Basic Concepts of Nutrition Prepared by: Kristina Paula P. Dizon, R.N.

Nutrition
the relationship of the foods and their components (nutrients and other substances) including the relationship to health and disease, process within the body, and the Nutritional Science social, economic, cultural and physiological implications to eating comprises the body of scientific knowledge governing the food requirements of humans for maintenance, growth, activity,

Dietetics
the health profession responsible for the application of nutritional science to promote human health and treat disease any substance, organic or inorganic, that can supply energy, build and repair cells and tissues, and regulate life processes

Nutrient

Function of Nutrients in Food:

To provide energy Build tissue Regulate metabolic processes

Physiology of Nutrition
Digestive System

Functio Part ns: s

Take in food Breakdown the food Mouth Absorption of digested Phary molecules nx Esophagus Provide nutrients Stoma Small Eliminate waste ch Intestine Large

Metabolism and Energy Balance Metab - total of all the chemical olism reaction that occur in the body

Class es:

Anabolism Catabolism

Stat es: Absorptiv

Postabsorpti e ve

Energy Balance

Ener- is the capacity to do work of gy - Main source Fo

od energy for: Mechanical work –
muscular contraction Electrical work – transport of nutrients across the cell Chemical work – anabolic processes

Metabolic Rate
is the total amount of energy produced and used by the body per unit time; estimated by measuring the amount (kcal) Kilocalories/caloriesof oxygen used per minute. unit of measure for the value of energy supplied by food
1 gram of protein = 4 kcal 1 gram of carbohydrates = 4 kcal 1 gram of fat = 9 kcal

Uses of Energy Basal

Metabolis Physical activity m expenditure Thermic effectRepresents the energy needed to digest, absorbed and process of food nutrients - heat production in response to Adaptive cold thermogenes is

- minimal amount of energy needed to maintain the body in a resting state - amount of energy used when the body is active

Estimating the Energy expenditure (energy needs) Wt(lbs) x kcal/lb
Sedentary lifestyle kcal/lb Very light activity Light activity kcal/lb Moderate activity 18 kcal/lb 14 kcal/lb 16 11

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