, ylvuiaKt freq.

xxi.

1)

ywuicTKeTe

y.

" Make

dis

ouoe

up your mind to

this that

shali not stop for a

Peter thus, Ilifrpos b>

Krjpuy/xaTi

can hardly be otherwise than imperative.


1

2
i.

46.

xviii. 22.

moment

(oOtu)

Clem. Alex. 759 quotes the Preaching of


\iyei, YivuxTKere ovv on efs 6e6s i<rrw..., which

iravcrofj-^vov /xov)."

:l

xix.

I98

15.

iv.

20.

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES
interrogative, a question being suggested

[2246]

by the words "from thyself"

1
followed by the alternative "or from others ?"
xvi. 32, a contrast is implied between ap-rt, "at the
In
[2246]
present moment" and the "hour" that "is coming and hath come"

(1915

(i) foil.).

'I<W here, as in the only other Johannine instance


2
it, is almost equivalent to the Greek Se, "but ."

where our Lord uses

As
we

For

in the First Epistle to the Corinthians ("

moment

the

(dpTi)

3
see through a mirror darkly but then face to face ") so here, the
antithesis, having an affirmative in the second clause, requires us to
"
For the moment
suppose an affirmative in the first clause also, thus,

(apTt) [indeed] ye believe, [but] behold the hour cometh...vvhen ye shall


be scattered every man to his own." This rendering agrees with
xvi. 27 "Ye have believed''' and xvii. 8 "They [have] believed."
Our
"

Lord recognises that the disciples did really and


They had said, however, too confidently (xvi. 30)

we know... herein we

truly

believe."

"Now

(at last)

which Jesus replies, in effect,


" Do not
Ye believe for
say Nozv at last, say rather, For the moment.
the moment, but the impending hour of trial will dissipate your
(vvv)

believe"

to

belief."

This

is

is

clearly

34 'Att6 aeavrou
But

interrogative.

"Well

crv

tovto \eyei$,

aXXoi

7}

king of the Jews" and

"a

king."

elirov croi irepl e/xov ;

in answer to Pilate's

seems] a king}" -when Jesus replies


in

xviii.

37

then, thou art [it


patrtXevs elfju, there is no reason to suppose that this
punctuated in W.H. marg.). A distinction is clearly

question,

on

xviii.

[2245 a]

The former our Lord

second

2.v \eyeis

is

interrogative (as it
the

drawn between "

puts aside with contempt

The latter was of


as a question dictated by "others," i.e. the chief priests.
a different kind.
Everyone knew, even the boys in the streets of Rome, that the
wise and virtuous philosopher claimed to be in some sense "a king," and the
Book of Revelation (Rev. v. 10) claims that the followers of Christ are to be

"kings and
sayest that I
Mt. xxvi. 64

To the latter, then, Christ assents


am a king." Comp. Lk. xxii. 70 "Ye say
"Thou saidst [it]," <rv diras is parall. to Mk

same time

the

it

must be admitted that (2234

<^)

the use of

the words

in

priests."

that

xiv. 62

ci)

am

"thou

[a king]."

eyw

et'/xi.

Xiyeis, outside

At
N.T.

evidence goes) generally implies bad tidings.


It is a phrase
might be explained (as a saying of Christ) by various contexts. In the
bringing of bad news, it means (1) "Thou sayest this [not /]" but where there
is no bad news, it might mean (2) "Thou [of thyself] sayest this, unprompted
by others." Jn combines (r) with (2) taken interrogatively.
(so far as Wetstein's

that

"

[2246 a] Jn iv. 35 "Do not ye say...? Behold,


are in the habit of saying, 'The harvest is coming.'

say unto you,"

But

i.e.

"Ye

you it is come."
There, the first clause is, in effect, not a question, but the Hebraic interrogative
(comp. "Is it not written?" etc.), which is a Greek affirmative.
3

(xiii.

tell

[2246^] 1 Cor. xiii. 12. "Apri is contrasted (Jn xiii. 7) with /xera ravra,
37) with a preceding vcrepov, and (xvi. 12) with a preceding hi.

199

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES

[2247]

In almost

[2247]

interrogation,

it

the instances of affirmative, or exclamatory


for an English translator to imitate

all

would be better

the Greek by leaving the sentence affirmative so far as concerns the


words, trusting to context and punctuation to suggest the interrogative
"
Thou (emph.) washest my feet!" If this were done, many
tone:

sentences would be

left less definite

be closer to the meaning of the

than in our R.V., but they would

original.

Questions without interrogative particle

(iii)

The

[2248]

to

appended

of

list

this

"and yet"

In

45).

iii.

io,

the

footnote

that

have no

in

be limited to those

will

Some have been

interrogative particle.

(2136

sentences

interrogative

section

discussed under

oi

ko.1

meaning

such a context that

in

is

it
might possibly be called an interrogative particle, "Thou art the
But on the
teacher of Israel; and [yet] dost thou not know this?"

hand

other

the

exclamatory, and

whole

of

the

sentence

may be regarded as
The
Hence the instance is

oi as merely equivalent to alpha privative ("

teacher of Israel. ..and ignorant of this!").


The dozen or more of interrogatives with oi are
included below-.

excluded as they do not throw

light

on ambiguity 3

1
But in the preceding remarks,
[2248 ] These are punctuated as in W. H.
Greek has
reasons have been given for punctuating many of them differently.
no note of exclamation. That being the case, an editor of N.T. has to choose
between two defective representations, a note of interrogation or a full stop.

[2248/0 In vii. ro, (R-V.) "Did not M. give you the law, and [yet] none
doeth the law?" is prob. preferable to W.H.'s text, which ends the
words a statement.
question at "give you the law," and makes the following
In vii. 35, R.V. ("Whither will this man go that (otl) we shall not find him?")
But that is
gives the impression of meaning "so that we shall not find him."
2

of you

not the meaning of the Greek.

The Jews now

not find me."


{according

to his account']

Ion)

say tAt's] because" or


he going?" (2179).
:i

'0

it

[2248c]
i>o<pT)TT)i

avrco

"On

i.

say in

we

"

(vii.

consequence "Where

shall

"for" and

"{We
i>

Jesus had previously said

is

The

not find him."

Ye. ..shall

34)

For
means

he going?
initial

on.

"Where

introduces the reason for asking

21 fipdiTTjaav clvtov Ti ovv ; [<rt>] 'H. d: (marg. T: ovvav; 'H. ;)...


i.
i.
50 turev
46 direv ai'rw X., E\ X. ovvarai ti ayadbv elvai;

tlov;

elwbv vol otl elbbv ae vttok&tco

ttJs crvKrjs

iruTTeveis

ii.

20

e lirav...

If acre-

avrbv;
P&kovto. Kai Zrtaiv olkoOolltiDij 6 yaos orroj, Kai crv ev Tpiciv j)txepaLS eyepeis
iii. 10 direv ainw 2i> el 6 5i5d<TKa\os tov T. Kai ravra ov ytvwffKeis; v. 6 \tyei...Qe'\eis
vyir)S

yevioOai

vi.

6l elirev...'TovTo v/xas o-KavOa\ii'ei; edv ovv dfwprjre...

el nepiTO/J.r]v \a/x[3dvei...'iva
iiyiri

ewoirioo,

iv

aaf-ijidTip

ix.

19

ripJirrjcrav

ewpaKas;

/U17

\vdrj 6 vopos

MajiWws,

epLoi

x^- Tf 0Tl

^"

vii.

23

a-vDpioirov

e' s

Kal

viii.
57 dirav ...wevTT)KOvTa trr) oifirw !x
avrovs \iyovres Ovt6s eoTLV 6 vlbs iifJMV, 6v bfteis Xtyere

200

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES

[2250]

Indirect interrogative

(iv)

This

[2249]

even where
beckoneth

him and

to

He

rare in John.

is

prefers the direct interrogative

involves such a repetition as

it

saith to him,

"Simon

24)

(xiii.

Who

'Say

Peter

whom

about

is it?

he

"

where many mss. have (A.V.) "beckoned to him that he


should ask who it should be {iwdkaQai tl<s av ei'77)," an alteration made
But he uses the indirect form in two passages
(no doubt) for style.
saith [this],'

as follows.
[2250]

16

vii.

(1)

17

"My

will,

from God, or

I am

\j.vhether\

elsewhere
the

prepare

N.T.

in

speaking

But

is

is

lloTepov

not

here used deliberately

" speaking from oneself"

at first sight

God 2 ," and

his

(-n-oTepov) it is

from myself"
is

it

do

to

weighty statement of an alternative that

for the

way

the

[is

will to

If

seem superfluous
not John content to say "He shall

might

not mine but

any man have a


know concerning the teaching, whether

he shall

found

is

teaching

teaching] of him that sent me.

know

if

The answer

there to stop?

"

[i.e.

is,

it

whether^

that

John

Why
from

is

desires to

"

Some might
speaking from oneself 2s being a crime.
to
the
Christ
urge that, according
Synoptists,
taught "with
and
in
the
Sermon
on
the
Mount
authority,"
that,
("Ye have heard
emphasize

that

I say") He

hath been said to them of old. ..but

it

otl

"spake from

ix.
Ei>
TixpXbs eyevvr)drj;
dfiapTlais av eyevvr)6rfs oXos, KcU av
34 tlwav
diodaKeis rffids;
ix. 35 elireu 2i) irtaTeveis els tov vVov tov
x. 35
6 el
dvdptbirov;
eKeivovs elwev deovs,...6i> 6
warr/p y)y iaaev... vfiels Xeyere Sri BXaatprjfiets 8tl elwov
.

.'

tov Oeov elfu;

vlbs

8 Xeyovaiv .'Papfiei, vvv e^rjTovv ae XiOdaai ol 'lovSaloi, Kai


26 ov fir) airoddvy els tov alQva- marei/eis tovto; xiii. 6
xiii.
12 elrrev ...YivtbaneTe (2243) tL
fiov virrTeis tovs 7r65as;
xi.

7rd\tc virdyeis e/cet;

av

Xtyei.^Kvpie,
irewolriKa vfiiv

aov virep

Trji> ipvxriv

ovk ^yvuiKas

TriaTtvere;

37

30

xviii.

xvi.

eliruv

ftaaiXevs tQv 'lovoaiwv;


elrrov aoi rrepl ifiov;

\g

15
1

[2250 a]

6.

tovtov fyrelre fier

ei;r)Xdes.

drreKpidri

Ovtojs diroKplvri t< dpxiepel;

xviii.

34

dTreKpidr)...

Awb

dXXrfXuv qti

avTols

xviii.

'I.

33 etrrei'
aeavrov av tovto Xeyeis

rj

"Apr:
.2i

el

dXXol

37 drr eKpl8r]...1,v Xiyeis 6tl j3aaiXevs eifii; (so marg. but


xix. 15
39 fiovXeade ovv dwoXvaw vfj.li> tov /3. tQv 'I.;

'Iwdvov,
xxi.

fie;

In

drrb

drroKplveTai 'Irjaovs
VfiGiv elfil Kal

XP 0V0V I160

xviii.
xviii.

Xeyei.,.^,i/iwi>

Iwdvov, dyarras

elTrev...llepi

on

Xeyei...Tov [jaaiXe'a vfiwv aTavpwaoj;


xxi.

aov 6r)aw.

fiov virep

xiv. 9 Xeyet.. .ToaovTov

maTevofiev

22

text, affirmative),

^vxw

ttiv

ifiov Orjaeis

<$L\iwire;

fie,

xvi.

elrrov...;

xiii.

xi.

LXX,

it

17

xx. 29 Xeyei... "Qti ewpaKas

dyarras

irXeov

fie

tovtwv;

Xeyet... Zifiwv 'ludvov,

occurs only in Job,

xxi.

fie

rrerrlaTevKas ;

16 Xeyei... ~Z.Lp.wv

(piXeis fie;

and there always (12 times)

in

direct interrogation.
2
1

Comp. Jn

Cor.

vii.

ix.

25

"If

(i.e.

whether)

(el)

16 etc.

20I

he

is

a sinner

know

not," also

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES

[2251]

John represents Christ as affirming, some seven or eight


He is not sent "from himself," and that He neither says
times
nor does anything "from himself." Not even the Holy Spirit speaks
8
"from itself ." The spontaneous or originating power of the Son,
and of the Spirit, springs from the Father, or from the Son in union

himself."
1

that

with the Father.

sense that
harmony

is,

is

To do

anything "from oneself" in this Johannine


from
the fountain head of life, order, and
apart

always

evil

3
.

"This parable spake Jesus unto them: but they


understood not what things they were that he spake unto them
The apparently
[IkCivoi Se ovk lyi'wcrav rivo. r)v a eAdAei aurois)."
"what
superfluous words in "what things they were that" (instead of
6

x.

[2251] (2)

things" or "the things that") are intended to emphasize the absolute


4
Jesus had been "talking
ignorance of the persons addressed
with his voice and not
rules
the
flock
that
about a shepherd
.

(AaAew)"

Those whom He was addressing had no conception of


The evangelist might have
ruling except by Law and punishment.
5
First Epistle to Timothy
in
the
used
the
this
phrase
by
expressed
"
Christ was
"did not understand about what things (irepi tuw)

by coercion.

But John wishes

teaching.

to

say

more, namely,

that

the

very

It might as well have been Iberian or


language was foreign to them.
The thought must be compared with that in viii. 43 "Why
Gallic.

do ye not understand
to hear

my Word

spiritual

2
3

sympathy

v. 30, vii.

xvi.

17.

my

(AaAiai/) ?

speech

Because ye are not able

(aovtv t6v \6yov Tor kp,6v)" i.e. ye have not the


6
that would give you a key to my language
.

18, 28, viii. 28, 42, xii. 49, xiv.

10.

13.

[2250

It

/'J

is

hands of the chief

worth noting
priests,

true (xviii. 33), instead of

the notion suggested to

how

indignantly Pilate

whose charge against Jesus he

first

mere puppet

at first

in the

assumes to be
disowns
true

attempting to ascertain whether it is


that he is not speaking "from himself"

him by Jesus

"
sayest thou this/rom tliysclfV).
34
Kai
2251 <i] In vi. 64 i)8ei yap eif apxns
'\t]<tovs rivts dalv oi wtj ntarevovres
Ws {(ttiv 6 irapaoibawv avrdv, the meaning is that Jesus could distinguish from the
rowd of apparent believers the real non-believers and even the future traitor not
"From the beginning" may mean "from the
that He knew all about them.
(xviii.
*

time when the Gospel "l the Cross began to be preached publicly in Capernaum,
"
when Bchism and desertion first appeared among the disciples (see 2254).

Tim.

[2251

dialect," J

i.

/'|
11

7.

AaXtd occurs, elsewhere

iv.

42 "thy talk,"

i.e.

in

"
X.T., only in Mt. xxvi. 73 thy [C.alilaean]

the talk of the Samaritan

202

woman.

In classical

MOOD

[2253]

Mood
Imperative, Indicative, Infinitive and Subjunctive, see

(i)

Index, also Tense

Contents)

(in

p.

xxi.

Optative

(ii)

The

[2252]

mood

optative

is

the

non-existent in

practically

For example, the optative of ylv^adai


Gospels except in Luke.
occurs in Lk. (2), and that of elvat in Lk. (7), but neither of these
occurs in

Mk,

in

is

W.H.)

and

ix.

30

Mt.,

In Jn xiii. 24 the v.r. irvOio-Oai ti's oV tl-q (not


In Mark, the forms iv. 29 jrapaSoi, v. 43
37 801 are subjunctive: but xi. 14 xapirov cWyoi

J11.

a corruption.

yvol, viii.

has a true optative corresponding to Mt.

Compare

2 S.

i.

/xt;

KaTafirj Spocros,

24 "let him be,"

Deut.

xxxiii.

7T(tAiv

<[i]Aos rjjxtiv Trapabot.

LXX

xxi.

19

co-rat;

Kapw6<; yivrjTai.

(caTa/3oi,

KaTafirjTu),

and

also Oxyr. Pap. 742 "va

Negative Particles
(i)

M^

[2253] In later Greek,


connexion with participles
1

fxrj

encroached

In John,

on

paq for ov

ov,
is

especially

in

not so frequent

Gk

\a\ew means "talk freely," as at table, or in one's family, or in gossip


Tim. v. 13,
In N.T., it means "talk freely," sometimes in bad sense,
Jude 15, 16 or with suggestion of bad sense but much more often of the free and
public proclaiming of the truth of the Christian Gospel, as freq. in the Acts and
abroad.

Hence John who


the Pauline Epistles, and also of spiritual song and prophecy.
deprecates the view that Christ taught secretly or privately uses this word more
times in the
freq. than Mk and Lk. taken together, and assigns it to Christ 33

first person, whereas it is never thus used by any Synoptist (exe. Lk. xxiv. 44,
after the Resurrection).
Comp. In xviii. 20 "I have spoken freely to the world

Mk

I never (lit.
xiii.
The word is used in
11,
nothing)."
represent the unpremeditated speech that was to flow from the
disciples (when put on their defence before kings and rulers) under the influence
of the Holy Spirit, when they would not speak " from themselves" but the Spirit

and
Mt.

in

x.

secret spake
19,

to

would speak for them. That exactly represents the Johannine use of AaXe'w when
used by Jesus concerning His own teaching.
1
[2253a] Winer, p. 606 n. "In modern Greek the participle invariably takes
A striking instance of /jltj for ov is Mt. xi. 18 (Lk. vii. 33) y\dev yap T.
fir/"
and Mt. xxii. 12 7rws ei<Tr]\6es w5e ju.tj ^x a"' &*"
/x-fjre (Lk. fir)) eadlwv fxrire irlvwv
,

Lucian (iii. 104 Indoct. 5) koX 6 Kvj3epvdu ovk eiSws /ecu 'nnreveiv /xt)
fiefxeXeTTiKuis is an excellent instance of the context that might in a few rare cases
cause 6 ov to be used, namely where 011 = alpha privative, ''absolutely ignorant of
Oiifxa

ydfiou;

steering

and not having given much pains

to riding."

203

NEGATIVE PARTICLES

[2254]

But it is probable that vii. 15 "How doth this


not having learned (107 fxcfxaOrjKw^)?" does not
imply doubt as to the negation ("if as we are given to understand he
has not learned ") but means " being, as he is, one that has not

as in the Synoptists.

man know

letters

"one

1
of the illiterate class ."

In vii. 49 6 o^Ao? ovtos 6 /at/


without
have
used
ov
could
not
limiting the assertion
ytvwo-KOiv, John
to a particular crowd pointed out, whereas the meaning is "This
learned,"'

multitude [these and their like, this rabble] that knoweth not the law
are accursed." In iii. 18 "He that believeth not is already condemned

because he hath not believed (on

7r7r<.'o-Tv/<ev),"

/x?)

the unbelief,

but as the ground


for condemnation, and the meaning "condemned for not having
"
believed
(2187) approximates to "pronounced guilty of not be-

though implied as a

The words

[2254]

do not believe

of Christ,

vi.

64 "There are among you some

(elalv e vfx<2v rive? di ov 7ri(TTevovaiv)

comment "For Jesus knew from

by the

the beginning

those that are not believing (tiVcs eurlv


is

he that shall betray him (kcu

had been previously


that

fact,

See 2695.

lieving."

that

not as a

fact, is stated,

in

many

ot

"

are followed

(lit.)

to) 7rto-Teuovres)

tis Icttlv 6 7rapa8ojcrwi'

who

are

and who

auYov)."

It

stated, before any mention of Christ's preaching,

Jerusalem, being impressed by His "signs," "believed"


whom Christ Himself (ii. 24) did not

in Christ after a fashion, in

believe

From
from

presumably

the

first,

real belief,

question

knowing that they did not really believe.


had this power of distinguishing unreal
so that He could answer with an affirmative the

then, Christ

"Knowest thou who

are they that do not really believe?"


Twelve had been appointed and the Gospel
had been preached in Capernaum. And, from

But, since that time, the


of the Bread of Life

the beginning of this Gospel, Judas (it would appear) had shewn
Here it is added that Jesus noted these
signs of his future treason.

and knew to what they pointed. (See 2251 a.) We are not to
suppose, with some ancient Greek commentators, that "from the
2
beginning" means "from the foundation of the world ." As to the
signs

[2253/'] This utterance


in

ii"!

however takes place

at Jerusalem, among
strangers,
not quite certain that the other
(p. 607) quotes Philostr. Apoll, iii. 22 5s koX ypd<pei fxi]

.Nazareth or Galilee: and therefore

meaning

i^

wrong.

Winer

it

is

txadiiv ypafJi/nara.
-

[2254</| Chrys. dvuOev,

beginning,"

is

Cramer

irpo KaTa(3o\iji kovixov.

similarly used in xvi. 4,

and

204

air' dpxTJs in

Jn

'E apxys, "from the


ii.

7,

24 etc.

NEGATIVE PARTICLES

[2256]

change from ov iriaTevovmv to p.rj TTLarevopres, it is what might have


been expected in consequence of the change from the indicative to

On

the participle.

Ov

(ii)

12 o...ovk wv

x.

see 2704.

7rotyu.7/v,

with Future and Subjunctive

p-TJ

used with the future in N.T.


[2255] Ov }*.>] is comparatively rarely
In John it occurs fourteen times with subjunctive and thrice with
1

future, as follows
7rpos
X. 5

ov p,y

ep,e

aAAorpiw

iv.

k.

Trivdo~7]

8e ov

Saf/rjaei

eh

6 TTto-Tevwv

eh

14 ov

/xrj

p.rj

d.KoXov6rjo-ovcriv

t.

aiwva,

ep,e

d\\d

ov

35 6

vi.

/xr]

ep)(6p.evo<;

tromoTe,

oa^rjfrei

The second

<f>vovTai.

35) invites inquiry, in view of the parallel ire.iva.o-y and


But a review of N.T. usage indicates no settled or general

instance

(vi.

Sii//??o-ei.

Compare Heb.

of meaning.

distinction

12

viii.

ov

p-y)

/xvrja$u>,

34 correctly, with Heb. x. 17 ov p.r) pLvrjo-8rjo-op.ai


quoting
the
same
incorrectly: also Mt. xxiv. 35 ov p.r) -n-apeXOuio-iv
quoting
Jer. xxxi.

Mk

with parall.
txt ora.

ixr])

and

xiii.

31

parall.

(W.H. marg.)

Lk.

33 ov

xxi.

ov

p.i)

Trape\evo-ovTai

(W.H.

In John's

pi) 7rape\evo-ovTat.

three instances there occur severally (1) eis rbv aliZva, (2) irwwoTe,
These facts suggest that he had
(3) a following future (<f>cvovTai).
in his mind an emphasis laid rather on futurity, than on certainty

(which would have been indicated by the subjunctive).


El oi

(iii)

[2256] Et ov never occurs in John, as an undivided phrase, except


in antithesis (twice) v.

how can ye

writings
to

do {ov

7j-ou5)

them...."

may be

47,

"If ye fail

[succeed in] believing

the works of

to believe (ov TTLarevere) his

my

words,"

Father... but

my

if

x.

37 "If

I [succeed in]

fail

doing

In both cases ou has the force of alpha privative, or

compound verb, the hypothesis being


compound verb negative. It is not the same as

treated as part of a

positive but the

In iii. 12
a negative hypothesis ("except ye believe," "except I do").
I
told
"If
have
ov TTLo-TtveTe is divided from el,
you earthly things

and ye

disbelieve (ov

71-10-7

so far as the form is


fxr) iriGTevow, which,
56 rl doKei 6fuv on ov /xtj ^Xdy... see 2184.
In the Pauline Epistles ov /xrj occurs only six

[2255 a] This includes xx. 25 ov

concerned, might be future.

On

eveTe)."

xviii. 11

ov

/xi]

irioi

On

see 2232.

xi.

times: two of these instances are from

LXX:

future.

205

one of the two (Gal.

iv.

30)

is

in the

NEGATIVE PARTICLES

[2257]
Ou...ov8i's'

(iv)

This particular phrase with the double


negative, which
frequently uses in narrative but only once (Matthew and
Luke never) in Christ's words 2 John uses, never in
narrative, but
[2257]

Mark

3
frequently in Christ's words

It

is

never ambiguous.

Oi)T...Ka(

(v)

[2258] This construction is of the nature of a Latinism in


3 Jn io "he neither himself (ovre auros) receiveth the brethren and

those that desire [to come] he hindereth," where the sentence is


long
and periodic. It is quite different in Jn iv. 1 1 "Neither
(oure) a bucket
hast thou
and the well is deep," where it is strange that more Greek
mss. have not adopted the obvious alteration introduced
by D, ovSe,

"not even a bucket" (so too SS).

But oirre...iccu is highly characterof the style of the woman's talk, which is somewhat
flighty,
passing from "neither bucket hast thou [nor rope to let doivn the
which she had at first in her mind to the
bucket]'
thought of the
of
"the well." The construction is not
"depth"
alleged to occur
in N.T. outside these two
passages (Winer p. 619, Westc. on
istic

J"

i)-

[2259]

heard

In

v.

37

8,

R.V. punctuates "Ye have neither (ome)

his voice at

have not

his

any time, nor (ovt) seen his form. And (W) ye


word abiding in you," but W.H. better "Ye have

neither at any time heard his voice nor seen his


form, and [as
a consequence, or,
besides] ye have not his word abiding in you:
[I say this] because... ye believe not."
Perhaps R.V. was influenced
by the supposition that "because ye believe not" introduced the cause
why the Word was "not abiding in them," but see 2178.

"And,"

introducing the consequence, or accompaniment, of two negations,


is
perfectly regular; "nor" (in the place of "and not") would
not have expressed the meaning.
1

[2257 a] This does not include o6...o&k4ti, which does not occur in Jn but
occurs 6 times in Mk (in Mt. and I.k.
once, parall. to Mk xii. 34) nor oidiv...oi
M-v,

which

Lk. x. 19. On oi...rts sec 2586^ .


27 ov Suvarai ovdds eh tt\v oiKlav...lcrxvpov ei<re\dwv...8iapTrd<rai..
2257 /q Jn v. 10 ov dvvaTcu 6 vibs iroiclv
d(p' eavrov ovb'tv, v. 22 ovde yap 6
Kpivei ovoeva, v. ^o ov SiVa^at eh/d; iroieiv dv' ifiavrod ovStv, vi.
ovk
7/

Mk
1

Tro.Ti)[>

is

in

111.

63
<ra/)
w(pe\d ovdti>, viii. i,s iyw ov xpivu oiSiva etc. (about 12 times).
It is also used in
the words of others, iii. 27, vi.
33 etc. Jn lias once oiSiiru oiSels in xix. 41
w>r)(iuov Kaiubv iv y ovbinw ovods r,v TeOeinhos, which resembles l.k. xxiii.
53
p-vri/xari

XaijevTy ov ovk

rjv

ovdeis oOirw KeLp.ivos.

206

NEGATIVE PARTICLES
Ov

(vi)

[2260]

and

...ov,

(or,

|j.t|)

combined with

distinction

(3) ou

[2262]

-n-ds

must be drawn between (i)


first two belong mostly

ou...7ras, (2) ttS?

The

Tras.

to Hebraic, the

without any intervening word except


In (1)
be
"to
the
verb
"--belongs mostly to Greek idiom.
perhaps
and (2) the meaning of -5s is generally to be expressed by "any," in

third in which

ttSs follows ov

But

by "every."

(3)

John a

in

is

sometimes

(as

mentioned

translation

literal

preferable as will be seen below.


[2261] In Hebrew, when "not"

and "all" occur

above) in the same sentence, the "not" goes with the verb in
a manner unusual in Greek and English, (Gen. ii. 5) "all plants
of the field were not as yet," i.e. no plants yet existed; (Gen. iv. 15)
"for the not-smiting

him of

him should smite him; (Ex.

all finding him,"

work

16) "all

xii.

i.e.

that

none finding

shall not be

done"

etc.

sentence might well be understood to mean


of work must not be done, but only the following": and, generally,
the Hebrew idiom might produce ambiguity, which we escape in

The

"all kinds

last

English and Greek by saying "not any

no)

(or,

work"

and

sometimes by repeating the negative ("no work


In the Synoptists, we have but few instances of either

shall not

in

Greek

be done").

(1) ov...nas or

(2) 7TUS...OU".

there are no
[2262] In John's Gospel, and perhaps in the Epistle,
followed
but
7ras
"not
instances of ou...7ras meaning
by ov
any,"
(or,

is

fxrj)

both.

very frequent in

It

is

by the
connexion with

partly explained

writer's love of universal propositions, especially in

Church

the

"everyone

("all that thou hast given

believeth

that

tives thus:
(fxij)

Lk.

16 "in order that everyone

iii.

Comp. Ex.

[2261/5]

irdca

37
.

See

(i)

"
no\....aiiy

oi'...7ras

word,"

in

[2262a] In

Rom.

x.

Lk.

Is.

iv.

xxviii.

inserts

it,

believeth should

(iras) that
life,"

vi.

39 "in order that

16 Tlav Zpyov \arpevrov ov troi-qo-ere tv aureus,

xii.

xx. 10 ov woiricreis iv avrrj

Mk

xiii.

(2) 7ras... ov in

20,

Mk

oiKia nepiffdeicra...ov aTadr/fferai (parall.

dvvriaerai arrival),

but

Ex.

[2261 a] Gesen. 482*7.

i.

").

perish but should have eternal

tt\t)v bcra...

me," "every branch in me,"


connected mostly with

These are

sometimes with negatives followed by affirma-

affirmatives, but (a)

not

wdv Zpyov.

Mt. xxiv.
vii.

22

"not.-.a^

flesh,"

18 rrdv...ov ovvarai, Mt. xii. 25


iii. 25 iav olKia.../j.epio'6rj, ov

Mk

33 (pec).
16

"he

that believeth,"

thus, lias 6 Trio-revuv

eir'

Heb. and
avri3.

Kings and Chronicles freq. differ in inserting or omitting Heb.


from Hebrew.

freq. differs similarly

207

LXX

om. "all,"

Parallel passages in
" all " : and

LXX

NEGATIVE PARTICLES

[2263]

me

to
everything that he hath given

should not

(^)

lose [aught]

from it but should


up": (6) sometimes with negatives implying
or
death
darkness, xi. 26 "everyone that liveth and
a negation of
raise

it

me shall surely not (ov fxij) die," xii. 46 "in order that
believeth in me may not (fx-rj) abide in darkness ."
that
everyone
the other hand, the Greek usage of ov ttS.<;, "not
On
[2263]
believeth in

in different forms, what


frequent in traditions that say,
"
Not everyone (ov ttSs)
in the Sermon on the Mount,
that saith unto me Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of
is

everyone"

Lord says

the

So in the Epistle to the Romans, "Not all that are from


Israel" are really Israel, "nor yet (ovoe), because they are the seed
"
of Abraham, are they all children ; the Gospel was preached to

heaven 2 ."

hearkened 3 "; so to the Corinthians, "Not in all


lv toi? irXdoo-iv
knowledge," "Not with the most of them (ov/c

them "but not

all

[men]

is

avroiv,

Clem. Alex,

-n-aaiv auroTs)

And in
18) "Ye

was God well pleased."

the

are
Fourth Gospel Jesus says to the disciples (xiii. 10, 11,
"
do
all
Not
about
you
clean but not all" "Not all of you are clean,"
from
derived
be
"not
air
Some uses of the phrase
I
may

speak."
Attic and colloquial Greek, as in the famous saying, familiar to us

Horace, but Greek

through
is

not every man's*."

How

in

"The voyage

origin,

naturally

it

to

Corinth

might occur to evangelists

In the Epistle, the negation is sometimes a negation of truth, life,


21 "every lie is not of the truth," ii. 23 "everyone that denieth the
Son hath also not the Father (oOdi rbv varepa ?x f 'b" "* 6 "Everyone that sinneth
"
"
Everyone that abideth in him sinneth
(antithetical to iii. 6
hath not seen him
1

[2262

light etc.,

b]

ii.

that doeth not righteousness is not of God," iii. 15 (lit.)


not eternal life" (a sentence hardly English, and certainly
not of God."
not Greek, in form), iv. 3 "Every spirit that confesseth not Jesus is
etc. in 1 Jn iii. 6,
lias is followed, as in the Gospel, by negation of death, darkness

not"),

10

iii.

"Everyone

"Every murderer hath

world" is separated from " is


Jn ii. 16 "everything that is in the
"the desire of the
not from the Father" by an intervening appositional clause
To the negations of
flesh and the desire of the eyes and the vain glory of life."
that. ..abideth not in the teaching of Christ
good may be added 2 fn 9 "Everyone
o, v.

In

18.

hath not God."


-

Ml.

Mt.

vii.

21.

Rom. ix. 67, x.


"Not all are capable

[2263 a]
xix.

16,

Cor.

viii.

7,

x.

5.

It

is

also

used

in

of receiving this saying," 1 Cor. vi. 12 "not all


"not all things are profitable... not all things edify."

x. 2;,
things an- profitable,"
in "all
In the two passages lasl quoted there is an antithesis to a previous "all,"
And such an antithesis is generally implied in the Greek
t/iings are lawful."

idiom "[All
1

[2263

K61UVO0V

/'|

iffO'

may

do that, but\ not all can do this."

Lewis ami Short quote Aul. Gell. i. 8. 4 oi wavTos avSpbs


o w\oOs, and sec Steph. vi. 567 on iravrds (oti.

208

els

NEGATIVE PARTICLES

[2263]

converts, or finding converts relapse into unbelief and


shewn
by St Paul's prayer "that we may be delivered
hostility,
from unreasonable and evil men; for the faith [of Christ] is not

make

failing to

is

the portion of all (ov yap

[2263

Thess.

<]

2.

iii.

tto-vtuiv

ttlcttls) ."

rj

This traditional use of ov irdvTes to describe the

and the defection of converts, and the


a bearing on the difficult and
doubtful Johannine utterance about "antichrists" in
Jn ii. 19 "They went out
to our camp (lit. from us,
[at first (but see 2110 a b) as our soldiers] belonging
but they were not [really] belonging to our camp
for, if they had been
e 7]fj.wv)
would have remained on our side {fxe/j.ei>r}Keio-av
[really] belonging to our camp they
but [their not remaining was foreordained] in order that they
&v fied' riixuiv)

away of

falling

of

failure

practical

after the

Israel

mere

flesh,

professors,

may have

might be manifested [shewing] that not all are


us (d\\'

tva.

(pav(poj6i2(nv otl ovk eiaiv iravres

it,

are not all) belonging to

(or, they

rjfxwv)."

[2263 d] Westcott paraphrases this, "that they may be made manifest that
they are not, no not in any case, however fair their pretensions may be, of us."
The words I have italicised indicate that he takes the negation as universal, "not

the iras is separated by the


gives, as a reason, that "when
the negation according to the usage of the New Testament
This is true; but does it apply when the verb is elvai, and
is always universal."
in such a writer as John, who nowhere else uses the Hebraic ov...iras?
If, for
had written in xiii. 1 1 ovk eare iravres Kadapoi (instead of oi>xl

any of them."

verb from the

He

ov,

example, John
ir. k. eare) should

we have

disposed to think that

translated this,

Jn ii.
the words
1

"Ye

are not

any of you clean"?

am

instance of the Hebraic


19 does not afford a unique
refer to the departure of "Israel after the flesh,"

ov...iras, and that


and of other temporary converts, very much as the Epistle to the Romans mentions
it.
If so, there is a confusion between (1) (pavepwOuaiv 6tl ovk elolv il- ij/mlov, and
One thought is "they
elalv e ij/xcov.
(2) (pavepudrj otl ov iravres [oi SoKOvvTes]
were not really ours"; another, "not all that seem to be ours are really ours."
in the Epistle.
Origen illustrates the "going out" of Judas by the "going out"
Now concerning Judas it is said in the Gospel "not all of you are clean," and
"not all" is repeated in this connexion. This seems to confirm the view that

"not all" in the Epistle


but not all chosen."
[2263

In

ov /xtvei iv ry
fx-q, /xTj/ce'rt

Jn
to]

meaning

" the slave doth not abide

35

olklo. eis

etc.)... els

similarly used as

tov alGva),"

if

we

in the

that

house for ever

are to adopt here the

tov aluva everywhere else in

N.T. (Mk iii.

are called

"many

(6 5e

dov\os

meaning of

01' (or
29, xi. 14, Mt. xxi. 19,

1 Cor. viii. 13) it should mean "never."


slave, e.g. Ishmael, shall never {be allowed
with allusion to the tradition quoted by St Paul

14, viii. 51, 52, x. 28, xi. 26, xiii. 8,

iv.

Then

viii.

is

the sentence would

mean "The

abide permanently in the house"


" cast out the handmaiden
iv. 30,

and her son"). The preceding words are


a slave [of sin]," but SS, D, b, and Clem. Alex, omit
"of sin," which may be a gloss added to explain "slave." With this omission,
the whole may be paraphrased, "Whosoever doeth sin is not a son but a slave.
Now the slave, who is not under grace but under law and constraint, has no
(Gal.

"

everyone that doeth

sin is

and never shall have, in the family of the Father."


The following words, "But the Son abideth for ever [in
Father], if therefore the Son shall free you, ye shall be really

abiding-place,

[2263/]
of the

A. VI.

209

the house
free,"

14

may

NEGATIVE PARTICLES

[2264]

Ov, V. r. oinrw

(vii)

In

[2264]

W.H. txt) "I go not up yet to


'T go not up to this feast" is very strongly
and R.V. place it in their margin, and it is now

8 (R.V. txt and

vii.

this feast," the reading,

W.H.

supported.

confirmed

attacked Christ for the change of


purpose implied (by "go not up") in this passage, when contrasted
with vii. io
14 "then he also himself went ///...now about the

by

SS.

Porphyry

feast Jesus went up to the temple and began to teach."


and
Ammonius the Elder (Cramer) write apologetically
Chrysostom
on it without any apparent knowledge of such a reading as ovirw".

middle of the

almost incredible that

It is

so obvious an answer to

versions

many

genuine a reading that supplied


should have been unknown
objections

ovttoj, if

commentators, and should have been supplanted

these

to

all

and mss. by the

difficult

reading

so

in

ov.

[2265] The explanation of "I go not up to this feast," and its


reconciliation with what follows, must be sought perhaps in the
be paraphrased, "But the son and heir, like Isaac the child of promise and grace,
abides for ever in the house if therefore ye shall receive into your hearts the Son
:

God and

the Spirit of Sonship, then shall ye be really free, being freed from all fear
of being 'cast out,' and knowing that ye are the heirs and inheritors of the House."
" abideth not
" abideth
If the positive
for
for ever''' had preceded the negative

of

might have been argued (though not cogently) that in this particular place
"
must be taken in an unusual sense because of antithesis. As it
" never" for ov...els rbv alwva.
is, there is no basis for any rendering except
[2263^'] Cyril (Cramer ad loc.) explains ov p.vei els t. aiwva by adding "for
he will hurry into the outer darkness (Spa/xelrai. yap as to e^wrepov ckotos)."

ever"
"

it

not. ..for ever

Ammonius

SovXbs ecrri rrj


6 p.7] ptvuv els rbv alQva Kal ibaavrus fx^v <* 6
yap 5ov\a tov KTiaavros, p.evei 5 els rbv aluva daavruis ^x 0JV ^' os
us <pvaei debs, where the punctuation is doubtful but the phrase "all things are
slaves of the Creator" suggests that he did not read "slave of sin."
Chrysostom
(Migne) thrice drops els rbv aluva after ov pLevei and interprets the words "the
slave doth not abide for ever," as implying a "gentle casting down {iipe'p.a xara"
of the things of the Law and the sacrifices prescribed by Moses (comp.
ftdWei)
Heb. iii. 5 6). Perhaps he took the words to mean, "The slave [even though
he be faithful, as one of the prophets, or as Moses himself, is still below the son
'

says,

<pvcrei...TrdvTa

and

heir,
1

and] does not abide [as the son abides] in the house."

Diet.

Pelag.
1

ii.

Christ. Biogr.

"

Porphyrias,"

p.

442

a,

referring to Jerome, Dial.

c.

17.

2264./]

Migne

prints a quotation

from Chrys. ovk dvaSalvu &pn, and then

(punctuating thus) llws ovv, (f^aiv, dvi^T}, elirwv, Ovk dvafialvw; Ovk elirev Kaddirai;,
Ovk availuivw a\\a, 'Svv, direv, Tovriari., fieO' vp.wv, where apparently the writer
In Cramer, this
does not mean that Jesus said vvv, but that He meant vvv.

"

"

eylc oi%w dvafiaivu


appears, witli ovirw, thus, Avrbs be" ttCcs avifiri, (frqalv, elirwv,
It is clear thai neither ovirw nor vvv nor dprt was a part of the text thus com-

mented on.

2IO

NEGATIVE PARTICLES

[2265

(i)]

Johannine view of Christ's "going up" to Jerusalem as a whole.


Two acts of this kind have been mentioned (ii. 13, v. 1), the first
of which excites jealousy, the second hostility, and (v. 18) a desire
to

Him,

kill

feast,

"the Jews."

in

now contemplating

regarded as
a feast and

but this has not yet come: "I go not up to this


time is not yet fulfilled." Accordingly, though He

die,

because

In view of this hostility, Jesus is


a time when He will "go up" to

my
He

does not "go up" to keep the feast as a whole, and


goes up later,
does not enter the temple till the middle of the week.
Ammonius
the Elder says, fairly enough, "He has not contradicted His words
1
by His actions, for He did not go up to keep the feast .." But some-

more is probably intended to be implied "When my hour


has arrived, then and not till then shall I really go up to the feast "
and we are also probably intended to think of Christ's habitual
thing

language about "going up," meaning, to heaven, or to the Father.


CK^C

(viii)

Ov^i presents nothing remarkable in ix. 9 aAXoi eXeyov


for its use before a pause, and especially
Ovx', aAAa ofxoios avrui ea-riv
[2265

(i)]

1
[2265 a] Ammonius also adds that He went up "not with joy as is customary
with feast-goers." Joy was particularly characteristic of this feast, the feast of
Tabernacles.
Some authorities have inserted "this" in Christ's words to His
brethren "Go ye up to this feast," and have substituted "the" later on, "I go not

up

to the feast," or

have inserted "this"

in

both clauses.

The

difference,

though

"Go

ye up to the feast, as usual; I shall not go up to this


feast, but to another, before long, when the time will have arrived for what some
call death, but what I call going up to the Father."
On Christ's uses of avaj3aivoj
subtle,

is

important:

elsewhere, see
[2265/^]

i.

51,

iii.

13, vi. 62, xx. 17

The remaining

instance of

where

it is

ava.j3a.Lvcj in

used of "going up to heaven."

Christ's

words

is

x.

"He

that

entereth not through the door into the fold of the sheep but goeth tip from some
that [man] is a thief and a robber."
other quarter (avafiaivojv dWaxodev)
Beside

meaning we are intended to think of the two kinds of "going up"


mentioned in the Bible. Rezin and Pekah (Is. vii. 1) "go up to Jerusalem" as
enemies. When our Lord said (Mk x. 33, Mt. xx. 18, Lk. xviii. 31) "Behold,
we go up to Jerusalem," He added, in effect, that He was to "go up " as a sacrifice.
John is probably alluding to these two kinds of "going up." Jews would contrast
"
Hezekiah, who (Is. xxxvii. 14) ""went up unto the house of the Lord to supplicate
as a mediator, with the Roman Emperors, who exalted themselves and sat in the
temple of God, setting themselves forth as God (comp. 2 Thess. ii. 4) and who
the

literal

said

13) "I will go up into heaven."


The "door" is probably the door of service (not, as Chrys., the door
The Shepherd goes in by the same door as that "of the
Scriptures).

(Is. xiv.

[2265c]

of the

sheep," making himself one with them not as a mere act of "voluntary humility,'
but to guide them and protect them; the "robber" prefers to "go up" by the
path of what men call "glory," to make himself "a mighty hunter" of men.

211

14

NUMBER

[2266]

before a pause followed by aXXd, is frequent in Greek and in N.T.


But neither N.T. nor the Thesaurus affords a parallel to the following,

10

xiii.

for this

ii, "ye (emph.) are clean but not all (dAA' ovyl -n-avTes)
cause said he (lit.) that Ye are not all clean,' on, Ou^i Tarres
.

'

co-re ."

Ka.6a.poL

tradition were

Oi\i is so frequently interrogative that, if the last


found as a detached Logion of the Lord, we should

it (as in Heb.
14 ot^i 7ravrs elcrlv Aen-oupyi/ox
not
all
"Are
clean?"
But in Numbers ("I shall see
7rviVjxara)
ye
him but not now") LXX has /cai oux 2 as John has in xiv. 22 17/uv...
Kal ovxi tw Koa-fjoo.
Greek writers seem to have differed among them-

certainly render

i.

'

and John

selves

and

ou^/

seems to have differed from most

in

the use of

its

equivalents

Number
Plural referring to preceding Singular

(i)

[2266] This occurs when the speaker passes from considering


a multitude as a whole to considering them as units, vii. 49 "This
multitude that knoweth not the Law
[they] are accursed," xv. 6 "If

anyone abide not in

me

once cast out as the branch [from the


they gather them {i.e. such branches, aird),"
he

is

at

vine] (to KXr}fxa)...and


to [all
xvii. 2 "In order that all (sing.) that thou hast given to him
"
them
eternal
life
1919
foil,
and
he
may give
(see
(avroU)
of]

241720).
Plural Neuter with Plural Verb

(ii)

[2267] This construction, which


rare in John.

'ETrepiao-evcrav

is

rare in classical Greek,

is

supported by

BD

is

also

SAL (-o-ev)

against

fragments] that (a) superabounded," where the


previous mention of "twelve baskets," and the desire to emphasize
in

vi.

13

[2265

(i)

"[the

a] In

as also in Lk.

Rom.

iii.

precedes.
-

[2265

60

i.

27

ovxi,

Lk.

xvii.

(i) />]

Cor.

x.

29

ffvveid-qcriv 5e

dXXa
7

Numb.

did

i>6/j.ov

irlarews.

Tls...pei...dW ovxi

xxiv.

17,

LXX

dWd

Xe-yw ovx'i tt)v eavrov...,

Xe^w v/juv, d\X'


The anomaly here

ovxi, <x\Xd KkyO-qatTai, xii. 51 ovxi.

ipei.. .is

deifa avrui

kclI

folloios,

Siafiepia/xov,

fj

is

that

d\\d

interrogative.

ovxi vvv. representing the

have not found ovxi in the Egypt. Pap. Indices.


3
[2265 (i)<
Steph. (v. 2351) shews that Xenophon regularly says Ovk, dXXd
It has been shewn above (2231 ti
whereas Epictetus says Oia dXXd.
that where
Mt. has ovxi interrog, the parall. Lk. sometimes differs. On the other hand where
Hel>. vaio

by

kcU.

has the negative o^x'i X^w iVtV, dXX' ij dia/j.epio-fxdv, the parall. Mt. x. 34
Mk does not
Mt. never uses ovxi otherwise than interrogatively.
at all.
Steph. quotes I'orphyr. for a freq. and peculiar use of oi'X' St.

Lk.

xii. 51

has

ovK.dWd.

use

it

212

NUMBER
may

plurality

the plural

explain

(if

[2268]

genuine).

In

31, Iva

xix.

p.}}

IXLir]
a(op.ara...iva KaTtayiUcriv avrwv to. CKeXy] /cui
an
if
dpOuHTii; is,
extremely remarkable variation of singular
genuine,
and plural verbs with neuter plural subjects and that too in similar

tov crravpov

ttl

to.

But (in spite


construction and order (iVa p*r) fx.fivrj...Lva KaTeaywcriv).
"
of the genitive avruv, 2419 b) o-Ke'A.77 may be accusative
that they
broken
and
taken
be
In
the
their
have
away."
legs
parable of
might
:

Good

the
(x.
is

Shepherd, ivpojBara

4)
3

given

"

into

know

the

"

at first

is

follows

know

"

his

writer

voice," and,

continues

will not follow,"

"they

having thus

describe

them

will flee,"

"they

to

(pi.) them not (ovk rjKovaav avr<2v to.


Finally the writer returns to the singular with ovk Iutlv

"the sheep heard

not,"

7rpd/3ttTa)."

an

emphatic phrase frequent in


"hireling" as one (x. 12) "whose
to.

regarded as the flock that


Then the reason

the shepherd.

(olSao-iv)

the

plural,

58, "they

x.

individually:

and

"they

4)

(x.

dropped

"

hears

classical

own

Greek describing

the flock

not (ov ovk

is

the
Zo-tlv

7rp6j3aTa tSta)."

Special words

(hi)

Ai'mata

(a)

(i.

13)
"

the Logos it is
[2268] Concerning those who (i. 12) "received
said that "he gave them authority to become children of God," and
that these
flesh,

"not from

(lit.)

bloods

man

nor yet from will of

(ai/xarajv),

nor yet from will of


God were begotten."

(avSpos), but from

The plural of "blood," both in classical Greek and in Hebrew,


almost always means "bloodshed ."
But Horce Hebraicce {ad loc.)
1

calls attention to a

where Jerusalem
purified

is

passage of Shemoth Rabba (referring to Ezekiel),


described as a babe born in uncleanness, but

by Jehovah

the plural "bloods'2

"

and

in

Ezekiel the

Hebrew

four times uses

such a way as to indicate that

in

it

might mean

1
[2268 a] Geseii. 196/', and Steph. al/j.a: but Steph. does not quote Eurip.
Ion 693 (Chorus) aXKwv rpafieis a<p' ai/jL&Tuv where the context indicates that the
meaning may be "born from another mother." Macarius (27, p. 117) speaking

of Peter, to
ovk e
2

whom

"flesh and blood" did not reveal the Messiahship of Jesus, has
.Traidevdels ., d\\' ayiov irvevfj.a.To% naddiv....

ovde aapKCov
[2268/'] Ezek. xvi. 6
aifj.&Tui'

aifxaros <rov (and

(lit.)

om.) (Field,

"in thy bloods"

(thrice)

LXX

6 "KjSpaios iv rrj uypaffiq. crov)

ti ai/jLari crov.

213

ev

ry

ai>art...e/c rod

rep. xvi.

-22

LXX

iv

NUMBER

[2269]

there,

as

Chrysostom says

childbirth

it

means

"
here,

the

fleshly

pangs of

."

[2269] An objection that may be raised against this view is that


represents the evangelist as describing at great length (saying in
effect "begotten of no mortal
mother, nor of any fleshly union, nor
of any mortal begetter," dvSoo's as distinct from
ywij) what might have
been expressed more briefly in one or other of the
shapes in which
it

Greek MS. and the

the best

earliest

Fathers quote

it

Possibly one

aapKiKQv didivuv, and similarly Cramer


Hesvch. refers
r, as if the former meant birth from the
mother, the latter from the father no doubt erroneously as to Homer's
meaning,
but perhaps instructively as to the various
meanings conveyed by al/xa to Greeks
[2268

c]

Chrys.

and

to ai/xaros

tuiv

yeverjs in the Iliad vi. 21

in later times.

LXX, no attempt is made to render literally the Heb. pi. "bloods"


Pentateuch, but alpara, "bloodshed," is freq. after Judges.
"His bloods
be upon him" is ^oxos 'icrai. in Lev. xx.
9 etc., but "AX\oj has alfxa there and
In the obscure passage about
r.
aifxara in Lev. xx.
(Ex. iv. 25, 26) "a husband
of bloods? connected with circumcision,
has
but the rest of the
[2268,/] In

in the

LXX

have

translators

aip.6.Twv

in

aip.a,

one or both of the verses.

[2269 a] Codex 13 omits (but ins. in marg.) ovde e/c OeXr/uaTos dfdpos, which is
also perhaps omitted in a
paraphrase by Clem. Alex. 460 top ovk it, aip.dTuv ovde
(k deXri/xaros aapKos, ev iruevfiari be
Irenaeus
16. 2 and iii.

dvaytwupfvuv.

19.

(iii.

twice omits e aifiAruv, and has once "from the will


of God." Tertullian (De
Came Chr. 19, and comp. 24) quotes the text several times, but scribes have
2)

conformed some of

his quotations to the received text.

The most

trustworthy

is

perhaps "Quid utique tarn exaggeranter inculcavit, non ex sanguine, nee ex carnis
"
voluntate, aut viri, natum ?
Origen (on Josh. i. 2) has "neque ex voluntate
"'
viri
before "neque ex v. carnis."
Hippolytus (vi. 9, Dunck. i. p. 236) has e'
Irenaeus and Tertullian must have read, with b,
(natus est) for eyeuv-qdriaav: for both of them take the passage as
describing the birth of Christ, and Tertullian accuses the Valentinians of altering
aipdroiv Kal (widv/jLtas aapKtKTJs.
iyevv-qdr)

the text so as to apply

SShas "in

[2269/;] Justin

"Not

it

to the

above-mentioned "credentes" instead of Christ.

blood."

Martyr has several passages that indicate an ancient tradition,


God," referring to Christ, and some of these mention

of man's seed but of

"blood."

In the following extracts, yevridrivai

from

is

rendered "generated," to dis-

"begotten": Apol. 21 "That the Logos, which is the


firsl
begotten offspring {yivvr)p.o.) of God, has been generated (7 tyevrjo 6 at) without
sexual union (rrifju%las), Jesus Christ our teacher...";
Apol. 22 "But even if
tinguish

it

yevi>Tj0T)i>ai,

[or

But

if

also, referring to

previous el nai koivws] \\v say that uniquely, contrary to


common birth {ylvtciv). He has been generated (yeyevrjaOai) from God [asj God's
Logos, as we said above, let this be in common with you (icotvdv tovto Iotu vp.lv)

who say that Hermes is the LogOS that brings messages


"For the phrase (Gen. \lix. ti) 'blood of the grape was
1

that ll<- that was to


appear would indeed have blood, but
but from divine power...: for as not man, but God, hath

214

from

God";

Apol. 32

significant of the fact


not from human seed

made

(Trarolt]Kfi>)

the

NUMBER

[2269]

of the two clauses BeXyj/xaTOS cmp/co's and 0e\rjjxaTO<; av&pos may be


but e alfidrtov is too original a phrase to be thus

an interpolation

It
explained.
Ezekiel above

to

points

some

allusive

meaning such

as

that

in

mentioned, which was interpreted Rabbinically as


not
referring
only to the blood attendant on childbirth, but also
to what may be called the Jewish sacraments of Circumcision and
Passover,

If that allusion
is

were "brought into covenant 1 ."


included here, the meaning of "not from bloods"
"not from mortal generation," 2nd, "not from

by which the

twofold,

is

ist,

Israelites

such sacramental regeneration as Jews could offer to Gentiles through


the Law."

blood of the vine, so this blood also was hereby indicated as to be generated
(ilxrivveTo...yevrjae<ydai) not from human seed but from [the] power of God."

[2269c] Justin's Dialogue has similar passages: Tryph. 54 "Christ hath


indeed blood, but not from seed of man (dvdpixnrov) but from the power of God
(tov deov).
For as not man, but God (lit.) begot (eyivurjo-ev) the blood of the vine,
so [the prophet] indicated beforehand that the blood of Christ also would be not
from human birth (yivovs) but from [the] power of God.
this prophecy...

Now

demonstrates that Christ

way

of

called

men

by

all

(/card to

[these]

is

not

begotten (yevvndeis) in the common


"
Tryph. 61 "[The Logos] may be

man from men

koivov tGiu avdptlsTrwv)


fact that

names from the

He

ministers to the Father's desire

and purpose and from the fact that He has been generated by the Father by will
"
(/ecu 4k tov and tov Trarpos deX-qaei yeye uria 6ai)
Tryph. 63 "since His blood
;

has not been begotten from human seed (ws tov a'ifxaros avTov ovk e dvdpw"
ireiov cirepfiaTos yeyevfrjp.vov) but from [the] will of God (dXX' e/c 6e\rjfiaTos dfov)
" For the
Tryph. 76
phrase (Dan. vii. 13) like a son of man makes it clear that

(lit.)

'

'

He was to appear and to have been brought into being (cpaiv6p.efoi> kcli ywo/xevov)
a man, but not from human seed... He was indeed to have blood, but not from men ;
even as not man, but God, begot the blood of the vine."
[2269 1/] These passages indicate the existence of early discussions about
"blood," in connexion with the birth and nature of Christ.
[The mention of
(Lk. xxiv. 39) "flesh and bones" (without "blood") suggests that there were

other discussions about the nature of His body after the Resurrection.] Justin
and they seem to have influenced
appears to have laid great stress on these
;

Irenaeus, Tertullian, and others, to such an extent that they have modified John's
" not
"
text, perhaps taking aip.a.Twi> to mean,
from ordinary blood" or not from

mortal blood."

But, in fact, the Johannine tradition teaches that the truth applies
God, so that "blood" in any sense, may be excluded from

to all the children of

a consideration of the nature of the birth.


1
[2269 e] Hor. Heb] on Jn i. 13 says, "The Israelites were brought into
covenant by three things
by circumcision, by washing, and by offering of
sacrifices," and quotes Shemoth Rab., sect. 19, and Gloss, in Vajikra Kab. fol. 191
as to " the blood of the passover mingled with the blood of the circumcised."
;

215

NUMBER

[2270]
'Ima'tia

(/3)

[2270] 'I/tana (pi.) occurs in John as follows, xiii. 4 "he layeth


aside his garments," xiii. 12 "he took his
garments," xix. 23 "the
soldiers therefore... took his
garments," xix. 24 (quoting Ps. xxii. 19)
"they parted my garments among them." In the last passage, the

writer distinguishes Ifxaria from the


x^ojV (i.e. undergarment), and
describes the former as being divided into four
pieces.

the word

Although

the plural meaning "the upper clothes," all


except
"
"
the tunic yet the plural might
cloak
apparently denote
when,
"
"
as would be the case with the
consisted
poor, the
upper clothes
"
"
of a cloak alone, and not of a cloak and doublet.
in

is

Hence

parallel to

is

passage interchanges singular and plural

garment

and Matthew

the Synoptists,

in

"garments"

one

in

All the Synoptists use

"
the plural to describe the parting of Christ's "
garments among the
soldiers.
does
the
but
he
indicates
that
the plural
John
same,
means a single cloak in seams capable of being divided
equally

among

four

rending

the

John adds a negative

soldiers.

tunic 2 ," but

casting lots

Psalmist's prophecy

"They

and on my clothing

(i^aTto-/xoV)

may have

afforded

for

detail about "not


and he quotes the

it;

my clothes (i/idno) among them,


This prophecy
they cast [the] lot."
additional reason for
preferring the

parted

John an

plural IfidrLa, even though our


3
over the tunic

Lord wore nothing but the cloak

ib.

[2270

30
2

xiv.

But

this

28 Iftarlw
v.

27

= Mt.

30 has

Mk

21 i/xariov
v. 27 has i/xariov (but
speech, sing, in narrative.
mention of "tunic" in the Passion is in
ix.

pi. in

The only Synoptic


"he rent his tunics," where the parall. Mt. xxvi.
Luke omits it. In Acts
applies to the Highpriest.

[2270

Mk

/>]

63

avTwv ra
their

Mk v.
Mk

</]

i/xari^v).

i/xaria,

65 has "garments."
xvi. 22 Treptp^afres

two or three scribes have eavrwv, supposing that the


praetors rent
(2563 c); but the meaning is that they caused the garments

own garments

to

be rent

in

Jn ffx^w.

"Rend

from the Apostles.

off

"

(garments)

in

Mk-Mt.

is

Siapr/aav, but

''

[2270(1 I" iii- 33 vSara iroWd, the pi. of vdup, being freq. (Steph.) in nonhebraic Greek as well as in I, XX, calls for little comment
except as to the combination "many waters," which occurs in N.T.
only here and Rev. i. 15, xiv. 2,
xvii.

1,

xix.

(as in Is.
refers

In Rev. xvii.

().

viii. 7,

to the

I.

XX

waters

sing.).
-1

(Jer.

The

li.

first

13,

I.

XX

use of

II

Meribah (Numb. xx.

pi.),

eh.

n,

"

it

is

used of turbulent forces

many waters"

I.

XX

sing.).

((

In

iesen.

c,i

a)

the Psalms

xxix. 3, xxxii.

10. \iiii. 4, cvii. 23, cxliv. 7, r5aro 7roX\d denotes


(1, lxxvii.
Stormy
violence, ovei which Jehovah rules, or from which tie delivers the Psalmist.
In

Ezek.

xvii

_:,

streams, hut

8, x\\i.
in

"

5,

many

waters

"

(I.

Ezek. xxvi. 19 il.XX sing.)

2l6

XX
it

OSup iro\v sing.) denotes fertilising


denotes destroying inundation.

PARTICIPLE

[2272]

Participle (1894*)
Causal

(i)

more frequent in John than


The Johannine phrase "answered and said," as
[2271]

This

is

(diroKpiOeis) said,"

Synoptic "answering

in

the Synoptists.
from the

distinct

shews that John avoids the

"and." But he frequently or at all


participle as a substitute for
" because."
uses it for
the
than
more
events
Synoptists
frequently
"
Jesus, therefore, because he was wearied {kikott[2272] In iv. 6
the
journey, was sitting, just as he was (ovtws) by the
laKws) by

must be interpreted
John only here and

well," K/<o7n.aKws

in the light of the fact that the

word occurs

in the

in

context

"
(iv.

38)

have

sent you to reap that over which ye have not wearied yourselves
The "weariness " is that of the labourers
others have been weary"
:

And

God.

of

harvest

the

in

the

"

weariness

"

of the

Messiah,

1
in "the heat of the day ,"
thirsting, and preaching the Gospel
prepared the way for the work of the Apostles in later times,
The phrase "just as he was"
as described in the Acts (viii. 25).

human

indicates (from the

(1916

events

absence

7)

point of view) fortuitousness, or at all


But the narrative
of premeditation.

suggests that what might be called "casual" in

all

these details was

On

another occasion, when our Lord was


and
apparently even more exhausted so that He fell asleep, Mark
Mark alone 2 says that the disciples conveyed Him "as he was (ok
really

foreordained.

"
rjv)

in

the boat

He

and then

arises

out of sleep to

manifest

Himself as Lord of the winds and waves. So here, the weariness is


represented as the instrumental cause of an apparently casual
consequence. It would have been somewhat too logical, and perhaps
"
"
but the participle
almost stilted, to say because (on) he was wearied
us feel that
a
whole
makes
as
the
And
it.
suffices to suggest
story
;

the journey

itself,

the intense weariness,

to rest just before the

coming

and the sudden

of the Samaritan

sitting

down

woman, were

all

foreordained to divine ends.

'

[2272 ]

Mt. xx.

12,

The "weariness" was


(iv. 4 "there was need
in Rev.) del

always

iv. 10, 24, ix. 4, x.


2

Mk

iv.

" it was about the sixth


hour," i.e. noon.
but providential, like the journey itself
In Jn (as
that he should go through Samaria").

comp. Jn

iv.

not accidental
(Sei)

refers to spiritual decree or spiritual necessity,


16, xii. 34, xx. 9.

36.

21/

iii.

7,

14, 30,

PARTICIPLE

[2273]

" How is it that


thou, being
[2273] In the same narrative (iv. 9)
a Jew, askest drink from me, being a Samaritan?" the participles

might be most obviously explained as "though thou art," and


"though I am." But an explanation more in accordance with
Johannine usage would be to render the participles by "since"
"

Thou hast
having regard to the negative implied in the question
am
I
from
since
no right, since thou art a Jew, to ask drink
me,
under
in
we
should
a Samaritan."
So,
say, "You, being
English,
:

age what right have you to vote?" or "how is it that you vote?"
In iv. 39, "because of the word of the woman testifying (rrj<; y.
"
means "testifying as she did," suggesting "because
/xaprvpovar)<; .)
.

1
means
repeatedly testified ": and in iv. 45, "having seen"
such
It would be impossible to find
"because they had seen."
In xxi. 12 etSore?
a group of causal participles in the Synoptists.

she

means "because they knew," not "though they knew"

probably
(1924a).

Tenses

(ii)

TycpAoc con

(a)

In

[2274]
blind,
is

of (see also Tense,

now

ix.

25

(ix.

25)

"One

see (rv<p\bs

thing
<Sv

perhaps used for brevity and

been used
blind

man

2499510)

know, that [though] being

[once]

the present participle


omitted because it has already

dprt fikeirw),"
ttotI is

toV irore rucpAoV).


Compare ix. 17 "they say to the
(ix. 13
"
"
But the writer may possibly
for
to the once blind man."

intend to suggest that the blindness had been so recently cured that
"
it was almost present,
being [up to this moment] blind."

"the woman, who."


iv.
39 (A.V.) "the woman, which," (R.V.)
took
it as tt?? 7. rrjs /mapr., which Shakespeare would have rendered
R.V.
Possibly
"the woman that" but which A.V. (according to its custom) renders "the
woman which" R.V. which generally follows A.V. in this use of "which,"'
"
deviates here,' and adopts who," presumably meaning "and she" or "for she.
of Shakespeare
According to a convenient usage generally adopted in the English
and Addison, and one that would conduce to clearness in modern English, "7i>//<?"
should introduce a non-essential statement about the antecedent ("I heard it from
1

[2273a]

'

"That" should introduce


complete meaning of the antecedent ("I heard
See the author's How to Write Clearly,
it from the hoy that cleans the hoots").
Seeley and Co., and comp. 1493 a, 1564/'.

the

policeman,

a statement that

who heard
is

it

from the postman").

s-cntial to the

218

PARTICIPLE
'0 con 6N

(ft)

rco

oypANco

13,

(iii.

[2275]

R.V.)

[2275] In iii. 13 "No man hath ascended to heaven save he


that descended from heaven, [even] the Son of man," R.V. text adds

"who

W.H. reject the addition


heaven," 6 wv eV tw ovpavw.
out
that
it is omitted in
pointing
many
(without marginal alternative),
had they been
early quotations in which the insertion of the words
is

in

genuine might

be described as
by the quoters as
1
Without this addition the words appear to mean
morally certain ."
that the real and spiritual ascension to heaven has always been the
result of a descent from heaven.
The descending influence was
recognised
"

referred to earlier in reverse order, (i. 51) "the angels of God


ascending and descending on the Son of man," where it seems to
mean the prayers of the Logos going up to heaven and returning to
earth.
Here the meaning seems to be that the Logos has always

been descending on man

to

Image of God, is here


God, the "Son of man."
express

lift

man up

to

God.

This Logos, the


Image of

identified with the incarnate

1
[2275 a] W.H. point out that Origen's alleged quotations of the clause are
only from the Latin of Rufinus, and elsewhere Origen omits it.
They think the
"
interpolation
perhaps suggested" by i. 18 6 wv els tov koKttov t. irarpSs. Possibly
"the Son of man" seemed a weak ending, unless it was defined in some way

as

of

meaning the Divine Ideal of Man, the Man in Heaven. Some Greek conflation
oyc Toy &NOY (*'* "the Son of man") and ownenoynco (i.e. "who is in

heaven

")

may have

[2275 b]

In

v.

favoured the interpolation.

35

A*

omits con.

\vx"os 6 Kaiofxevos Kai <palvuii> there are perhaps


to Christ's doctrine about lighting the candle (\vx"os)

ene'tvos y)v 6

two allusions. The first is


and putting it where all may see (Mk iv. 21, fpxerai, but Mt. v. 15 has Kaiovaiv
and Lk. viii. 16 axj/as), and prob. to a proverbial distinction between the candle
that has to be thus daily "lighted" (6 Ka.i6fj.evos) or
"continually burns," and the
" for
the one [the eye
sun, which needs no such lighting (comp. Philo i. 485
of the soul] is like the sun but these [the bodily eyes] are like candlebearers
The second may be to Sir. xlviii. 1 "his word [i.e. the word of
(Ai;X"oi'<xots))."
but there the
Elijah] burned continually like a torch (ws Xaiiiras iKaiero)"
Hebrew ("His words were like a burning furnace"), and the Greek context,
indicate that kcu'w has a different meaning from that in Mt.
Does Kaiofievos here
;

mean "continually burning"


"steadily burning" in Lk.

or "lighted

xii.

KaLO/jitvai evihiriov r. dpdvov, xxi.

and exaiero in Sir. xlviii.


means continuousness ("

1,

we

day by day"?

35 /\vx v0L Kaidixevoi, Rev.


8 r%

Xi/J-vri rrj

are justified in

steadily

burning")

context, suggest that the continuousness


the "candle" not only " burns''' but also

is

Xafitrddes irvpbs

(comp. Rev. viii. 8, xix. 20)


concluding that the present participle
but the verb itself (" burn ") and the
Kaio/xevr)

only for

its

" burns
away."

219

In view of Kaio/xevos
iv.

appointed hour, and that

PARTICIPLE

[2276]

'H eKMAzACA

(7)

In

[2276]
anointed..."

2)

(xi.

"

xi.

Now Mary

was the [Mary,

woman]

or,

that

but not

enlightening, to say that the


1
"
itself to the writer as a past event ," and thus
presented
Anointing
to explain the aorist participle used concerning an act that the
is

it

correct,

records

evangelist

"presented

later

Every event

on.

in

Fourth

the

the writer as a past event."


the Anointing of Christ by a

Gospel

But, as to this

itself to

Woman probably
well-known, in some form, to all Christians at the end of the first
"
"
sinner
the Fourth
century, but connected by Luke alone with a
particular event,

opportunity (afforded by
necessity of
with
connexion
to
before
he comes
say,
mentioning Mary
Lazarus)
to the Anointing, that this same Mary was the Mary (or, woman)
whose story was in everyone's mouth. It would have been tedious
Evangelist

takes

the

this

in

"

to

say

the

woman

that

will

presently be described

me

by

as

anointing...."

Present with

(iii)

[2277]
imperfect,

such phrases as

rjv

"

(where

sitting

rfv

The Hebraic use of rjv SiSaWwv,


"he was teaching, preaching etc."
rjv

K-qpvcrcrwv etc.

for the

quite distinct from


"
there happened to be on the spot
ckci KaOrj/ievos
is separated from the participle) and also from rjv

with the perfect passive participle.


from the present participle, it is

In N.T.,
often

is

when

better

rjv

to

is

separated

supply

some

predicate from the context and to take the participle as in classical


Greek, especially in those Gospels where the Hebraic participle is
rare.

In John,

it

Hebraic participle

is

very rare.

in xiii.

23

i)v

But there are approximations to the


avaKtijuevos (which however resembles

sound the passive pluperfect) and in xviii. 30


t /xrj rjv ovros kcxkov ttolwv, where
perhaps the intention is, not to
the
represent Hebraically
imperfect iKanoTroUi ("if he had not been
but
to
doing mischief")
suggest "if he had not been a man
both

in

meaning and

in

continually doing mischief," i.e. an habitual mischief-worker (SS, l>,


"
if he had not been an evildoer-").
and/,
John's general separation
1

Winer,

p. 4.31.

land of
[2277 a] In Jn iii. 22
3 "Jesus and his disciples came into the
Judaea and there (iicei) he tarried with them and was baptizing (^/SAuTifei'). Novi
the context
there was also John (rjv hi Kai [6]
baptizing (j8a7rWf>) in Action,"
-

'

in Aenon,"
suggests the meaning "Jo////, a/so, was in that neighbourhood, namely,
so that it is not quite like the r\v K-rjpvacwv or Sibaaxuv of Mark and Luke.

220

PARTICIPLE
of
i.

participles
"

from

There came

God
with
n-pos

and

iyevtro

[2279]

favours

rjv

[into being] (eyeVe-ro) a

their

man

separation

(avdpwTros), sent

in

from

where (1937) eycvero is contrasted


above, av6pwTro<s with Ao'yos above, and air. -k. Oeov with rjv
tov 6e6v above.
The same applies to i. 9 " There was [from the
(aTrtaTaXfjievos irapa Oeov),"

tjv

beginning] the light, the true [light], which lighteneth every man,
On this,
as it does (ipxop-evov) [continually] into the world."

coming

see 2508.

Agreement

(iv)

of

singular noun, when plural in meaning, is often the


[2278]
of
a
subject
plural verb, but is not so often followed by a plural
in xii. 12 6 o^Aos -n-oXvs 6 \6<jjv...a.Kovo-ai>T<;...\a.f3ov.
as
participle,

In eXafiov alone there would have been nothing remarkable, nor in


if it had followed IXafiov
but, coming before the plural

aKowai/Tcs

verb, the unusual plural participle suggests a desire to


plurality of the crowd,

phrase 6 o^\os ttoXvs (1739


(f>wvrjo-ai oi'Ta vtto ttjv o-vKrjv

first

(v)

or second

o-e,

see 2372

emphasize the

desire also apparent in the extraordinary

In

40).

cTSoV

ere

i.

48

-n-po

the participle

tov

may

ere

<S?LXnnrov

agree with the

<.

Prefatory use of
[2279]

unequalled

John
in

uses
the

prefatory

participial

to

Synoptists,

prepare

especially solemn utterance or act of


this use with the genitive absolute

preface to the

Washing

of Feet

Christ's.

to

reader

an extent
for

some

combination of

particularly noticeable in the

is

xiii.

clauses,

the

4 "Now before the

feast...

hour had come. ..having loved his own. ..he


Jesus knowing
loved them to the end. And, while supper was going on (Sel-n-vov
that his

yivofxivov), the devil

having now put

the Father had given


riseth

from supper."

him

all

it

into the heart... knowing that

Similar phrases introduce

important events in Christ's

and that..., he
some of the most

things into his hands,

life

1
.

1
[2279 a] The conversion of the two disciples that constitute the firstfruits of
the Church is preceded by i. 38 orpcMpth 5e 6 T. ical deauja.fj.evos, the cure of the
/cat yvovs on..., the feeding of the five
impotent man by v. 6 tovtov Idujv 6 'I
thousand by vi. 5 ewdpas ovv rous 6<p9. 6 T. Kal Beaadfiefos oti..., the spiritual

explanation of the doctrine of the flesh and blood by vi. 61 eldws de 6 1. iv eavru)
ort... (referring to the "murmuring" of some of the disciples), and Christ's last
ore
two utterances on the Cross by xix. 28 30 nerd ravra eL8ws 6 I. on ifdy]

ovv gXapev to oos 6 T., where we have the subject preceded


and then by the equivalent of on