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Copyright Reserved
-First published :

1986

Front Cover page illustration

Pond at Udavattekale

8ack cover page illustration

Park at Udavattek"a le

End page illustration

Pusval

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Dedication
This book is dedicated to all those

who wish to prevent an irreplaceable loss of a

priceless heritage

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CONTENTS

PAGE

Chapter
Chapter
Chapter
Chapter
Chapter
Chapter
Chapter
Chapter
Chapter
Chapter
Chapter
Chapter
Chapter
Chapter
Chapter
Chapter

I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
XI
XII
XIII
XIV
XV
XVI

Foreword
Preface
Udavattek'ale and Kandy
Chena Forests and Tahansi K'ala
Tahansi Kala and Ecology
Proclamation of Udavattekale
Extraction of Timber and Forest Produce
E. L. F. de Soysa's Land
A. Philip ' s Land
Udavattekale and Trinity College
The Garrison Cemetery
Eastern Redoubt
Temples and Hermitages
Paths and Roads in Udavattek'ale
The Pond and Tanks at Udavattek'ale
A Tentative Check-list of the Ferns and Flowering Plants
Birds Seen at Udavattekale
Insects Found at Udavattek'ale
Conclusion

1
21
29
37
45
49
53
57
63
71
81
91
103
107
111
113
117

Proclamation : 25 . 10 . 1856
Notice of Proclamation : 14 .04.1893
Proclamation : 13 . 10. 1897
Proclamation : 01 .08 . 1938
Crown Grants : 13 .07 . 1822 & 14 .01 . 1831
Burial Ground : 18.12 . 1851
Crown Grant: 22 .09 . 1854
Crown Grant : 19.07.1838
Mahaiyawa Cemetery : 30.06.1932
Court Proceedings : Rama Vihare : 1934
Gangarama Vihara Rock Inscription and Endowments
Land Lease
Check-l ist of Ferns and Flowering Plants
List of Birds
List of Insects

119
120
122
125
126
128
129
130
131
132
133
135
136
143
149

XI
XIII

Appendices
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
XI
XII
XIII
XIV
XV

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
"Cascade in the Forest " - from Sketches of Ceylon by Bar on Eugene de Ransonnet.
"Senkadagala Lena" by Shanta Gunaratna.
III

Mahawel lganga - from Ferguson ' s - Ceylon 1903

IV

"Sketch of Kandy"- J . L. K. Van Dort. Ceylon. The Near Past.

V

"Pano ramic view of Kandy 1837" - by Patrick Layssart

VI

Painting of Kandy - (1845 - 1850). unknown artist. shOWing Palace and Maligawa sited in Udavattekale. Lady
Horton's Walk. Girls School (present Archives Building . Kandy Branch) and the denudation of the forest.

VII

Udavattekale Forest and Maligawa Complex - 1983

VIII

"Pai nting of Kandy" (1845 - 1850) . unknown artist. shOWing the Pavilion dominating the scene. dense forests.
Kandy Lake . Oriental Bank and Molligoda Walauve .

IX

Paddy field and chena - by J. L. K. Van Dort. Ceylon. The Near Past.

X

Udavattekale - Reserved Forest and Sanctuary - Photograph by T . S U. de Zylva .

XI

Mission School House - from James Selkirk's Ceylon

Xlt
Garrison Cemetery - Photograph by T . S U. de Zylva
XIII

List and plan of persons buried at Garrison Cemetery

XIV

Fort Macdowa II - from "In the days of Sri Wickrema Rajasinghe " by P B. Dolapihilla

XV

Kandy Lake - by Deschamps showing "One Tree HIli " on right of picture .

XVI

Military Hospital. Kandy from Times of Ceylon Annual' 1960 .

XVII

Rama Vi hare - Photograph by T. S U . de Zylva .

XVIII

Gangarama Vihare - Photograph by T. S . U . de Zylva

XIX

Rock Inscripti on at Gangarama Vihare- Photograph by T. S U de Zylva.

XX

Citta Vissudhi Lena. situated close to The Forest Hermitage by Shanta Gunaratna.

XXI

Udavattekale Path - Photograph by T. S U de Zylva

XXII

Udavattekale Walk - Photograph by T . S U de Zylva.

XXIII

Trig Station -: by Shanta Gunaratna .

XXIV
Marble Seat - by Shanta Gunaratna .
XXV

Dumbara Valley - by Shanta Gunaratna .

XXVI

Pond at Udavattek·ale - photograph by T . S U. de Zylva

XXVI I
Bamboo - by Shanta Gunaratna.
XXVIII

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Pus Val - by Shanta Gunaratna .

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XXIX

Aerial view of Udavatteka le ­ from Surveyor-General ' s Office, Colombo .

XXX

Hi s Exce llency, J . R Jayewardene's visit to Udavattekale - 1979 .

XXXI

Wal-de l ­ by Shanta Gunaratna

XXXII

Maha We val ­ by Shanta Gunaratna

XXX III

Nuga - by Shanta Gunaratna

XXXIV

Ceylon Crested Serpent - Eagle or ' Snake - Eagle ' - Photograph by Dr . T. S U de Zylva

XXXV

Ceylon Orange-breasted Blue Fly catcher or Tick .ll s Blue Fly catcher - Photograph by Dr . T. S U de Zylva

XXXVI

Ceylon Paradise-Fly catc her - Photograph by Dr . T. S U de Zylva

XXXVII

Indian White -breasted king fish r - Photogra ph y Dr . T S. U de Zylva

XXXVIII
XXXIX
XL

Ceyl on Black- headed Oriole - P o log raph by Dr . T. S U de

ylva.

Ceylon Purple- rumped Sunb lrd - Pho togra p by Dr T. S. U de Zylva
Common CeylonTailor Bird - Ph o tograpl, by Dr. T. S U . de Zylva

XLI

Ceylon Red-backed Woodpecker - PI o to gra 11

Dr T . S. U de Zylva.

XLII

Moth - Argema Si lene - Photograph by Keit h Ashton

XLIII

Moths - Photograph by Keith Ashton

XLIV

Moths. spiders, scorpions - Photograph by Ke ith Ash ton

XLV

Butterflies - Photograph by Keith Ashton

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LIST OF MAPS
Map of Kandy - Fr. S. G Perera .
II

John Frase(s map of Kandyan area .

III

Site of Bora Wewa Map - Surveyor-Generars Office .

IV

Railway Map - Surveyor-General's Office .

V

Dolapihilla ' s Map of Senkadagala .

VI

Henry Marshall's Map

VII

Map oi Kandy Town - showing rivers, streams and water courses - Surveyor-General's Office .

VIII

Map of Udavattekale ­ 1893 .

IX

Map of Udavattekale-showing replanted area .

X

Map of E. L. F. de Soysa's Land - S. L. N. A 18/6 55

XI

Auction Map, A Y Daniel and Sons - S. L. N. A 18/ 655

XII

Map of David Meaden's property. - S. L. N. A 6/1474

XIII

Malabar Street Map

XIV

Military Hospital Map .

XV

Map of Kandy showing bUildings along Malabar Street and Lake Road - W . R. Nord 1868

XVI

Special enlarged map of Udavattek'ale - Surveyor-General's Office

XVII

S. M Burrow 's map of Kandy Town .

XVIII

Town of Kandy - H W . Cave

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FOREWORD

The forests of Sri Lanka have played a significant role in the island's history of 2500 years . There are
many references to them in our historical and literary works, and from the 19th century onwards
there are also to be found, brief descriptions, scientific studies, notices and notes, Sessional papers
and legislation, on forests , forestry and many aspects of their conseNation . Yet a comprehensive
historical account of a single forest has not appeared before,
Within the 25,000 sq . miles that comprises Sri Lanka are 1,454,336 acres designated as
forest r'eserves, Of all this forest land, it's perhaps only Udavattek'ale that can be proud of having a
traceable past that goes back a couple of millenniums, if not in, history, at least in legend, The
primeval forest of pre-eminence in the island is the Sinharaja forest - now declared a Man and
Biosphere reserve - situated in the South-Western part of the island; but as it has been so ably
shown in this book Udavattek'ale has its special place in the history of the island,
The latter borders the town-limits of Kandy, and Kandy was the last capital where the island's
monarchy reigned, before its fall in 1815. Its former name Udavasalavatta, meant as has been
pointed out the land above the palace, and since it was the preserve of royalty, it had also been iJ
tahansikale or a forest forbidden to the commoners,
The author, in his comprehensive account has gone into practically every aspect of its history.
He recalls legend and history associated with Udavattek'ale and has shown, how, over the years, this
forest has been appreciatively described by writers who had the occasion to visit it.
Today, the importance of forests for the well being of man, is brought out and emphasized
every day, in all parts of the world, and its management conservation and extension has been given
utmost priority, Conservation of forests assumes even more significance in smaller countries or in
islands like Sri Lanka, where an ever increasing population and necessary development for industry
and agriculture, invariably contributes to the reduction of forest coverage. But in this reduction there
is a limit. For living things, a plentiful supply of water is necessary, and to have water, rain should fall
in due season. The necessary concomittant seen here, is that if rain is to be had in due season, the
conservation of forests has to be assured,
In his sixteen chapters, the author has shown, the place occupied by this forest during the
days of the Kandyan Kings, and also latterly, how it had been used and encroached upon for various
purposes , Forests are to be managed for the benefit of man and not just for their per se importance;
and it is here that clear-cut policies and their firm implementation are required.

,

In the course of delineating the history of this forest the author has also shown ecological
concepts and conservation practises in this island down the ages , Here, it may also be well to remind
ourselves, that the 2500 year old civilization of Sri Lanka was based on irrigation and agriculture, in
which the role of the forest would have been indisputably established . Among the primeval forests of
Sri Lanka Udavattek'ale is not only an historic forest but also a living laboratory for the student of
natural history and is a haven for those who seek peace and solitude,
The author, apart from listing out and giving the history of the present occupants of what was
once a tahansikale, has also given a check list of ferns and flowering plants and of birds and insects
to be found within its confines. It is also interesting and gratifying to note, when he says, "it still
valiantly pre'seNes some vestiges of its primeval-ness in a few surviving endemic species, of wh;rh
one is found in two other places in Sri"Lanka and nowhere else in the world".
(XI)

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This book on Udavattek'~le or Udavasalawatta breaks new ground on being the first
comprehensive historical account to be written on a forest in Sri Lanka. It is also significant. from
another point of view: in that. it being the work of a keen conservationist - a doctor with a very busy
practise - and not just the end product of a routine academic exericse .
In compiling his book the author has spared no pains to make the work written so vividly and
lucidly as comprehensive as possible. and I am personally aware of the many. long and arduous
hours he had spent. at the Archives pouring over little legible writing of the past, to discover
facts. for a story as authentic as possible. According to the author "what happened to Udavattek'ale
is more or less what happened generally to all other forests in Sri Lanka~ and therefore to him
Udavattek'ale has been symbolic .
Thus. while the author deserves all praise for his labour of love. it is hoped that the message of
conservation he conveys is well taken. and that it would receive the extensive publicity that it so well
deserves .

G. P. S. H.' de Silva .
Director. National Archives.

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PREFACE
It was on 9 January 1982 that His Excellency, J. R. Jayewardene, President of Sri Lanka, requested
me to write the history of Udavattekale and President's Pavilion which was situated in the original
forest. This request was made at a conference which A. B. Damunupola, Government Agent. Kandy,
S. Godapola, Forester, Kandy, and I had with the President. The conference was for the purpose of
discussing ways and means of protecting Udavattekale, attention having been focused on the urgent
need for it as a result of a newspaper article which had highlighted the murder of a woman inside the
forest.
I being a novice at historical research and study, had to grope my way through the vast sea of
knowledge to be found in the National Archives, library of the University of Peradeniya, temples,
Villages, Surveyor-General's office and even had to seek information from 'old timers' .
I have used this reserved forest and sanctuary as a symbol of the history of other forests in Sri
Lanka . What became of the once dense vegetation of this island, became for me a burning question
which spurred me on with the task of obtaining information for the book.
I thank G. P. S. H. de Silva, Director of National Archives, for his help and guidance and also
for writing the foreword. His staff at the archives were most obliging, especially Mrs. P. Muttuwatte
and staff in the Kandy Branch of the Archives . I must also acknowledge the assistance rendered by
Tom Baron, a historian from the United Kingdom, who gave me a clue to George Turnour's diary.
Prof. B. L. Panditharatne, the Vice Chancellor of the University of Peradeniya and the Librarian,
N. T. S. A. Senadira, I thank for giving me permission to use the library. Special mention must be
made of W. Dharmadasa and G. R. Karunaratne, known by the undignified name of "Library
Labourers" but those knowledge of the books in the Ceylon Room is truly exceptional, for it was they
together with A. R. M. Ratnayake who were instrumental in finding many references for me.
My thanks are also due to Rapti Ranasinghe for typing the first copy of the manuscript .
This book would never have been a reality if not for that energetic and friendly Government
Agent of Kandy, A. B. Damunupola, who arranged several interviews with H. E. the President and
gave me all encouragement.
The Deputy Surveyor General. Gamini Wijepura, Walter Guneratne and S. Seneviratne on
numerous occasions patiently helped prepare the maps. To them, the staff at Kandy and to the
Surveyor General. S. D. F. C. l'Janayakkara are due my thanks.
I also thank Dr. Mrs . Thelma Gunawardena, Director of National Museums, for the list of
insects found at UdavattekEile and Prof. S. Balasubramaniam for the list of trees found at
Udavattek"ale, L. B: Karunaratne of Trinity College, Kandy, for information 01") the rare lizard found in
the forest. S. Godapola, forester, Kanciy, and his staff for locating sites, trees and places of interest.
Dr. T. S. U. de Zylva for his excellent colour photographs and Shanta Gunaratna for her drawings.
Prof. K. M. de Silva's severe criticism of the first draft of the manuscript left me totally disheartened
but later impelled me to re-organise the entire work. His invaluable guidance and authoritative editing
I gratefully acknowledge.
The Government Printer, Neville Nanayakkara and his staff have given me their valuable advice
and spent much time, designing, preparing the format and printing this book. To them I express my
thanks .
My wife helped me in all aspects of this book. Many were the hours she spent in typing and
re-typing the script; without her he~p and encouragement I would have been in much trouble .
I am greatly indebted to President Jayewardene for his encouragement. several patient
hearings on the progress of the work an,p finally, the publication of the book.
Nrhal Karunaratna
(xiii)

"Cascade in (he Forest" - from Sketches of Cevlon by Baron Eu gt~'1e de Ran sonne ,

"Stranger, if thou hast learned a truth which
needs no school of long experience, that the
world is full of guilt and misery, and hast seen
enough of all its sorrows, crimes, and cares, to
tire thee of it, enter this wild wood and view the
haunts of Nature . The calm shade shall bring a
kindred calm, and the sweet breeze that makes
the green leaves dance, shall waft a balm to thy
sick heart . Thou wilt find nothing here of all that
pained thee in the haunts of men, and made thy
loathe life . The primal curse fell. it is true, upon
the unsinning earth , but not in vengeance . God
hath yoked to guilt her pale tormentor, misery .
Hence, these shades are still the abodes of
gladness; the thick roof of green and stirring
branches is alive and musical with birds, that sing
and sport in wantonness of spirit; while below
the squirrel, with raised paws and form erect,
chirps merrily. Throngs of insects in the shade try
their thin wings and dance in the warm beam
that waked them into life . Even the green trees
partake the deep contentment ; as they bend to

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the soft winds, the sun from the blue sky looks in
and sheds a blessing on the scene . Scarce less
the cleft-born wild-flower seems to enjoy
existence than the winged plunderer that suck its
sweets . The mossy rocks themselves, and the
old and ponderous trunks of prostrate trees that
lead from knoll to knoll a causey rude or bridge
the sunken brook, and their dark roots, w ith all
their earth upon them, twisting high , breathe
fixed tranquility . The rivulet sends forth glad
sounds, and tripping o'er its bed of pebbly
sands , or leaping down the rocks , seems, with
continuous laughter, to rejoice in its own being .
Softly tread the marge, lest from her midway
perch thou scare the wren that dips her bill in
water . The cool wind, that stirs the stream in
play, shall come to thee, like one that loves thee
nor will let thee pass ungreeted, and shall give its
light embrace ."
- William Cullen Bryant (1794-1878),
"Inscription for the Entrance to a Wood"

Mesua Ferrea

From T. B. Worthington 's Cevlon Trees

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CHAPTER I

UDAVATTEKALE AND KANDY

"We are today not permitted' to see the vast virgin
primeval forests which mantled the mountain-sides of
this region in a panorama of green wrapped in the
eternal rythm of rainfall. leaf-fall and regeneration . Yet,
we can still trace in the fragments left, the glory of its
thousand and one cool shady nooks, where hidden
streams trickling under tree ferns lose themselves in
dreamy quiet pools of placid water, on the surface of
which water-bugs skimmer, while all around other
forms of beauty abound."
- R. L. Brohler, Discovering Ceylon,
(Colombo, 1973)

The story of Udavattekale - the forest behind
the Oalada Maligawa in Kandy - begins many
thousands of years ago when there were no or
few human habitations in these south-central
hills of Sri Lanka. One can visualize this
pre-historic scene in the mind's eye - the
mountain terrain, undisturbed by man, covered
with verdant impenetrable jungle, clothed at its
highest points with mists.
This region was the Maya-rata which remained
a no-man's-land for several centuries after
"dynasties raised kingdoms and built cities on the
plains'"
1. R. L. Brohier, Discovermg Ceylon. (Colombo. 1973). p 178

When the first Indo Aryan settlers of the Island
did ascend the lower hills of the highlands and
stumbled on the lush, well watered valleys and
began establishing settlements there,
Udavattek'ale came to be the starting point from
where the ancient village of Senkadagala arose.
The Asgiri Upatha states :
"Thence forward , while the Buddha sasana flourished
in Sri Lanka, at 655 of the Buddhist Era, when the
monarch GaJabahu was ruling in Anuradhapura, an
ascetic Brahmin named Senkhanda was practising
ascetism in a cave in Maya rata .
"When this ascetic was going in search of fruits one
day, he saw a jackal chasing a rabbit; suddenly the
rabbit turned back and started chasing the Jackal. On
another day he saw a rattle snake chasing after a frog
and soon the latter started to chase after the rattle
snake . He also noticed that cattle frequented the place
after their meals and came to the conclusion that thiS is
certainly a place of victory
"One day a man who had lost his way in the Jungle
met the ascetic . The latter having hosted him, told the
ma n of all the occurences he had o bserved and
requested him to live there The man ha v ing
contemplated on these Incidents related by the ascetic
went to Maya rata and discussed thiS with the people

"Senkadagala Lena:' by Shanta Gunaralna.

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there and obtained permission from King GaJabahu to
co ns tru ct a village In that area A Bodhi tree was
pla nted at the spot at an auspIcIOUS· hour on Sundav the
27th of Saka era The site was cleared In a dav and a
village (was built) bV the name Senkadagala, after the
cave In which the Brahmin Senkhanda lived ,,2

This cave which is in Udavatte'kale, behind the
old palace, is still called the Senkadagala Lena.
The village of Senkadagala, which the Asgin
Upatha mentions, would have been an early
settlement established at the site of the present
Kandy town.

r

It is interesting to note that the earliest
inscriptions found in the Kandy district date back
to the first century AD. According to CWo
Nicholas these first evidences of human
habitation in the Kandy area occur in the lower
montane valley of. the Mcihav'all ganga, around
Gampola, Kandy, Teldenlya, the north-west of
Badulla and the north and west slopes of the
Matale hills. Along these routes which the early
settlers took, at elevations of 1000-2000 feet.
they left inscriptions, mainly at the site of
3
temples they founded
These areas were
populated in pre-Christian times,
"3S the inscriptions of that period at Ba mba ragala
Vihara, Tuideniva, Haragama, Dulvala, Vegi riva (near
Gampola) and Molagoda attest T h e Vill age of
Ko lagama is me ntio ned in one of the Ba m ba ra g ala
in scriptions
T h e two passes bV w h ic h Ih ls
mountainous reg ion was attained at this eariv time are
mar ked bV an ascending series of cont em p orarv
in scriptions an d the V were (1) Aranavake -:- Gampola ,
an d ii ) Ridigama-Rambodagalla-Mo lagoda .,

Many of the place names of these sites still
survive in their original or modified form
"Ya nlena known bV the sa n,e nam e todaV, is so
name d in a 14th cen tury Inscrlp tl OIl near the 13 th mile
on the Kandy-K lI rlin egala road T here IS a p re-C hristian
in scr ip ti on there At Ga lbeva viha ra, 1 1/ 2 miles so u th
of the 16 th mile on the Kandy-K urunegala road, are
cave inscrip tions of the 1 st ce ntury ",

These are the first human habitations In the
Kandyan region, and lend credibility to the
statement In the Asglri Upatha that the first
settlement of Senkadagala was founded In the
reign of Gajabahu of Anuradhapura, for this king
ruled froml14-136 AD.

The Asgiri Upatha also states that the Maha
Thera Palabathgala Wanaratana of the lineage of
Dimbulagala Dipankara was brought to
Senkadagala with four other bhikkhus during the
reign of Pandita Parakramabahu of Kurunegala
who became king in 1846 B.E. (1302-26 AD)
. Afterwards Prince Pandita Parakramabahu, son
of King Buwanekabahu of Kurunegala, became King of
Kurunegala in 1846 Buddhist era and when he was
ruling (the country) by pleasing the people with the four
kinds of gifts, people of Maya rata met the King of
Kurunegala and informed him thus "0 Lord, there is a
village known as Senkadagala five and half gauvas away
from this city surrounded by the river valuke (Mahawall)
like unto a moat consisting of hills, caverns and forests
flourishing with fields and lands, wealth and corn, with
people well disciplined, victorious land we ll secure. It is
proper that a city be built there" Th e n Pandita
Parakramabahu considered the propos al favourable
and assembled to the city of Kurunegala, carpenters,
smiths, leather workers, brick and tile masons, stone
m asons, plaster workers, painters and labourers and
having provided th em w ith all equi pment, eigh t kinds of
co rn and w ea l th , elep h ants, buffaloes, and other
w o r ker s , an d co m m an d e d h is nephew, Minister
Sirl wardhana Senev l ratne to bu i ld a city' With
the villa ge S, l'rk.acLJgiJla as til e cen tre
"Prince Siriwardhana arrived in Senakadagala with
his retinue and having built the city, constructed forts In
several places, put all other buildings and all adjuncts
between the cave of Senkhanda and the sacred bodhi
tree, w hic h had been planted on the aforesaid site- of
victory, surr ounded the city by a great wall, set up
guard s, villages and be ing desirous of establishing a
shrrne for the Buddha, looked for a suitable site and
saw the hili neither far no r near from the city and not
tnl1abrted by peo ple and con sidering that this site was
sUi table for th e monks engaged in deep meditation (he)
esta bhshed the re a fore st mon astery, 500 dunu away
fr o m t he c it y moat and in f ormed Pandita
Para kra mabahu of Kurunegala accordingly - then this
ki ng sent o fferings to the med itative monks of the Asgiri
fo re s t m o na st e ry of W al asga la near t h e city of
Yil pahuwa and on hiS request, With the conc ens us of
the monks , got dow n to the ci ty of Kurunegala the five
m o nk s, Pa l ab a t h g ala W ana ratana, M lga svewe
M edh a nk a r a, H i r ip i l lye Kasyapa, Kongasvewe
D h arrn aklrllll , Wal a" ve w e U p atlssa and Ma hw ela
M angal a - all pupils of Dim bulagala Dipan kara - and
ha Vin g m ad e ar ra nge ment s fo r them to stay at At kanda
Vlha ra and fi nally c ommanded th e M inisters to convey
the m to the A sglrl fore st mo nastery at Sen kadagala

2 A 5gm Upall1a - Iranslil led from Ihe Smhalese IJY P L PrernaT IIJ<e Pro'essor 01 Arc haeology . UnIVerSITY o. Pc'adenlya . Irom the o" g,nal ola In Ihe
possession 01 W ill tpr W"nalachandra E ~,q 11,,; !p" eDrIS,s!" 01 lurl" Trlree> ll l ~ I,'ave, ~ nd ,"conSI' CIS the I "STo ry " l lh" AS If. Villara trorn Inr,ner lexT s
and oral ' rad'llonS The aut hor and c omp ll~' of he w or k w;;,· Wi" yapol ol Allomadtiss The ra. belong nn 10 Il1e Sang ha Sahha of Ihe A 5QII Vltlara The
wor' was completed In Ihe 3rd veal 0 1 Ihe rBl gn o f SrI Y"'ca ama fialasmghe - ,, 3 43 B t l ' 7 5 A D I
3. C w . Nichola s, ''HIstorlcal Topography o f AnCIent and Mediaeval Ceylon ". J R. A 5 (C [3 I. New Serres. Vol VI. Specoal No. 1963. p 115.

4 Ibid

5 Ibi d.

-
.
I

--­
--

4
rare to see any living animal other t han the sqUirrels and
monkeys who move among the tree-tops , but their
tracks and their vOices betray the greater animals, and
it was almost entirely due to their presence that w e
were able to explore at all.

Siriwardhanapura Thereafter Prince Senapath i
recei ved th..e Mahasangha and fetched them to the
Asgiri forest monastery and as the Vihara became the
residence of the meditation monks of the Asgiri
monastery in Yapahuwa, this monaster y at
Senkadagala was designated Asglri Vihara and offered
by deed of Charity to the Mahasangha .
6

Th is forest is a very w et one , and consequently very
dense, and much of it is bound Into an unbelievably
Impenetrable tangle by creeping bamboo , w hose long
tendrtls, hard and thin as telegraph w ire , form a mesh
difficult for man to enter unless he can cut his wa y
painfully ya rd by yard . . ,, 8

It is also stated in the same record that the
Asgiri forest monastery was later called the
Rama Vihara during the reign of King Kirti Sri
Rajasinghe (1747-82) :
Then Maharama Maha Thera residing in the
forest hermitage of Uda w asalawatte where tlI1aha
Thera Palabathgala Wanaratana of the lineage of
Oi m bu I agal a M aha ka s s apa . ta ugh t Vid a rs a n a
meditation. Thereafter this forest hermitage came to be
known as Rama Vihara.
,,7

These very features described by John Still,
made the mountain fa'stnesses of the
Kanda-uda-rata a natural means of defence,
used to great advantage by the kings that ruled
there later . As the Mahavamsa* records'

The forest hermitage of Rama Vlhara also still
exists, tucked away in an obscure corner of
Udavattekale. It is almost a forgotten outpost of
the Asgiri Chapter and its sacred precincts have
been much reduced by generous grants of its
land to others by British rulers of the past. as will
be seen later.

"A country passable only by a footpath, wh ich on
account of wild beasts and difficulties of access, was
unfrequented by men of other di s tr icts - be ing
moreover rendered horrib ly f rightful by bein g
over - spread With deep waters Infested w ith
crocodiles that eat human flesh. ,, 9

Before man's invasion of this territory, the
tropical rain-forests covering this area would
have been teeming with life - all living in an
ecological balance . The flora - consisting of
innumerable varieties of trees, creepers, lichen,
mosses, ferns, grasses, fungi and bacteria - and
the fauna - of many varieties of wild animals,
both great and small, such as elephant, leopard,
elk, deer, wild boar, monkey, hare, squirrel, scaly
ant eater, porcupine, reptiles such as the
monitor lizard and different kinds of snake,
tortoise and many varieties of birds, worms,
insects - both above and in the soil - all actively
living but in ecological harmony.
John Still gives a vivid description of a
rain-forest in Jungle Tide which might have
applied to Udavattekale a few centuries ago :
Mahaw eliganga - from Ferguson's - Ceylon 1903

"and often one may hear the cries of animals, the
strident roar of leopards, the horn-like challenge of
Sambhur stags, the scream of eagles, the deep tones
of the great black monkeys of the hills, and, more
treme ndous than any, the trumpeting of elephants For '
the forest is full of life, though in its extreme density it is

And so it was till about seven centuries ago
Even in such comparatively recent times as the
seventeenth century, Knox makes the remark

6 . Asqtrt Uparha
7. Asglrl Upatha .
8 . John Still, Jungle Tide, Edinburgh & London. 1930. p . 30 .

9

/I

Mahavamsa - "The Great Chronicle ". is the early history of Sri Lanka, compiled It is believed by a 8hikku by the name of Mahanama in the 6t h Century
A.D. It contains a continuous record of the Island 's history for over a thousand years since its colonization In the 6th century B.C.
R. L. Brohier, FoodandrhePeople, Colombo. 1975 . p . 37.

5
that the land was "generally covered with
Woods"'o and that "All little Rivers and Streams
running through the Valleys are full of small
fish"." He also mentions that there were many
varieties of fruit trees :

3nd

nelr

and
we

"Also in the wild woods are several sorts of pretty
Fruits, as Murros, round in shape, and as big as a
Cherry, and sweet to the taste; Dongs nearest like to a
black Cherry Ambelo' s like to barberries, Carolla
Cabella, cabela Pooke, and Pollas. these are like to littl.e
plums, and very w ell tasted. Paragidde, like to our
Pears , and many more such like fruits .

ery
Ibly

1

9

~sh

Jav

Here are also, of Indian Fruits, Coker-nuts ; Plantins
also Bananas of diverse and sundry sorts, which are
dis tinguished by the taste as well as by the names;
rare sweet Oranges and sower ones, Limes but no
Lemo'ns, such as our's are ; Pantaurings, in taste all
one with a Lemon , but mu ch bigg er than a man 's t'.'Vo
fists, right Citr ons, and a smaller sort of sweet
Oranges. Here are several other sorts of Lemons , and
Oranges. Mangoes of several sorts , and some very
good and sweet to eat .. . Pine-App les also grow
there, Sugar Canes, Water-Melons, Pomegrantes ,
Grapes both black and white , Mirabiln gs, Codjeu' sand
several other . 12

till,
he
ce,
led

on

Wil S

ling

'i ng
VI h

Among the trees Knox mentions are the
tallipot, the cinnamon , 'veralu' or olive, rattan,
cane, betel vine, bo-tree (ficus religiosa), the
'kitul' or fishtail palm (caryota Urens). 'Doneka ia'
and 'Capita' which is. probably Kepatiya (croton
laccifer). 'Jombo', probably ' Jambu' or
rose-apple, Jack (artocarpus heterophyllus) and
the betelnut or arecanut .
Knox gives a valuable and generally reliable
account of the Kandyan countryside and way of
life as it existed then. We know that the varied
scenery which he would have seen and which he
described - the pattern of wet-paddy cultivation
in terraces along the hill slopes and homestead
gardens interspersed with belts of chena forests
and vast tracts of primeval forests - a pattern
that had evolved and established itself over
several centuries - gave way before long to the
commercial zeal of coffee planting in the 19th
century. The new pattern the British conquerors
branded on the landscape, after the destruction
of the forests, (a destruction on a scale not seen
in this region before), took the form of ecological
deserts - of coffee and later tea and rubber
plantations.

rk

Unfortunately the destruction of forests still
goes on, and for this the blame must be ascribed
to the Sri Lankans themselves. Over the years,
as the population increased, the haphazard
clearing of forests for chena cultivations has had
dire consequences . There are other reasons as
well for the destruction of forests. Whether it be
for the immediate commercial profit of
individuals or as a result of misguided policies of
'grow more food', felling of valuable highland
forests has gone on in modern times and still
continues . In these upland regions, one's eye
lingers amidst harmonious greens of valleys and
hills and dizzi~y scales theatrical mountain
escarpments but is often shocked to a halt at
denuded, eroded scars on hillsides. Barren and
boulder strewn, these stretches mark the sites
where tea or tobacco cultivations have been
abandoned or where men have unthinkingly, for
short term gain, removed the forest cover . The
result is a price Sri Lanka cannot afford to pay .
It is paradoxical that some, at least, of the
British pla nters of yore , who w ere responsible for
th e annihilation of these upland forests in the
19th century, should have felt a deep sensitivity
to the environment (even as they felled the trees)
as the following accou nt by William Boyd
reveals:
"When the underwood wa s thus cut down and laid
flat on the ground the men went to work with axes .
beginning at the bottom of the hill. I may mention that,
in these primeval fore sts, the stems of the trees ri se
from eighty to one hundred and twenty feet, or even
higher, from the ground with but a branch, and w hen
the y have reached th eir full height, the branches
appear, and in some cases from an almost imperVIOU s
shade, causing the forests to be dark and gloomy as
twilight, whilst the bright su n of the tropics may be
shining above in all his midday splend our. These forests
are quite silent. No song of bird s is heard re-echoing in
them, and, with the exception of the wild elephant, an
occational cheetah or sma ll tiger, and a stray herd of
elk, there is no game to reward the toil of the
sportsman. A screaming fl ock of noi sy parroquets may
fly over them and alight Jabbering on some high tree ,
w hose fruit, happening to be in season, may afford
them a full feast; or a huge owl-hawk may soar, in
whirling circles, high in the clear blue sky , uttering its
wailing scream; but, with these exce ption s, none of
the feathered tribes of the plains, which , morning and

10. Robert Knox, An Histoncal Relarion of Ceylon. (edited Colombo, 1966) p. 5 .

11. Ibid, p. 53
12. Ibid, pp. 26:7 .

~

I

.

I

-

6
evening. make the jUrlQles in · the low country resound
with the music of their notes. are to be seen or heard .
In the early months of the year. however. when the nilu
seed is falling. jungle-fowl become pretty abundant .
and when the same plant is in full blossom. the air is
filled with the harmonious murmur and the soft hum of
myriads of honey bees. Occasionally. too. families of
wanderoos. or large black monkeys. with white heads.
may be seen . making the distant treetops shake with
their gambols. as if they were being agitated by a
hurricane . whilst their eldritch laughter is echoed
through the jungle; in resounding peals. until the
midday sun makes them seek some leafy shelter from
hi s scorching rays. where they may. like all the other
animals in Ceylon . enJoy a refreshing repose during the
noonday heat. ,, 13

Surprisingly enough; inspite of all this
assiduous activity that went on in felling
extensive tracts of forests. even as late as 1890,
the Kandyan countryside seems to have been
still densely wooded and writers such as John
Fletcher Hurst described the vegetation as being
very thick and overpowering :
"The scenery grows wilder. of deeper tints. and more
richly tropical . The surprises intoxicate and
bew ilder . . . The wealth of vegetation . which become
a drapery to all things . gives an entirely new character
for every rock. whether standing alone or combined
with a mountain-chain. Here, for example . is a great
jagged rock. a hundred feet in diilmeter, scarred and
gashed by the storm s and shocks of ages . But the vine s
have thrust themselves into Its deep lines and climbed
over its rugged points , and fairly smothered every angle
with their delicate and dallying fingers . so that one
would th ink the hard rock wa s only placed there as a
support for a t(opical vine .
"But this is not all . Shrubs have found their way into
the crevices. and pushed their root s deeply down. and
now there broad and ample branches flash out over the
mossy shoulders as rich scarlet and yellow blossoms as
every burrowed colour from the sun near the equat or
Even the palm s seem to take special pleasure in getting
close to the rocks , then flinging their great fronds right
out over the grey grani te. as much as to say : "How
dare you take up so much space Make way . or I will
cover every inch of your impudent face with my big
leaves . And drive you into perpetual oblivion . .1
was thoroughly tired by the time I reached Kandy - not
be" 'lu se of the Journey itself, but because of Nature's
extravagant di splay of plant s and flowers and fruits . My
eyes and sensations were overtaxed . Then where there

is neither flower nor fruit, Nature seems to take a
special delight in winding vines in all possible directions ,
in making them spring to every branch and rock, and
get ready for a loftier leap . Many of these vines, when
they had exhausted all the supports they could find, just
Jumped out desperately into the air; and there they
hung and waved and nodded their smiles down upon
us. as much as to say : "Just give us more trellis, and
we will wander out on larger paths into the Elysian
atr ." I '

As mentioned earlier in this chapter, the
ancient village of Senkadagala came to be
established in the time of King Gajabahu of
Anuradhapura, but the Kandyan region does not
appear to have been well populated till several
centuries later .
"From Kurunegala, Sinhalese power sh ifted to
the central mountains further to the south, a region
which had never in the past been well-developed or
. . And it
highly populated or a centre of civilization
was In the fourteenth century that a kingdom was set
up With Gangasiripura or Gampola on the river Mahavali
as its capital ; later the c apital was shifted to
Sen kadagala . modern Kand y or Mahanuvara .
,,' 5

The building of the city of Senkadagala is
popularly ascribed to King Vikrama Bahu :
"The capital. hitherto. amidst the green valleys and
w ooded hillocks of Gampola was tran sferred by
Sena sammata Vlkrama Bahu toward s the middle of the
last decade of the fifteenth century or towards the end
of the first de cade 9 f the sixteenth c entury to
.. 16
Senkadagala

While K. M . de Silva states
" By the 147 0' s Sena s ammata Vikrama Bahu
(1469-1511) seems to have made use of the
disturbed pOlitical cond itions in the lowlands to make
him self autonomous ruler of the highland s. and he
endeavoured to increase his own authority whenever
Kott e w as fa Cing internal problems .
,,11

The city of Senkadagala came to be known as
Kandy only in recent times .
"At the beginning of the sixteenth century the central
mountains of Ceylon, with a good part of the
contiguou s territory, formed a kingdom called

13 . W illiam 80yd . "Autobiography of a Pe riya Dural ." Ceylon Literary Register. Vol. '" . No . 5 . 1888. p 83 .
14 John Fletcher Hurst. "T he Enchanted Road to Kandy" ; See Images of Sri Lanka through Ameflcan Eyes- edited by H. A . I. Goo ne\lleke . Colombo . 1975
pp 199-201.
15 . K. M . de Silva . A History o f Sit Lanka . London. 1981 . P 82
16 . 0 M. da Silva. Wickremabahu o f Kandy. Colombo . 196 7. p. 1.
17.

K M de Silva. op ci t. p 99

...

7
"Kande-uda-rata", meaning In Sinhalese "the country on
the mou nt ains" from w h ich term was derived the
Port ug ue se appel! a: :ons Ca ndl hure and the more
popula r Ca ndea, Ca rnd e, Ca nde and Ouande and
Camd la.
,, 18
.

"S ketch of Kandy1851 - J . L. K. Van Dart, Ceylon, The Near Past

And so, it became 'Kandy' in the English
language . Lieut. de Butts described its location in
1841
"The basin in w hich Kandy, or Mahaneura (the great
city). stands, is of an oval form about four miles in
length by two in breadth , the town being at the further
. and w ider extremity Its entire length is intersected by a
mountain stream, which , after feeding the artificial lake
of Kandy , divides the valley into twO nearly equal parts,
and pours itse lf into the Mahavila ganga. Like the happy
valley of Rasselas , it is bounded on every side by lofty
and apparently Inaccessible he ights ... without the
cordon of mountains whic h encircles and isolates the
valley flows the deep and rapid mahavlia ga nga, and, as
if to make sec urity doubly sure, that river, after passing
the bridge at Parcldinia form s a deep loop, near the
extremity of which the town of Kandy is situated .,, 19

. Long before the town came into being, there
was a lake at Bogambara and another, called
Bora wava - ' muddy pool' - at the Mahaiyawa
end of Trincomalee Street. The hill range of
Udavattekale met the range of Mattan Patana or
Walkerwatta, later known as Castlehill and
Roseneath, (along which Gregory's road or
Rajapihilla Mawatha runs) many feet below in the
valley now occupied by the present lake .
Streams flowed down the sides of all these
surrounding hill ranges into the valley. These
were joined by the Hilpan-kandura Ala from the

hu

er
.. 17

as
ral
he
ed

18.
19.
20.
21.

975

0 M. da Silva . op cit., pl.
Lieut. de Butts. Rambles in Cevlon. London, 1841 .p .3
Trlncomalee Street
Katugastota Road

23 . O'Oyly 's Olary, JRAS. (CB.), Extra No. 191 3 , 1917, p 244 .
22 . Malabar Street.

-"

-

east, originating in the hills around the present
settlement of Ampitiya. A stream from
Udavattekale which at present stili flows by the
Buddhist Publication Society Building and
Rajapihilla Ala from the Mattan Patana range
Joined by the HII-pan-kandura flowed down into
the lake of Bogambara. This lake of Bogambara
covered an area from the present site of
Walker's Garage, taking in George E. de Silva
park, part of the jail, market square, and
extended up to Wadugodapitiya Veediya (see
map of Kandy).
The upper li3ke of Bogambara was situated in
an area between Pullaiyar Kovil and the Wembley
Cinema. The road by the side of Wembley
Cinema still bears the name 'Katukelle Lake
Road' . (see Railway Map.)
The outflow from Bogambara lake continued
through the valley formed by the Hant~lna range
on one side and the Bahirawakanda range and
other hills on the opposite side . Even today, the
Dunumandala Oya originating from the Hant~ma
range and joined by more streams from that
range mingles its waters with what used to be
the outflow from the Bogambara lake and
criss-crosses its way as the M'ada Ala down to
Gatambe to meet the Mahav'ali Ganga (see map
of David Meadan's property) .
The Bora W "ava or mud-pool Was at the
Katugastota end of Nagaha Vidiya 20 which
continued as Borawey Veediya. 21 The possible
site of tflis mud-pool is the present Municipal
Play Ground. According to D'Oyly's Diary, an
entry on 22 March 1815 states:
" Rode ea rly this morning by Kumarupe
22
Vidiya - Gangarama Vihara round Udawattekeyle
entered the Road to Alutgamtota and from thence
returned to Kandy by Boraway Vidiya
23"

A stream which flows down from
Bahirawakanda can be seen emerging through a
culvert Quilt in British times, below the recently
constructed housing scheme, opposite .the site
of the Building Materials Corporation office and
stores on the Kandy-Katugastota road. The
stream flows down crossinglthe main road at the

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Map of Kandy - Fr. S G. Perera

KAITAKE ESTAlI

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Ceylon

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Major JOHN

By
Colombo

Surveyor General's

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the

FRAZER's

Kandyan Provinces-1862

of

Section of

(.Enlargement

A

John Fra ser's map of Ka ndyan ar\ea

"' I '

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a
TUNNEL

Site of Bora Wewa - Surveyor-Generals' Office

(SHOWING POSSIBLE AREA OF BORA WEWA , )

RAILWAY Ll NE, OLD MATALE ROAD, KATUGASTOTA ROAD

--=====.'-

John ha s e r's map o f Kan dyan area .

~~S 7J.s

-~

.

12

junction of Lady Anderson road and old Matale
Road, and continues along the western boundary

wate r , Borawewa (pe rh aps m uddy and turbid in
appearance) exis t ed not f ar from the tur n to
Mahaiyawa. ,,24

of the play ground to be joined by the
Bandagetenne Ala which comes down from the
Green ~allop-end of Udavattek'ale and the
northern boundary of the play ground , The two
together flow by the side of the Katugastota road
tunnel along, the foot h ills of Udavattek'ale
(Mahayaya paddy fields) below the railway line,

Lawrie ' s Gazetteer also makes a reference to
Bor9 W 'awa
t he afo re sa id Ka raga ll e N awa ratn e Ma h a
Ter unvahans e applied to Hapuwida Sa rananka ra Maha
Te runvahanse and obtained the Denipata ca ll ed
Nagaha-anga, which is included in the incumbency of
the Asg iri Vihare, which said grou nd he, having rooted
out the stumps and roots and aswedd umized, so that
there was above the lake Borawewa fiftee n pelas and
below Borawewa three pelas, this land of one amuna
and five lahas w i th its appurtenances, to Wit,
Koralalepitiya and one amuna, Delgaham ulahena and
Adanama luwaga w awatta, these hi gh and low lands
subject to the rajakar iya of once a ye ar brin gi ng and
offenng to Uda Vihara one pi ngo-Ioad, one ridi, th irty
r easures of rice and coconuts - the said la nds were
thus given by Ka ragalle Nawaratna Terunvahanse to th e
sa id Iddagoda Jayawardana Ban dara 'N ayake
Mudiyanse, hiS children and gra ndchildren, to be by
them possessed in paraweni w ithout dispute as long as
the vihara shall last. ,,25

crossing the Kandy-Katugastota road at the
Wattarantenna road junction to finally wind its
way to the Mahavaliganga .
This play ground most probably was the site of
the Bora wava, J, B, Siebel, too, located this
'muddy pool' in the vicinity
"The first street, whcih starts from the Lake or the
Bund near the Queen 's Hotel, is Trincoma lee Street.
wh ich extends from that poin t down to the tu rn to
Mahaiyawa It is the longest stree t in Kandy, and IS so
call ed beca use it leads to Trincomale, The Ka ndyans
called one portion of it. from the Bund as far as the tu rn
to the Town Hall , Nagaha Weed ia, from a large Nagaha
(or iron tree) whci h stood somewhere in the st reet. and
was remove d many years ago . The upper po rti on of
this st reet as far as the turn to Mahaiyawa , w as know n
as Borawa weediya - from th e fact that a poo l of

O
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Dolapihi ll a26 by error in his modified map of
John Davy's map sites the Bora W 'ava on the
Peraden iya road - this was the upper lake of
Bogambara ,

'\

REFERENCE TO NUMBER>

MAP of

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\ SEN K A D A GAL A

~""~'" Aller
John

t,

..,

Davy,

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AS G1RIY,\

I~ ~~~~;~~ ..R~I:pc;~l
SIe.eplng C~iln1bers
Ouler Kon h..a WAh :alkada
Molh .1l A r ~mud.ll .l (Tre3sury)
Hillis for f1aduway Sold lcry
N:JI'wm vragay (Queen's Bath)
Parag aha M.. luwa

17 Mo.1l

18 Drlowbfldge

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1J0laplhllla's Ma p of Senkad agala.
J B. Siebel, 'A dip Into the Story of Kandy', Journal of the D.B

u., Lec ture III,· (January

1955, p. 12.

25, A. C Lawrl", Gaze tteer of the Central Province of Ceylon, Vol. I. , COlomb~ ( 18961. p 72 .

P. B. Dolapih illa, In th e days of Sri Wickrama Raj!:Jsinghe, Colombo, 1960.

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26

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most rece'nt survey conducted by the Surveyor
General's Department (1982), shows the forest
30
reserve to be 207 acres, 01 rood, 7.1 perches

The forest boundaries of Udavattek'ale were
originally the Kandy lake, the whole length of
Trincomalee Street up to the Watapoluwa Ferry
on one side and on the other side, Malabar
Street. then down Lewella road to the Lewella
Ferry and on the fourth side, the Mahav·ali Ganga.
(see Henry Marshall's map of Kandy Town of
181 6). The forest extended over 1000 acres but
was reduced subsequently to 377 acres, 27 an d
at a later date found to be 254 acres , 2 roods,
28
4 .9 perches The Canadian Air Survey of 1961
gives the extent as 257 acres 29 The Sri Lanka
Wild Life Department in their publication of
1982, records the extent as 275 acres and the

Udavattek·ale is important for tWQ reasons.
Fir stly, because till the 19th century it had
remain ed a primeval forest by virtue of the fact
that it had been preserved in that state by the
Sinhalese kings as a Tahansi
sequestered
forest - from which all citizens were barred and
were not allowed even to gather firewood. The
advent of the British in the 19th century saw the
gradual destruction of th is forest. whcih altered
its orig inal character, but before the end of the
19th century It was declared a forest reserve
again, which enabled the preservation of what
little there wa s left of the original vegetation .

Kale -

Se c ondly, Wi c kra mab ahu, the popularly
ascribed founder of Senkadagala City, had bu ilt
hi s palace on a site carved out of Udavattekale
(hence the name Udawasal avatte) - which
became the nucleus of the present town of
Kandy.
As ment ioned earlier , the royal fore st of
Udavattek'ale was a Tahansi
or Forbidden
Forest. stri ctly protected by the Kandyan kings,
no one being allowed inside except perhaps the
queens who bathed in the pond and used the
forest as a pleasure garden. It was al so used for
defence by the kings of Kandy, who could
escape through the Impenetrable forest
whenever foreign invaders attacked the city .

Kale

The ecological value of this forest lay in the
fact that it was the watershed for the streams
that fed the N~Ha Devale paddy fields (which
were later submerged with water to form the
present Kandy lake), the Maligawa paddy field s
below the Lewella road and those In the
Dumbara valley . Streams of water flow down in
these very same areas even today.
Elephant. leopard and elk were found in the
forest in the past . There was also a temple in this
sequestered forest. dedic ated by a monarch to
meditating monks. All these facts were ignored
by British administrators after they se c ured

-J
27 Am,n wal lon Repor! . ForeSI Depanment. 18 9 3. p. 2

28 Uda, II ,ale F Ie No 11 1127 Pa n (4) Fore I Departm ent No . H 15 . Csiombo 20 February 1929 (The extenl of Ihe are a re served was 257 ac re s.
Tw o smaliporllon s. one con · Inrng 2 ac re s. 1 foo d and 9 .8 pe rches and th~ olher 25. 3 perches w ere nreserved In 19 24 and 193 4 respec l1ve ly
29 A Fares ! Inven lOry 01 Ceylon - A Canada - Cevlon Colomo Pian PrOJeCI 19 1 - Irlven ory of For esl Res erve s - Ap pend ix 5 . No . 172
.

J

30 Svl" Yl)/· Gef'eral·S ollic . Columbo. Extrac i from PPA- 49 8A

~

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- ... oC--

~~

I

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':"""+o~

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(present Arch ives Building, Kandy Branch) and the denudation of the forest .

Painting of J(andy - (1845 - 1850). unknown artist, showing Pala ce and Maligawa sited in Udavattek·ale , Lady Horton 's W9 1k , Girls '

o---+.

School

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19

possession of the Kandyan provinces . They
regarded this forest, as they d id other
sequestered forests and forests belonging to
villages, as mere "waste land" and so, land was
alienated from this forest for a variety of
purposes : for the Anglican Church for
establishing a school ; for cemeteries ; for coffee
31
32
plantations ; for town expansion , and for
ind ividuals who built houses on th eir property
and even had coffee gardens . One British
national , A. Philip, who had been allowed to buy
land at Udavaltek'a le, subsequently incurred the
displeasure of the authorities and had to do
battle with them to prevent a portion of his land
being wre sted from him by a loophole in the
law .*
The fore st which lent so much scenic beauty
and charm to the environs of Kandy town was
regarded by the administrators as a source of

3 1. e g. Uplands Esta te was at Udavatt eka:e . the remna ~ls of wh ich form

il

fuel wood supply for the Governor's res idence.
The Kale Korales , former forest guards, became
a relic of the past, to be encountered only in
archive documents, and the felling of trees went
on apace until the British administrators
themsel ves rea li zed the need for forest
conservation . Udavattek'ale then became one of
the f irst forests to be procla imed a Forest
Reserve .
Th is

summary

See below chapter VII

what

happened

to

Udavattek'ale is more or less what happened
generally to all other forests in Sri Lanka, whether
they be Tahansi

Kala

or the communal forests

belonging to villages . Udavattekale is therefore
symbolic . Th e whole spectrum of what
happened to fore st lands in general in this Island
is represented here .

housing esta te.

32 . Such as for se tt lements In Lewe lla. Arup pola. Mawllmada. Boowelikada . and no t forge tti ng Kandy town Itsel f

of

.

I

Adam's Peak

From Gordon Cumming's Two Happy Years in Ceylon

--~ -.--

.

. ...

--...-.-.

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MAP

KANDY TOWN

,-­

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Showing rivers, streams and water courses - Surveyor General's Office - 1983

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,

CHAPTER 1\

CHENA FORESTS AND

TAHANSI KALA

I

"All these Counties are divided each fr om other by
great Woods . Which none may fell, being preserved fo r
Fortifi cations . In mos t of them there are Watches kept
cons tantly, but in troublesome time in all."
- Robert Knox, An Historical Relation
of Ceylon, Colombo, 7966, p4

Of the different descript~ons of land that went
into comprising a village, the most important
land-component was the mud-land (mada bim)
on which paddy was cultivated .
The other important land component was the
highland (gada bim) wh ich included gardens
( vattu) and Hen (i ,e" land which mig~t be
cultivated by felling and burning the trees
growing thereon) , All these were regarded as
important appurtenances (aduttu devan of the
paddy fields ,3

Udavattek'a le, as has been seen , was a
Tahansi KiJ(e - sequestered forest - of the
Kandyan kings , During the time of the Sinhalese
kings, forests were classified into several
categories , and they formed an integral part of
the village ecology , To understand fully the term
Tahansi Kale, a brief survey is necessary of the
anc ient system of land ownership and land
usage in the tradit ional system of social
organ ization in Sri Lan ka,

Mada bim and Gada bim were complementary
to each other and provided the villager with all his
day-to-day necessities :

According to Codrington the Sinhalese word
'gama ', plural 'gam ' "normally signified a village
but the word is applied to an estate or even to
one field ,, 1 Ralph Pieris has described 'gama ' as
"a collection of landholdings aggregated in one
place and comprising a village in the usual
,,2
sense ,

"The paddy land and its appurtenances provi ded the
bas ic d o m es ti c requir em ents o f a fa mil y - rice,
cocon uts, vege tables, betel and areca nut. firew ood,
pasture, honey and game. Low land a ~d high land w ere
th e refore consi d ered as 'compl em en ta ry and
inseperable elements of a village holding, since they
made a household self sufficing in all but a few items
such as salt and clothing ,,4 .

1.
2.
3.
4.

H. W . Codrington, Ancien! Land Tenure and Revenue in Ceylon, Colombo, 1938, p. 1.
Ralph Pieris, Sinhalese Social Organization, Colombo, 195 6, p 39
Ibid, pA O
Ralph Piens, Sinha les e Socia l Organiza tion, Perade niya, 1956 , p 42

22
Apparently the practice of chema cultivation,
which was carried out on the gada bim. is of
great antiquity* and the Sinhalese people would
have practised this form of cultivation in the dry
zone plains for several centuries as well as in the
wet zone mountains, later on.
Codrington defined chena land (hena, plural
hEm) as :
"High land of which the Jungle is felled and burnt at
intervals of time, the ash is used for manure and hill
paddy, fine grain, etc. is grown. The cycle of cultivation
lasts for two or three years after which the land
relapses into jungle ,,5

What was most immediate to the needs of a
villager, then, besides the mud-land for paddy
cultivation, was the highland forests called hen
or chenas, situated within the limits of a village
and to which the inhabitants of the village had a
claim, for the purpose of cultivation and to make
use of for agricultural and domestic needs.
More often than not. a villager did not have a
claim to a specific piece of chena ground as
such, individually or collectively with others, but
he did have a right in common with the other
inhabitants of the village, who were shareholders
of the mud-land for paddy cultivation, to cultivate
the chena forest somewhere within the village
boundaries,6 and to cut wood in them for fence
sticks, fuel, building homesteads and to collect
honey and other jungle produce therefrom.
"The right of t-he village IS to practice chena
cultivation in a certain area; it is not a right on the part
of individuals to cultivate particular blocks. Nor is there
any claim on the part of the village as a whole to
ownership of the soil. ,,7

The fact that chenas were attachea to
each 'panguva' or share of the mud-land in a
village, is borne out by the entries made in
the Le_kammiti or Land Registers.
Sometimes, these chenas were not named
nor were their boundaries defined but their
extents were specified by a certain acreage :
The report or the Temple Lands
Commission in 1858 comments on the form
in which chenas and denivas appeared in the
Old Certificates. 8

"In the Hill country whenever an entire village is
registered, the entries in some cases are made as
follows. - say
Siambalagaha
Do
Do

Cumbure
Hene
Gedere Watte

£1 0 0

200
020

"Perhaps the chenas and gardens take the names of
the family, and not the fields, but the order of
succession is the same, and each field is followed by
the chena and garden belonging to it, until registry ~
the village is concluded. In other cases, the fields,
chenas, and gardens of a village are entered in its own
class, as
"Siambalagaha Cumbure
Kahatagaha Cumbure
Derende Cumbure ; and so on until the fields are all
recorded. Then comes.
"Siambalagaha
Kaharagaha
Darende

Hene
Hene
Hene & c. ; and then,

Siambalagaha
Kahatagaha
Darande

Cumbure Wafte
Cumburehiline--Watte
Cumbure Watte

"Perhaps, as before, the chenas and wattes, do not
take the names of the fields, but agreeing in number,
and occasionally the names in the same, numerical
place in each list being the same show that the chen as
and gardens were registered for each field. In many
cases, from the circ.umstances of one tenant holding
two or more fields, the number of gardens is smaller. In
parts of the low country, as at Dambool, where the
villagers cultivated tracts of chena in common, the
fields and gardens only are particularized, and at the
end ­
"Chenas
30
amunas"
"The above are the general forms in registration of
whole villages ,,9

The reason why the gada bim or highland
forests were so closely linked with the mud-land
and considered appurtenant to the paddy fields
seem clear enough. These forests were
necessary in the ordinary day to day lives of the
villagers for all the afore mentioned reasons. A
factor not mentioned so far, but which is very
important, nevertheless, is that often the
streams that irrigate the mud-lands have their

5. H. W Codrington. Ancient Land Tenure and Revenue In Cevlon. Colombo. 1938. p. 8.
6. S.L.NA 18/19 Vide Kadugannave Mohottale's statement in a letter dated 17.12.1840.
• Vide the Mahavamsa. vol. 1. ch. XXIII. translated by George Turnover. 1837. pp140 - 1
7. H. W Codrington. Ancient Land Tenure and Revenue in Cevlon. Colombo. 1938. p. 4.
8. The old Certificates referred to are the ones that were issued to holders of Ten1flle Lands for purpose of tax exemption. The Revenue Commissioners
compiled the old Temple Register In 1820-1 based on the Hee-Lecammiti of 1810 -11. In 1829 George Tumour cancelled the previous register and
began a new one.
.*
9. S(I Lanka Temple Land Commissioner Report of the Temple Land Commissioners. Colombo. 1858.

.

23

is

s

[

Paddy field and chena - by J . L. K, Van Dort , Ceylon, The Near Past.

sources in the highland forests , Why chfma
cultivation in the past was practised by a village
as a whole and on a systematic basis becomes
clear when this fact is taken into consideration, It
was a regulated form of cu ltivation*, under the
supervison of the village headman or gamara/a,
practised in an area for a period of only two years
Flnd then allowed to go back to forest ,
Regeneration of the area would have taken place
with similar species from the adjoining forest ,
There were also chenas which fell into an
intermediate posit ion between the claim to
cultivate somewhere with in the vil lage
boundaries and the claim to individual plots of
land . These were to be found for example in the
royal village of Dedigama In the Dutch Tombo*
of the Maritime Prov inces, the chenas and
deniyas are lumped together at the end of the
entries relating to a village . 10


10
11
12.
13

-7

Apparently the Sinhalese word ' Val' or Va/p ita '
also denotes 'hen ,11
"Chenas given by name appear In the Velvita Sa nnasa
of Saka 1727 (AD 1895) as goda valpita, and th e
same denomination occurs in Sabraga m uw a
Hi-Lekammitiya of 1808 under Saman Devale and In
the Disa Lekamm itiya under Atkalan Korale,,,'2

Also used for chena cultivation were the
forests called Ratmahara or Ratmasara ,
which means "the king 's great thicket" . It had
however a much wider application . 13 By the 17th
century parts of these crown forests were
reckoned paraveni or heritable . Codrington
quoting Carns says that this appellation was
used to cover all forests and wastes in genera l
which of right belonged to the crown , to whicr,
no private title could be shown. It never applied
to paddy fields; but sometimes these forests
were cleared and cultivated by unauthorized
appropriation . Under the Dutch, in the maritime
provinces, parts of these crown fores ts were

See H, W , Codrington , Ancient Land Tenure and Revenue in Ceylon, Colombo , 1938, p,3 ,
Tombo - Land Register
H, W , Codrington , Ancient Land Tenure and Revenue In Ceylon. Colombo, 1938, p 4-5 ,
H, W , Codrington , in Epigraphia Zeylanica. Vol. III. No, 24, p 238.
H, W , Codnngton, Ancient Land Tenure and Revenue m Ceylon, Colombo, 1938. p ,8

Ibid,

24

sufferance only". Rather, it appears that villagers
had a right communally to forests other than
those that were strictly interdicted or those
declared to be crown land.

granted to individuals to cultivate on the
condition that one tenth of the produce would be
paid in taxes . 14
Another name for chena land was Kanu-is
paraveni..Kanu means "Stumps", his, "empty".
"cleared of". Originally they were forests of large
extent. cut down and cleared and sown once
every seven or eight years . They were chenas
but the name seems to have been confined to
certain areas. such as Chilaw and Matara . 15

Rationalizing the whole classification of chena
forests. Ralph Pieris states that :
" hen land was not identified by any standard criteria

but rather by local practice. Hen was forest which

people were at liberty to clear for cultivation." 17

Rajasantaka forests were crown forests.

In a letter. dated 24 June 1837. sent to the
Colonial Secretary of the Ceylon Government.
George Turnour. Government Agent. Central
Province. gave his interpretation of what a chena
forest was :

"Th e classification of certain forests as "crown"

(Rajasantaka) clearly implies that others were regarded

as falling outside this category. ' The de facto state of

affairs in the remoter provinces was that forests were

felled for hen cultivation even though the de jure

position may have been that trees could be felled , but

hen cultivation disallowed without permission . In Uva .

crown forest could scarcely be distinguished from what

had come to be regarded as priva te property. In

Nuvarakalaviya. hen cultivation which was common

even in the seventeenth century, had become an

ij}tegral part of the village economy and the forest land

within the limits of a village was cultivated exclusively

by the shareholders in the village tank and field . But

cattle of adjoining villages and tavalams were permitted

to graze therein "much the same as they would be

allowed to graze on a common in England." In Seven

Korales (Demala Hatpattu). various types of forests are

mentioned in connection with hen cultivation, an

appropriate crop being selected according to the

nature of the forest : navadili hen were relatively young

forests felled for certain fine grains. particularly

kurakkan, while mukuli:ma hen was ground covered by

high forest and suitable for vegetable crops su ch as

chillies and hiyara hen was a type of forest land

selected for meneri and kurakkan. In Kagalla District,

however, the popular notion was that high forest

(mukulana) was IpSO facto crown property and cou ld

not be felled for hen purposes ." 18

"Si r,
With reference to past correspondence I have the
honour to enclose an application made by Colonel
Macpherson to pur chase some land situated at
Attebagey near the N'Eliya road, as well as a copy of
information taken by me regarding the claim preferred
by certain Dooriales of Attebagey to that land.
"Having already very fully explained myself on this
subJect, I shall now only observe that under the native
government no value or importance was in general
attached to waste or forest lands . In the rare instances
in which these grounds were reserved by the king , their
limits were defined and they were ca lled , owing to that
reservation, "Tahanam Kaille" or "Sequestered Forest",
all other waste lands were considered to be common
or appurtenances of the nearest village . The inhabitants
of those villages were allowed to possess, to the
exclusion of the inhabitants of other villages, the right
to all the game as well as the privileges of clearing
parcels of the ground for chena cultivation within those
limits. and as they had ce rtain taxes to pay and
personal services to render to the king, without
reference to the extent of the land cultivated, no extra
ta xes were paid for th ese wa ste lands occaSionally
cultivated as chen a - but these privileges rested on
sufferance only excepti ng in special cases where
specific grants were made by the king in which the
boundaries were usually defined .
" 16

Again, Ralph Pieris states :
"The overlordship of the monarch and his state
officials was scarcely noticed in the provinces remote
from the capital In the Nuvara-kalaviya and
Tamankaduva di stric ts, for instance, there were no
royal villages, only a few ket or royal fields (cf Post,
Part VII) . Nearer the seat of _government the king wa s
proprietor of vast estates . Rajasantaka, or crown land,
comprised the interdicted royal forests (Tahan si Kale)
su ch as Hantana and Udavattek'ele and the royal
villages (gabadagam, bisogam)" 19

This is a categorical admission that all waste
lands other than sequestered forests were
considered appurtenances of village paddy fields
but it is not clear how Turnour came to the
cOQclusion that the privilege of cultivating
chenas and making use of them "rested on

14 . See also (SDT) Statem ent of different Tenure s of Lands. 1818 ; and 8ertolacci . p. 238 and H. W . Codrington. Anclenr Land Tenure and Revenue in
Ceylon. Colombo 1938. p 8 .
15. H W Cod rington . AnCient Land Tenure and Revenue in Ceylon. Colombo 193 8 p 8.
16. S.L.NA 6/ 134 5 George Turnour. Government Agent. Central Province, to Colonial Secretary, 24 June 1837
17 . Ralph Pleris. Smhalese SOCial Orgamzanon, COlombo 1956 . P 48
18 . lbid .p . 47
19. Ralph P,eris, op . cit. p . 44.

,.
J

...

25
According to D'Oyly,

rs

3n

5e

ria

1a

;h

"

,d
Df

re

re

lJ t

a,

at
In

"Within Mahanuwara itself the re was no doubt that
the forest was strictly interd icted as a royal preserve ­
the ditch marking the limits of the city went round the
king's great thicket, Udawattekale, and people were
not allowed even to gather fire wood and withes in
it. " 20

And Ralph Pieris states:
"The forest of Hantana , on the opposite side of the
lake (the Peradeniya range of thiS extensive forest is
now propert y of the University of Ceylon) though
outside the limits of the city was likew ise interdicted,
but people were permitted to gather firewood within It.
Clearly certain forests were considered crown property
(rajasantaka) but the limitation on use by private
citizens va ried . There were prohibited forests (Tahansi
Kales) in many parts of the Kingdom and they were
protected for va rious reasons , The forest at the present
Kadugannawa Pass and belt along the highland fro ntier
we re reserved for military reasons . Elsewhere the
fell ing of trees was prohibited with the object of
preserving useful timbers but people did sometimes
ignore these Interdicts." 21

Government Agent, Kandy, to the Colonial
Secretary dated 1 September 1837 states
"Sir,
I have the honour to enclose an application in the
usual form from Mr Hudson, one of the overseers of
Messrs. Ackland and Boyds Plantation at Kunda sale
and I annex a copy or tne report made by the
Rattemahatmaya as being reqUired to ascertain
whether the land applied for was at the disposal of
government.
From the CIrcumstances of the land being stil l a
primeval fo res t and trom the admission that it was kept
In that state under the native government In order that
charcoal migr.,t be prepared mere for the royal armoury,
I entertain very little doubt , though opposed to the
opinion of the Rattemahatmaya 9f the ground being the
property of the crown ...... " 5

An extract from George T urnour' s.Dlary dated
4 January 1833 states' :

)n

In

Id
Ily

ut

,d

)e

m

re
In

Ie

Ig

ly

)y

is

.d

There are numerous references to Forbidden
Forests in records left by British administrators of
the past, A letter dated 30 July 1821 from the
Board of Commissioners, Kandy, informs the
Agent of Government. Saffragama, in reply to his
letter of the 18th that:
"In almost every province of the Kandyan country
there were prohibited Jungle s whe re no chenas were
allowed to be cut In the king' s time - that these jungles
are now held to be the royal forests w here no one
ouCht to cut chenas w ithout special permission from a
pr()per authority . .... " 22

Another letter dated 14 December 1838 sent
by the ASSistant Government Agent at Badulla to
the Government Agent. Kandy, reports

"Madugalle late GaJa nayake Nilame recounts that a
few years befo re the king was deposed I was Ratty Rala
of the province of Dumbara whe re close to the banks of
the Mah aweliganga river left to

that I can positively

state that all the ground adjacent to the Roya l Garden,
and extending all the way to Angoorooo weia w hich is
at least 10 m iles from the Palace was royal land . Fo r
th e protection of the Royal Fores t, headmen named
Kelley Korales have been appointeri from time
immemorial. Within that forest no private indivldua! h:'1 d
any ri ght. The people living In theneighbourhood were
not permitted even to gather the Mora fru it f;om the
trees hat grew there - several of these Kelley Korales

wh o e badge

f office was an axe, are stili liVing d 'ld

could pOint out t e boundaries of the original forest. ,,26
"A ngoor oowella Mohottale states ' "Welahide
Mookalana - I live about 1/ 2 mile from it .
I know it
is government property - and prohibited from being
cult ivated under the forme r government, if in cutting
til e neig hbouring cheynas any tree w ere injured by the
burn in g a fine of five Ridd ies was levied on the indiVidual
offend ing ...... 23

A royal forest Dambakaduva in the Three
Korales is mentioned In 1821. 24 There were
royal forests in Kundasale too. A letter from the

These Kale Korales were responsible for
seeing that no trespa'ssers entered the forest or
did any damage wi'thln. These wereiorest
officers of yore and were similar to the "Beat
Forest Officers" and "Range Forest Officers" of
p~esent times. Game and Forest Guards even·
today carry an axe when walking in the Jungles .

20. D'Oyly 1835, P 65.
21. Ralph P,eros, op. cit. p 46
22 . S.L.NA 21/120 Board CommisSioners , Kandy, to Agent of Government , Saffragama , 30 July 1821.
23 . S.L.NA 18/2757 Assistant Government Agen t, Badulla, to Government Agent, Ka ndy, 14 De cember 183B.
24. H.W. Cod rington, Ancien t Land Tenure and Revenue in Ceylon, Colombo, 1938, p. 3.
25. S.L.N A. 6/1474 Government Agent, Kandy , to Colon ial Secretary, 1 September 1837
26. S.L.NA 18/19 George Turnour 4 January 1833

26
The KCile Korales may have been law
enforcement off icers as well. The Badulla
Inscription dated in the second year of Siri Sang
Bo Uda, who is identified with Udaya III (942
A.D) 27 is rendered by S. Paranavitana as :
"The eight of the vi llage and the eight of the
forest.
.who had received injury
. the eight
who .
.and the pirivahanna shou ld sit in session and
make investigation . For the crime .
.should not be
levled .,,28

As to the word Pirivahanna which occurs in line
D 36 Paranavitana states :
.SKK Plrivahanna, see Jetavanarama sanskrit
inscription or pirivahanuva occurs in the Mihintale tablet
and con tinued with Kabili in the Mihintale records of
Sena II (A I. C. No 114) . It has been translated as
"warden ". The exact duties of this functionary cannot
be determined with the materials avai lable .,,29

Paranavitana also states :
"The other committees such as 'garden committee' ,
etc, consisted of six members each . Further down in
our inscription, there is the mention of 'Adaviya
Atadena ' which may be translated as (the committee)
of eight in cha rge of the forests ... 30

Codrington states:
3
"In the Badulla pillar inscription 'we read of the gam
adaviya atadena, "the eight village committee-men and
the eigh t forest committee-men" as rendered by Mr .
Paranavitana or with equal probab ility "the eight of the
cu lti vated land the waste " , in the great vill age
Hopitigama No lodgings were to be taken in the house
of the eight in this village (lines 36-38) So far as I know
this is the only clear reference to the administration of
village affairs by committees such as are found in South
India . For Councils of five and of eight , compare the
king 's great council of five and the great assembly of
eight in the Tamil classical dictionary Tivakaram. The
Kandyan gam-sabe and rata sabhava were courts
rather than adm inistrative bodies .,, 32

A letter dated 29 April 1825 from the Agent of
Government at Fort MacDowall to the Board of
Commissioners, Kandy, states with regard to the
illegal felling of timber in govEJrnment forests:
.1 have to assure you that the real respectable
headme n of the place previous to my passing the
sentence, have informed me that the forest belonged

to governme nt which appeared to have been cut as
stated on the Cnminal Diary for March, and were
prohibited in the King's times , and never before cut
down
I fear it has too often occured that land
belonging to government has been cleared of fin e
timber in this and other provinces without ever coming
,,33
to the knowledge of the Agent.

But. it is a grim irony that the rights of the
crown over these forbidden forests which the
British Administrators were so eagerly upholding,
presumably for the preservation of good timber,
were sold with the greatest possible speed for 5
shillings per acre to British planters in a matter of
a few decades. As a result thousands of acres of
forest belonging to the crown and otherwise,
disappeared from the face of the earth in the
name of British Enterprise. Some of the hills
around Kandy, which were covered with former
royal forests like Hantana, where tea was grown
and subsequently abandoned, are now the
preserves of mana grass and their barren
summits can be seen rising above the town like
ghosts .
Returning to the subject of Tahansi Kala, it has
been mentioned that they were to be found all
over the Kandyan provinces and that they were
protected for various reasons, one being for
defence, like the forests near the Kadugannawa
pass and belt along the highland front ier. Knox
mentions this too :
"All these Counties are divided each from other by
great Woods . Which none may fell, being preserved for
Fortifications . In most of them there are Watches kept
constantly, but in troublesome times in all,,34

Writing in 1623, Queyros also mentions this
'fact about the forest affordiFlg protection to the
king in times of war :
"And this resolution was enough to make the King
abandon the fortifications and the City and betake
himself to the woods, but as they were so many, they
could not do it so safely as not to leave some more
heads behind ." 35

27 .
28
,29 .
30
31 .
32.
33
34

S. Paranavi tana in Epigraphia Zeylanica VolIll, No . 4, p.78
Ibid, lines 32 - 9
S. Paranavitana in EplgraphiaZeylanica, VolIlI, No . 4, p.99
Ibid, p99
Ibid 0 Lme 33
H W. Codrington, opcltp .3 .
SL. N.A . 21/13 Agent of Government , Fort Ma c Dowal to Board of CommiSSioner . 29th April 1825 .
Robert Knox, An Hisrorical Relation of Ceylon. Colombo, 1966 , p.4

35

Fa ther Fernao de Queyroz translated by Fr . S G. Perera, Temporal and } Splfltual Conquest of Ceylon, Book 3, Colombo . A. C Richards, ACling
Government Printer . 19 30 p 614 .

-~

...

.

27

And again

as

ire
:ut
nd
ne
ng

tender the approaches to the Capital as Inaccessible as
possible, and to this end the for ests we re stric tly
preserved so as to render the commun ication between
different districts both 01ffi cult and razardou s. When
the British took possession of the Kandyan Provinces
the first object to which the authorities turned their
attention was the imp rovem ero! of
e me ans of
communication by opening up the country. It was with
this View that Sir John O'Oyly issued a general permit
for the clearing of the forests w hich bordered the main
roads and afforded cover to elephants and other
animals." 40

.. for this reason they rebelled against the King
and for a long time they made him a Satyr of the
Woods, till ar last, when those w ho rebelled against
him and the principal one, Antonio Barreto were killed
by the Portugu ese, the King returned to the
City" 36

Another reference is

e

and all those who w ent to Candea
afterwards went there to burn hut s rather than edifices,
and as the King sustained little los s thereby but had
great security In their Rock, which could be conquered
only· by a slow sie ge or by treachery, they kept their
treasure there and let the city burn ." 37

e

J,

"

5
If
)f

And also

I,

"They entered the Palace to kill him; and without
doubt they would have done so if the King from
previous Information had not retired with his w ife and
children to the forests.
" 38

e
S

Ir

n

It is said that arecanuts growing wild in the
Four and Three Korales and Sabaragamuwa, as
well as elephants 41 were the king's monopoly.
Obviously, forests Were necessary for elephants
to breed in and mUltiply. The Niti-Nighanduva
states that­

According to Sir James Emerson Tennent

e
n

"The dense forest s are kept impenetrable by annual
plantation of a particular species of palm (Caryata
horrida) w hich IS densely covered with thorn s; th ese
wonde rful climbing plants were covered with kno ts
from the pOints of w hich protrude a spike as strong and
sharp as the beak of a hawk . A close watch was kept by
the king's men and no one could pass th rough w ithout
the permission of the guards who, when in doubt,
acted on the orders of the chieftains ." 39

e

Writing on 3 May, 1859 to the Colonial
Secretary on the subject of Chena lands, P. W.
Braybrooke, Government Agent Kandy, stated:
"The cultivation of chena also in the mountainous
districts was, If not prohib ited, certainly discouraged,
as it was the policy of those suspicious tyrants to

"All elephants were considered the property of the
crown and they were employed In the king's service fo r
his recreation at public festivals. Hence their slaughter
and especially of tusked and large elephant s was
reckoned amongst the most heinous offence s,·' 42

Tahansi Kalii then, were forests protected for
several reasons such as for defence, for the
preservation of good timber 43 and in certain
cases also for preparing char~oal for the king's
armourt4 and for the breeding of elephants In
the following chapter the possibility of there
having been ecological considerations for the
establishing of Tahansai Kala is examined.

36.lbid,p . 615 .
37

Ibid.p616

38 Ibid,. p. 614.
39 . James Emerson Tennent. Chris rianirv in Ceylon, (London, 1850]' pp 362-4.
40 . S.LN A

18/2490. P W Braybrooke, G<;>vernment Agent. Kandy, to Colomal Secretary, 3 May , 1859.

41 . Lorna Srimath ie DewaraJa, "Revenue of the King of Kandy" . JRAS (CB), Vol. XVI (New Series). 1972. p 21
42. Nltl-Nig handuwa - A vocabulary of the law as it eXisted in the last days of the Kandyan Kingdom· translaled by (I) CJ R Le Mesurrer and (IIi T 8
Panabokke, Colombo, W illiam Henry Herbert. Government Prim er 1880, p xxxi
43 . Ralph Pieris, op cit . p. 46 .
44 . S.L.NA 6/1474

.

.

--

-...-­

·~~ _ -- -. - -::=- ~~~i~~_ ~~g:~~~~~~~_~
' ·
:.:§~§l~
_ _ ~~~~~~~;:-7
~---:- -:-:---?-- ...

~~~_=-_::=;~~

- :--=-- ..

::-:-- -­,-:,=--=-=:..;._

."

PJ
IT

0

9
"I
9

.

a
s
tl
f(
tl
f(

- <

Falls on the DiyallJma Ova
From John Ferguson 's , Cevlon in 1903

CHAPTER III

TAHANSI KALA AND ECOLOGY

"A Wood made sacred by the religious mysteries of
our fathers and by ancient awe."
- Tacitus, German/a, Sec. 39

Down through the ages the atmosphere of a
primeval forest has evoked a certain feeling in
man, a feeling bordering on a mystic experience
concerning the mystery of nature. Poets have
given utterance to this feeling in words such as
"Even the Gods dwelt in the Woods." 1 and "The
groves were God's first Temples." 2
One can understand that feeling of reverence
and awe that wholesome respect for the
sacredness of the incomprehensible complexity
that is a primeval' forest and the taboos that
feeling would impose.
R. L. Brohier has described very imaginatively
the sense of mystery pervading a primeval
forest - the Sinharaja Adaviya :
"There is the constant sound of running water, the
murmur of trickling rills, or the roar of larger streams
dashing over rock barriers. Only at dawn and at dusk,
when the diurnal and nocturnal creatures of this land of
shades go in search of food, is there any sound of living

1 Virgin Ecologues, No. II, L 60
2. William Cullen Bryant, (17S4-1878). -A Forest Hymn"
3. R. L. Brohier. Seeing Ceylon. Colombo. 1965. pp. 136-7.

things At other times, all life is silent but for the
incessant tune of the clcades. or other
insects - millionfold .
"With such a setting of wierdness. IS there any cause
to wonder that this forest has inspired a rule of fear?
No villager who is native to the few remote hamlets
scattered over its fringe will enter it by choice.
"Under the implacable law of the wild, the killing of
animals and the eating of flesh within the bounds of
Sinha Raja is taboo.
"But in this measure, all forests are evil. !n the
complex and majesty of their unique community of
plant and animal life one is made to feel simple; and it
is perhaps that simplicity which makes one afraid of the
gloom of the forest and its silence, of the sudden rustle
of feet. of the unseen eye of reptile or beast which is
slinking and peering; and the occasional shrill call or
wild shriek of a bird or animal which has been le1 loose
in carnival or carnage." 3

Perhaps it was this feeling of awe and respect
and the intuitive wisdom of the ancients that first
prompted the word ",Tahanam Kale" - forbidden
forest.
An early reference to Forest Reserves or
forests under State Protection comes in the:
comprehensive Indian treatise on law - the

30

Arthasastra of Kautilya of the 4th century B.C.
The reference in t:lis work is made with regard to
the general regulations concerning birds, beasts
and fishes.
"When a person entraps, kills or molests deer , bison ,
birds and fish whic h li ve in forests under State
Protection (abhayaranya), he shall be punished with the
highest ame rcement, (ie a fine of 500 to 1000
panas) . ,,4

The work contains more regulations with
regard to cattle, stray cattle and other animals as
well, and sets down punishments to be meted
out to individuals violating those regulations.
There are also references in the past to certain
Royal Pleasure Gardens In Buddhist literature
which were offered by kings to the Buddha or the
Sangha. For example, the Veluvana Pleasure
Gardens was offered to the Buddha by King
Bimbisara and the Mahameghavana Park in
Anuradhapura to Thera Mahinda by King
DevElnampiyatissa (250-210 BC.).
The origin and dedication
Mahameghavana is noteworthy.

of

sister, who was a nun, be sent so that she could
ordain Princess Anula and her followers .and to
bring with her "the right branch of the bo-tree of
the Lord of Saints itself the monarch of the
forest" .6
The king assented to this piece of advice and
dedicated the Mahamegha Pleasure Garden to
the priesthood. 7
It can be safely assumed that those royal parks
and forests offered to the Buddha or the Sangha
were protected forests where beasts, birds, fish,
insects and reptiles could live secure from man's
destructive powers.
"The Ba sawakkulam Pillar inscription of the 19th year
of a king styled Sirisangabodi (Sena II , AC. 853-887).
for example furnishes us with the evidence to the effect
that. in the ninth century, fishing in that reservoir ,
situated by the side of the Mahawihara, was prohibited,
for it is laid down in the edict that "in the event of
fishing in the tank going unpunished, the officer in
charge of the capital city (Nuvaraladda) had to pay to
the king a fine of ten hunas of gold"a

the

" At this (Pandukabhaya's) demise, his and
Suvannapali's son, known by the title of Mutasiva,
succeeded to the sovereignty, which was in a state of
perfect peace.
"The King formed the delightful royal garden
Mahamegha, which was provided, in the utmost
perfection, with every requisite, and adorned with fruit
and flower-bearing trees of every description .
At the time this royal garden was being laid out. an
unseasonable heavy fall of rain (Mahamegha) took
place. From this circumstance the garden was called
Mahamegha ." 5

Mutasiva's second son was Devimampiyatissa
(Tissa-the-delight-of-the devas) who was the
reigning mon'arch at the time of the arrival of
Arahath Mahinda. The King was advised by
Thera Mahinda to write to Emperor Asoka, the
Thera's father, requesting that the Thera's

It can be seen therefore, that there had been a
tradition in India and Sri Lanka, coming down
from the distant past, of creating prohibited
forests (abhayaranya) and sanctuaries, some of
which were dedicated to the Buddha or the
Sangha, where the taking of life was interdicted,

C

E

Not only in interdicted forests but in general
the hunting and killing of animals was looked
down upon. The Niti-Nighanduva states that the
hunting and killing of animals "was declared
unlawful in the upper districts during the last fiftV
or sixty years of the Kandyan Kingdom on the
ground that it was contrary to the principles df
the Buddhist religion ."
King Kirti Sri Rajasinghe refused to accept
venison brought to him by the Vaddhas, for
religious reasons, 9

4. John M. Senewatne, "Kindness to Birds and Beasts in Ancient India and Ceylon" , Ceylon Antiquary and Literary Register, Vol. VI part I, 1920-1, p. 9,
5 . Mahavamsa Ch. XI. translated by L. C Wijesmghe , Colombo, C. J. A Skeen, Government Printer , 1BB9 , p . 44.

6 . Ibid Ch. XV, p . 55
7 . Ibid.
B. Dr S. Paranavitana , Citing from the Samanthapasadika, quoted by R. L. Brohier in Food and the People, Colombo, 1975, p. 21 .
9. Lorna Srimathie Dewaraja, -Revenue of the King of Kandy" , Journal of tM Royal ASIatic Society', (Ceylon) , Vol. XVI New Series, 1972, p . 22.

31

luld
I to
3 of
the

and
to

1

3rks
'gha
:ish,
m's

year
8 7).
!fect
voir,
ited,
1t of
er in
ly to

en a
own
lited
e of
the
Ited.

the
red
fifty
the
of

Very early in the history of the Kandyan
Kingdom monasteries had been established in
Hantana and Udavattek"i3le and offered to the
10
Sangha .
These were sequestered royal
forests - Tahansi
Kala which
were
established by Sinhalese monarchs of the past.
Before going into a further discussion on why
certain forests were interdicted during the time
of the Sinhalese kings, we need to discuss what
exactly is meant by the word 'forest'.
The present concept of a forest is that of
OOa plant society of arborescent and plant species
which has both an economic and biological
significance Its economic significance lies in the
production of timber and other forest products. Its
biological significance lies in its effect upon climate,
streamflow, protection of the soil from erosion, and in
the mutual relationship tha t exists between the trees in
the forest ." I I

Apart from the religious motive which
prompted the offering to the Sangha of parks
and forests which eventually became
sanctuaries, where the taking of life would have
been prohibited, the previous chapters have
shown so far only economic and military reasons
for interdicting forests . The arguments that
follow will bring to light evidence of biological
considerations
having
influenced
the
establishment of Tahansi Kala.
In his "Examination of Codrington's work on
Ancient Land Tenure and Revenue in Ceylon",
Julius de Lanerolle says :
"We must remember first of all that except in the
case of especially interdicted forest such as
Udavattekale, private persons could collect firewood,
fence-sticks, honey etc., and take timber for their
buildings, from the forest. without a special grant from
the king . There was in those days no private trade in
timber or any other kind of forest produce, and
therefore people could possibly derive no further
benefit from the forest. Moreover, even cultivated land,
when abandoned , reverted automatically to the crown .

pt
for

9,

Therefore, there would be no point both in granting
forest to the subjects, by the king, and in holding it by
subjects, as property. On the other hand, wherever
there was agriculture there was the necessity for state
control of forests, owing to its direct bearing upon
irrigation , * and the king needed a large supply of
timber for public buildings, bridges etc. For these
reasons, as well as for breeding elephants, for
pre serving game, and for such other purposes, t he
Sinhalese king s mamtained a regular Forest
Department There IS documentary evidence and
evidence from literature that there were fore st guards
appointed by kings. There was also a Timber
warehouse in Kandy for storing government timber that
was transported there from interior districts. The
people of the Artifi ce rs' Department (Kottalbadda)
worked in the Central warehouse in Kandy . In every
district there was at least one simi lar warehouse for
storing government timber and Hevavasam people
were regularly employed in the task of felling trees and
transporting timber" All these special arrangements
clearly show that in the Sinhalese Kingdom there was a
b
royal monopoly in timber Side by side with the
exercise of such royal monopolies in forest produce,
there co uld have been no po ssibi lity of private
ownership to forests in ancient Ceylon, as indeed there
is also no evidence whatsoever to prove that any such
ownership ever existed .,,' 2

It is not the present concern of this book to
enter into the debate that took place between
Codrington and Julius de Lanerolle over the
former's work on ancient land tenure and
revenue in Ceylon. The passage has been
quoted to illustrate the possible reasun for
establishing Tahansi Kala. However, one fact
must be emphasised, which de LaneroHe
mentions, which many others writing on this
subject of land usage seem to have
overlooked - the need for "State control of
forests owing to its direct bearing upon
irrigation . "* This can hardly be emphasised
enough.
In the previous chapter reference was made to
the fact that forests were integral to the Village
ecology. Goda-bim (highland forests) were
appurtenances of the paddy lands. The truth of
the matter is that very often the mud land for
paddy cultivation would not be of much' use

10. Asglrl Upatha, translated from the .Sinhala by P. L Praematlilake, Professor of Archaeology. University of Peradeniya from the original ala in the
possession of Walter Wimalachandra Esq.
11 . Encyclopaedia Britannica, vol. IX. 1954. p.504

• EmphaSIS added

a O'Oyly pp B-1 2

b cf P. E. Pieris JCBRAS. XXI. 61. p 102

12 . Julius de Lanerolle "An Examination of Mr. Codrington's Work on Anc ient Land Tenure and Revenue in Ceylon- . JRA S. CB Vol XXXIV. no. 19. 1938,
p.1B .

-8

32

without the highland forests from whence the
streams of water flow to the paddy fields. This
would be only too obvious to a farmer.
"Since rice produced by the . "wet"· method was the
mainstay of a purely agrarian economy, irrigation was a
matter of cardinal importance in the lives of the people.
In the wet zone highlands the villagers depended on
rainfall and streams or water courses known as ala
were diverted to their fields.
,,13

Water being of such vital importance to an
agricultural community like the Sinhalese, they
would hardly have neglected to preserve
forests - important sources of water supplies.
There is ample evidence to show that the
ancients well understood the important
relationship between forests and water . The
letter written by George Turnour, Government
Agent. Kandy, in 1837 to the Colonial Secretary
bears out this fact:
"S ir ,
I have the honour to enclose application in the usual
form fr om Mr. Hudson , one of the overseers of Messrs .
Ackland and Boyd's plantation at Kunda sale and I
annex a copy of the report made by the
Rattamahatmaya as being acquired to ascertain
whether the land applied for was at the disposal of
government.

The following extract from a letter dispatched
by the Agent of Government at Fort MacDowell
dated 29th April 1825 to the Board of
Commissioners at Kandy demonstrates the
same concern of the peasantry at the
destruction of forests and the consequent
disruption that must follow of their water
supply:
"Two persons residing in the Royal village of Bowatte
claimed recently part of a government forest brought to
my notice thr o' the Webadda lekam of this Korle and It
appears the paddy growing in the government fields
there, has been much injured in consequence of the
large timber being cut down by them which afforded a
glade to the streams of water wh ich irrigates the
fields . . . ,,/5

Then again we have a report on this same
topic sent by George Turnour, Government
Agent, to the Colonial Secretary in 1837.
One may assume that this report relates to an
application made by Colonel John Fraser for the
purchase of a piece of property situated near
Kundasale, which is referred to in a letter
(No. 3012) dated 1 September, 1837, sent by
George Turnour to the Colonial Secretary, and
which appears in the page immediately
preceding this report in the same volume.
The report stated :

From the circumstances of this land being sti ll a
primeval forest and from the admission that it was kept
in that state under the native government In order that
charcoal might be p repared there for the Royal
Armoury, I entertain very little doubt. though opposed
to the opinion of the Rattamahatmaya of the ground
being the property of the crown - nor do I consider the
other circumstances quoted in regard to spnngs and
wa ter courses, by which paddy fields are irrigated being
situated within that forest to be sufficient ground to
preven t government disposing of land so
circumstanced, provided the non-disturbance of the
water courses be stipulated for in the conditions of
sale.
,,14*

This letter clearly demonstrates the concern of
the peasants and the Ratemahatmaya at the
prospect of this forest being alienated from the
village ecology on account of the "springs and
water courses, by which paddy fields are
irrigated being situated within that forest."

"-To the order I received for ascertaining whether
the grounds Delgahalande of At.tagalle in Udagampaha
of Dumbare are Government or private property I made
enquiries when I came to know that they are the
Chenas belonging to the people of Attagalle and that
these people exhibited several Talpots for severa l of
these Chenas. On being questioned why chenas were
not cultivated for so long a time, it is proved by
witnesses that formerly a certain quantity of charcoal
was furnished to the Andagey on account of the above '
chenas in con sequ ence and as the wa ter course
running through them and from which many paddy
fields were irrigated would be dried up, if the chenas
were cultivated, they were left without culture* *­
From these circumstances it is ascertained that the
chenas in question are the property of private
individuals.,,16

Tahansi KiiiJ asserted the royal monopoly over
timber and elephants; also that of keeping the
forest intact for defence and military purposes

13. Ralph Pieris, op .ci t. pp.40-1
14. S.L.N .A 6/1474 . George Tumour. Government Agent, Kandy. to Colonial Secretary. 1 September 1837 .
• Empha sis added.
15 . S L.NA 21/ 13 Agent of Government at Fort MacDowall to Board of Commissioners. 29 April 1825
16. S.L.N A 0/1474 George Tumour to Colonial Secretary, 1 Septe mber. 18'37 .
EmphaSIS added .

-

-

-~

:hed
w ell
I of
the
the
l ent
ater

vatte
Ih t to
In d it
fields
( the
'led a
i the
~ me

l ent

) an
the
l ear
tt er
t by
and
tely

" her
oaha

33
which were royal duties. Water preservation too
was an important duty of the King.
We know that a function of Sinhalese kingship
was the bringing down of rain in due season. 17.
Along with the introduction of Buddhism into
the Island the objects believed to possess the
power of bringing down rain were brought into
the country, the first of these being the branch of
the sacred Bodhi tr'ee. 18.
It is significant that the park which was
dedicated
to
Thera
Mahinda
by
Devanampiyatissa
bore
the
name
"Mahameghavana" - the great rain cloud forest.
The circumstance which gave it that name is also
significant, 19 and the fact that the right branch of
the sacred 80 tree was planted in that forest.
These facts show that the connection between
rain and forests would not have been unknown
to the ancients.
The theory that Sinhalese kingship was linked
with the function of rain-making is acceptable
because of the importance of rain water to a
civilization that was based on agriculture.
The well known Buddhist stanza of blessing
pronounced usually at the end of a recitation of
Pirith has implicit in it these ideas of agriculture,
rain, righteousness and kingship found in our
culture:
"Devo Vassathu Kalene, Sassa Sampaththi hethucha
Pitho Bhavatu Lokocha - Raja bhavatu Dhammiko"

~ade

the
that
al of
IVers
~ by
rcoal
bove
lurse
1i/ddy

enas

•*

I the
ate

:)Ver
the
ses

"May the rains fall in due season, may there be a rich
harvest,
May the wo!ld prosper; may the ruler be righteous."

These ideas of kingship held by the Sinhalese
people have come down through the ages to us
in the present day.
From the 4th century B.C. to the 12th century
A.D., the great kings of the Sinhalese, with
exceptional organizational ability and with the
genius of engineers, established a hydraulic
civilization in the north western dry zone of the
island which reached its zenith in the ancient
kingdoms of Anuradhapura and Polonnaruva.

The ancient Sinhalese engineers, the inventors
of the 'valve pit (Bisokotuva)'20 had already
brought their technical skills to a pitch of mastery
by the 3rd century B.C., and were able to build
larger and larger reservoirs to conserve water for
irrigation purposes, but water evaporation, the
caprice of monsoons and the undependable
water supplies of dry zone rivers, turned their
attention to the more dependable source of
water supplies from perennial rivers that had
their origins in the wet zone mountains south of
Anuradhapura.
To a great extent, therefore, the ancient
kingdoms of Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa
flourished because a plentiful supply of water
was assured for the intricate and complex
system of irrigational works which fed the arid
plains. Those supplies of water came, for the
most part, from the well-wooded hill country of
the south central region with its thick cover of
primeval rain forests, which trapped rain water
with in its soil and preserving it in subteranian
channels, gently released it in perennial supplies
to streams and head waters of the big rivers.
These were the clear full streams and rivers
which Knox saw in the Kandyan region in the
17th century.
"This land is full of hills, but exceedingly well
watered, there being many pure and clear rivers
running through them, which failing down about their
lands is a very great benefit for the country in respect of
their rice, their chief sustenance These rivers are
generally very rocky and so un-navigable. In them are
great quantities of fish.
.21

And of the Mahavali he said :
·It is so deep, that unless it be mighty dry weather a
man cannot wade over it. unless towards the head of
it. They use little can noes to pass over it , but there are
no bridges built over it. being so broad, and the stream
in time of rains (which in this country are very great)
runs so high, that they cannot make them ,,22

Today the Kandyan region is not so well
watered by clear streams and the Mahav'ali is not
so deep, broad and frighteningly turbulent. In
places it presents the chilling prospects of a
sickly stream, boulder-strewn and choked with
silt as was seen in the Haragama stretch during

17: C E. Godakumbura. "Sinhalese Festivals". JRAS, CB, Vol. XIV. New Series. 1970. p. 101.
18. Ibid. p. 102.
19. C F. Mahavamsa. translated by L. C Wijesinghe. Ch. XI. Colombo 1889. p. 44.
20

H. Parker. Ancienr Cevlon. (London 19091. p. 379. quoted by K. M. de Silva. In A Hisroryof Sri Lanka, London. 1981. p 29.

21 Robert Knox. An Hisroncal Relation of Cevlon. Colombo 1966. p. 4.
22. Ibid.

34

the drought of 1983. No doubt this is due to the
felling of trees and forest cover that has gone on
apace unabated for the past one-and-a-half
centuries. Even in the recent past - thirty to forty
years ago - I remember the Kandy region as
having been very much wetter, cooler and
damper area, and certainly much better watered
by running streams, cataracts, creeks and
rivulets.
It is a CUriOUS fact that the early Indo-Aryan
settlers who colonized the inhospitable arid
.' plains of the dry zone did not establish large
settlements in the verdant valleys of the wet hill
country although stone inscriptions bear witness
to scattered settlements from the 1st and 2nd
centuries. Was this because the Central Hills
were difficult of access or that the ancients were
conscious of preserving their perennial supplies
of water? With the decline of the ancient
kingdoms, consequent on incessant invasions
from South India, the north central dry zone was
. completely abandoned, perhaps due to disease
and famine following in the wake of war which
had disrupted that intricate and complex web of
irrigational works. By the end of the 13th century
the centre of Sinhalese power had shifted to the
south west, to Oambadeniya and thereafter to
Gangasiripura (Gampola), Kotte and finally to
KandY,23.
No doubt the early settlers who peopled the
valleys of the hi" country would have regarded
the primeval forests with awe and self imposed
taboos, but human memory is short and today
one hardly knows, without the aid of written
records, that there were any Tahansi Kala at all
or Kale Korales, leave alone the motives for
creating them. Sometimes, however, one
. stumbles on age old beliefs, to which
unsophisticated villagers have held fast and gives
us a clue, such as that which the Venerable
Gnanaslha, a young Czechoslovakian Buddhist
monk, told me recently .
Venerable Gnanaslha was living in the Siripada
Adaviaya about ten years ago. He told me that
when he wanted to build a kutti for himself and
sought the assistance of the villagers round and
about, they requested him not to cut the large

trees down, which grew there. On asking them
why, they had been unable to give him a proper
explanation; in his own words, "it was a mere
feeling they had". Apparently, they were devoted
to those trees which were there for hundreds of
years and which their forefathers had seen
before them. Perhaps they believed that those
trees were the abodes of devas. When the
Vedamahattaya went into the forest to get herbs
and bark for his decoctions, he alway~
worshipped the tree first and said a 'gatha'
before peeling the bark and taking from it the
materials needed. They believed that if these
were taken without so much .as a 'by your leave'
or offering merit to the tree, it would lose its
medicinal value and the decoctions made from
the materials obtained from the tree would not
be efficacious.
Today we do not know what the origins of
such beliefs and practices and taboos are.
Whether they stem from a pre-Buddhist cult of
nature worship or from the Buddhist principle of
respecting all forms of life.
According to the Vinaya, or rules for monks,
damaging living plants - Bhutagama - or
causing their damage - constitutes the breaking
of a rule. Bijagama, likewise, falls into this
category of vinaya offences.
Bhutagama refers to living plants where they
are planted in a fixed place. They are divided into
five groups.
(1) Arising from bulbs, rhizomes or tubers,
e.g. ginger.
(2) Arising from cuttings or stakes, e.g. Bodhi
tree
(3) Arising from joints, e.g.-bamboo.
(4) Arising from runners, e.g. strawberries
(5) Arising from seeds, e.g. rice.
Bijagama refers to plants that have been
removed from their places but can grow again .
Bijagama is the base for Oukkata. Bhutagama is
the base for Pacittiya. A Bhikkhu who removes
Bhutagama by himself or causes others to
remove it is Pacittiya. A Bhikku who destroys
Bijagama or causes others to destroy it is
Oukkata. 24 .

23.

K. M. de Silva. A History of Sri Lanka. London . 1981. P 82.

24 .

The above explanation was supplied to me by Venerable Bhlkku Olande Ananda of the Rockhill Hermitage at Vegiriya. Gampola from the
"Vinayamukka" . Vol. I. Ch . 7. under Pacittiya - Expiation. the section on plants - Bhuragama - vagga, from a book printed in Thailand on the rules for
monks

,

-

-

--

,.

35

ler
~re

ed
of

en
se

he
bs

y'0

la

he
se
/e
its

r

This was further explained to me by Venerable
Nyanaponika Maha Thera who says that Pacittiya
is a group of relatively minor vinaya offences to
which the damaging of plants (Bhutagama
Patabyataya Pacittiyam) belongs, Only very few
of that large group of offences have moral
significance , Most are breaches of a monk's
observances, This group is called in English
"Rules entailing expiation", 24.
With regard to the possible motives that may
have prompted kings of the past to have
established 'Tahansi Kala, the following
quotations from D, S. Senanayake's Agriculture
and Patriotism is interesting.
"In this connection it is of importance to remember
the part played in the conservation of water by the
forests of the country, With the evidence daily
accumulated of the wisdom of our forefathers we need
scarcely doubt that it was not merely the idea of
making the mountain country difficult of approach by
the foreign invader that caused them to preserve
unfelled and uncleared the dense vegetation of their
mountain slopes, We may readily believe that they
deliberately left these untouched in order to provide the
abundant supply of water on which they might draw for
the benefit man.'''25

1m

lot

of
'e,
of
of

(s,

or
ng
lis
ey

Ito

s

In the previous chapter reference was made to
the existence of Kale Korales during the time of
the Sinhalese kings , It is not apparent what the
precise functions of these officers were but it is
known that they existed and were the equivalent
of forest wardens. Whether they kept guard over
the forest boundaries only, protecting the forest
from being encroached on and preserving the
king's timber and game, is not known. However,
it is not unlikely that they had other' duties as
well, like protecting the sources of streams
which fed the life giving rice fields in the
mudlands below, As a matter of fact there was
an officer to look after a stream from the forest in
the vicinity of Ampitiya, from which king Kirti Sri
Rajasinghe bathed, This officer was called
Hil-pan-kandura and reference is made to this
Lact by J, P Lewis in an article written by him :26
If an officer had been appointed to watch over
the stream for the king' s bath, it is not unlikely
that the duties of the Kala Korales included the
general protection of streams that fed the village
paddy fields,

Knox refers to the king (Rajasinha II) having
diverted a stream to the palace for his personal
use, which was one of the principal streams
feeding some paddy fields, This caused
considerable hardship to the people and
resentment against the king, No doubt this
would have contributed to the rebellion against
the king in 1664, Knox's remarks regarding the
diversion of the strea~ are significant:
"This water was that which nourished that Countrey
from whence it was taken, The people of which ever
since have scarce been able to Till their land , Which
extremity did compel the People of those Parts to use a
means to acquaint the King how the Countrey was
destroyed thereby, and disabled from performing those
Duties and Services, which they owed unto the King;
and that there was Water sufficient. both for His
Majestie's Service, and also to relieve their necessities.
Which the King took very ill from them as if they would
seem to grudge him a little Water "V

By diverting the stream from the fields,
Rajasinha II did the exact opposite of what the
great kings of the past, who were known to have
been benefactors of the people, had done .
Beliefs coming down orally or in writing, form
an important body of custom and practice known
as tradition. Sometimes beliefs born out of a
fund of experience and first hand observations
are equally valuable. In this connection I would
like to quote from an old peasant I met in
Kotmale valley a few years ago. I was talking to
him about farming when he complained to me
bitterly that plants would not grow in his
compound the way they used to in the past. On
asking him the reason for this, he pointed to the
forested highlands surrounding the valley ,
"It comes from all those trees up there being cut.
When I was a boy one had only to dig a few feet here
and you would get water, Now, one has to dig 20-30
feet down to strike water !"

It is seen that sound conservation ideas still
exist among the old peasantry - a peasantry
coming down from the first Indo Aryan farmer
settlers of the country, perhaps!
The fact that the hydrological function of
forests was known to the ancients is evidenced
in documents left by early British administrators
in which the statements of Ratemahatmayas
have been recorded. That such beliefs had been

24.

VenerableNynanaponika Maha Thera of the ForeSI Hermitage, Udawaltekale, Kandy, President and Hony Editor, Buddhist Publlcalion Sociely, Kandy ,

25.

D. S Senanayake, Agricu/rure and Parnorism, Colom bo, 1935, p, 33 .

26

J . P Lewis, c.C.S " ' Hil·penka ndura al Kandy ' JRAS, CB Vol. X No, 35 (1887) pp 120-2

27 . Robert Knox, An Hisrorical Relation of Cevlon (Colombo 1966) pp 83-4

36

firmly embeded in the culture of the Sinhalese
people and had reached grass-root level is
evident in the utterances of rustic old timers
even today and can be found in folk lore as well,
as in the attitude of reverence towards big trees
and the belief that such trees should not be cut
down, one of the consequences being the drying
up of underground supplies of water.
As has been stated earlier in this chapter,
when the Mahameghavana Park was been laid
out an 'unseasonal shower of rain fell. Hence the
name "Mahameghavana" - Great Rain Cloud
Forest. This could signify that forests were
associated with rain in the minds of the ancients.
When the right branch of the sacred So-tree was
brought to Sri Lanka, it was planted in that forest
and it is said that rain making rituals, such as
pouring water round the tree, were performed in
the time of the Anuradhapura kings.
The fact that there were forest wardens - Kala
Korales - has been established. There is reason
to believe that their functions could have
included the protecting of streams that flowed
through the forests to village paddy fields,

because there was such an officer to protect a
stream for the king's personal use, which flowed
from the forest of Matan Patana.
The connection between the ancient concept
of kingship and water has been amply
demonstrated in history by the fact that the great
kings of the Sinhalese people had striven to
make available plentiful supplies of water to their
subjects. It could well be that the ancient kings
left the rain forests of the south central mountain
region intact in order to tap the perennial rivers
that originated from there for the massive
irrigation works they constructed in the dry zone
plains.
Thus, while the previous chapter dealt with the
economic and military reasons for establishing
interdicted forests, it can be seen from what has
been said in this chapter that Sri Lanka has
shared with India a common tradition of
establishing interdicted forests for religious
reasons; that apart from the religious motive,
Sinhalese kings had, very likely, ecological
reasons as well for proclaiming certain forests
strictly forbidden - Tahansi Kala.

J

~t a
'led

CHAPTER IV

:ept
Ip ly
"eat

Ito

heir
ngs
tain
lers
;ive
one

the
ing
las
las
of

)US

..­

PROCLAMATION OF

UDAVATTEKALE

ive.
cal
tsts
"The groves were God's first temples. Ere man
learned
To hew the shaft. and lay the architrave,
And spread the roof above them-ere he framed
The lofty vault, to gather and roll back
The sound of anthems, in the darkling wood,
Amid the cool and silence, he knelt down,
and offered to the Mightiest solemn thanks
and suplication For his simple heart
Might not resist the sacred Influence
And from the gray old trunks that high in heaven
mingled their mossy boughs, and from the sound
of the invisible breath that swayed at once
All their green tops, stole over him, and bowed
His spirit with the thought of boundless power
And inaccessible majesty. Ah, why
Should we, In the world's riper years, neglect
God's ancient sanctuaries, and adore
Only among the crowd, and under roofs
That our frail hands have raised. Let me at least,
Here, In the shadow of this aged, wood,
Offer one hymn-thrice happy, if it find
Acceptance in His ear."
- William Cullen Bryant (1794-1878) From
"A Forest Hymn"

Soon after the British conquest of the Kandyan
Kingdom. the British made Kandy their military
headquarters for the Kandyan Provinces.
Sections of former Tahanam Kala-or forbidden
forests-like Udavattekale and Hantana (Castle
Hill). were cleared for the purpose of erecting

military barracks and redoubts. The forest of
Bahirawakanda was also cleared and a redoubt
established on its summit while military barracks
were constructed on the slope.
The enterprising Governor. Sir Edward Barnes.
in his zeal for road building. prompted by military
and commercial reasons. constructed many
roads such as the Colombo-Kandy road, the
Colombo-Kurunegala road. the Kandy­
Matale- Trincomalee road and the road to
Badulla through Udavattek'ale and Kundasale.
clearing in the process vast acres of forest.
As the years went by. many more roads were
opened up in the hill country. often passing
through former royal sequestered forests. With
the advent of the coffee plantation industry.
more and more acres of virgin jungle clothing the
mountain sides disappeared before the planters'
axe.
What happened to Udavattek'al'e is no different
to what happened to many other former
forbidden forests-forests that existed in their
primeval luxuriance all over the Kandyan
provinces. As mentioned earlier. Udavattekale
was cleared first to accommodate military
fortifications and barracks. parts of it being

38
cleared off for the site of the Governor's
residence, for roadways, for a school, for
homesteads and for coffee plantations. It is
intersting to note that one of the earliest Sri
Lankans to purchase land in Udavattek'ale wa~ a
businessman, an arrack renter, Jeronis Pieris,
and his descendants planted coffee on that land.
It was in 1856 that Udavattek'ale was declared
a reserved forest by the British authorities but the
necessity of forest conservation was not fully
realized till 1873 during Governor Sir William
Gregory's period in office, when Dr. J . Hooker,
Curator of the Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew,
expressed great concern at the destruction of
forests in Ceylon, as it was then known. The
Forest Act became law in only 1885 and the
Forest Department set up in 1887. It. however,
took five more years, from the setting up of the
Forest Department, before the process of
proclaiming Udavattek'ale a Forest Reserve was
commenced .
The proclamation that declared Udavattekale a
reserve in 1856 is worth careful study and is
re-produced in the Appendix (No 1)
On 20 February 1893, H. F. C. Fyers,
Assistant Conservator of Forests, Central
Province, wrote the following minute on
Udavattek'ale :
"I thin k the jungle above Lady Horton' s drive could be
very much improved if all dead trees are cut and,
suppressed trees freed of all creepers, and bare places
planted With fast growing trees and the land kept clear
of all heavy undergrow th All the Jungle IS at present
under the control of the MuniCi pal Council, and I would
suggest that It should be placed under the Fore st
Department and proclaimed a Re served Forest in order
to protect the timber trees and prevent cattle tre spass
The roads and paths being kept up by the Council-a
sum of Rs. SOO migh t be expe nded yearly from the
plan tation vote towards the improvement of the Jungle
and some reven ue might be derived yearly by sale of
dead Ire es fo r firewood etc'"

This minute was forwarded by the
Government Agent. Central Province, to the
Colonial Secretary in Colombo, recommending
that the Forest Department take over the
management of the forest.
·1
2.

Uda vattek 'ale Re serve Fo rest. [UK RFj File No

A report on his minute by the Secretary,
Municipal Council, signed H. Byrde, dated 6
March 1983 states:
"I n 1870 the Municipal Council was asked by Govt .
to take charge of the Udavattekale roads. which was
agreed on condition that Gov!. contributed a moiety of
the cost of up keep .
"Owing to the frequent and unauthorized cutting of
jungle and removal of timber, at the request of Sir
William Gregory. a watcher was put on in 1874 and
later a second watcher was appointed to prevent·as far
as possible the denuding of the land but the forest was
never formally handed over to the Municipal Council.
"I consider Mr. Fyer's sugge.stion a good one as the
reserve is capable of much improvement and if under
the control of the Forest Department would be regularly
cared for.
"For many years firewood has however been cut and
removed for use at the Pavilion but under the above
Proclamation of which I have very recently obtained a
copy. it is doubtful whether this should be allowed. ,,2

A letter from the Colonial Secretary's Office,
dated 27 March 1893, addressed to the
Conservator of Forests conveyed the
Government's decision on the matter:
"With reference to your letter No. 89 of the 21 st
instant I am directed to authorise the proposal that the
Forest Department should take over the management
of the Forest referred to above . There seems to be no
reason why the practice of supplying fuel to the pavilion
should not be continued under proper restrictions ,,3

The letter was signed by H. S. Crawford for
the Colonial Secretary .
The proclamation for declaring Udavattekale
as a reserved forest was forwarded to the
Conservator of Forests by H. F. C. Fyers,
Assistant Conservator of Forests, Kandy, by a
letter dated 28 November 1893, recommending
at the same time the appointment of H. R.
Freeman as Forest Settlement Officer (F.S .O)
for Udavattekale.
The appointment of H. R. Freeman as Forest
Settlement Officer was confirmed by the Colonial
Secretary's letter' . of 22 December 1893 to the
Conservator of Forests which also informed him
that the notice of the proclamation would be
gazetted .

111 / 22 C Dlv. ASS istant Conservator of Forests . 20 Februa ry 189 3 .

U. K. R F. File No. 111 / 22 C Div. H. F. C Fyers ASSistan t Conserva tor o f For es ts. 20 February 1893 .

3.

Ibid. No 90. 27 March 189 3 .

4.

Ibid No. 445 . 15918.22 December 1893 .

".

-

.

­

39
ry,

6

)vt .
'las
f of

I of

Sir
md
far
!Vas

the
Ider
arly

and
ove
td a

.,

ce,
the
the

1st
the
It)nt

H. R. Freeman as Forest Settlement Officer
gave notice under the Forest Ordinance, 10 of
1885 that he would proceed to constitute the
land known as Udavattek'ale a Croyvn Forest
Reserve. This notice 5 dated 6 July 1894 IS
re-produced in Appendix No.2.
There were si x claims following the notice of 6 July
1894' of which three were allowed. They were the claims
of .
(1) The Gravets Muhandiram who had put in a ticket of
occupancy for land leased to him on lease Plan No . 229 at

publication in the Government Gazette under
section 19 of the Ordinance No. 10 of 1885.
Freeman also sent to the Government Agent.
Kandy, the following letter? on 25 March 1895
from Colombo :
"Sir,

Udawattekale

I have the honour to forward herewith Forest
Settlement Officer's paper re : Udawattekale and to
suggest that they be filed in the Kandy Kachcheri file on
the subject

Boowelikada, in extent AlP 25 for which he had been
paying Re. 1/- per annum. There were said to be old jak and
coconut trees on it and a threshing floor. Ticket of

"I annex copy of a letter I had this day sent to
Government. the schedule therein referred to is a copy
of AA to BB of these papers ."

occupancyNo 1830 dated May 20 1889.
(2) Bastian Appu of Udawatte who claimed he owned
some fields near Lady Torrington's Road and claimed right

to cut sticks for sweeping and sticks to drive cattle and he
also asked to be allowed to cut more branches to shade his
tea plants . He had come from Matara and had lived there
twenty years
(3 ) Secretary, Municipal Council, by letter No . 765/68
of October 29th 1894 asked that roads and paths be
excluded with a reservation of one chain on either Side of
roads and 1/ 2 chain either side of paths .

In respect of Bastian Appu's claim the
Government Agent consented to Freeman's
proposal that Bastian Appu may in future take
the little he wanted in the way of forest produce
from the unreserved crown land - P. Plan 1285 .
. Claim (3) was admitted and Freeman made a
minute in the file that:
"All therefore that remains to be done to enable one
to forw~:Hd to Government· the final proclamation for
publication is (1) for the Survey Department to mark off
on the ground the Gravets Muhandram's threshing
floor and the planted portion thereof and to show this
as a separate lot in the plan . (2) I find also that there is
a recent small clearing on the rising land near T.P.
98020. I would suggest that the Surveyor examine It.
as it is poss ible the boundary of the Reserve has been
overstepped. When (1 ) and (2 ) have been done - I
request that the Plan may be returned to me as early as
possible"

Freeman concluded proceedings on 25 March
1895 and forwarded to the Colonial Secretary
the schedule of boundaries of the Reserve for
5.

U K. R. F. File No. 111/22 C. Division , 6 July 1894

6.

Ibid

7.

S.L.NA PF 204 No . 014358/ 96.25 March 1895

8 . S. L NA PF 204 No . 014358/ 96 . 25 March 1895

9.

-9

/Ula

As we shall see, this letter proved very
important to Freeman later on in the snarled
confusion that followed in the wake of that
proclamation; for it was discovered that there
were errors in the wording of the proclamation
and related issues and the Reserve was not
effected till a few years later during which time
an inquiry was held into Freeman's work on this.
The Attorney-General's opinion was sought and
he reported that the Forest Settlement Officer's
proceedings were not in order and specified the
defects in the form of the Proclamation B
Accordingly, the Colonial Secretary minuted on
10 June 1895 :
"I then presume that the proceedings must be
re-commenced de novo . Appoint Mr. Vigors to be
F.S.O. sending him all the papers for his information."9

To add to the confusion, it was found that all
connected documents were missing . Freeman
was asked to explain and he then cited the letter
he had written to the Government Agent. Central
Province, earlier referred to.
On 4 January 1896 Vigors reported to the
Colonial Secretary :
"Sir ,
I have the honour to return all papers received with
of 20th July 1895 and to report
your letter NQ
that there are apparently two errors in the boundaries

40

as gazetted - viz. "500, 163" for "50, 163" on the
northern boundary and "50, 614" for "50, 164" on the
sou thern ­
(2)' These errors appear to have been carried down
from the original draft notice of 19th Dec. 1983 (in
file) .
(3) I am afraid that these errors will violate the
proceedings taken by me, and I have therefore
suspended further action in the matter pending
instructions .
(4) If a fresh notification is necessary I would
suggest that the public roads and paths within the
reservation be excluded from the notification . the Govt.
Agent can furnish full particulars
(5) I' would also ask that a correct tracing of the
proposed reservation be furnished to the officer·
appointed, showing all paths and roads. I have had to
use a tracing , lent by the Govt. Agent. which has
numerous alterations in the boundaries." 10

Consequent to this report, the Colonial
Secretary suggested that the Attorney-General' s
opinion be sought again and this being done the
Attorney-General reported that if the boundaries
as gazetted were incorrect a fresh notification
would be necessary. 11
The remarks in the file regarding this matter
are interesting. The Colonial Secretary's minute
to the Governor on 24th January 1896 reads·:
"Your Excellency,
Submitted . From a Conversation which I had w ith
Mr. Vigors, I gather the error may be traced lO the late
Govt. Agent , W. Templer .
~
"A fresh notiflction to be made ­
"I believe that practically Mr. Vigo rs had finished the
work and that if he be continued as Forest Settlement
Officer it w ill take but a short lime for him to make a
complete return ."

The Governor's minute reads as follows :
"Con fidentially Mr . Vigors has been transferred from
Kandy. He is here (Kandy) Just now as a witness in the
Supreme Court but he returns tomorrow afternoon to
Matara for good. I presu me that he cannot conduct the
Settlement without returning to Kandy W . Crawford
will know the repeated failures in this settlement ..

Another minute reads :
"Vigors says he cannot effect the settlement If a new
notification is necessary, as he would have to hold the
enquiry about the roads in Kandy ."

10

S.L. NA PF 204 W Vigors to Colonial Secretary. 4t h January 1896 .

1 1.

S L N.A PF 20 4 Atlorney-Genera l's ·Ietter . 16 January 1896.

'2

S.L .NA PF 204. No. 03605 Kandy . 7 March 1896.

And the Colonial Secretary to the Governor
again:
"Your Excejlency,
Submitted. I should have thought the shortest way
wo uld be to appoint W Vigors and let him come to
Kandy for such time as may be necessary to hold an
enquiry about the Roads. by which I understand him to
mean that portion of the Reserve including the Roads
w hich it IS intended to vest in the municipality .
Failing this appoint Mr . White or Mr . Vaughan
Sgd. WT 1.2 .96

The Governor's response to this was:
"Better appoint Mr. Vaughan as Mr. White may be
removed at any time"

There was also another interesting minute :
"And then let me know how the Kandy Municipality
has the control of the Forest. My garden coolies at the
Lodge wanted Bamboos and had to ask Colonel Byrde
who also, I think, sold firewood to me .
sgd . WT 1.2.96

The report on this by the Government Agent.
Allenson Baily was :
"In 189 7 the Municipal Council was asked by
Gove rnment to take charge of the Udawattekale road s,
w hich was agreed to on condition that Government .
contributed a mOiety of the cost of upkeep Owing to
the freq uen t and un au thorised cutting of Jungle and
removal of timber, at the request of Sir Wm . Gregory, a
watc! er was pu t on in 1874 , and later on a second
watc her was appointed to prevent as far as pOSSible
this denuding of the la nd, but the forest was never
formall y handed over to the Municipal Council ,, 12

To continue the trials and tribulations of the
ill-starred Proclamation and H. R. Freeman, it
was decided that some disciplinary action should
be taken against him for misplacing the original
plan, which was not to be found, and for the
mistakes he was alleged to have committed. He
was requested to return all papers and plans on
Udavattek'ale to which request he replied by the
following letter :
"Sir,
In reply to your letter of the 1 st instant to my address
I have the honour to state that no papers or plans
connected with the Udawattekele Forest Reserve are in
my possession .

41

nor

way
e to

y be

ality
the
yrde

t

2. 96

ent,

by
lads,
11ent ·
'9 to
and
)ry .. a
ond
,sible
lever

the
1. it
)uld
,ina I
the
, He
j on

the

re ss
ans
ein

2. I forwarded to you by Post from Colombo a
Report on the Reserve as Forest Settlement Officer,
and a schedule of Boundaries etc. for purposes of the
final Proclamation, a day or two before my departure
from Ceylon on leave on the 26th March last at the
same time I wrote to the Government Agent, Kandy,
reporting that I had completed work, returring all
papers in connection therewith to be filed in the
Kacceri .
Some plans, I am unable to say their numbers, were
handed to me for reference from the Kandy Kacceri in
December 1894 when I was workinq on the matter but
I returned them all to some responsible officer in the
Kacceri, either the office assistant or the Land clerk, the
same day.
I regret that it has been found necessary to appoint a
fresh Forest Settlement Officer for the work I did . I
venture to think it can have been hardly necessary as
there were no actual claims and the proceedings were I
believe all in order and never likely to be challenged.
"Since writing the above it occurs to me 'that som6
Plan was, at my request. sent by the Government
Agent, Kandy, to the Chief Surveyor, Kandy, in
December 1894 for certain amendments which I
required to be made. The Plan was not returned to me
and just before my departure on leave Mr. F. H.
Grinlington lent me a tracing of the Reserve which was
sufficient for my purposes and I sent it back to Mr.
Grinlin~Jton . The original. Plan may therefore be with the
Chief ~urveyor, Kandy or in the office of ttle
Surveyor-General or possibly it was sent to the
Conservator of Forests.
Mr . H . L. Crawford of your office will I think
remember my telling him, just before I left Ceylon,
about the non-return of the Plan to me, in explanation
of my apparent delay in completing the proceedings.·"

H. L. Crawford had minuted on this letter in the
file that­
"Mr. Freeman did say something to me about the delay
being on accouni of his not receiving a plan,"

Fortunately for Freeman, his luck changed
miraculously. The original plan of Udavattekale
referred to, was found in the Surveyor General's
"'ffice at Kandy and the other documents were
discovered in the Government Agent's office at
Kandy, Allanson ' Bailey, Government Agent.
Central Province, accordingly informed Broun,
the Conservator of Forests, who immediately
notified the Colonial Secretary.

The Colonial Secretary by his letter dated 't 1
March 1896 to Freeman stated that the Plan
was found by AI/anson Bailey in his office and
that Freeman was unjustly accused of
deliberately keeping the plans.
H. R. Freeman later became Government
Agent. North Central Province, and a member of
the Ceylon Legislative Council. and later an
elected member of the State Council. He won
election on two occasions, 1931 and 1936, to
that body. The first Forest Settlement Officer
was Mr. Frazer who also became a member of
the Ceylon Legislative Council.
To conclude the adventures of the
Proclamation, C. S. Vaughan was written to by
the Colonial Secretary on 16 November 1896.
With referen ce to the notice dated 5th
November 1896 published in the gazette of 13th
November 1895 , I am directed to inform you that H. E.
the Governor has been pleased to appoint you a Fore st
Settlement Officer under the provi si ons of Sec . 6 Ord .
N. 10 of 1885 of the land speci fied in the Schedule
attached to the above mentioned notice . ." 14

C. S. Vaughan after correcting the proof of the
proclamation forwarded it to the colonial
secretary for publication in the gazette which
was do.ne finally on 13 October 1897. The
proclamation was published in the Ceylon
Government Gazette No. 5,504 of October 13,
1891. See Appendix NO.3.

In

the same file is found a letter written to the
Secretary, Municipal Council, Kandy, on 15 May
1897 presumably from a staff member of the
Colonial Secretary's office :
"Sir,
" I have the honour to request that you will be good
enough to grant the Arachie of the Colonial Secretary's
Lodge permission to cut and remove for the use of the
Lodge gardens from the Jungle round Lady Horton's
viz:
40 thick large jungle canes
50 thin creeping canes
40 thick Jungle sticks to be used as posts for the
bowers and 100 thin Jungle sticks and barks to be
converted into rope.
The above are urgently required for the use of the
Lodge garden ,"

13 . S.L.N A PF/204 No. 0223 . Police Court, Hatton , 6,Januarv 1896.

t 4 . S.L.NA PF 204 Colonial Secretary's Office to C. S Vaughan 16th March. 1896.

42

The signatory is illegible . The repoly to this
from the Secretary, Municipal Council, minuted
on the letter itself dated 17 May 1897 was:
Sir,
With reference to your letter of the 15th May
requesting a permit to be granted for the Arachi of the
Colo-niar 'Secretary ' s Lodge tor cutting canes and sticks
from the Jungle around Lady Horton 's Walk, I have the
honor to request that the application may be made to
the conservator of Forests, C P., as the Municipal
Council's authoriy only extends to one chain on each
side of the roads and to half a chain on either side of
the paths in the locality referred toA reply to the above effect was made for a similar
application from you dated 7th April last. "
M

In spite of thisJorest Udavattek"i:~le being
declared a reserved forest, proclaimed and
brought under the management of the
, Conservator, the fact that there still was doubt
as to who was in charge, will be seen in a letter
written by the Acting Conservator of Forests,
Alfred Clarke to H. Wace, Government Agent,
Central Province.
"Sir,
Certain papers regarding the Udawattekelle Reserved
Forest having been referred to me for report I have the
honor to ask for information on the following points :
(a) Whether

in charge of the Government
Agent or Conservator Forests .

(b) Its extent.
(e) Its position with regard to Kandy
(d) Why it was reserved .

(e) Whether any forest produce has been
taken out of It since it was proclaimed
or reserved in 1894 or 1895 .
(~

Whether , since it was made a reserve it has
been in.charge of any special officer such as
a Forest Overseer or forest watcher.

(g) If so who the present officer . in charge is,
how long he has acted, what his exact
duties are, and what his pay is."'s

H. Wace, the Government Agent, Central
Province, replied the Conservator of Forests by
his letter of 1 March 1892
"Sir,
With reference to your letter No . 18 of 22nd
ultimo, I have the honor to report ..
1b. U. K. R. F. File No. 111/22 C. Division, No. 18, 22 Febraury 1902 .
16. U. K. R. F. File No. 111/22 C. Divisidn, No. 38/14822 , 1 March 1892 .

(a) My letter No . 90 of March 27th 1893 of the
Hon'ble the Colonial 'Secretary to the Conservator of
Forests . The Conservator of Forests was authorised to
take over the management of this Forest but ' It has
generally been under the superv ision of the
Government Agent.

(b) Roughly speaking 200 acres is the extent of
reserved forest according to the last proclamation but
certain lots have been added and treated as reserved
without having been declared a reserved forest.
(e) Almost due north of Kandy Lake .
(d) It was first proclaimed a reserve forest land so
far back as October 25, 1856 presumably on account
of its adjacency to the Pavilion and for its importance to
the scenery of Kandy.
(e) Since the last proclamation on October 15,
1897 firewood has been cut for the Pavilion .
Improvemell't fellings : creeper cutting, cane cutting
&c . have been continued; beyond this practically no
felling In done.
(~

Yes , under a Forest Overseer .

(g) H: D. Sam de Silva was appointed overseer in
June 1900. His salary is Rs. 20 per month with a cooly
allowance of Rs . 12.50. His duties are to patrol the
forest ; report illicit fellings, report on dead, fallen or
stunted trees which should be removed, prosecute
people who fell illicitly, seize stray cattle & generally
watch and protect the forest against the felling of the
villagers who supply Kandy with firewood . ,,16

The Conservator of Fore?ts, Alfred Clarke
addressing the Colonial Secretary by his letter of
12 March 1902, emphasised that the
Government Agent be given sole charge.
"The so called "Udawattekele Reserve" is a small
block of Forest about 200 acres in extent at Kandy.
It appears to have been "reserved" not for any reason
connected with the work of the Forest Department but
because of "its adjacency to the Pavilion and for its
importance to the scenerv of K;mdv .
Under these circumstances I strongly recommend
that it should be given into the sole charge and care of
the Government Agent and that the Forest Department
should be relieved of all responsibility in regard to it.
As regards the boundaries of the "reserve forest" I
find that a Forest Overseer has for years been in charge JI
of the 200 acres. The post appears to have been very
nearly a sinecure. The present watcher K. D. S. de Silva
was appointed ·in June 1900. He is paid Rs. 20 a
month and is allowed a cooly on Rs . 12.50 per month.

so
l

no

in

Udavattekale - Reserved Forest and Sanctuary - Photograph by T. S. U. de Zylva .

44

His first and most important duty was to keep the
boundaries open . This he appears to have entirely failed
to do and I recommend that he and his cooly shou ld be
at once dismissed and a forest watcher without any
cooly be appointed instead and made to attend to his
dut ies . '?

The management of this forest changed h'ands
again in 1914 . The Government Agent. Central
Province, at that time C. S. Vaughan, who had
once been Forest Settlement Officer, wrote to
. the Colonial Secretary the following letter on 27
October 1914 :
"Sir,
I have the honour to address you on the subject of
the above Reserve. The Reserve was placed in charge
of the Forest Department in 1893 (please see your
letter to the Conservator of Forests No. 90 of 27th
March 1893) and proclaimed under the Forest
Ordinance 1885 on the 13th October 1897 (Gazette
No. 55'03 of 15th October 1897 - page 637)
2 . In 1905 it was arranged between the then
Government Agent, Mr. Wace and the Conservator of
Forests that charge of the Reserve should be made
over to the Government Agent, the Conservator of
Forests placing a sum of Rs . 55/- a month at the
disposal of the Government Agent towards th~ cost of
an Overseer for the fuel supply to the Pavilion and all
other operations except a demarcation. No
Government sanction appears to have been obtained
towards this arrangement.
3. It is unsatisfactory that the Reserve should be in
my charge , while the controlling officers, the Forest
Ranger and Forest Overseer , are directly under the
Conservator of Forests .
4. I, therefore, recommend that the Conservator of
Forests resume charge of the Reserve, I have consulted
the Conservator of Forests and he has no objection to
my proposal.'8

F. G. Gimoon, replying on behalf of the Colonial
Secretary, on 29 June 1915, informed the
Government Agent, Central Province, that
approval has been granted for the transferance
of the management of the forest to the Forest
Department as from 1 February 1915.

Still even in 1938 there was uncertainty as to
the
management of the
forest.' V.
Coomaraswamy, then Conservator of Forests
wrote to the Divisional Forest Officer, N'Eliya :
"Sir,

Udawattekelle Forest Reserve

With reference to paragraph 15 of your diary for
April, 1938, (entry for 12th Apnl 1938) I have the
honor to inform you that it is not correct that the forp.st
in question is being managed at present by the
Municipal Council, Kandy. It is being managed by the
Government Agent, Central Province, and not by the
Municipal Council (Vide letter No . H. 15 of 262 .34
from this office to Government Agent, Central Province,
a copy of which was sent to you) . I consider however
that it was not in order to hand over the Management
of a Reserved Forest to the Government Agent. I shall
address him shortly on the point .

,, 19

The forest today is managed directly by the
Conservator of Forests, the Government Agent
being appointed in the capacity of a Senior
Assistant Conservator of Forests for the district.
Udavattek'ale was the first Forest to be
reserved in the British period and one of the first
to be proclaimed and gazetted as a Forest­
Reserve.
The proclamation of the forest took several
years due to faulty preparation of gazette
notices, misplacement of maps and letters and
mistakes made by Government Agents.
The management of the forest changed hands
on many occasions between the Conservator of
Forests and the Government Agent. until today it
is with the Conservator of Forests.
On July 12 1938 Udavattek'ale was
proclaimed a sanctuary. 20 This was almost eighty
years after it was declared a Reserved Forest in
1856. Forest conservation was a slow evolving
process and it was during the stewardship of the
energetic and far-seeing Sri Lankan Minister of
Agriculture, who later ;6ecame independent Sri
Lanka's first Prime Minister, D. S. Senanayake,
that this forest was ultimately declared the
Sanctuary it is today.

17

U K. R. F. File No. 111 / 22 C. Division , No. R43, 12 March 1902

18.

U. K R F. F,le No. 111/22 C Division No 627/16:322 . C S Vaughan. Government Agent . Cenlral Province to COlonial Secretary. 27 OctOber 19 14

19.

U. K. R. F. File No. 111/22 C. Division (part IV) Forest Department No. H ·. 15, May 25. 1938.

20

Ceylon Government Gazelle. Part I. (General). 29 July 1938, p. 984 (See appendix No 4)

CHAPTER V
for
the

EXTRACTION OF TIMBER AND

FOREST PRODUCE
"

of
it

The axe leaps I
The soli d forest gives flui d utterances,
They tumble forth , th ey ri se and form ,
Hut. tent , landing, survey,
Flail , plough, pick, crowba r, spa de ,
Shingle, rai l, prop , wa insco t, Jamb , la th , pane l, gable,
CdaJe l , ce ilin g , sa loon , academy , orga n ,
ex' bltlon-house , library,
Co rn ice, tr elli s, pilaster , balcony, window, turr e t ,
porch,
Hoe, rake, pitchfork , penci l, wago n , s taff , saw,
jak-plane, ma llet. wedge, rounce
Cha ir, tub hoop, tabl e, w icket. vane , sash, fl oor,
Work-box, chest. stnn g ' d Ins trumen t , boa t, frame and
wh at not.
"
- Walt Whitman, (7879-92)
From "Song of the Broad Axe "
in "Leaves of Grass", 7897 -2

Udavattek'ele or 'Lady Horton's ' was reserved
under Ordinance No , 24 of 1848 on 25 October
1856 ,1 In spite of this, timbe r continued to be
felled in it . Th is is seen by the contents of a letter
Written by W , E, J , Sharpe, Government Agent.
Kandy, dated 11 September 1888 to the
Coloni al Secretary :
"

4

I ha ve the honour to subm i t for the conSiderat ion of
Hi s Exce llency the Go ver nor tha t It i s urgently
necessary to have the Uda w attekele or Crown

Re served Fore st above the Pavilion put int o the hand s
of the Co nse rvator o f Forests for rep lanting and
marking off yea rly patches w ithin which on ly firewood
may be cut for the use of the Pavilion
Thi S fa c t o f it s be ing a Roya l Fores t to be consC'ved
and maintained as in Kandyan !Ime s as an adjunct to
th e Vice Regent's ReSidence IS In pract ice lost
for

1 1 1: 22 C D,v"

n

0

O ' OOG!)

of

he Pa IlIO n and a ll cor;'8cted therewith ­

deva s tati on proceeding unchecked by

111(1

numerous

unde Ii 19S In conne xlon With the several quarters, the
Lodge, and stables of the mOl.;! ~ :(' d ord er lies The
COl sequence IS tha t large bare pa tC" (!S now spread
ove r th e I ill Sides w hi ch at one

tl r 'l~

we re del :sely

cov ru d wit h timber .
"Th e forest was declared a Reserve by notifi cat ion
dated 25 th October 1856 in the Gazette . I beg that the
special attention of Co lonel Clarke be ca ll ed to it and
when he has set tied on the plan to be adopted I sha ll do
all in my power to ca rry it out through the local
forester .,,2

Thus , Udavattek'ale was a source of timber
and firewood supply to the Pav ilion , The

U K. R F File No . 111/22 No . 21 Governme nt Agenl. Cenlral Provi nce to Conservator of Fore3ts. Colombo, 11 March 1893 .

U K R F file

slg~ ~ :

by treating It m erely as the source of supp ly of firewood

46
Assistant Conservator of Forests. N'Eliya
Division. in his letter of 9 December 1906 stated
that he had visited the forest and that
"there is more than ample fuel available for the supply
of the King's Pavilion without affecting the appearance
of the Forest from an artistic point of view, which is
important owing to its situation.
"I propose to divide the whole area of 200 acres into
10 acre blocks to be worked in rotation of 20 years
The fuel procurable from 10 acres being ample for the
yearly supply of the King's Pavilion.
"I may state that the demand can be met the first
year at least. from dead wood in the forest without
3
cutting any fresh timber ·

Two years later when extensive clearing of the
forest had taken place and the forest was fast
losing the appearance of a natural forest. L. B.
Hewawisse. Forest Overseer. writing to the
Government Agent. Kandy. on 13 May 1908
stated:
"I beg to inform you that the Forest is open at many
places without trees and at some places there are
scrubs grown with bushes and lanthanas . Over 100
cubic yards of firewood are being annually supplied to
the King's Pavilion Kandy from this forest. Last year
121 cubic yards have been supplied and this year only
40 yards were supplied up to this date .
"I am sure that within another few years there will be
no trees to fell for the Pavilion firewood supply, as we
annually stamp useless trees for firewood .
"It is also necessary to fell trees from places where
there are thickly grown but annual fellings have made
this forest very thin and I therefore think it is necessary
to plant some trees at open places It will also be
advisable to clear the scrub and plant trees which
would be useful 'in time to come .
"I think this will not cost much but can easily be met
with this year's vote allowed for this fores t which can
be ascertained from the As sistant Conservator of
Forests , Nuwara Eliya .".

There was arid still is a constant demand for
firewood. Hewawisse. urged the appointment of
a watcher in a letter written on 3 April 1908 to
the Office Assistant to the Government Agent.
explaining that :
"
thiS Forest was reserved owing to frequent
thefts of firewood and unauthorised felling and for its
importance to Kandy Town and it is maintained for the
sake of health and beauty of the Town .
"It is not quite possible only for the F.O. to stop tile
theft of firewood &c . as the poor people who live
around the Forest try to avail themselves of the
3
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Ibid . No 33. 9 December' 190 6.
U.K.R.F. File No. 111 / 22 C. Div. No 33, 13 May 190 8 .
Ibid. No. 3 1 of 3 April , 1908
Ibid. 10 March 1911 .
U.K.RF.Flie No 111/22C. Division, 18th July 191 6 .
U K.R F. File No. U 68/1921 .

opportunity of the absence of the F.O. on one part of
the Forest and under such circumstances I beg to
suggest the desirability of appointing a watcher to help
in my work .
"If my suggestion is carried out it will be a great relief
to me, as It would permit me to attend to some clerical
work at the Kachcheri and thereby as A. C. F. impressed
on me add another Rs . 10/ to my paltry salary which
will be a blessing to me ,,5

A. G. Fraser. Principal of Trinity College.
requested permission to obtain greenery from
Udavattakale. His letter of 19 March 1911 read
as follows:
.
.
"We ha\ie got the Kandy Senatorial annual gathenng
on 10mmorrow. It is a gathering of old Kandyan Chiefs
and boys of the College which. they have once a year
and where they have Kandyan dances and songs , and
speeches on their national customs.
. "They are very anxious to get some greenery from
Lady Horton 's and have usually been given permission
to gather some on the Friday afternoon. Might I have
that permission for this afternoon. They go out with the
masters and take care not to do any damage ,,6

As a minute on this letter shows. this request
was acceded to.
Udawattekale "forest Produce" (such as sticks.
stones. clay) was being used for purposes
outside the reserve. The forester in charge
addressed the Secretary. Municipal Council.
Kandy. by his letter dated 18 July 1916
informing him that:
"
Udawattekale Forest was proclaimed a
Reserve allowing your Counc~1 the right to collect
surface soil, stone , clay, gravel, earth, sticks, suitable
fo,' mammoty handles from the reserve of one chain on
either Side of roads and paths Nos. 4,5,6 , 7, 89,10,
11 & 12 in list annexed overleaf, the produce so "taken
to be used for the purpose of effecting repairs to the
said roads and paths and not to be bartered or sold .
"I am to request you therefore to be good enough to
instruct your superintendent of Works not to remove
any forest produce enumerated above from
Udawattekale Reserve, without obtaining a permit on
payment of usual Royalty, if for use outside the
Reserve ." 7

Inspite of all the rules and regulations. timber
and firewood was sold from this reserved forest.
The Acting Conservator of Forests. J. D. Sargent
stated in a letter :8
"Quotations are hereby invited for the purchase of
timber and firewood fr~m three separate blocks in the
Udawattekelle Reserved Forest as described in the
schedule below .

47

SCHEDULE

of
to

16 Jak, 19 Val-del, 1 Sapu, 2 Hulanhik, 4
Etamba, 3 Kuduawla, 3 Canna, 7 Damba, 1
Halaboda, 1 Inkenda, 1 Valan Una, 1
Kalamaduwa and approximately 1200 cubit
firewood from the following blocks :
(1) Green Gallop Block
(2) Lewella Block

A

R

1
2

1

12

0

0

0

30

(3) Trignometrical Stalion
Block

P

------------4
2
34

In 1931, J. D. Sargent who was by then the
Conservator of Forests had different ideas on the
felling and sale of timber, in Udawattek·ale.
Addressing the then Minister of Agriculture and
Lands, D. S. Senanayake, he reported,
during the interva l which has elapsed I have
seen papers on the subject of the Udawattekele
Reserve which were new to me. and force me to the
conclusion that, apart from the question of issuing a
Free Grant of Timber for the purpose indicated, I have
been In error in lending a favourable ear to the
application for obtaining timber from this forest at all.
"2. The forest in question, a very small area of some
250 acres, was originally reserved, In 1857, prior to
the existence of any Forest Ordinance, as a Royal
woodland, and was intended to be preserved as such,
roads and paths having been laid out in it, const ituting
it a sort of pleasure park for purposes of recreation . It
was later used for supplying firewood to the King's
Pavilion during the Governor's residence in Kandy, and
patches have here and there been planted up when
felling took place It is doubtful whether even this
utilization was Justified, although felling operations
could usefully have been confined to the removal of
dead and dying wood and the improvement of the
forest growths.
"3 At a more recent date, In 1922, firewood had to
be obtained for the purpose of making bonfires on the
occasion of the viSit of His Royal Highness the Prince of
Wa les, and Government approved its extraction from
the Reserve. This led to further planting up of the area,
whic h h as continued on a v ery sma ll sca le
subsequent ly, as a small supply of firewood No timber
has been sold from the forest. except an occasional log
felled in areas which were planted up, such logs
resulting from crooked stems, which did not enhance
the beauty of the locality, and being sold off for the
purpose of getting them off the area, and not on direct
application
9. U K.R F. File No. 111/22 C Division 21 November 1931

-10

"4. The object for which the Reserve was constituted
must be preserved, and such fellings as have taken
place will now be discontinued, our operations being
confined to the remova l of c rooked and unSightly
s tems , or dead and d y ing material , and the
encouragement of natural regeneration , in order to
preserve the pristine constitution of the area .
"5 . With this in view, it should not be our poli cy to fell
the finest and largest trees in the forest, which are
naturally the ones wanted, and, in their fall, would
damage a considerable amount of forest growth, and,
although I have been in error in entertaining the original
application for purchase of the trees in question (as
erroneously understood by me), I would deprecate the
idea of destroying the finest growth in the area and
establishing a precedent which would undoubtedly be
dangerous .
"6 I regret the mistake which has been made by me ,
especially as there is no forest in the vicinity from which
the required material is available . A ll timber of Jak and
other species used for building purposes in Kandy is
obtained from private sou rces, and in view of the
Government Agent 's letter annexed, I wou ld ask to be
excused from the responsibility of recommending this
application
"7 Should you desire to overrule this deci Sion, there
are certain powers under which this course of action
would appear to be feasible, but I do not base my
objections c1n the ground that the timber should be
issued as a Free Grant so much as that fellings of thiS
nature will be destructive to an area which was not
constituted for the purpose while they wou ld lead to
further applications for timber, w hich I should be unable
to refuse ."

A minute on this letter, dated 21 November
1931. reads :
" Spoken to the Minister who desires that Mr
Ratwatte should be written to regretting that his
application cannot be entertained and forwarding
copies of elF & GA's reports. Submit draft"g

Until very recently, encroachers, timber
thieves and squatters had a field day, partly
under political cover and partly due to the lack of
law enforcement officers of the Forest
Department . The picture described by
Hewawisse in 1906 is gradually being reversed
today .
No felling of trees is permitted now. No bald
patches are visible as the undergrowth is
regenerating - scrub jungle has been replaced.
More forest guards patrol the forest to keep the
sanctuary trouble free.

UOAWATTAKLLL,

f. R

{,..

rf'sdQ7J

.... }
:
'~1

r!1.rOI6;,.

(
\
"

{'OM

Ki"li,5/-·

:;

~I 4--ACRES.

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Map of Udavattekale-showing repla nte d area.

i.n a/uuA

CHAPTER VI

E. L. F. DE SOYSA'S LAND
"The bus iness man, the acqu irer vast.
Afte r ass iduous years surveying res ult s, preparing for
depart ure,
D,iv id es houses and lan ds to his children, beq uea th s
stocks , goods, fun ds for a school or hos pital,
Leave s mon ey to certain companions to buy tokens,
souvenirs of gems and go ld."
W alt Wh itma n, (18 19 - 189 2)
From "My Legacy" in
"Leaves of Grass", 189 1-2

In September 1912, on the application of the
Government Agent, Kandy, a survey was made
of some blocks of land at Udavattek'ale adjoining
Lady'McCarthy's Road . This was done in order
to settle the claims made for these lands and to
protect the boundary of the Forest Reserve .
The request for the survey was precipitated by
these blocks of land having been put up for sale
by auction in 1909, on behalf of Lady Catherine
de Soysa . It was then brought to the notice of
the Government Agent that two of these blocks
of land did not possess Crown title . The deeds
were called for and ex amined, which
1. S.L. NA 18/ 655, No . 16 107 . 15AuQus t. 1913

examination revealed that the private claims to all
these lots were in order except for two . The
survey that was conducted in 1912 showed
these two plots as 1.23 1/3 and H 23 in the
Survey Preliminary Plan No. 6244 .
After further search , however, it was found
that Lot 1.23 had also been sold by the Crown
on 27 November 1844. A lettsr regarding this
was written by the Government Agent, Central
Province, to the Colonial Secretary on 25 July
1913 and the Colonial Secretary replied as
follows :
. I am di rected by the Of fice r Admi nis terin g the
Government to inform you th at if yo u are sa tisfi ed that
th e land cla imed by the "present claim ants" referred to
is ident ical w ith the land "Lot No . 6 " sol d to Mr . Bl ackall
In 1844 and appearing in the plan attac hed to the
crow n Gra nt iss ued to him, His Exce lle ncy has no
objection to your informi ng them that the Crown has no
claim to the land". I

There remained, then , only the block of
land - H 23 of the survey plan (P Plan No .
6244) - to be settled .

To

P. 4.5688

/IDA wAr r£ k£L.£
,",24-4­
CROWN

1 23

1

624-4­
./.2.3

Map of E. L. F. de Soysa's Land - S. L. N. A 18/655

51

E. L. F. de Soysa claimed that this land was
examined by G. S. Saxton, the Government
Agent. on 6 November 191 2. The following is

The Government Agent had also examined the
retired Gravets Muhandiram regarding this land
and recorded the following statement :

the statement he made at the time in respect of

"1 . I was Gravets Muhandiram from 1881 to 1906 .
About the year 1860 I took up my residence at
Buwelikada in the garden adjoining Lady MacCarthy' s
Road . I have seen and known the lands in dispute
between the Crown and de Soysa ever since then .

the property in question :
"I have no Crown title to these two lots . The lots in
the neighbourhood were originally bought by my
grandfather Susew de Soysa. I cannot say why those
two lots were not sold and bought by him . All the lots
were once under coffee and possessed as one
property . That is my information .
"Mr . Lew Louis Pieris (Senior) of Whist BungalOW.
Mutwal, would know of this old cultivation . and Mr.
William Mendis of Kandy and Amaris Appu of Colombo
in Dehiwala with his son-in-law Fonseka. Head
Barkeeper G. O. H. Amaris is a sort of pensioner of our
family and used to work here.
"The coffee was abandoned in about 1883
"In about 1898 I got ail the lots cleared for rubber.
but coconuts were planted and vegetables . A Tamil
man used to look after the land . I believe he is there
still . He is looking after the two places which Mr.
Fernando bought; 48077ano 49214.
"I cannot at present mention anyone else who knows
these lands .
"Eugene Fernando of Moratuwa was one of our
clerks here in the coffee days .
"Daniel Pieris of Moratuwa would also know the land .
"I also show a plan dated 21 st February 1903 by

C P de Silva of the Ceylon Survey Agency This shows
these two lots as "Land in possession of Mr. de Soysa
for the last forty years ". That would be my father
Charles de Soysa
"My mother sold these lands as Executrix of my
father's will , about three years ago .
"We have been.. paying taxes to the Municipal Council
for the whole block as one property.
"At the sale we sold these lots subject to the crown
claim of which notice was given Mr. Labrooy paid Rs .
2 .000 per acre for lot, 49688 • and lot 49214 sold for
Rs . 1,500 per acre . The lot between these two (A 1
R 2 P31) (one of those in question sold for Rs .
1.700 ")

2 . S.LN .A. 18/ 655 . Kandy, 16 November. 1912
3 . S.L·. NA 18/ 655.21 January. 1913
4 . SL.N .A . 18/ 655. 5 January. 1913

"2 . As regards Lot H. 23 the land on which there is
the old well, it was always low jungle . there was no
cultivation on it • there was no coffee on it. The well
was there ever since I saw the land . I often used it for
bathing .
"3. After my appointment as Gravets Muhandiram ,
about the year' 1882, there was a complaint made 10
the Government Agent by some people who had been
in the habit of using the well, that the occupants of a
house on Soysa' s land (the adjo ining land) prevented
them from using the water of the well. The petition was
referred to me and I made enquiries and reported I
found that Soysa's people had gradually encroached
on the land in question, but they could not prove to me
that they had any right to the well and the land . I
reported this to the Government Agent, and after an
enquiry it was decided that the land was an
encroachment. Ever since then the land has been lying
waste till recently
"4 . About 16 or 17 years ago there was an enquiry
at the Kachcheri in connection with the reservation of
land to fo rm the Udawattekele Forest Reserve . At the
time certain people in Buwelikada wished t hat
Government should allow this land to be used as
Common pasture land for their cattle . I objected to the
suggestion and the block was included in the Reserve .
"5 . Lot 7.23 7/ 3
In 1860 this la nd along with the other block as one·
property was possessed by one David Bernard . There
was coffee on it as on the other lots . Later on the land
was over-grown with Jungle. I know of no cultivation or
possession by anyone after that. I understood that all
these lands were claimed by Soysas A few years ago a
Tamil man working under the Soysas put in some
coconut plants . ,,3

The Government Agent. Central Province,
however did not accept paragraph 4 of the
Gravets Muhandiram' s statement that the land
was included in the Reserve. According to the
Government Agent's letter to the Colonial
Secretary
"His assertion in paragraph 4 that the land was
included in the Reserve is incorrect . I have examined
the plans,,4

52
And the Government Agent continued in that
letter,
"The Udawattekele Reserve was formed in 1895
after inquiry into claims (Government Gazette of 15th
October 1897, Part I, page 638) and I find that this lot
H 23 was excluded and was shown as land on the
Southern boundary. I also find from the Municipal
Council 's assessment lists that the land is entered from
the year 1867 for taxation. The owner is given as
Charles Soysa , and the land is described as coffee
garden . The Municipality started in 1866 and taxes
have been paid ever since on this. It is therefore evident
that the Soysas have had very long possession of the
land and the only occasion on which there has been any
question was in 1882 when there is said to have been
some question as to the use of a well .
"Mr . Soysa however feels that the absence of a
Crown title is a draw-back and wishes to pay Rs. 500
to settle the Crown claim to the land. I recommend this
settlement and would suggest that the lot be
advertised for settlement when the payment can be
made and Crown Grant issued .
"The other blocks as appearing in the Auctioneer's
plan were sold . the average price realised being about
Rs. 2.000 per acre and substantial dwelling houses
have in some cases been already erected by the
purchasers I understand that as regards Lot H 23 the
agreement is to sell it for Rs . 1.000 when the
Government claim is settled .,,5

This letter with enclosures from the
Government Agent was forwarded by the
Colonial Secretary to the Controller of Revenue
for endorsement and when this was secured the
Colonial office gave its approval to E. L. F. de
Soysa to perfect his title by the payment of
Rs. 500/- and the usual rate for land marks
erected provided a counter claimant did not
come forward when the land was put up for sale.

~~

. . . . :~:: . . - .·t?

,,.,, f9. 686,

\',

.

\·:··::·::;· ..·····..····1'!
Pl()pet1y

"LH

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"~.'

>,

/

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/ ( , •.. :.

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,.. . ,.....

.:.;'{.,,~:.~•.:$;;:;;/

Auction Map. A Y Daniel and sons '- S. L. N. A. 18/655

The upshot of the matter was that the land

was finally settled on E. L. F. de Soysa for

Rs.504 .80.

It can thus be seen that the land in

Udavattek'ale too was alienated to private

individuals for coffee culture during the coffee

boom, and it was important to obtain a secure

Crown title to property . This was because there

was much controversy in the third and fourth

decades of the nineteenth century when waste

lands were being alienated to foreign planters for

coffee culture as the inhabitants of those areas

also began putting forward their claims to those

lands.

F

L

K
n
n

a
tl

e
b

C
F
C
5. S.L NA 18/655 . 4 December. 1913

CHAPTER VII

A. PHILIP'S LAND

"The Lawyers deed

Ran sure,

in tail,

To them, and to their heirs

Who shall succeed,

Without fail,

Forevermore.

"Here is the land,

Shaggy with wood,

With its old valley,

Mound and flood,

But the heritors ­
Fled like the flood 's foam .

The lawyer, and the laws,

And the kingdom,

Clean swept herefrom "

- Ralph Waldo Emerson (7803- 7882) from "Earth Song"

Following the purchase of a portion of land in
Udavattek'ale by A Philip of St. George's House,
King's Street, Kandy, "one of the oldest
residents with considerable vested interest in
real property and a considerable tax payer
<3ccbrdingly" (as he described himself in a letter
to Government), a controversy arose which
ended in litigation and much correspondence
betweer, the Colonial Secretary, the Municipal
CO!Jncil, the Government Agent, Central
Province, the Attorney-General and even the
Governm, Sir Arthur Havelock,
1 S.L.NA, PF - 326, No. 08364, Kandy, 25 July 1891

On 25th July 1891, A Philip addressed the
following letter to the Colonial Secretary :
"S ir,
I have the honour to invite your attention to a Crown
Grant, dated at Nuwara Eliya the 6th day of February
1857 in favour of Don David de Silva of an allotment of
land situated at Aruppola, Central Province and duly
entered in the Colonial Secretary's Office, wh ich now
forms part of my property and to enquire under what
authority Lady Gordon's Road has been cut through the
block according to the title plan No . 50079 .
I mention that Lady Gordon's Road referred was
made I believe sometime about 1884, and that my
present representation is based upon a Survey made by
the Survey-General's Department at that late date, ,,1

The Colonial Secretary forwarded this enquiry
to the Government Agent. who, having referred
the papers to the Secretary, Municipal Council,
made the following reply on 1 5 August 1981 :
"The road in question was opened by the Municipal
Council and not by Government. The Secretary to the
Council, to whom the papers were referred, replied­
" Lady Gordon's drive was constructed by the
Municipal Council in 1884, Permission was obtained
from the owners of all known private lands who readily
gave the portions required free of payment, From Mr,
Weerasingha's'property up to Lady Horton's road, the
new road passed through what was supposed to be
Crown land - part of the Udawattekale Reserve, the
Government Agent having approved of the road, There

54

was nothing to indi ca te the existence of any private
lands, as none of the land had bee8 cleared and there
we re no fe nces. No object ion was made by any
,,2
person.

Philip then communicated with the Municipal
Council through his lawyers, Messrs. Julius and
Creasy, pointing out that the Counc il had
constructed Lady Gordon's drive on a portion of
his land and that an area of about an acre of land
had been also cut off from the rest of his
property by this roadway. He stated this was an
infringement of his right to quiet possession,
causing him great loss and annoyance, and
suggested that the Government grant him a
piece of crown land equivalent to the extent of
land taken up by the Municipal Council for the
roadway.
A letter forwarded by P. A. Templer,
Chairman, Municipal Council, to the Colonial
Secretary, with regard to the land through which
the roadway was being constructed, stated that
';som e yea rs back this piece of lard was sold by
Government but it appears the purchas2r by mistake
opened Lot No. 1 1 12 2 and planted It, and the piece
sold remained in Jun gle , and when th e road was
const ru c ted , was thought to be a portion of the Crown
re serve . This land has rec enl ly been purchased by Mr .
A Philip , and the proposal made . and w hi ch I am
directed to subm it for the c onsideration o f
Government, is that Mr Philip should give up the lot
described in TP 5001 9 and receive in exc hange an
3
equ ivalent of la nd further north. viz. lot marked 11120 ...

Philp, however, refused to accept this
proposal, and consequently Templer wrote a
confidential letter to the Colonial Secretary :
"Sir,
In reply to your let te r No 76 of th e 3rd February last . I
have the honor t o state that lot No . 1112 2 in
Preliminary Plan 4189 is in the possession of Mr. Philip,
who, so far as I understand , will not consent to the
exchange unless he is quieted in the possession of it.
2. The facts upon w hich Mr . Phil ip expec t s
lavoura ble considera tion of his claim to thi s lot are
the se . The land shown in the Plan . tracing of which I.
anne x and marked T. P 50079 was originally sold by
Governn ent (apparently) to B A Grebe. In 187 8 one
Segu Medin purchased it from. Isaac Silva: (who had
pl lrchase d It from B A Grebe) but before dOing so he
had in erro r purc ha sed the adJoining lot sh own In the
Pl an (IS 11 122 and he was under th e Impre ssion th at
his litl . deeds rela ted to thiS lot. In 1891 he tra nsferre d
2. S. L.N.A . PF - 326 . 15 Aug ust 189 1.
3. S.L.NA PF 32 6 No. 014876: 59/68 Kandy. 23 December 189 1
4. S.L NAPF326 -No.343/2112. 17M ay1892.
• Cro.w n Lands' Encroachment Ordina nce

his ught, c laim s and in t er est under the d e~ds
of Mr. Philip, bu t did not transfer.
111 22
possess ion . .' . wh ich he has since aba nd oned, though
he certainly opened it and held . .. possession of it lor a
tim e at any rate. The question IS whether In these
Ci rcumsta nce s Mr. Phi li p has an y le ga l rigilt to lot
111 2'27
3. I an nex copy of a letter wh ich is addressed to Mr .
Phil ip' s solicitors on the 1 s t Ap ril . A few
days. . afterwards they ca ll ed upon me and the
matter was fully discussed between us . The
acco mpanying copy of a very curt repl y to my letter of
th e 1st April is the re su lt.

4 So far as the Ml:!ni cipal Council is concerne d , the
difficulty w ith Mr . Philip ca n be overcome by a slight
deviation of the road. The land marked TP 50079 is
of no sort of va lue and the lot offered to Mr . Philip in
exchange (No 1 1120 In extent A 3. R 2 . P 18 . 50) is In
my opinion a very fair eq uivalent for it. It is certai nly
most desirable that it should be made impo ss ible for
Mr. Philip or anyone else to clear T.P. 50079 and so
further spoil the beauty of Lady Gordon' s road : but I
am very reluctant to advise that the {Jovernmen~_should
give way to Mr . Philip in the matter of Lot No . 11 122.
5. If the Government is advised that Mr. Philip has
no title, I wo uld advise that steps be taken to eject him
from it No . 1 1122 and also for the acquisitio n under
the Ordinance, either of so much of T P 50079 as is
occupied by th e road - the "publ ic purpose" being the
acquisition of a right of way or of the whole of it, if a
justifiable "publ ic purpo se" can be devised by th e law
office rs of the Crown .
6 . If on the other hand it is considered that' Mr. Philip
has a right to lot 11122 at half improved value, the
nego tiation s already sanctioned can be proceeded with
accompanied by the additional offer on these terms, of
the lot which he has been in the m ista ken occupation of
since 1891 but for w hi ch he can show no tit le ...4

The Colonial Secretary inquired from the
Government Agent whether action could be
taken under Ordinance No. 12 of 1840
(C.L .E.O .)* to which the Government Agent.
Templer, replied by his letter of 23 August
1892 :
"Sir,
Land in Udawatta kale
In reply to your letter No, 494 of the 15th instant ,
have the honour to st ate that it does not appea r to me
that action can be taken ag ain st Mr . Philip und er
Ordinance No. 12 of 1840, w hi ch according to th e
pream ble IS directed again st persons wh o have taken
possession of Crown land "without any proba ble claim

55
~ds

or pretence of title" . I certainly cannot lodge the.
"information supported by affidavit" to this effect which
is required by section 1 .

22

ugh
ora
lese
lot

2 . When Mr. Philip purchased the land from Segu
Medin in 1891 he doubtless believed that he was
purchasing the land which the latter had opened (in
error) and culti vated , though he did not. as should have
done , verify this . In such a case he cannot as I
under s tand these words be said to ha ve taken
possession without a "pretence of title".

Mr
few
the
The
lr of

3. On the ~ther hand I do not admit that Mr . Philip is
entitled to the land at half improved value, for he
certainly has not himself had ten years possession, and
cannot claim under Segu Medin, for the latter did not,
whatever he may have thought he was doing, sell him
the land in dispute Segu Medin might as cultivator be
entitled to a grant of half Improved value but Mr. Philip
'does not by his deed stand in Segu Medin's shoes, and
is therefore not so entitled

, the
light
'9 is
IP in
ISIn
ainly
t for
d so
Dut I
ould
22

4. Had Mr. Philip shown any disposition to meet me
half way in my endeavours to arrive at a fair settlement
of this question I should be of opinion that the
Government might stretch a point, accept him as Segu
Medin 's repr-esentative and offer him the half improved
value of the land under section 8 (the land being
required for public purposes) ; but as he has not done
so I have the honor to repeat my recommendation that
the Attorne y-General be instructed to sue him in
ejectment. "5

has
him
der
!s is
I the
if a
law

)hilip
the
with
S, of
mof

Philip responded in impetuous tones to
Government's intention to acquire that section of
property on which there was a dispute. In
contrast the Government's response from the
Colonial Secretary's office was coldly collected
and concise.
"Sir,

5
6

By letter dated 14 July 1892 from the Principal
Assistant Colonial Secretary, the Government
Agent was directed to take order for the
acquisition of the land Lot K 763 described in the
preliminary Plan 4384 of 6 July 1892. Also by
another letter dated 8 October 1892 No . 637B
signed by the Second Assistant Colonial
Secretary, the Government Agent was directed
to take order to acquire Lot J 763 1/2 of the
same plan.
Accordingly proceedings were initiated for the
acquisition by notice, announcing Government's
intention through the official gazette. As no
documents appeared pursuant to the notices,
the plaintiff (the Government Agent) after duly
giving notice to the defendant. proceeded to
inquire summarily into the value of the land to fix
on the amount of compensation to be allowed
the defendant and referred the matter to the
court.
However, subsequent to the District Court's
decision taken in this case - No. 6223 District
Court of Kandy - to eject A Philip and to acquire
the land for Government. a settlement was
reached whereby Philip undertook to surrender
Lot 50079 to the Crown and to receive in
exchange for it lot 11122 in respect of which the
ejectment was instituted. This was on the advice
of the Attorney-General who in his letter stated
"Sir ,
I have the honour to forward a letter received by me
from the Department's Proctor in District Court , Kand y
No. 6223 .

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your
letter of the 28th ultimo , which has been laid before His
Excellency the Governor.

2 . The case is one In which the Crown brought an
actio n in ejectment against Mr. Philip and obtained
iudgment on the 24th Instant.

In repl y , -I am directed to inform you that the
Government has not entertained, and does not
entertain the slightest wish to acquire your property for
the purpose of a residence for HIS Excellency or for i;lny
other high officer of the Crown. But I am to state that
as you have acquired the property, under a title which
reserves power to the Crown to resume and enter upon
any part thereof which may be deemed necessary for
making and constructing such roads as ma y be
acqUired for public purpo ses or for the benefit of other
proprietors of land purchased from the Crown, you will
not be entitled to protest, If that power be exercised for
the purpose of whi ch it was reserved 6 .

3 . The Department now proposes a settlement, and I
advise that the terms suggested by him be accepted
with the following modifications, that the grant to Mr .
Philip would be limited to lot No . 11122 consisting of 2
acres, 2 roods and 9 perche s

S L.NA PF 3 26 - No 621 /2 112 , Kandv , 23 August 1892 .

S.L NA PF 326 No. 012817 . 80c lober 1892

4 . After appearing In the case and hearing the
eVidence, I have no doubt that Lot No . 11121 has
been opened and cultivated for over 26 years, and
consequently strong presumption arises that it was not
Crown property on the date Mr . Philip took possession
in 1891 ; and I fear that on the issue raised by the
defendant that the propert y did not belong to the
Crown In 1891 .

56
Supreme Court ma y reverse the decision of the
District Judge The burden of proving that the title to
the property, was in th.e Crown, by the nature of ~he
action brought, falling on the Crown.
5 . I further am of opinion that the settlement of this
case on the lines suggested is an equitable one seeing
that the Crown has allowed this lot to be occupied for
as many years by Mr . Philip's predecessors in title
without br inging any action , and a settlement at this
stage would save the Crown from the risks of having to
pay the costs of suit and possibly in the end losing both
pieces of the land ."7

7 S.L.NAPF 326. No 235 , 26 April 189 3

Ultimately Philip agreed to this suggestion , The
land was transferred/, to him and this was
recorded in the Survey-General's map of 14 April
1893 when H. R, Freeman the Forest Settlement
Officer was making his inquiries. Lot 11122 was
granted to him in exchange for ' T , P. 50079
which was surrendered to the Crown by Deed
No . 21 dated 8 August 1893 (See Government
Agent's letter No . ,1 80 of 19 June 1894) .
This land 'is -now the present "Senanayake
Aramaya" and the "Forest Hermitage" ,

he
as
)ril

CHAPTER VIII

~ nt

as

79
ed
nt

(e

. I

UDAVATTEKALE AND

TRINITY COLLEGE

"It seems we had spirit to humble a throne

Have genius for science inferior to none,

But hardly encourage a plant of our own:

If a college be planned,

'Tis all at a stand

'Till in Europe we sent at a shameful expense,

To send us a book-worm to teach us some sense."

Philip Frenau, (1752-1832)
From "Literary Importation".

.J

As we have seen Udavattek'ale or
Udawasalawatte which had become the
property of the British Sovereign, was blocked
out for various reasons and uses by the
Governor, His Majesty's Agent. Apart from the
twenty five acres, which included Pilima
Talauve's house, set aside for the 'Pavilion' or
Governor's residence*, land was granted to the
Church Mission Society for a school and
cemetery; also land was granted for several
other cemeteries as well (Garrison, Eastern
Redoubt. Wagolla). for the military fort**, for
military medical officers 'quarters and for a
Roman Catholic Church - all from Udavattekale,
Land was \also granted for private purposes to

individuals, mostly military officers, such as
Fraser, Lambert. Blacknell and Meaden, who
built houses there. Land was also granted to
'natives' who did business and co-operated with
the British.
When the first Christian Missionaries arrived in
Kandy in 1818, the climate for conversion was
still not suitable and their work was mainly
confined to the spiritual needs of the soldiers of
the conquering British army and the prisoners.
The Rev. Samuel Lambrick was the first to arrive
in Kandy. When he requested permission to
travel and reside outside Kandy, he received the
following reply from the Governor, through the
Board of Commissioners at Kandy, which was
read and recorded on 1 March 1822 in the Hall
of Audience where the Board met. The reply was
in the negative.
. H is Excellency deems it inexpedient for the
reasons about to be mentioned that they should place
themselves out of the protection of the garrisions in the
Country He is aware of the great stress laid by the
Kandyan Chiefs and Priests on the preservation of their
Religion and tho' it is His Excellency's wish as much as

• See Nlhal Karunaratna , From Governor's PaVIlion to President's Pavilion, Colombo. 1984. p. 4
•• P B. Dolapihilla in his book, In the Davs of Sri Wickrema Rajasinghe, marks this fort as Fort Macdow all in the map of Senkadagala after John Davy.
182 1. Also see Nihal Karunaratna op .cit .. Plan of Kandy in the Island of Ceylon , showing the position of the Redoubts , 1816, p. 24 .

58
their own that they should be enlightened by the Tru ths
of the Gospel, any event tending to incite disturba nce,
would ,delay instead of advancing it.
His Excellency is convinced, that they would not
overstep the rule s of caution but their sacre d character
and object are too well known not to excite the
expectation that they will endeavour to extirpate
paganism and the lower orders, we know from
experien ce are ready to assist in any Political Scheme
. against Government and the infl uence of Reasons
above mentioned might in the first place promote
perso n s to sudden vio le nce to themselves. His
Excellency therefore does not thi nk it safe for them to
re side out of the immediate protection of a Military
Force and as Amunapura is not intended to be kept up,
the same objections occur. The governor knows that to
their character and zeal the dangers wi ll not appear
great but any insult to them must involve the
government in its consequences, which might be
serious. His Excellency is glad to observe that they have
been invited to establish schools in Yatinuwara and
sees in the extension of such a system a prospect of
removing bars against acceding to their request and as
the dista nce is not great to any part of the upper
province he thinks much will not be lost by their residing
in Kandy,,1

In every other way the British
administration lent its support to the Church
Missionary Society . Applications made for
grants of land were acceded to . Rama Vihara
lands at Udavattek"ale were granted to them*
and Pattini Devale land to St . Paul's Church .2
Two grants of land were made to the
Reverend Samuel Lambrick and Reverend
Thomas Browing, which ultimately became
the present Trinity College premises. Copies
of the two grants are reproduced in Appendix
NO.5
RefereFlce has already been made to the
Church Missionary Society buildings that
came up on these lands granted by
Government. and Reverend T. W . Balding
has observed:
"When the first CM.S. mi ssionaries arrived in
Ceylon, the Governor strongly urged that one of their
number shou ld commence work in Kandy. . So in
1818 the Re v. S. Lambrick entered on his work in
Kandy . On October 27 , 1818, he wrote ' I cannot be

perm itted at present to preach to the natives, but I have
obtained authority to open schools, and have obtained
two priests to be the masters of them . The children will
be especially taught to re ad and write their own
lan guage as a step towards their receiving the words of
eternal li fe.'
"Mr . Lambrick was for two years the only Church of
England Clergyman in Kandy and consequently gave
much time to the spiritual care of the troops and other .
Europeans there. On the eve of the departure of the
Governor, Sir R. Brownrigg. from the Island, a levee
was held at which the four C M.s. missionaries were
present and presented an address, to which the
Governor replied, ' the whole island is now In a state of
tranquili ty, most favourable for the cu ltivation and
improvement of the human mind . I cannot doubt but
than under the guidance of providence, the progress of
Christianity will be general, if the zeal for propagating
the knowledge of Christianity be tempered with such a
sound discretion as has been exhibited already by one
of your mission (Mr . Lambrick) in the centre of the
heathen population . It is my sincere wish that you may
all follow that example , and that your success may
justify my partial feelings of regard for the missionaries
of the established Church'.
"On October 28, 1821, the Rev . and Mrs . Thomas
Browing arrived to work with Mr . Lambrick . Owing to
want of success among the Kandyans. there was some
thought of abandoning the town and starting work in an
interior village . The Government however would not
sanction the removal on account of the unsettled state
of the country At the end of May, 1822, Mr . Lambrick
removed to the low country . In June. 1822 , Mr .
Browning obtained from Government a grant of land,
which still forms part of the Trinity College compound,
on which he erected a bungalow and SChool room .* *
Service was held in the school on Sundays, several
Kaffir soldiers belonging to the Ceylon regiment were
under instruction , and the Sinhalese prisoners in the jail
were visited. At the end of 1824 there were 127
children attend ing the five sc hools which had been
opened . .
"In 1826 a further piece of land was granted by
Government for a burial ground . ,,3

This burial ground referred to adjoins the
present science block of Trinity College and
seems abandoned. A multitude of flowers and
weeds cover the gravestones .

1. S.L NA PF - 326 6/13B 063 30
• Vide Asgm Uparha
2. S.L.N.A . 1'0/68 - 77 (3d resolu tio n of the Standing Comm il1ee of the Kandy Church held on 2 November 1841 I
See Nihal Karunarathna. "From governor's Pavilion 10 Presldenr's Pavilion". Colo mbo. 1984, p . 16.
3. Reve rend T. W . Balding. "One hundred Years in Ceylon or rhe Cenrenary Volume of rhe Church Missionary SOCi;ry
1922, pp . 68-7 1.

In

Ceylon. 1818 - 1918. " Madras .

59

Mission School House - from James Selkirk 's Ceylon .

Bishop Heber, accompanied by his wife,
visited the Kandy Mission School in 1824. To
quote from the narrative of his journey through
India and Ceylon.
"But to return to ou r morning's excursion: from the
cemetery we visited the new Mission-school. Ju st
created, on a hill immediately opposite to it, under the
ca re of Mr . Browning, the only Missionary at present
here; the Bishop heard the chi ldren read and repeat
their lessons In English, Malabar, and Cingalese ; he
was exceed ingly pleased w ith their progress, and with
the estab li shmen t altogethe r ; it was, indeed, an
interesting sight; the children looked happy , anxious to
say their lessons, and ve ry proud when they received

by

situation of the schoo l is well chosen, and very
beautiful ; and the whole establishment the Bishop
considered as well conducted and o f great promi se .".

Regarding the Burial Ground Simon Casie
Chitty wrote in The Ceylon Gazetteer:
"The Churc h Missionaries have a pretty re sidence
and a sc hool hou se, used as a place of worship on
Sundays, erected on a hill about the middle of
Trincomalee Street on the east side . There IS a burial
ground attached to the school which was added by the
Rev. T. Brow ning (with permission of Government) w ho
has at present the charge of the establishment. Bishop
Heber honoured this school with a visit during his short
stay in Kandy In 1825, and was present at the
examination of the native chil dr en learning English,
connected with the Mission .,,5

commendation. There was one little boy w h o
parti cularly attracted my attention by the eager way In
which , after the Bishop had examined him, he brought
hiS book to me . I could only understand the English , but
thi s he read fluently, and appeared to understand. The

As mentioned before, this grant of land, on
which the Church Mission bu ilt the school, was
from the property of the Rama Vihara at
Udavattek"ale . (See Asgm Upatha) .

4 Regina Heb r. Bishop 0 : Calc Ila. Na rra lVe of 8 Journey I rough rhe Upper Provinces of India from CalCli na
upon C ylonl eOI ed by A eha Heber. 31d ed London, 1828 . p 18 1.

!'i

Simo

aSle

C

I

!'I. The Ceylon Gazerreer. Col moo 1834 . p 58

{O

Bombay. 1824 - 1825 (wilh

n Ol e s

60

Trinity College Junior School occupies part of
Udavattekale known as Wewelpitiya. J. B. Siebel
refers to this area of Udavattekalein a lecture
delivered in Kandy in 1889-90 to the Kandy
Young People's Association.
"What is still known as the forest or Udawatte Kelle,
behind the Pavilion was at one time a very thick Jungle,
and was the home. amongst other wild beasts. of the
elk and the leopard , or cheetah. In a house opposite the
back gate of the Pavilion. and it was no unusual thing in
those days for a cheetah to come nightly to drink at the
fountain at the Pavilion and to hear an elk belling in
Udawattekelle.
"I remember one little incident connected with this
elk which created such mystery and amusement at the
time. There was an old man known by the name of

Pattegama Mohandiram, who was then the Proprietor
of the whole of that block of land. adjoining the Pavilion
grounds and known as Wewelpitiya, or Woodlands.
now the property of Mr. Advocate Eaton.

* This old

man died very suddenly and very shortly after his death
an elk wa s heard belling in Udawattekele. night after
night. and the people in the neighbourhood - at least
the Buddhist and superstitious portion of it - insisted
that the spirit of Old Pattegama Mohandiram had
passed into the elk. hence the contiriued belling of the
animal in the Jungle, not far from his dwelling . The
belling ceased however. after a time and a rumour went
abroad that some very clever Kapuralle had come over
from a distant temple and had Succeeded in charming
the disconsolate elk. ,,6

• Advocate Eaton's house was transferred to one Green who sold it to D. Curion and finally to D. A Epa who has recently pulled down the old house.
6. J . B. Siebel, 'A Dip into the story of Kandy,' Journal of the Dutch Burgher Union. Vol. XLV Lecture III. January 1955 . p 18.

Garrison Cemetery - Photograph by T. S. U De Zylva .

The old Garrison cemetery at Kandy
Courtesy: 'Ceylon Observer'

.-~.

CHAPTER IX

THE GARRISON CEMETERY

Hacked from a jungle patch
The Weeds
Blot out a plot of Union Jack
Where Empire Builders laid out their seeds
In Sacrifice to cholera, diarrhoea and dysentry
and blighted fair-haired young things
with their swaddled saplings
among the coffee trees .

- anonymous

The Old Garrison Burial Ground which was
given to the trustees of the Episcopelian Church
was mainly a military burial ground . In 1851 the
Reverend H. H. Von Dadelszen made an
application through the Government Agent to the
Governor for a further grant of a piece of land
adjoining the "Land reserved for military
purposes" in Udavattek'ale for an extension of
the burial ground . Lt. Colonel J. Hawkshaw,
Commanding Royal Engineers, Kandyan
Province. made a strong protest through the
Commanding Royal Engineer, Colombo. by a
letter dated 18 December 1851, addressed to
the Governor. (See Appendix No.6)
1. S L. N. A 18/3411.
2. S L. N. A 18/ 655 Kandy. 6 August 1920.

-12

Inspite of this protest the Governor granted a
block of land to the Episcopel Church Society,
which was earlier part of the land called the
Eastern Redoubt. (See grant re-produced in
Appendix No . 7.)
Reverend H. H. Von Dadelszen and Lt. Col.
P hi I potts are bot h bur i e d a t the Gar r i son
Cemetery;
Members of the Church were permitted to
purchase blocks of land In the cemetery for burial
of members of their family . I
In 1920 the Conservator of Forests was keen
on re-acquiring the land for reforesting, as the
following letter shows :
"Sir,
.... Would it be possible to reacqui re for the
cro w n Lot 49877 whicr IS ow ned by St. Pau l's Church.
Thl lot IS In patana and IS entirely unc ultivated In any
w ay To al l in tents and purposes it is crown .
.. 2. Shou ld we be able to acqUire this we should
reforest the pata na areas below the Eastern Redo ubt
and the top of the above mentioned lot, which would
proba Iy prove of benefit to Kandy from a scen ic point
of vi ew. and w e should at the sam e time erect a Range
Officer' s bungalow in the blocks in que stion near the
old garrison burial ground .. 2

64
The area adjoining this cemetery was John
Fraser's Land . Recently (1982) the land was
cleared of trees and two houses put up ,
mutilating the scenic beauty of the forest .
The Secretary, Municipal Council, Kandy,
writing to the Government Agent. Central
Province, Kandy, regarding the land adjoining the
military medical officers' quarters in Malabar
Street stated :
",Sir,
With reference to yo ur lette r 225 of 12 A ugust
1920 I have the honour to state that no buria ls have
taken place on block T. P. 49 87 1 adjoini ng the old
Garrison Burial Ground. On the closi ng o f th e latter
Ground in 1875 a Genera l Cemetery at Mahaiyawa
was opened in the s ame year and t he bu rial o f
Episcopalians took place in the portion set apart the re
for the Church of England.
"2 The land In question IS under lease to the Kandy
Municipal Council since January 19 07 ,, 3

The land in question is at present under the
management of the Forest Department.
The following description of the Garrison
Cemetery is from J . P. Lewis 's Tombstones and
Monuments in Ceylon .
. "There is above the lake of Kandy a small oblong plot
of clea red ground bordered on three sides by rank
jungle, and covered with equally rank weeds and trailing
gra sses In this plot of gro u nd there are a few
tombstones sparsely scattered . There are more black
headboards marking the resting places of the departed.
and tell ing the name and date of their deaths. There
are , however, a far larger number of low mounds which
tell no tale. beyond a sad one that the remains of some
stranger rests beneath. This IS th e European graveya rd
of Kandy A stranger visiting the spot wou ld be
charmed at th e magnlficient scenery which surrounds
It The silve ry waters of the lake lap the shore just
below, whilst the city Itself, with Its marrying and giving
In marriage. I s din and tu mult , lies a few hundreds of
ya rd s to the west. Across the lake the wooded slopes
of the Mahapa tana crowded With Engli sh bungalows
ri se some thousands of feet in the skies , whilst the
Hantane mountains slope gently down Into the
Peradenlya plain, and the distant summits of Alagalla ,
Bata lakanda and Lapulakanda Giose in the view on the
far off horizon. In thi S lonely spot - for it is lonely,
notwithstanding its near proximity to the great city'- lie
many hundreds of Kindly Scots, who, cut off In the very
prime and vigour of their manhood , sleep the sleep
w hich knows no w aking , under the rank w eeds and wiry
grasses which cover their neglected graves . Many a
3.

S. LN . A . 1Bj655Kandy, lBFebruary1921 .

4
5.
6.

J . Penry LeWIS. Tombstones and MonumenlS
Ibid . P 298
Ibid.

In

sad ta le of ha rd ship, agony, and pain cou ld the tenants .
of these nameless graves tell were they pe rmitted to
speak
"Few of them had any kind friend or neighbour near
to comfort them in their la st sad agony, to place even a
glass o f cool water to their parched and burning
tongue, or to speak a word of comfort to their often
troubled mind. Left to the care of native servants, many
of these young men died friendless and neglected in
some distant jung le bungalow, from fever, from
cholera , diarrhoea, or dysentery.
"The brandy bottle finished many of them for, as
Anthoney Trollope justly remarks, there is no other
solace at hand to cheer the loneliness of the w ild jungle
lite, and there are but few minds so cons tituted as to
take kindly to the history of England and other equally
recondite subjec ts of improving literature . Many were
brought into the Kandy hot els In a dying condit ion, but
their fate was not much improved by the change.
Poss ibly a fellow planter might be at hand and look into
see the dYing man , but what could he do for him in his
ignorance and helpless ness in every thin g connected
with the sick bed (Autobiography of a Periya Du ra'i) "
"There's no doubt some exaggeration here both as
to numbers and the circums tances attending the
deaths of the "Kindly Scots" . It can hardly be the case
that the r e are hundreeds of them buried here
un commemorated ; the register s do not bear thi s Out .
The statements would be correc t as to number If it
referred. to privates of British regiment s and their wives
and children . In 1824 for instance, there were 168 of
these burials , in 1825 there were 50, In 1826,29, and
in 1827,23 . There are about a dozen tombs of the
"table " tomb pa ttern , from which the name-p lates have
disappeared, which probably date from the twenties
and thirties. The register goes back to 1822 , in which
year doubtless the cemetery was opened.,,4

Sir John D'Oyly's tomb - "A broken fluted
column of masonry with marble tablet" 5
dominates the tombstones at the Garrison
Cemetery. The tomb bears the following legend :
"In memory of the Hon'ble Sir John D'Oyly Baronet,
ReSident of the Kandyan Provinces , and one of the
members of His Maje sty 's Council of this Island .
"Whose meritOriOUS services to this government
from the year 1802 and his ta lents during the Kandyan
war stand recorded In the Archives of this Government
and In the office of the Secretary of State for Colonies .
Born June 11 th, 1774

Di ed at Kand'y', May 25th 1824

Ag ed 49 years
He was the second son of the Rev . Mathias Doyly,
late Archedeacon of Lewes In Sussex .
And thiS memorial is erected by hi s thr ee survIving
broth ers ,, 6

Ceylon, COlombo. 191 3 . p 295

65
ants
d to

An imposing tomb at the Garrison cemetery is
that of John Fraser who died on May 29, 1862,
The epitaph on the tomb reads :

near
en a
ni ng
Ilten
1any
din

rom

"Lieut. General John Fraser . Colonel of the 37th
Regiment.
and
for
many
years
Deputy
Ouarter-Master-General to the Troops serving in
Ceylon. who died at Kandy. , . aged 72 years,
"A brave and accomplished soldier .

"A devoted and affectionate father .

. as
ther
ng le
s to
ually
vere
but
1ge..
into
1his
:ted

, as
the
:ase
lere
out.
If It
'Ives
B of
and
the
lave
Ilies

"This tomb is erected by his surviving children ."

J, p , Lewis continues in "Tombstones and
Monuments in Ceylon "
"General Fraser was with General Sir Charles Napier
at Marlow. and led the forlorn hope at the siege of
Burgos ,
"He was gazetted to the 1st Ceylon Regiment from
the 24th Regiment as Captain on January 28. 1813 .
He took part In the Kandyan War of 1815 and in the
suppression of the Uva rebellion. During the latter
operations he commanded an expedition into Kotmale
in August. 1818, and was in pursuit of Pilima Talawwa
(the third chief of notoriety of that name) in the
Kurunegala and Nuwarakalawiya Districts . He was at
"Dambool Vehary" on the morning . and at Nikawewa.
16 miles distant. on the evening of September 28.
Next day he proceeded to Tirippane. 18 1/2 miles . and
the same night to "Nagore Tank" (Nuwarawewa) at
Anuradhapura. leaving his detachment behind under
Lieutenant O·Neil. "In 1822. after the suppression of
the rebellion . government having learnt that anot_~er
pretender to the Kandyan throne had set himself up (In
Neuracalava). Major Fraser of the Ouarter Master
General ' s Department was sent off with a body of
troops. with orders to proceed by forced marches. so
as to lay hold of him and his abettors". This was done.
and Major Fraser caught the pretender and some of his
ii!-advised adherants,,7 But perhaps. General Fraser is
best known in connection with the satinwood bridge
that for many year s spanned the Mahaweli ganga at
Peradeniya. and was one of the sights of Ceylon . It was
erected in 1832-33 . Work was begun in July 1832.
and the bridge was finished by January, 1833. The
span was 205 feet with a single arch. It was desinged
by and set up under the superintendence or Lieutenant
Colonel Fraser . Major Skinner says in his book . "In
1833. while I was in charge of the work. the

I

Peradeniya bridge was completed This is a very
graceful bridge.
made entirely of satinwood
7.
A
9.
10
11.

James Campbell, "Excursions in Ceylon", Vol 11. p 231.
Major T Skinner. " Fifty Years In Ceylon", London , 1891, p 168.
J. Penry Lewis, opcit.pp 313-4.
Ibid. p 308.
J. Penry Lewis. op .cit. 308.

without a nail or bolt in it. A model of this bridge is now
in the South Kensington Museum"s The bridge lasted
until 1905. when it was replaced by an iron one.
General Fraser had a great deal to do with court
martials and inquiries during the Matale rebellion and
afterwards he engaged in coffe planting. and bought
land extensively in the neighbourhood of Kandy.
especially on the side on the road to Haragama . "Fraser
Lodge" in Kandy was built or occupied by him.
"In the fifties. "Ge neral Fraser ("Cheetah as the
Kandyans termed him . because of his severity in 1818)
who did so much. as Deputy Ouarter-Master-General
with his Assistant, the Lieutenant Skinner. to map and
road the island. resided in patriarchal fashion with his
family at Rangboda.
,,9

Also buried here are Harriet Fraser. his wife,
with the infant to whom she gave birth and four
of her sons,
Captain pavid Meaden owned land at
Udavattekale. The legend on his tomb reads
"September 21. 1854 David Meaden .
"Cap tain David Meaden . H . M. Ceylon Rifle
Regiment. who after a residence of 36 years in this
Island died at Kandy
. aged 66 1/2 years ,,10

According to J, p, Lewis :
"Sergeant-Major David Meaden . 83rd Regiment.
was gazetted Ensign on November 7. 1818 . He was
appointed Adjutant of the Armed Lascoreens. and on
March 25. 1820. adjutant of the 2nd Ceylon Regiment
with the rank of 2nd Lieutenant. He was a fellow
passenger of Lieutenant-Colonel James Campbell.
45th Regiment. author or "ExcurSions. &c. in Ceylon"
When he returned to England in the Princess Charlotte.
which left Colombo on August 27. 1823. another
passenger being the Rev. J . S. Pering. Chaplain at
Kandy. from December 1821 . Captain Meaden had
married at the Cape on January 8, 181 5. His wife died
at. Colombo in 1849 (see No . 175) He was father of
Lieutenant Colonel James Meadenof the Ceylon Rifles
(See No . 448) His daughter, Margaret Susan. married
at Kandy on January 9. 1857 , Capt . Lionel Hook.
Ceylon Rifles . She died at Trtncomalee. February 2.
1858. aged 24. Another daughter. Alice married
Captain C T. Clement. C R. on January 1. 1852 (see
No . 132)" "

\,

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==~~-L______--------~
183

13e

List and plan of persons buried at Garrison Cemetery.

5u"':..c..L(ed bl{ Jfr H.

"UI77e'

J/""mb"tt:;ls)

f?Hec tiP, J..OLy.. 271 f'{lJlltlm/ty

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148 t/ohfl .Ge,.ard (i1l'3er
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144 Nev///e H 8',:h
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115 a""'rud" Ern,!!! r,"!5Tson
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116 ol<3nc rChor/~s Edwcrrrl
115 ucOt:!Je Crowe
IH "~rn"s.5~ 8/acJ.dl
16 1.o,:,is MOIJnus Hemy
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II~ FnJclr/clr .mrnhal71.
110 Wi/liOn? "-allh"w
II' HenncHct JlaJ'Ya Han".!!
III Mr:v-.!J /fl''.!lhl
120 Thomas PenrDlh" Me Cad
'12 .HanneJ,Prude.!J
JZI Herber! £dwarrlC,."".!"Dna'?j 153 Isa6olla.lf. Ros..
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157 Cnu,.les P J/arlru$

126 oS~" LoullJe Sa&man
1M Htv"OleI 8rt>wn

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12M J~Il" L"UJl3
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IU Rob..I"I.Jll'71Ol1
1&1 ,,'-/I/a_ pyoeior
130 j;me/,"o ..ender.1on(nolfound)
Hon'bk James (au'field
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J(t:rcht::"J;cn, bal formd ,"n ~vr; 'I'!!!L

131 Jame6 Hem:') Fretz
VIde CrQ<.Vn R"''1u/$,?io¥1 IIP.C.ls
110

10!1

107 Eliza DOl/elM .JoI!J·
C/n,'."115 Henr.:; If~cclrm

108

~-----

72 Jame3 Jfac.,J.tJR

OF

Mo,'::Jrel uOIrllDclt
.
E ",mund Stl,"~son Warm.!! 10QMargCll"el JJSNorIhW'!J
John .'1po/f,"s J1'oode Roberl~on '01 Hl7/iam R"''' L!!'d
Ma"'l ./Inn Ileac/en
102 John [k,Jru f.ue.
OJellr:e fiu,dd
10J Cam,Pb4l1
ooo/d Jlolr ...
104
U~""
//fa,.lin Fraser
106 .Jo'w'ah Phi"" :!J!JokI
mlliam £lIe,.~
106 oo'"ald BJ''!!.

U,,,,dY'T

PI _,

Ed",ard PoiJf"dull"t:
£/;",a.J/nn PFiJI'f..oI6
HMrJ Jarn,..s JI/I",,&;
.Ab"a~m Hew/on };antlt1fn
..IInl"o":!. DeantJ
"am~~ s",i/I.
oatJId Bell
(.are!! Curand
,.
Hau<jhlon tie<»"!JtJ ROhde
WJI/'a1T7 Toi'
,. 1Io,.;e ../Inn Be!!
¥ {ieor.!]e Hen,.!! Freelr/elon
~4 H""'Y mllian? de E"k,.,.,.
55 JoJm Hen,,":! C0r,neli
~ Jlur!! .(Inn H~lr
57 Fn1fflCIS Hllhble Donce
4s ,josefh O'8,.,"en
~ Mar:J. .finn S}ovt!r$
61) Oar"d Meaden

!4-2

rem'p/cV"

ce .~n Dr'" r~rl0J7e
Nle'Yfl",J''Y''r OJ Janre$ Plunk«H.

34 WI~t'!:1'" lIonu3 Saunders

~/tn TOIle

EIrz.abeIhSe:Jor.

fel/~ £dmon~lone SfoH,11

i"" Hem'!! /n!Jleb"

fl. Hal'l',el ~~lJe,.
:;.~
IS John HiJ'!/'.J"r
(;:i
.10 }fen oj Jhe Ro!!alJlJ.·Mlt!I".9
"
81 "dan Innlls
32 /lfCV''1..i'111 Fdnno"l"
;\ ~8
d3 EI71Ii:l Fenno,,'
i!'''' jDu",'; "',

17 <.ooeoa:oftU,9uJU(;

5.''''''

Ala,:! Gunn (nolJountj

.II/ice Bill
RobeJ"t Bl'cumJ'i!lf! Frafer
Zs Cha,.I... Ca"'tobal/ Frcu.,.
U Hen'Y r,.ilh F/,.~c

if

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IIi!

" r"tJcJnr.1: Gorman

I!o r.·/oma,fJ Ire land

19 C~arJe!J Bo.Jle 0 .. l.aln!

1'1 lI1cv:JurtH .fllan
18 Jt!!6$.!/. OOU.3/as

.J,,",e~ RLl3ell role

7 Jonn:! .Iro/;J1o .iJ9 ar

/I

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39

j

3 H,ea/e .5winb~r''''
\.u
~ eha,./e:J Swmbt.U"nd
~f
It, John "r:"":;OYJ lIi/cbef/001joun''Jt.•
/I John D D.!J'!/
4,
II. }tfar<p,y/ S,."J.hOlw
.,
13 Q,.,J{fotJ/e" Su-:Jr. R.N. Gunn
f8
I • .John JlanUJarin.!l.
'"
" J(OI".!! J}nn p,.oudjoo!
10
16 John IMer l,ard"
I'

., JamelJ Ba.se!

I Jamu Edwin M~ G.lolh"n
2 Will/am Maco"m,Ch Cox
.3 WIll/om Thor"f'$on
4 .JIIU<.J7de,. Thomf'on
11 "'a,."./Inn n,omf1on
, JI,.CJ,iholJ Xonl!lDmU-,./e

1.187

KANDY GARRISO~EMETERY

OF

ptAN

69
He purchased 120 acres of land behind
Ampitiya in Matanpattana - and Lewis quotes,
William Boyds Autobiography of a Periyadorai
regarding Lt. Col. James Meaden of the Ceylon
Rifles and 57th Regiment. who was David
Meaden's son :
"Had not Captain Meaden , whilst digging the
foundation of his house near. the lake of Kandy, also
discovered hidden wealth of fabulous amount. and
from being a very poor man had he not suddenly
become a very rich man ,.12

Lewis does not confirm this but states there is
corroboration of it and poses the question :
"Is there not land at Kandy still described in deeds as
"Captain Meaden's land 7"'3

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These lands could be seen in the
accompanying map, which also shows the exit of
water from the Kandy Lake, the Dunumandala
Oya flowing down from the direction. of David
Meaden's land down to join the Bogambara
wewa . The water from Bogambara wewa joins
that of the outflow of the lake to continue as the

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12 . Ibid. p. 141 .
13 . Ibid .
14

J . P Lewis.op cit. p 324

Meda Ala past the Hospital which was sited at
the present police barracks above Sirimavo Dias
Bandaranaike road . Could the treasures found
have been in the vicinity of the Hantane
Rajamaha Vihara which was in the
neighbourhood of David Meaden's land?
Another part of David Meadin' s land was bought
by John Fraser - which form the present
premises of the. Kandy Nursing Home in Malabar
Street. where relatives of the Royal Family
lived - Could this have been the site?
Also buried at the Garrison Cemetery was the
wife of Governor Sir William Gregory, Elizabeth
Gregory, who died on June 28, 1873 .
She was wife of the Right Hon . William Henry
Gregory, who was Governor of Ceylon, 1872-1877 .
She was a daughter of Sir William Clay, Baronet. born
July 13 , 1817, and widow of James Temple-Bowdoin.
Esq She married Sir William Gregory on January 1 1.
1872. She died at the age of 43 after a trip to
Anuradhapura .. ,. 14

The King ' s Palace, Kandy

Courtesy : R. K. de Silva

CHAPTER X

EASTERN REDOUBT

On the hilltop, a grassy
of ramparts gone and grav es;

swe ll

remains

- anonymous

The Eastern Redoubt was part of a military
station called Fort Macdowall during the early
British times . It is at present about 2 acres in
extent . P. B. Dolapihilla refers to it in his book In
the days of Sri Wickramarajasingha, Last King of
Kandy,
"Sankili, Captain of the Javanese mercinaries, pushed
up to the Maha Maluwa and beg an an attack on the
enemy in front. · Upon Uda wa tta hill, behind their
stro nghold, the English had put up fortifi ca t ions .
Climbing to the position through forest, Maduga lla
burst into the fort . He slew so many, the blood flowed
III a stream : and all baggage in the fort became booty
Chieftains marching in were now in th e heart of the ci ty.
Ehelepo la advanced to Kumaruppa, W ettawa to the
moat of lakes. M illawa was on the grounds of Malwatte
Monastery and Galegoda on Tungol ew el a close to him.
Madugalla fought in Wewalpitiya Palipana's long lance
went into many an enemy bosom at Kotugodella and
Moladanda had heaps of En glish sla in on
W adugodapi ti ya, M atm agoda fought on Boga-mba ra
and Do reneg ama in Mahaiyaw a Their attac ks thinned
enemy numbe rs." 1

Wewelpitiya referred to was in Udavattekale
and is where the present forest nursery is.
J. B Siebel also refers to the Eastern Redoubt
in one of three lectures he delivered in Kandy in
1889-90 to the Kandy Young People's
Association, the notes of which were
reproduced much later in the Journal of the
Dutch Burgher Union of Ceylon.
"II IS the hil l ab ove the Ga rri son Bur ial Grouncl On Ihl s
Re doubt tllere was. dUfing the ear ly occupat ion 01 tile
Bfltlsll al ter the accession. a milita ry station and
barracks, and th e military bUfia l ground was the pl ot 0 1
groull d Just above the cross road between Malabar
Str eet and Lake roa d. a little beyond and above the
Pal sOl1age . I was wa lki ng one morn ing about thiS place
SOllIe years ago With my brot her . Mr E. L. Siebel, w hen
we alighted upon a gran ite tomb stone pa rtly covered
With earth On cleaflng the rubbish we lound the
foll OWing InSCflptlons :
HERE LIES THE

aged 26 years
'He distinguished himself In the Battles of Busato and
Albuera . He ser ved In Germany . where he was
appolilted a Companion of the Gu elpil ic Order o f
Klfl ghlhood, and he obtained the Medal best owed by

1. P B. Dolapihilla , In (he days of So Wlckramarajasingha. Las( King of Kandy. COlombo 1960, p 127

-13

BODY OF CAPTAIN JA ME S
McGLASHAM

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73
their grateful country on all who fought at Waterloo . In
his illness he received the Holy Sacrament with
exemplary devotion, and under the lingering approach
of a painful death he was sustained by manly fortitude
and Christian hope .'
" Thls young Scotchman had , though young
distinguished himself in the Peninsular Wars and was
moreover a Waterloo Hero . It is sad to think that he
should have died so early in life, and that his body
should be laid at rest in a strange land , so far from his
home and his fr iends . The grave stone has, I
understand , been since removed to the Garrison Burial
Ground .
"The Eastern Redoubt was also known as 'One Tree
Hill' and was a sort of historical landmark. I have an old
picture in which this tree is shown, but I fear that this
tree has been lately cut down and its place knows it no
·
,
more."2

c

o

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QJ

~

There is a reference to the Eastern Redoubt in
J. P. Lewis's Tombstones and Monuments in
Ceylon, (1913) . 'It is in connection with the
grave-stone of the afore-mentioned Captain
MacGlasham.

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"This tomb is not in situ . It was found some twenty
years ago just above 'Lady Longden's Drive on the
cacao estate of Mr . L Pieris, south-east of One
Tree -Hill, which was the citadel of Kandy ' in the early
years of the British occupation" (Bennett, p . 424) .
Burials must have taken place here before the opening
of the present "Old Garrison Cemetery", to which this
tombstone was removed a few years ago . It is a very
well-preserved flat stone . There is no trace of other
tombs to be found here now . Yet several military
officers, Surgeon Reeder of the 51 st (See Cordiner ,
Chp 19) Captain Carrington, Lieutenants Henderson
and Bausset of the Malay Regiment , and Blackeney,
Byne and Plenderleath of the 19th, as well as two
civilians Messrs. Joseph Wright and Edward Tolfrey,
were buried at Kandy between 1803 and 1821 , not to
speak of the officers killed in the massacre of 1803 .
Probably they lie buried under the dense shade of the
cacao trees which now covers the site, and their
gravestones are several feet deep under accumulations
of silt and humus .,,3

A report on this piece of ground written in
1837 by Captain & Lieutenant Major G. G,
Thompson, Commanding Royal Engineers,
Kandyan Provinces, reads as follows :
"Report upon the Ground upon which the Eastern
Redoubt is situated, and upon that reserved for Military
purposes or non occupation ­

"Having carefully perused the correspondence and '
examined the plan received from the Major General
Commanding and having also inspected the ground
upon which the Eastern Redoubt is situated that, upon
which Colonel Fraser has built and, that decided upon
to be reserved for Military purposes or non occupation,
I beg leave to submit the following Report:
"The letter from the Government Agent, Mr. Tumour
evidently refers to some other than the plan now

produced, as the references do not accord , and the

dates of the letter and plan show that the letter was

. written before the plan was prepared, in this opinion I

am borne out by Mr.Tumour to whom I have referred

who tells me that his letter was accompanied by

another plan and not by that now produced but it was

similar .
·With regard to the expressions used in the
Commanding Royal Engineers letter of the 4th July
1836 viz . 'at least to the extent of preventing buildings
of brick or stone' being erected within them, I beg leave
to observe that such is the mode of expressing the
opinion or decision upon points relative to questions of
Ground belonging to Government which it may be
considered necessary to reserve for Military or other
purposes, or for non occupation, but which if not
immediately required for such purposes, the
Government might under special circumstances permit
temporarily the use of (until required) under certain
stipulated restrictions, and in the present 'case those
stipulations are expressly defined, but upon no account
can it be considered or construed into an acquiscence
of a concession in perpetuity to any person, such never
being intended but only to secure the Government if it
should think fit to allow anyone the temporary use of it
until required.
"Having thus reported upon that part, the next point
is relative to the portion of that ground so reserved,
which it would seem advisable should be wholly and
entirely retained by Government and upon wh!ch not
even a temporary indulgence can be granted to any
one, it is invariably the practice to set a part a certain
portion of the surrounding ground of all works for the
purposes of repairs, etc .. alterations &c . upon which
nothing except what is connected with such work car")
be permitted. In the present instance I am of opinion
that the whole of the top of the hill upon which the
Eastern Redoubt is found should be in reserve . that is
to say so far as the ground extends until it becomes too
steep to be applicable for the purposes for which it is
reserved. either for repairing or extending the works.
·On the West side in front of the Fort 50 feet from
the ... as far as the ditch extends. and the same
distance from the foot of the parapet of that part
beyond: where the ditch is discontinued.

2. J. B. Siebel, "A Dipinto the Story of Ka~dy", Journal of the Dutch Burgher Union of Ceylon , Vol. XLIV, No.3, July 1954. p.99.
3 . J. Penry Lewis, Tombstones and Monuments in Ceylon, Colombo, 1913, p.296 .

74

Earthworks of Fort McDowall which Malor Davy attempted to defend against Sri Wickrama's chieftains .
"On the East side 40 feet from the same a
corresponding point or until Ir becomes very steep .
"On the South West face of the Knoll, or extension of
the work 120 fee t from its foot in order to obta in
material for repairs &c .
"On the North side or looking towards Artillary Depot
on that side of the hill near the Fort , to the Depot that
wou ld be placed within two line s drawn from the 50
feet wes t, 40 feet east to each end of the Artillery
Depot and lines in this to enable the Artillary face
access in case of need ... on the North side for 50 feet
all round the prolongation of the outwork as well as the
Fort itself.
"Having reported as above I see no oblection (should
the Government desire it) to the temporary use of the
remaining parts of the ground though from a perusal of
the corresponde nce and considering the liberal
concession made to cover and lo ss I could not . . with
duty re commend it ,,4

The Fort is the one which the ill-fated Major
Davie defended*. The site is on the very summit
of the hili - above the Kandy Nursing Home.

"Th e hill top behind the palace was called Fort
McDowall by British Administrators of Kandy to whom
the hill, as a resting place of many British notables of
early Britis h days, was sacre d . British forces as they
ad va nced In 1803 put up forts at Dam bade niy a,
Ginhagama, Galagedara on the Colombo route, and a
Fort McDowall 16 miles on the Trlncomalee Road .
Perhaps the fort on this hill was meant to be a
permanent one and was as such named after the
General Commanding the war. ,,5

John Fraser had been granted land in
Udavattek"ale, adjoining the Eastern Redoubt.
which the military authorities wanted him to
exchange for some land eleswhere. The
following is the correspondence with regard to
that piece of ground between George Turnour
Government Agent. Central Province and John
Fraser.
"Sir,
I have the honour to inform you that I am quite
prepared to relinquish, to whatever extent it may be
required that I should do so, the portion of
"Ooddawatte Kelle" (in the North Eastern side of

4 . S.L.NA 6/1475 Cap lain G. F. Thompson, Commanding Royal Engineers, Kandyan Provinces , Kandy. 28 July 1837
• Malor DaVie was In charge of Ihe decimaled Bnllsh forces which occupied Kandy In 1803 He made a Ireaty w ith Pilima Talauve, the first Ad igar . to
withdraw from Kandy on the condition that Mutuswam i - a relat ive 01 king Sn Wickrama RaJaslnghe - whom the British had crowned king of Kandy,
would be surrendered. Not only was Mutuswaml killed but all Davle's troops In cluding those lYing sick In the hospital at Kandy w ere massacred Major
DaVie and another managed to escape .
5 . P. B. Dolplhilla, In the Days of Sri W,ckremajaslnghe, the last king of Kandy, Colombo, 1960 ; see note on map of SenkadagaJa.

75
Malabar Street) which it appears from the
correspondence and Survey transmitted to me, with
your letter of the 2nd instant , it is proposed. . to the
works that have been constructed on the summit of
that hill, subsequen tly to the ground in question, having
fallen into my possession .
.
"The space marked off for such appropriation in your
Survey (which together with the other enclosures of
your letter is herewith returned) consists it will be seen
of about five acres or rather more than one half of the
area represented
"With regard to my limits In the opposite
direction
have only to state that, as they have
undergone no alteration since they were finally settled
by the Colonial Secretary's letter of the 17th November
1836, I am of course satisfied with them and intend
6
therefore to adhere to them ...

Fraser agreed to part with the land he
possessed in Udavattekale in exchange for a
block of land across the road - Malabar
Street - where originally the King's barn was.
This land is referred to in the following letter
written by George Turnour, Government Agent,
Central Province to the Colonial Secretary :

.

"Sir,
With reference to the accompanying plan of
Malabar Street and of the ground adjacent. I beg to
state that the allotment of ground granted to Lieut. R.
Mylens have been purchased by Col. Fraser who has
built thereon a masonry cottage and has thereby
entitled himself under your letter of 24th November
1834 to a grant in perpetuity

"On the ground marked A, Colonel Fr aser ha s
constructed a spac ious and substantia l masonry
residence and I have now to submi t that officer's
Application that he may receive a government grant
including therein both the above mentioned allotments
"Subsequent to the commencement of these
buildings a part of the Crown of the hill included in both
these allotments has been appropriated for the
erections of military works thereon and it has not been
defined yet by the military authorities what extent of
ground will be ultimately acquired to be reserved for
these works. Although this grant cannot be made out
until the boundaries of the military works alluded In the
Assistant Military Secretary's letter of the 20th October
1834 are defined, I have to reque st that in view of the
ground thus last to Colonel Fraser the ground marked B
may be added to his grant in part or entire
compensation for his loss as the case may hereafter
stand.
"In this particular piece of ground however a previous
application has been made by Lt. Reddy and I beg to
enclose the correspon dence which passed upon that
occasion .
"Considering that some indemnification is due to
Colonel Fraser for the ground appropriated for military
works whereas no such plea can be urged by Lt .
Reddy, I consider myself called upon to recommend
that the preference, should be given to Colonel Fraser' s
application coupled however, with the condition that he
shall not appropriate that ground to any other purpose
which would Ju st ly be deemed a prejudice to Lt.
Reddy's premises
To prevent doubt and
misconceptions in this respect it would, perhaps be
expedient to specify that a wall at least 6 ft. high shall

'Of •

MAP OF

MALABAR

STREET

Showing

I - Sinhaputra

Finance Company

2 -U.S .I.S . Library

3- Buildi'lg Engine..'s Qucrters

4-RajaslnQhe Ubrary
A

5 - Malabar Hause
6-Kandy Club
7- Kandy Nursing Home

6 S.LN.A. 6/1475 Kandy. 20 September 1837 .

8 -Malobar Street.

9-Lake Road

10 - Survey BlP;IOlow

K

8
" .1.

...............MILI.TARY HOSPITAL & OffiCERS . Q.8&.­
..

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tr~ ... •
... c:;; r..

.. "',Iirr".d

"II!

"'Iot'~''''

Military Hospltal
. Map

78
be bu ilt near to the street. if any stables or outhouses
are erected. the front of wh ich in facing the street and
immediately opposite Lieu!. Reddy ' s dwelling house ,,7

"Upto these circumstances and consideration I
submit Colonel John Fraser's request for the favourable
consideration of government .

The 'substantial masonry residence'
mentioned is the present Fraser Lodge - part of
the property of the Kandy Nursing Home Ltd.,
purchased from the estate of the late L. H. S.
Pieris and ~amily.
Another letter written by George Turnour to
the Colonial Secretary recommends the granting
of a block of land on special conditions.

"I take this opportunity of notifying that the grant
proposed to be reserved included also a portion of the
land granted to Lieut . General Sir S!. Laws ,,8

· Sir.
Having had an opportunity of communicating with
Colonel Fraser on the subject of his intended grant. I
have now the honour to return the maps which were
forwarded to me with your letter of the 14th July last .
"In reply thereto I am requested by that officer to
submit for the consideration of the Right Hon'ble the
Governor the serious prejudice which would be
produced to his property . (on which he has la id out a
considerable sum of money) if the government store
there situated oppos ite to and elevated above his
dwelling house. were it. any time converted to any
other use than a store .
"He therefore trusts that at the same time that a
clause be inserted in the grant prohibiting of his
constructing any buildings of brick or stQne within the
space defined by the dotted line. (which was promised
him at the time he commenced building his house . His
Excellency will be pleased to consent to the site . of that
store as marked in pencil in the map being included in
the survey of his grant and a clau se being added in that
instrument to the effect that the public building in
question should not be otherwise occupied while in the
possession of government than as a store and that in
the event of government no longer requiring it for that
purpose. he should be allowed to purchase the building
alone at an appraisement. the ground reverting to him
gratuitously either by such purchases of the store or by
government (requiring) the materials of the building.
"From no part of th is proposition do I see any rea son
to withho ld my recommendation . excepting only as far
as it fetters government to the use to wh ich a public
building shall be appli ed - that particular stipulation of
it would be drawn into a precedent - would certainly
be free from objection .
"It appears to be. however. that the clause proposed
may be so worded as to be explanatory of his
concession being made as a compensation for ground
already partly granted and partly promised and which
had been si nce requ ired for military purposes .
l

S.L.N .A 6/1475 No. 86 Ka ndy. 18 March 1837 .

8

S L NA 6/ 1475 No. 296 . Kandy. 26 OC lober 18 36 .

9

SLN .A 7/1 069 Part I and II refer s 10 Ihese land grant s.

This Informa\lon was given

10

me by a grand nephew of Jeronls Pieris.

10. The Ceylon Observer Centenary Number . Sunday. February 4. 1934 .

The store referred to is the gabadawa or grain
store of the Kandyan king which was a public
building but given by a "special modified" grant
to General Fraser. The grant of this ground is
given in Appendix 8.
The store or gabadawa was purchased by the
Pieris-Soysa family and from them by one Philpot
later on. Ultimately it becam'e the home of the
Kandy Club, patronised earlier exclusively by
Europeans. In the late Nineteen Forties, the first
Sri Lankans made their intrusion into the
membership which is now completely Sri
Lankan .
General Fraser's land extended from the
present new Survey office in Malabar Street. the
Kandy Club 9 and Pieris Watte up to the lower
section of Lewella Road - the upper part being
Maligawa paddy fields and lands; (see map of
Udavattekale of 1893) Pieris Watte was
purchased by Jeronis Pieris, the property passing
down the line to L. H. S. Pieris and heirs .
In former times this land was a forest
continuous with Udavattek'ale and was known as
Pattiya Watte Kale into which the king released
the elephants not needed by the state. Elephants
were tethered there whenever the monarch
staged elephant combats on the Maha Maluwa
in front of the Maligawa. The best and strongest
specimens were retained by the king, the others
released into Pattiya Wane Kale. *
"Under Sri Vikrama RaJa singhe the elephants were
driven into the esplanade (Maha Maluwa) at Kandy and
captured under the eye of the king as he s at
surrounded by his court in the Oc tagon . This method
was decribed to Mr . A. M . Ferguson by one who had
seen it . namely. the late Kambuwatawana Dissawa. the
first Dissawa of the Seven Korales after the British
occupation. who, as a youth of seventeen years had
been in the court of the las t king of'Kandy ,, 10

79

ant
the

IS

ot
the
by
irst
he
Sri

:he
the
ver

school - Queen ' s College in 1880 II The
elevated stage and the large hall could still be
seen today.
Malabar House which is across the road was
the Military Officers ' Mess - see map . Today
this building is occupied by the Highways
Engineer.
In 1848, a proctor by the name of Beven
purchased the property on which the present
Singhaputhra Finance Company stands and built
a residence - "Rose Mount". This property
passed through the Valli bhoy family to the
present owners . Beven also owned the property
Lake View - the present School Medical
Officer's premises on Sangaraja Mawatha.
Before Victoria Drive (Sangaraja Mawatha) was
constructed. Udavattek'ale extended up to the

lake .

The extension of Mahaiyawa Cemetery from

Udavattekale is given in Appendix 9.

Malabar Street had mainly Military Officers
Quarters, the Military Hospital which occupied
the present Kandyan Arts Association was the
Kunam Maduwa - Palanquin Bearers' site, and
had the old Cholera Hospital below - this was
recently excavated - (see map)
The Military
barracks and Military Doctor's ' quarters exterided
from the bungalow of the Engineer, Buildings
Department, and the present American Centre
up to the road leading to the museum.
The Buildings Engineer's Bungalow was the
military doctor's quarters (see map). Lieutenant
David Meaden ' s property became Lambert
House which was purchased by Susew Soysa
and named after his nephew . It is now part of the
Kandy Nursing Home . Previous to it being
incorporated in the Kandy Nursing Home, it was
the Dharmaraja College Hostel. The Nurses '
Quarters of the Nursing Home was a Girls '
SHEET

14

8

BY W. R . NORD

Oct. 1868

SURVEY OFFICE, KA>I)Y SHOWING BUWNGS

ing

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,as

ing

1st
as
ed

Its

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ere

Ind

iat
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the
38- Mohomoyc

Ish

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school

39-ViCloric Projec t Offi ce
4')-School medico I Off ice

d

96 -Kandy Club
102 -Divisional

SlM' v ey

103 -H ighways

Engi'l eers Rec.idence

Of f ice

IO !5-Kcnd y Ar t Association

M ap o f Kandy showing buildings along Malabar Stree t and Lake Road - W R. Nord 1868 .
1 1 S.L.N A 18(3 4 11 No . 37 of April 2 3 1880

-14

-

--

-

----------------------

~

-........--­

Rama Vihare - I-'hotograph by T. S U de Zylva.

CHAPTER XI

TEMPLES AND HERMITAGES

"Those upland glades delightful to the soul,

Where the kareri spreads its wildering wreaths,

Where sound the trumpet-calls of elephants;

Those rocky heights with hue of dark blue clouds,

Where lies embosomed many a shining tarn

Of crystal clear cool waters, and whose slopes

The "herds of Indra" cover and bedeck.

Here is enough for me who fain would dwell

In meditation rapt, mindful and tense."

-Psalms of the Brethren, Thera Gatha XVIII, p. 267, v.

Another entry made on March 12, 1812.
records Kaskandawala Unnanse's statement
concerning Major Davie :
"It was thought at fir st, that he had been brought to
Kandy for the purpose of killing him - He was lodged
one night at Asgiri Wihara and then sent to Udawatte
Keyle and after 15 days, wa s brought back to Kandy,
and lodged in Kumarupe Widlya where none but
Malabars, not even pries ts can go ,,2

4

RAMA VIHARA
The early history of Rama Vihara, based on the
Asgiri Upatha, was related in the very first
chapter of this book.
References have been made to Rama Vihara
during British times by various writers. One was
D'Oyly .
The entries in D'Oyly's diary are with regard to
the statements made by his informants
concerning Major Davie who was captured in
1803 by King Sri Wickrema Rajasinghe during
the massacre of the British troops at Lewella .
One entry made on February 1, 1812 records
that Pannala Unnanse stated that :
"The English gentlemen had been brought sick tL
Kandy, kept there for 3 days, and then sent away, it is
not known for certain whither, but it is believed he is
now residing at Udawatte Pansala.

The "Udawatte Pansala" referred to by Pannala
Unnanse is the Rama Vihara and Kumarupe
Vidlya referred to by Kaskandawala Unnanse is
Malabar Street. As regards the death of Major
Davie - the entry in the diary made on February
16, 1813 reads :
"Assana Captain the Malay Mohm attends at 9 pm
and informs . . to obtain information regarding the
fate of the English officer, he sent for a moorman of his
acquaitance named Sekandu, who made particular
enquiry from the wife of a wa sherman serving in the
family of Muttal Samy, first cousin of the king - she
related that the Englisr officer lay sick with Dysentery
several days in the garden of Muttal Samy, refused to
take medicines and merely drank a little canjy That
biscuits and other things were brought for him from
Colombo but he died in about 1 5 days, and his body
was carried out secretly by nigh't and buried in

1. O'Oyly 's "Oiary", Journal of rhe RAS. (Cevlon), Exrra No. 1913, (1917). p. 87.
2

O'Oyly 's -Olary- , Journal of the R.A S (Ceylon). Extra No 1913. (1917) p . 102 .

82
Udawattekeyle, a jungle near Kandy Thi s happened in
July last. A strict order was given that his death must
not be mentioned, and that any person who said he
was not living should have hi s tongue cut out.
,,3

Simon Casie Chitty's The Ceylon Gazetteer
(1834), also refers to the Rama Vihara .
Describing the situation of the chief Buddhist
temples in Kandy he says :
"Th e Rama Vihara , situated on a h il l near the
termination of Trincoma lee Street , on the east side-"4

A reference to Rama Vihara at Udavattekele is
to be found in Lawrie's Gazetteer : of the Central

Province of Ceylon;
"The privilege of being cremated at the Adhahana
Maluwa was accorded only to the king , his mother and
his elder sister; ot her members of the royal fami ly were
cremated at Ba ndagetenna, immediately behind the
Rama Vihara at Udawattekale .,,5

Suriyagoda Sonuththra Terunanse, the
incumbent at Rama Vihara in 1875 was a very
scholary monk and became the first librarian of
the Orient Library at the Pattirippuwa 6 and died
on 12 September 1896 having held office 21
years. He was granted 3 roods of land in
Udavattek'ale bounded on the south by lands
described in plans Nos . 79186 and 126171 and
on all other sides by land said to belong to the
crown . The survey of this land was authenticated
by the Acting Surveyor General on 1 3 February
1883 - Title Plan No. 126169 .
The premises were acquired on 20 March
1883 on a Crown Grant No . 9503 for Rs. 75/- .
After this Bhikku died in 1896, Udugama
Sumangala Thero his pupil applied for the
librarian's post of the Orient Library . Sonuththra
Thero is said to have taught the then
Government Agent Sinhalese, and according to
the late Oluwewatte Dharmakirthi Thero, the
Government Agent gave his trusted cook one
acre of land adjoining and belonging to Rama
Vihara . This land now belongs to Trinity College .

A lawsuit in May 1978 between the late
Ven'ble Oluwewatte Dharmakirthi of Sagama
Raja Maha Viharaya, Talatuoya, who was the last
incumbent of the Rama Vihara till he died on 30
September 1982, and Ven'ble Kevitiyagala
Jinasiri Thero of Kalutara, provides us with more
information on this vihara. According to the
judgment of the case, S.C. No. 423/73 (F)
delivered by N . D . M . Samarakoon
C.J , - Ven'ble Kevitiyagala Jinasiri Thero
claimed to be the lawful Viharadhipathi of the
temple as · the premises was Sangika, but
Ven'ble
Oluwewatte
Dharmakirthi the
defendant-appellant called it Puddgalika property
belonging to him .
A brief summary of this lawsuit is given in
Appendix 10
References to Rama Vihara have also been
quoted in the land grant to the Church
Missionary Society in 1822 . (See chapter on
Trinity College) . Rama Vihara has existed for
many years . Was the land not registered in 1820
when Temple lands were required to be
registered and as such taken over as Crown
Forests? Sonuththra Thero applied for the post
of Librarian when he was chief incumbent of
J
Rama Vihara in 1875 The,interven ing period of
the history of Rama Vihara was baffling until a
note by His Excellency the Governor was found .
"W ith refere nce to the contents of the annexed note
of Hi s Excellency th e Governor, the following
information is taken respectino the lands adjacent to
the Pavilion, the claimant.s are .. . ~) Tambilipiti
Unnanse successor of Nihawela Unnanse of the
Temp le Rama Vihara, claims a portion of paddy land
and high lands to the north of the pond .* Extent of the
paddy lands 2 pelas and of the higr la nd 3 amunams
which he states to be the prope rty of the temple,
obtained from the king Wikkrama Bah u. He states that
he has concurred in a proposal made by Hi!; Exce llency
viz. that bei!1g furn is hed with another temple and
Pan sa l together with adjoin ing grounds which the
governor promised to build and bestow, he would
relinqu is h hi s claim to the present .,, 8

3 . Op cit. p. 167 .
4 . Simon Casie Chitty , The Cevlon GBzelleer, Colombo , 1834, p. 57.
5 . A. C. LaWrie, Gazetteer of the Cen tral Province of Cevlon, Vol. I . Colombo. 1896, p2 .
6 . S.LNA 18/3423
7 . S.LNA 18/3 423
• Sea Map of Udavattekale of 1893 . Thi s site is where the present Forest Department Nursary is situated
8 . S. L. NA 18/5 Kandy. January 16. 1841 .

Gangarama Vihare - Photograph by T S. U. de Zylva .

84

Where this temple was built and bestowed is
unknown but the reason for the disappearance of
Rama Vihara is now established. The Governor at
the time was Stewart Mackenzie.
"Stewart Mackenzie was an ardent churchman arid it
was not unusual for him to preside over the annual
meetings of missionary societies ... Missionaries in
Ceylon and their friends in England objected to the
apPointment of Buddh ist priests by the Governor and
demanded a complete severance of the ties between
church and state. Carried away by religious scruples,
Stewart Mackenzie refused to sign the warrants
apPOinting priests to the chief temples because to do
so was "a direct encouragement to Buddhism" . This led
to legal complications, as the temple tenants refused to
pay their rents and the courts refused redress since the
chief priests could be legally appointed only by the
warrant of the Governor . A permanent solution of the
problem was not found till 1852 ,,9

Whether Governor Stewart Mackenzie kept to
his pledge given to Tambilipiti Unnanse is a moot
point.
On 30 March 1983, with the co-operation of
the two present incumbents, Ven'ble Narparna
Saranankara and Ven'ble Ampitiya Dharmapala,
a Bodhi* and Pahan pooja** was held to mark
the hundred years of the existence of the temple
from Ven'ble Sonuththra's purchase of the 3
roods of land in Udavattekale.
The temple as it exists today consists of a
Viharage***, Bodhi tree and bhikkus' quarters ,
THE GANGARAMA VIHARA
The Gangarama Vihara lies on the Lewella side
of Udavattek'ale, commanding a panoramic view
of the Dumbara valley. It is referred to in the
Culavamsa :
"The large, beautiful vihara, well worth seeing, which
IS known as Gangarama because it was built on a fair
spot near the Mahavalukaganga was founded by the
king under the name of RaJamahavihara This vihara

thus superbly furnished with glory and splendour, was
also destroyed by the enemy who had penetrated into
the town. The King had it in the best way restored to ItS
original condition, and Just as .he had held a solemn
ceremony at the former eye fe stival, so (now) he held
another eye festival. After the Ruler of men had
dispensed in great abundance to the painters and so
forth garments, ornaments and other articles and had
sacrificed with many sacrificial gifts, he erected near by
a fair monastery for the community and made a chapter
of bhikkus who devoted them se lves with lasting zeal to
the study and the fulfilment of moral duties, take up
the ir abode there, provid ing them in every way with
what was necessary . Then by holding in the way
described formerly, full of reverence for the Triad of the
jewels, a sacrjficial festival for the Buddha, and at the
same time sacrificing to the chapter of the bhikkus , he
increased the fullness of merit for himself and the laity."
"Now in order that this beautiful fair vihara, worthy to
be seen, that was erected in this manner, and all the
numerous sacrificial ceremonies inaugurated there and
the many meritoriou s works such as the offering to the
community - should be continued for a long time in the
right way, the Ruler determined a village situated nea r
the vlha ra by name Aruppola, and many other villages
and fields, and gardens also, as well as the large ,
populous village by name Udakagama'O in the district of
Mayadhanu and granted them (to the monastery) And
the King confirmed thi s in perpetuity by having an
Inscription graven on the beautiful mountain in the
stone""

Major Forbes writing in 1840 also described
Gangarama thus :
"The dagoba is a solid bell-shaped building, built over
some relic of Gautama ; the Wihara is the temple in
which, before one or more sta tues of Buddha, the
offerings are placed and prayers chanted; the poyage
is the house in which the priests should examine each
other and instruct the people; the pansala, a dwelling
for priests The sacred bo-tree, a slip or seed originally
from that at Anuradhapoora , is planted on an elevated
terrace, and surrounded with a wall on which are small
altars to receive the offering s of flowers; for the
Bo-tree is, equally with images of Buddha , an emblem
to recall to the minds of the people the founder of their
religion The whole of these are generally surrounded
by a wall, in which are numerous niches for containing
lamps, to be lighted on pa rticular fe st ival s by those who
make offerings ,,'2

• Bodh i Pooja -offering of hommage to the Buddha in the form of a ritual. Flowers, incense, lighted 011 lamps etc . are offered In front of the bo-tree and
water poured round the base of the tree . Stanzas describing the virtues of the Buddha are recited .
Pahan POOl - offering of lighted oil lamps in hom mage to the Buddha .
Viharage - Image House.

9
H. A. J . Hulugalle, Briush Governors of Ceylon, COlombo 1963, pp60-1 .
10 Now Diyagama , Three villages of this name might be the one In question (1) Diyagama in the Kalutara District, Vadubadda : (2) Diyagama in tt-e Magul
Otota Korale Kurunegala : (3) Diyagama in the Deyaladahamuna Pattuva , Kegalla (census 1921. II . pA8, 282,514 .)
11 . Culavamsa Part II, translated by Wilhelm Ge iger and from the Germ,an into 'Engl'ish by Mrs . C Mable Rickers (nee DuH) Colombo, 1953. pp.290-1 .
12 . Major J . Forbes. Elven Years

In

Ceylon, Vol. I, London, 1840, p.304 .

r

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e
h

9
Iy
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e
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9

o

.Rock Inscription at Gangarama Vi hare - Photograph by T. S. U. de Zylva .

86

A translation of the rock inscription, which
dates back to 1752 (A.D .) at the Gangarama
Vihara has been given in Lawrie's Gazetteer of
the Central Province of Ceylon : (See appendix
No . 11 A) :
The endowments of the vihare in the Kandy
and Kegalle districts, as given in Lawries'
Gazetteer of the Central Pr6vnice of Ceylon is
also reproduced in the Appendix - No . 11 B.

On 23 February 1949 the land was handed
over by D. S. Senanayake to the Ven 'ble Narada

Thero . The persons who helped in obtaining the

land were C. B. Nugawela, Diyawadana Nilame,

E. A. Nugawela, Education Minister,

A. Ratnayake, Minister of Home Affairs, Richard
Aluvihare, Government Agent, Central Province,

W illiam Gopallawa, Municipal Commissioner,

and A. S. Karunaratna, Mayor of Kandy .

Even today the view that the temple
commands is pleasing but the once lovely
Dumbara valley and the mountains overlooking
it, show man ' s savage attack on the original
primeval forests .

The foundation stone for the Vihara and hall
was laid by E. L. Senanayake, then Mayor of
Kandy, and work commenced on 17 June 1949.
The site was cleared by shramadana by villagers
in the area . A Samitiya called the Kirthisri
The interior of the vihara has, painted on its Rajasinghe Pusthakagara Sadka Samit iya,

walls, panels upon panels depicting jataka which had as its President, E. L. Senanayake,

stories . Sadly the paintings on the exterior have Mayor of Kandy, took over the construction of

been whitewashed by successive incumbents . the building and management.

On a rock face behind the present viharage on

In April 1951 an Upasikawa who wished to

the adjoining hill are markings which may be
vestiges of the roof of a former vihara . Most of remain anonymous built a Kuttiya where ban a

the lands belonging to the temple have been preaching commenced every Sunday. The

disposed of . A 'young bhikkhu now overlooks the committee became very active and collected

temple, while the Nayaka bhikku resides at the tunds for constructing the vihara which was

opened on 6 May 1967 by E. L. Senanayake .

Malvatte monastery.
A small Buduge* incorporating the old image

On the invitation of the late Dr . C. B .

. from the old viharage, referred to above, has
Dharmasena,
bana preach ing followed by
been built by the Talwatte family about fifty years

discussions on Buddhism started from July

ago, according to the present incumbent.
1953. Distinguished scholars from the University
According to an extract from the Temple Lands
of Peradeniya participated and included Prof .
Commissioners' Inquiry, the Gangarama Vihare
Vimal~manda Tennekoon, Prof. O. H. de A.
in 1861 had about 48 acres of land, 13 but today
Wijesekera, Prof. N. A. Jayawickrama, Prof . W .
most of the land has been sold, leased or is in
S. Karunaratne, V. F. Gunaratna, one time Public
the process of being sorted out in the law courts .
Trustee, learned members of the clergy such as
the Ven ' ble Piyadassi Maha Thera of
KIRTHI SRI RAJASINGHE POTHGUL VIHARE
A group of Buddhist citizens of Kandy were
Vajiraramaya, Ven' ble Galkatiyawa Sri
keen on forming a library society and building a
Rathnajothi of Asgiri Vihara and Balangoda

hall for Buddhist discussions . After a prolonged
Ananda Maithri Nayaka Thera also participated in

search the Ven'ble Yatirawana Sri Narada Maha the discussions .

Thero made a request to D. S. Senanayake, the

then Minister of Agriculture and Lands, for a
At present the temple is still a hive of activity

block bfland situated between the property of
on poya days .

the late L. H. S. Peiris and the Kandy Buildings

There . was a prolonged law suit between the

Engineer's Bungalow adjoining a portion of the
garrison cemetery, Udawattek"ale and Malabar trustees of St. Pa.ul 's church and the Library

Socieity. On 16 October 1971 a settlement was

Street.
• BuduQe - Ch ~ rnb.e r where th.e imaoe of the Buddha IS housed. The temple comp!ex is usually comorised of three elements - The Chai tya or Stupa. the
. Bo
13

tree and The Buduge.

Ceylon Sessional Papers - 19 27 - Temple La nd Commissio ne r"s Inquiry. No. 1. 105. October 9 . 1B6 1.

l

I
~

87

ed

da

he
Ie,

H,

Ird

reached between H. S. R. B. Kobbekaduwa, the
then Minister of Agriculture and Lands, the
Church Trustees and Library Authorities. The
settlement was :
(1) The Garrison Cemetery land to be given as
a grant to the Church authorities.
(2) The Church authorities to surrender three
acres, one rood and 33 perches of land
presently held by them on a crown grant.
to the Crown in consideration of the grant
to them of the garrison cemetery land.

;8,

er,

311

Df
3.

(3) The Government Agent. Kandy, to deposit
.in court Rs. 26,000 held by him to the
creditof D. C. Case No. L. 5384.

rs

in

B,

(4) The crown to give a grant to the Library
Authority - (now Kirthi Sri Rajasinghe
Pothgul Vihare) of an extent of 2 3/4
acres of land inclusive of the 1/2 acre now
occupied by them.

e,

Df

o

ra

Sri Dalada Tapovane

e

This temple and meditation centre is at the
junction of Lady Horton's Walk and Russell's
path opposite the Forest Nur.sery In
Udavattekale. One acre of forest land was given
on an yearly lease to the Mathika Matha Society
whose headquarters is at Gothama Tapovane,
Kalapaluwawa, Angoda, by W. J. Fernando, the
then Government Agent. Kandy, on 8 August

d
S

1968.
The founder and life Patron of this society was
the Kammattana chariya Ven'ble K. Vangeesa
Maha Thero Adi Karana Sanganayaka.
At the inception temporary buildings were put
up. consisting of a Bana Salawa, a a shrine room
and two Kutties b . The Chief incumbent and
Viharadipathi was Ven'ble Dodampahala
Chandrasiri Nayaka Thero and is still in charge at
prsent. Representations were made by Sir
Benett Soysa and A. S. Karunaratna of Kandy to
government stating that over a thousand
persons attend bana sermons and meditation
classes and requesting permission to erect
a.
b.
c.
d.
*e.

Sana Salawa - Preachirig hall
Kunies - Living quaners
Dana hall - where meals are offered
Poya - Full Moon.
Sil - Observance of Eight or Ten Precepts.

'4

Udavattekale Reserved Forest File No. 111/22 C. Divn.

-15

permanent structures. The request was acceded
to, the premises being given by a land grant on
21 May 1974.
At present the premises consist of two
preaching halls, one shrine room, one pilgrims'
rest, one danachall, one poyage where
ordinations are held, and accommodation for ten
bhikkhus.
The temple is a hive of activity on all PoyaO
days when mass sir· campaigns are organized,
with nearly a thousand people participating.
School children of the locality visit the temple
for their daily religious observances.
This grant was published in the Ceylon
Government Gazette on September 11, 1970
part III (Lands). l\lotification under Crown Lands
Regulation 21 (2). I Acre, 0 roods, 20 perches
was granted from Lot 44 in town Plan No. 1
25/13 - 4 on a 99 year lease at a rental of
Rs. 180/ per annum.
The Siriwardanaramaya Temple
This temple, situated on Udavattekale land, is of
recent 0rigin. It was founded in 1925 and
formally opened in 1929 by Dr. C. A.
Hewavitharana
and
Kahawe
Sri
Rathanasarabhidana Nayaka thero. The temple
comes under the jurisdiction of the Malvatte
vihara.
The chief dayakayo were Ayurvedic Physician
N. D. S. Samaranayake, M. A. J. Jayasuriya and
Proctor S A. Wijetillake.
On October 8, 1934, D. S. Senanayake, the
then Minister of Agriculture, forwarded a draft
proclamation to the Governor for approval and
publication in the Government Gazette. This
proclamation was for unreserving an extent of
land in Udavattek"ale - a Reserved Forest - and
was issued by the Governor on 10 October

1934.14
The Schedule of the land and the notice
putting into effect the Proclamation Order is
reproduced in Appendix no. 12.

89
Requests for more Hermitages :

There has been a consistant demand for land
from Udavattekafe. The Senanayake Aramaya,
the Forest Hermitage, the Rajasinghe
Pusthakalaya and Tapovane Temples are all
found as islands in the forest. Requests for
housing schemes came at a later date.
In J954 an application was made by Welivita
S,!ngaraja Jayanthi Sabha for 34 acres of land in
Udawala village for a hermitage . The President of
this society was A. Ratnayake, then Minister of
Home Affairs, who in his letter to the
Government Agent, Central Province, on 7
December 1954 requested that,
"if any appreciable portion of the land available is
required for village expansion purposes, I would
request you to allocate instead, the top of
Udavattek'ale , in Kandy . I may mention that the
hermitage will consist of a few cave-like structures and
their construction will not involve the felling of any large
trees or any other large scale clearing of forest or
jungle. ." 15

The matter being referred to the Conservator
of forests by the Government Agent, Central
Province, . the following reply was sent by the
former:
"Udavattekale was declared a Reserve in October
1856 under Ordinance 24 of 1848 and a Reserve
Forest in 1897 . It is now managed by the Department
not only for growing trees but also for scenic purposes.
The excision of the area for a "hermitage" and "retreat"
will mean that the public will be kept away from this
area and deprived of one of the pleasantest reasons for
visiting Kandy. I believe this forest gives great pleasure
not only to visitors from overseas but to a large number
of the permanent population. It is managed by this
department with the object of providing the greatest
good to the largest number, and the Kandy Municipality
maintains the roads for a similar purpose . I should have
thought that Udavattek'ale as a retreat for

Contemplatives and the religious was far too near to
the maddening crowd , the noise of motor cars, and the
noise of railway engines. Hantane or its vicinity, I think
would be better locality for a hermitage or I should think
the top of Forest above the Agriculture school at
Peradeniya .· It would be a pity !o deprive the general
public from entering Udavattekale as would be the case
if the area indicated in blue is to be declared sanctuary
for hermits."16

Numerous other requests for land from
Udavattekale continued and still continue to pour
into the Government Agent's Office during
successive governments, from political parties,
Municipal Councillors, individuals, members of
the clergy, hoteliers, while encroachers and
squatters have put up semi-permanent buildings
or structures in parts of the Forest Reserve.
The forest today is saved from ill planned short
term
development
programmes,
but
Government must continue to enforce the rules
and laws · in existence if this forest is to be
preserved.
Gradually the forest is regenerating itself. Even
during the present severe drought (March 1983)
when all around the undergrowth and land is
parched, cracked and dry - Udavattek'ale stands
out like a lush green oasis. Streams of water
which some years ago were non-existent now
continue to gently pour down the mountain sides
to water the paddy fields in Lewella, the
Dumbara valley and Katugastota, while one
stream flows into the lake. Also noticed during
the drought of 1983 was the fact that the well
below a wall on the road to Lewella near the
Gangarama temple was brimful of water ana
served the neighbourhood generously . Even
bowsers came there to fill up. If this situation is to
continue and improve, vigilance and
enforcement of the rules would be the solution.

15. Udavattekale Forest File No. 111/22 Part (4) Forest D~partment. December 7.1954 .
16. Udavattekale Reserved Forest File No. 111/22 Part (4) Forest Department G 1425. 26 November 1955 .

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CHAPTER XII

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PATHS AND ROADS IN
UDAVATTEKALE

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"Cedar and pine, and fir and branching palm a sylvan
scene, and as the ranks ascend Shade above shade,
a woody theatre of statelies t view ."
- Milton, Paradise LOSI , Book IV, L. 139

The first path to be made in Udavattek'ale was
Lady Horton ' s Walk . This was later constructed

into a road . It begins by the side of the
President's Pavilion gate close to the Maha
Vishnu Devale, skirts the Eastern Boundary of the
Pavilion Grounds and zig -zags its way past the
pond, where it branches to the left and circles a
major part of the forest . At the edge of the
Pavilion grounds where the road leads to th e
forest is an old metal gate of the Pavilion which
shuts off the forest from the main grounds. This
sect ion of the walk is now closed mainly to
prevent intruders entering the Pavilion grounds .
The path was con structed by Governor Horton
(1831-1837) ' in 1834 at a cost of Rs. 580/­
and named after his beautiful wife - hence the
name "Lady Horton ' s Walk". The forest too was
known as Lacfy Horton ' s forest. When Lady
Horton went for her walk along this path she was

escorted by two lascorins as a protection against
elephants, leopards, elk and wild boar . Dr .
Andreas Nell has mentioned thi s in some notes
which were later published in the Journal of the
Dutch Burgher Union :
Sir Robert Wilmo t Horton came to Ceylon as
Governor and Lady Horton came w ith him . She had a
w ide path In the grounds of th e Pavilion cleared to
whe re you find a stone bench and th is stone bench was
pre pared for her use; hence Lady Horton's Wa lk.
Owing to elephants, leopards, bears and sambha r
being in the forest and jungle, the lady was preceded
and foll owed by a fu lly armed soldier wi th loaded
musket. "
'" The later drives named after the wives of some
Governors were not directly connected with them; it was
.
only Lady Horton's Walk which was really her's.,,2

A reference is made to Lady Horton ' s Walk in
Simon Casie Chitty' s Ceylon Gazetteer :
"A bridle and footpath is now making, at the
suggestion of Lady Horton (wh ich is nearly completed)
so as to encircle the hills at the back of the Pavil ion,
near which It IS to have one of ItS entrances . It winds
along the sides of the. hills in va ri o us directions,

1. J . B. Siebel, 'A Dip Into the Story of Kandy', Journal of rhe Durch Burgher Union of Cevlon, Vol. XLV, January 1955, p 17

2 Journal of rhe Durch Burgher Union of Cevlon, Vol Llil January·June (Nos . 1 & 2) 19 63, p. 12 . (This nOIe was found among the papers which belonged
to th e late Dr. Nell . F""nr )

Udavattek·ale Walk - Photqgraph by T. S. U. de Zylva.

I

93
occasionally presenting magnificent views of the
surrounding country, particularly' Doombera, and
extending over the space of about four miles. It is to
possess two entrances in addition to that near the
Pavilion - one on Trincomalee Street and the other
3
from the upper end of Malabar Street:

Towards the end of the 19th century Alan
Walters wrote:
"There is a fine drive at Kandy along a well made road
known as Lady Horton's Walk which winds among the
mountains. On the east side it skirts the deep
precipitous valley of Doombera, and affords a splendid
view of the roaring Mahawelle Ganga, with the
surrounding
hills
clothed
with
the
tall
strongly - smelling lemon grass. ,,4

There are numerous other descriptions of this
Walk by writers of the past. One such is to be
found in H. W. Cave's Picturesque Ceylon and its
ruined cities.
"By far the most interesting walk in Kandy is that
known as Lady Horton's from which a distant view of
the road just described can be obtained (see Plate VI)
Magnificent stretches of Country may be seen by
ascending the hill to the left, which is commonly known
as "Mutton Button", a corruption of its correct name,
Mattanapatana. It is about three thousand two hundred
feet high, and the ascent takes from three to four
hours. The rugged cliff to the right is Hantanne, a more
formidable expedition, but one which well repays the
energetic pedestrian. Its height is four thousand one
hundred and nineteen feet . Lady Horton's is said to be
the most picturesque walk in the tropics. It can be
entered from the town by going through a part of the
grounds of the Pavilion, the residence of the English
Governor.
"The energetic resident who takes his frequent early
constitutional around this hill, will come across troops
of Wanderoo monkeys swinging from branch to
branch, the old ones carrying their babies with them as
they are disturbed; and the deadly cobra will here and
there be seen to wriggle across the path. As the morn
advances, and the sun gains power other creatures
appear - geckoes. blood-suckers. chameleons. lovely
bright green lizards about a foot in length, which if
interfered with, turn quite yellow in body. while the
head becomes bright red; glorious large butterflies.
with most lustrous wings; blue green and scarlet
dragon-flies of immense size; fascinating birds, giving
life and colour to the scene; millepedes are amongst

the creatures constantly crawling about; they are
about a foot long, as thick as one's thumb, of a very
glossy jet black colour, and possessed of about one
hundred bright yellow legs; a large bluish-grey
earth-worm, of about five feet in length, and as thick as
a man's finger, occasionally seen here, and may be .
mistaken by the visitor for a serpent; the strangest
insects are seen amongst the shrubs, so near akin to
plant life that it is impossible to believe them to be alive
.till they are seen to move - these are some of the
attractions of Lady Horton's apart from the views it
affords. ,,5

And he continues
"As we ascend the zig-zag path, the most
striking views of the lake and city are seen through
fairy-like frames of feathery bamboos ..
"No view on this road, however pretty, can be called
magnificent till we reach the north-eastern point of the
hills, where the splendid Dumbara valley bursts into
view. Some idea of the extent of this fertile and
beautiful country can be gathered from plate XIX which,
however was taken from a much lower point on the
Kondasalle Road".
"Many other beautiful paths have been made in
vanous directions about this hill, and are mostly named
after the wives of successive Governors. Lady Mac­
Carthy's and Lady Anderson's are well worth
traversing . They. are all open to the equestrian,
although the pedestrian has the advantage in being
more free to examine the botanical wonders which
attract attention at every step . The usual route of
descent brings us b~ way of Lady MacCarthy's road
into Malabar Street:

Sir James Emerson Tennent who was Colonial
Secretary in Ceylon during the Governorship of
Lord Torrington (1847-50) has also described
'lady Horton's Walk:
"A road, which bears the name of Lady Horton's
Walk winds round one of those hills; and on the
eastern side, which is steep and almost precipitous, it
looks down into the valley of Doombera, through which
the Mahawelli Ganga rolls over a channel of rocks,
presenting a scene which nothing in the tropic can
exceed in majestic beauty: >, 7
.

Sir Emerson Tennent's description of
Udavattekale gives us an insight into the animal '
life that existed there during his time; for,

3 . Simon Casie Chitty, The Ceylon Gazetteer. Colombo. 1834. p. 58.
4. AI~n Walters. Parms and"Pearls, l0fldoA., 1.892. p. 71 .
5. Henry W Cave, Picturesque Ceylon and its Ruined Cities, London, (1903), pp. 56-8.

/

6 . Henry W Cave, Picturesque Ceylon and its Ruined Cities, London. (1903) pp. 56-8.

7. Sir James Emerson Tennent. Ceylon. An Account of the island. physical historical and topographical with notices of its natural history. antiquities and
p;oductions. vol, II. London. 1859. p 203.
.

,
\

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94
referring to the Pavilion, the Governor's
Residence in Kandy - the back garden of which
is contiguous with the forest of Udavattekale, he
states:
"The high ground immediately behind is included In.
the demense and so successfully have the elegancies
of landscape gardening being combined with the
wildness of nature, that during my last residence in·
Kandy a leopard from lhe forest above came down
nightly to drink at the fountain in the parterre .
My own official residence,S from its vicinity to the

same Jungle, was occasionally entered by equally
unexpected vIsitors. Serpents are numerous on the

hills. and as the house stood on a terrace formed out of

one of its steepest sides. the cobra de capello and the
green carawella frequently glided through the rooms on
their way towards the grounds . During the residence of
one of my predecessors in office. an invalid. who lay for
days on a sofa in the verandah. imagined more than
once that she felt something move under the pillow.
and on rising to have It examined. a snake wa s
discovered with a brood of young . A lady residing in the
old palace adjoining. going to open her piano. was
about to remove what she thought to be an ebony
walking-slick that lay upon it. but was startled on
finding that she had laid hold of a snake" 9

Snakes are of course still common in
Udavattek·ale. The Ceylon Jungle Cat may be
seen sometimes, though very rarely. The
Meeminna or mouse deer and scaly ant-eater are
also to be found here and of course monkeys.
The latter cause havoc among the residents
living close to the forest. by removing roof-tiles
and despoiling fruit laden trees.
Sir William Gregory, who was Governor of
Ceylon from 1872-77, also has described the
scenery from Udavattek'ale.
"The next morning I wa s brought out at earJy dawn
for a constitutional round the hill. at the foot of which
. stands the Pavilion; and still higher rose my admiration
of the natural beauties of Ceylon Never had I taken
such a walk. The morning mists were rolling up from
the valleys at the other side of the hili. the mountain

had emerged. and gradually a vast extent of country
came into view . Below us roared the Mahawelliganga.
the largest river of the Island. as it dashed along its
rock-encumbered channel. and the sides of the hill
down to it were clothed with trees all new to me in .
foliage. As we turned the hill homewards we came in

view of other mountain peaks. and below us was the
Temple of the Sacred Tooth of Buddha, his most
venerated relic, which we were to visit in the evening .
Beyond it was the beautiful little Kandy Lake, and the
town of Kandy laid out at right angles, and the square ,
red-brick tower of the English Church, with creepers

making their way up it. and looking for all the world like

one of our home village churches, peaceable and

unobtrusive. and quite venerable. The walk is called

after Lady Horton, who had it constructed most

skilfully, and, as it is a good wide road, it is the favourite

morning ride of the European young ladies of Kandy,

and a favourite flirting-ground for both pedestrians and

equestrians.,,1o

,

Bella Sydney Woolf, Leonard Woolf's sister,

also wrote of Lady Horton'S Walk in her book

How to see Ceylon. She resided in Kandy with

Leonard Woolf from the end of 1907 to August
1908.
" The early morning should be chosen for thi s
delightful walk . The entrance is next to the King's
Pavilion gates . The visitor soon finds himself In
woodland pathways winding up and up till he reaches a
flat stone. Here between the palm stems he will have a
beautiful glimpse of the lake sparkling below and the
surrounding hills .
"II

About Lady Horton after whom Lady Horton's
Forest and Walk was named, and about Lord
Byron who wrote a poem in her honour, L E.
Blaze had this to say:
. at one of the many social entertainments he
attended in England . he was Introduced to a Lady. 'the
beaUtiful Mrs . Wilmot'. who happened to be attired in
mourning dress. the black dress beihg covered with
numerous spangles . It was qUite a stnklng costume·
which. with the lady's own beauty. at once suggested
to the mind the brilliartt night s of the tropics. Next day.
he wrote on her those stanzas which have fascinated
the world for a hundred years:­
"She walks in beauty. like the night
of cloudless climes and starry skies.
And allthats best of dark and bright
Meet In her aspect and her eyes:
Thus mellowed to that tender light
Which Heaven to gaudy day denies .
One sh ade the more . one ray the less.

Had half impaired the nameless grace

Which waves in every raven trees.

Or softly lighten s o'er her face.

Where thought serenely sweet express

How pure. how dear their dwelling place .

8. Tennen1 is referring to the Colonial Secretary's Lodge which is now the Headquarters of the Army Central Command. Task Force"
9 . Sir Emerson Tennent . Ceylon. An Account of the Island. Physical. his torical and topographical with notices of its narural history. antiquittes and
productions. Vol. 11. London . 1859. p . 203.
10

S,'i William Gregory. An Autobiography. edited by Lady Gregory. LO,ndon . 1894. pp 280·1.

1 1. Bella Sydney Woolf. How to see Ceylon. Colombo (1 91 4) . pp 83~4 .

--

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S. M : Burrow's map of Kandy Town.

' i. · ."
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. i

96
And on that cheek, and 0' er that brow,
So soft, so calm, yet eloquent.
The smiles that win , the tints that glow,
But tell of days in goodness spent,
A mind at peace with all below,
A heart whose love is innocent !"
"The lady so immortalized was the wife of Robert
John Wilmot, Byron 's second cousin. When he married
he added his Wife's name to his own, and , as Sir Robert
Wilmot Horton, came out to Ceylon as Governor in
1831 . The Horton Plains near Nuwara Eliya, and
probably Horton Place in Colombo , are named after
him ; while Lady Horton's Walk in Kandy perpetuates
the name of the Lady in whose honour Byron's
exquisite poem was written .• f2

S. M . Burrows wrote in 1888 :
"Adjoining the entrance to the Pavilion on the right is
th-e road which leads to Lady Horton's Walk, and here
the visitor is referred to the accompanying map, which
Will conduct him safely through the intricacies of one of
the most beautiful walks in the tropics.
"Starting trom oppos ite St. Paul's Church, and
passing. through a semi-private pad of lne' pavilion
grounds , (near at hand Clre some guoa specimens of
the cabbage palm and the so called traveller's palm
WhiCh, when pierced with c;l knife at the junction point of
the stalks of its leaves, affords a copious supply of
water), the visitor ascends by a zigzag path, passiilg on .
his right. one of the entrances to the Lodge, the Kandy
residence of the Lieutenant Governor. On his left he
obtains a beautiful view of the Pavilion and its grounds.
A sign-board will conduct him into the principal walk;
and if he keeps to the left and to the main road, a circuit
of about three miles Will bring him back to the
Sign-board . Seats are placed at all the principal points
of view; the first of all perhaps being that at the
north-east extremity, which overlooks the Dumbara
valley and Huna sgiriya Peak . 4,990 feet, and
commands a long reach of the Mahaweliganga, the
'great sandy river', which is by far the largest river in
Ceylon It may be said to rise under .Kirigalpota
mountain near the Horton Plains, flows past the town
of Kandy, and thence to the plains of Bintenna, hurrying
down 1,000 feet in less than 30 miles ; and enters the
sea by several mouths near the harbour of Trincomalee
on the north-east coast . The river is nearly 156 miles
long, and drains more than 4,000 square miles of
country. The final view from the south-east corner of
Lady Horton's before the steep descent begins, looking
down over the Kachcheri , the Dalada Maligawa, the
lake, and the native town, is of extreme beauty, and
gives the stranger an excellent idea of the topography
of Kandy. All the smaller walks, which branch off from
the main road, are worth traversing, and can be ec;lsily
traced on the map. From the Eastern Redoubt, from
Lady Ward's seat. and from the seat at the termination
of Gregory' ~ P"lth, most striking views are obtainable ;

and all the walks, except Gregory's Path, are open to
the equestrian. Some of the walks also have lately been
opened for carriages, which must enter at the north
end of Trincomalee Street, and follow Lady Gordon's
Road into Lady Horton's Walk, which they must leave
again by Lady MacCarthy's Road, thus reaching
Malabar Street close to the Parsonage . Perhaps the
circuit to be recommended to the equestrian is to go
down Malabar Street. as far as the sharp turn to
Lewelra (following the sing-board) and descendinq the
hill to within 400 yards 'of the ferry, to turn into green
bridle path, which is Lady Anderson 's Road and is a
capital place for a canter . He should then turn into the
Green Gallop, which also is excellent going, and so by
Lady Gordon's road into Russell's Walk and Lady
Horton's, or by Torrington' Road into Trincomalee
Street. This will take from an hour to an hour - and a
half.,,13

Gregory's path (footpath) starts near the
bamboo trees by the pond arid courses up the
hill encting at Lady Gregory's seat - this path is
now almost covered by jungle - was
constructed during Governor Gregory's time
(1873.;.77) Lady Ward's seat or Marble Seat is
approached by marble seat path. The Marble
seat is no more. Recently on making inquiries as
to what had become of it. I haooened to trace it
to the altar of the lapovane temple! The
Pus-wei creeper is found near the "Trig" station,
further up, The station was also called Koddi
Male ·being where the flag was hoisted and
barometric recordings taken .
Byrde's Lane which continues from marble
seat path eastwards to join Lady Horton's Walk
was built by Byrde of the Municipal Council in
1880-1. Green Gallop continues in a northerly
direction from Lady Horton's walk to join Lady
Anderson's road at the foot of the hill. Russel's
Walk (path) which was constructed by Russel,
Government Agent. C.P., (1868-1872) skirts
round the hill adjoining the forest nursery and
also leads to the Rama Vihara , Cemetery path
continues past the Garrison Ce!Yletery to the
Eastern Redoubt (a section of it was also known
as Bridge t-'atn) - connecting Malabar Street
with the Military Reserve . Lover's Walk encircles
the pond - in days gone by, many a .courting
couple used this forest for their rendezvous, as
they do today.

12. L E: Blaze, -Ceylon and Some Great Names'. Journal of the DutCh Burgher Union, vol. XII, 1920. p. 16·19.
13. S. M . Burrows, The Visitor's Guide to Kandy and Nuwara Eliya, with shon historical sketch, engravings and map, Colombo, 1884, pp . 34·6 .

to

ing
the
go
to

the

,, :;,

Trig Sta tion - by Shanta Gunara tna .

..

"

99
Lady ~ongden's Drive, later known as Green
Path and now Louis Pieris Mawatha, was
constructed during Sir James Longden's
governorship (1877-1883) .
"Thi s road was opened in 1880 by the late Colonel
H. Byrde (superintendent of Works. Municipal Council) .
It starts at the junction of Lady MacCarthy 's Road with
Malabar Street. and traverses the borders of the estate
belonging to L. H. S. Pieris. MMe. an<? te rminate s at
Victorja Drive . opposite the picturesque re sidence of J.
H. de Saram. CM .G The length of the road is only 970
yards. and it is throughout metalled and the sides
pl anted with shade trees ." 14

Lady Gordon's Drive was constructed during
Sir Arthur Hamilton Gordon's tenure of office as
Governor (1 883-1890).
"This road was traced in 1881 , and opened for public
use in 1883 . It starts at the end of Trincomalee Street.
and after a winding course of one mile and 918 yards
terminates at Lady MacCarthy's Road . Udawattekale .
The road was constructed by la te Colonel H. Byrde.
Superintendent of Municipal Wor ks . It is a gravelled
drive throughout. possessing at certain points
com manding views of the Dumbara valley ,,15

Lady MacCarthy's Road is known now as
Sangamitta Mawatha . It was constructed during
the Governorship of Sir Charles MacCarthy .
(1860-1863l.
"This was originally a broad path. similar to the ones
at Udawattekale . and was widened for carriage traffic
in 1880 It is a gravelled road of 1.553 yards In length.
In recent years about six bungalows of the cottage type
have been erected on bot h sides of the portion where it
joins Mala ba r Street" 16

.'

Half way up this road from Malabar Street and
on the right down below adjoining the property
(presently owned by Mrs . S. de Silva) was a
Roman Catholic Church (see map of 1893). In
the days gone by the area was apparently
inhabited mostly by members of the Catholic
faith of mixed racial origin.
From his autobiograpny, we see that Leonard
Woolf himself, was not impervious to the charms
of Udavattekale and the Kandyan countryside .
He was stationed in Kandy from August 1907 to
August 1908 as an Office Assistant to the
Government Age,nt. C.P.
" In 1907 Kandy and its surroundings were
entrancingly beautiful.lt was ha lfway between the low
country and the high mountains and enloyed the best of

every climate and every world . The great lake , which
was the centre of the European part of the town . lay in '
a hollow with the hills gently rising up all round it These
hills had been little built over and they were so covered
with sub-tropical tree s and flowering trees and flowers
that the buildings were hardly visible. In the hills round
and about the town a series of Drives and Rides have
been constructed and named after the wives of
Governors of Ceylon. Lady Horton's Walk, Lady
Longden 's Drive . and so on . They were extraordinarily
roman t ic. winding in those days through unspoilt
Kandyan mountain country with views of the lake. of
lovely Kandyan villages with their terraced paddy fie lds.
of more distant mountain peaks, or the beautiful
Dumbara valley.,,17

Reginald Farrer visited Kandy at the time
Leonard Woolf was stationed there . He was
according to Woolf's autobiograpy, a Himalayan
Botanist and a convert to Buddhism . He too
gives a 'very enthusiastic description of
Udavattekale or as he puts it "one of the gardens
above the old palace" in his book:
"Here the trees droop loads of tasselled coral. or
aspire in bunched flames of orange to heaven . Over
high forest giants flows the unrelenting curtain of
Thumbergla. one woven cloak of deep green, stained
with clear flowers of palest wide-mouthed lavender. At
night these clothed obselisks of vegetation become
obscurity made solid. very reproduction of the funeral
cypress . stark and ominous; but by day they are
gracious draperies. of emerald. gloriOUS with the
abundance of their pale bloom. Here and the re are duly
placed hL.:ge clumps of bamboo, waving their light
plumage form a thou sand arching clums - but of
bamboo fed surely on the Food of the
Gods - enormous gracious incarnations of grace.
topping an English forest oak. and spraying through the
wide air like gigantic fountains for ever frozen Into
position. except, indeed. when a wave of the wind
thrills through them . and they dance and undulate and
scatter rythmically. filling the garden with a soft dry
rustling Different from these. again. is the clamour of
the palms . The coconut has a husky. caressing
whisper; but the coconut has no love for Kandy. Here
are only talipots and big-leaved palms. that clap their
leaves furiously when angry. with a furious slapping
energy. producing a sere din like tropical rain on a tin
roof. or vexed leathern-winged ghosts in threat of a
swoop And. amid all these. in clear spaces, misguided
skill has caused a few Engli sh flowers to linger
anaemically ; for res idents in Ceylon. and their
Sinhalese gardeners. have a high scorn for the native
glories of Ceylon. and where. with no effort. they might

14. P M . Bingham. Hisrory of the Public Works Departmenr. Ceylon. Vol II , Colombo. 1922, p 235 .
15 .. Ibid.
16 . Ibid
17. Leonard Woolf. Growing. An Aurobiography of the Years 7904 -11. London. pp. 150-1.

"

.

I' • .

101

1

have a riot of natural splendour, they spend toilful years
in trying to induce a violet or an outraged primrose to
put forth one sickly bud.,,18

,

I'

The view from Udavattek"ale is described by
Henry W . Cave in his Book of Ceylon:
"By far the more interesting walk or drive in Kandy is
that known as Lady Horton's, from which a distant view
of the road Just described can be obtained . Here we
take our stand for a few moments and gaze across the
lake at the tea estates upon the opposite slopes. There
we notice a rugged cliff rising to the height of 4,119
feet. This is the highest point of the tea growing district
known as Hantanne.
"Although the tea is the chief product of Hantanne
district, it is by no means the only one. Many of these
acres are planted with cardamoms, pepper, cinchona,
cacao , nutmegs, and there is even some coffee
remaining as a relic of the old days when the product
was king ..
MAP OF THE TOWN OF KANDY.

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Town of Kandy - H. W . Cave

"In w inding course we continue to ascend until. at
the north-eastern point. the valley of Dumbara bursts
into view. In spite of the clearings made for cultivation,
it is still beautifully wooded. The lovely jungle is,

however, fast giving way to the less beautiful but more
remunerative tea and cocao plantations . This district is
about 12 ,000 acres in extent, about 7,000 of which
are now under cultivation . The elevation , which is from
700- 1,200 feet above sea level, is found to be most
sUitable for the cultivation of a large variety of products,
especially when, as is the case with Dumbara , the
rainfall is moderate and well di str ibuted, being about
sixty Inches in the year . We see, there,in Dumbara,
field s of cacao or chocolate trees with large rubber
trees planted among them for shade . Some estates
consist of field s of pepper, arecanuts, coconuts, cacao
and coffee, while here and there are fields of tea
bu shes Interspersed with coconut s . Vanilla and
cardamoms are also represented . The district is,
however, chiefly noted for its cacao or chocolate, of
which it was upwards of five thousand acres .
"Beyond the Dumbara valley we notice in the far
distance the outline of a noble moun tain which is
known as the Knuckle s (plate 398) The top of the
mountain is shaped by four distinct peaks resembling
the knuckles of the hand. from which It derives its
name . It is an important district under cultivation for
tea. ci nchona, cardmom s and other products ,,19

All these 19th century and early 20th century
writers who described the view from
Udavattekale have been most extravagant in
their praise . However, it is odd that. excepting
for perhaps Leonard Woolf who seems to have
noticed terraced paddy fields, none of them,
have mentioned having seen any paddy growing
in the Dumbara valley on either side of the river,
the groves of coconut palms,' arecanut. jack and
other fruit trees that distinguish garden plots
from the belts of chen a forests that merge into
the background of forests proper. Vestiges of
this old pattern are still there to be seen, despite
the changes wrought on the landscape by the
passage of time (see sketch). Today we see the
Polgolla dam and the Watapuluwa Housing
Scheme as well and rising above it all, the
immutable Hunasgiriya peak, still mantled by
remnants of primeval forest.
In dry weather, (mid January to March) large
brown patches appear on these mountain ranges
where once lush vegetation covered the
mountain sides. These scars caused by human
agency focus attention on man's mistaken
notion of development, imposed on him by an
expanding population and the tyranny of
economic need .

18 .

Reginald Farrer. In Old Ceylon. London. 1908, pp. 58-9 .

19.

Henry W . Cave , The Book of Ceylon. being a gUide to its rat/way system and an Account of its varied attracrions for rhe visitor and rourist . . With a
descflption of Kandyan archirecrure by J. P Lewis. London. 1908, pp.304-5 .

CHAPTER XIII

THE POND AND TANKS AT

UDAVATTEKALE

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"Roots and Leaves themselves alone are these,

Scen ts brought to men and women from the wild

w oods and pond-side,

Breast-sorrel an d pinks of love, fi ngers that wind

around tighter than vines,

Gushes from the throa ts of birds hid in the folliage of

trees as the sun is risen ."

This was once a royal reserve ; the Queen and
her retinue are said to have enjoyed the then
clear waters of this pool, bathing and frolicking .
In the absence of written records regarding

this pond, it is not possible to state how long it
-Walt Wh it ma n (18 19-18 92 ),
has existed here . Perhaps it was built by the
fr om "Roots and Leaves themselves alon e" in "Leaves of

aesthetically
inclined
king
Sri
Grass", 189 1-2 .

Wickramarajasinghe .
Lovers ' Walk encircles the pond at
Udavattekale and an early morning visit here for a
nature lover is enthralling .
This pond lies in a picturesque setting,
enclosed by a variety of tall trees on its banks .
The leaves of a clump of giant bamboo rustle in
the breeze in one corner. The early morning dew
glistens like a million jets as the rays of the sun
break through the trees , gently clearing the mist
from the placed water . The shrill call of a bird or a
croak of a frog may be heard in the uncanny
stillness. A monitor lizard swims lazily and
clumsily up to the bank startling three tortoises
on a log, basking in the morning sun . A dapper
little blue kingfisher flashes radiant wings as he
tries to catch a fish . Peace and tranquility prevail.
-17

There are many interesting stories related
about this pond . One legend has it that the king's
treasure lies at the bottom and a golde"
sembuwa or pot appears on the surface of the
water on a particular day of the year . On several
occasions many a gullible person has tried to
secure this key to the buried fortune and
drowned in the process .
The earliest reference to the pond at
Udavattekale is to be found with regard to an
expenditure incurred in August 1824. Sanction
was requested from the Lt. Governor, through
the Military Secretary, for the payment of this
amount to the Deputy Commissary General's

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105
Office . The following entry aRpears against the
Engineer's
Department
under
fixed
contingencies :

Government Agent. C. P , has given the Counc il
permission to carry out the work, pending the issue of a
vesting order. ,,4

. for the hire of labourers employed in repairing
the tank at Udawattekelle in the month of May and June
1824-[ 16280,,1

The tank was constructed in 1945 and was
recently rebuilt in 1982 .

A century later, a letter dated 30 June 1942
was written by the Government Agent. Central
Province, to the Conservator of Forests that:
The M ilitary authorities w ish to have available as a
place for disposal of poss ibl e unexploded bombs the
pond in Udawattekelle Reserve. The A. R. P Controller
and the Municipal Council are in agreement with this
proposal.
2 . To make the place accessible in case of need
'slight improvements to one or two corners on the roa d
and the construction of a roadway down to the waters
edge are necessary This work will be undertaken by
the Pu blic Works Department.
I presume that you have flO obje ction to this being
done ,, 2

Apparently, this request was acceded to . This
road was used recently when the pond was
de-silted in 1982 .
WATER TANKS
The oldest water tank is the one situated
below the sharp turn where Lady Horton's Walk
joins Wewelpitiya road-(The Board of the Forest
Department is close by) . The tank was made in
Governor Barnes's time and is about 8 feet in
diameter and 40 feet deep . This tank still
supplies the Pavilion with water.

An additional tank was constructed on RuseWs
Path "to serve the King's Pavilion during the
Independence Day Celeb rations . "3

Mrs . Kaliamma of 51, Lewella Road, applied
for permission to construct a tank just below the
existing tank to store water for the domestic
requirements of her house adjoining the forest as
the old tank had gone dry 5. This good lady
supplied many residents along Lewella Road with
water from this tank. The old tank is situated in
proximity to the' turn off to Gangarama Vihara.
Below the retaining wall of Mrs. T . Weerasiri's
property on Lewella Road lies the public tank
where people bathe and take clear cool water
for drinking and domestic puposes even today.
A letter dated April 10, 1933 from the Rev. J.
Mcleod Campbell M .A ., Principal of Trinity
College, Kandy, to the Government Agent.
Central Province, explains the water scheme and
the tanks still found below Lady Horton's Road .
"The college is planning to conduct water by pipe
from paddy fields which belong to the college above
the spout on Lady Gorden ' s road . It is obvious that
every foot gained at the source wi ll enhance the benefit
of the scheme , enabling the water to reach a higher
point in the compound . If it were possible to construct
the sma ll tanks at a spot about half way between the
top of our paddy fields and the Lady Horton 's road the
water would become available for the college latrines
and shower-baths.
"I write to ask whether you could see your way to
sanction the construction of thi s small tank on Crown
land . It would be very unobstructive : in fact nobody
would be aware that it was there . It would not Interfere
with a Single tree .
"I would be ve ry grateful for this concession

,, 6

In reply to a .letter from the Conservator of
Forests, J . A . de Silva, regarding the
unauthorised construction of a tank in the
Udavattekale Forest Reserve and Sanctuary, on
Lady Anderson's Road, the Mayor replied :

Accordingly the Government Agent instructed
the Gravets Mudaliyar to locate the crown land
referred to and report on the application, which
he did by a letter which states,

"H. E. the Governor has sa nctioned the vesting , in
the Council of the land referred to by you for the
purpose of constructing a public bathing place and the

"I have marked the spo t on plan No . 4198 where Mr.
Campbell asks for permission to construct a tank. It is
w ithin the Udawattekele Reserve ,,)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.

S L N. A. 6/41
U. K. R. F. File No . llt/22 Part 4 . Forest Department, No LF 791.7 111/22 2386 .
U. K. R. F. File No . 111/22 Part 4 Forest Department No. 124/ 2 of 7 June 1948.
Ibid. No . L B. 426. September 7 . 1945 .
Ibid. Letter of 24 August 19 49 .
U K R. F. File No. 111 /22 C Dlvn. Apr.1 10: 19 33.
Ibid, Letter No . 245 .

106
The Government Agent. Kandy, referred the
subject to the Divisional Forest Officer, Central
Division, N'Eliya by his letter of 15 May 1933
and received a letter through the Conservator of
Forests that the proposal was recommended ,

It was with great difficulty that I was able to
locate this tank which is presently covered with
undergrowth ,
A letter dated 14 September 1936 from the
Municipal Engineer, J , Garment, to the
Chairman, Municipal Council in reply to advice
sought by the Government Agent. throws further
light on the water scheme from Udavattek'ale ,

(e) have the ba nks of the tan k cleared up of leaves

and fallen trees, etc ."e

This letter was referred to the Conservator of
Forests for favour of report whether funds could
be provided for the improvement of the tank in
Udavattek'ale Reserve, by the Government
Agent. Central Province, on 26 November 1936.
The Acting Conservator of Forests replied :
"I inspected the tank yesterday. The water level is
definitely lower than it should be at this time of the year
and there appears to be a quite unnecessary overflow
of water running to waste below the tank. The
Municipal Engineer's proposals should be adopted I
cannot provide fu nds for (a) and (b) but if the Forest
Ranger wi ll furnish an est imate for (c) funds can be
provided for this item .

"In spected . The small pond in my opin ion is not
exactly leaking but there is an overflow tower which is
no doubt defective The water fl ow s from this tower to
a small built tank in the ravine below, which is. I am
informed the property of Trinity College .

.. 2 . Incidentally I am glad to see that a notice has
been erected prOhibiting the use of the tank for bathing .
I w ould now suggest that four strands of barbed wire
be fixed - just behind the notice board - between the
mango and the almond trees . These items of
expenditure might be inc luded with the estimate for
clearing .. 9

This ta nk too is overflowing and there appears no
means of closing off the water from the pond such as a
slui c e valve. as this area is co v ered with thick
undergrowth. a more minute inspection was not
possible . If the Jungle could be cleared I would re-visit it
with pleasure . As far as I am able to see the necessary
work to be done is :
(a) repair the overflow tower .
(b) either raise it or fix a sluice valve to control this
outlet

8.

u. K. R. F. File No .

A large metal exit pipe with a valve exists
between the bund of the main tank and the
Trinity College tank even today"

111/22 Part 4 , Fores t Dept LF 4791,1936 .

9 : U. K. R. F. File No. 111/22 Part 4 , Forest Department , LF 4791, No . A222

Ives

. of

CHAPTER XIV

luld

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A TENTATIVE CHECK LIST OF THE

FERNS AND FLOWERING PLANTS

"Thin little leaves of wood fern, ribbed and toothed,
Long curved sail needles s of the green pitch pine ,
With common sandgrass, skirt the horizon line,
and over these the incorruptible blue!
Here let me gently lie and sofly view
All world asperities, lightly touched and smoothed
as by hi s gracious hand, the great Bestower .
What though the year be late some color s run
Yet through the dry, some links of Melody,
Still let me be, by such , assuaged and soothed
and happier made , as when, our schoolday done ,
We hunted on from flower to frosting flower ,
Tattered and dim, the last red butterly
or the old grasshopper molasses-mouthed ."
- Fredrick Goaddard Tuckerman (1821-1873)
"The Little Leaves of Wood Fern, Ribbed
and Toothed ."

In Appendix No. 13 is found a tentative
checklist of the ferns and flowering plants of
Udavattek"ale Reserve . prepared by Prof . S.
Balasubramaniam of the Department of Botany,
University of Peradeniya. Peradeniya.
This list is based on field work carried out by
Prof. Balasubramaniam ~nd some of his students
over the past fOlJI years . Voucher herbarium
specimens of these are available in the
Department of Botany, University of Peradenlya.

Professor Balasubramaniam has informed me
that this list is tentative and more work will have
to be carried out to look for additional records of
species. Work has also to be carried out on the
moss. liverwort and fungal flora of Udavattekale.
Endemics. that is species found only in Sri Lanka.
are indicated by asterisks . Where possible the
Sinhalese names are given against the scientific
or botanical names of the flowering plants
recorded from Udavattek·ale. Among other
species, Udavattekale is the natural habitat for a
very rare endemic orchid; while some exotics
have become naturalized. Udavattekale has also
some very small relict patches of natural forest.
Pus-wei is one of the unique features of
Udavattekale. This plant could have existed for
many years prior to the British occupation - at
least two to three hundred years. It extends over
8-9 acres and is also found in Sinha raja and
Ratnapura and probably found nowhere else in
the world . The former Government Agents and
members of the Municipal Council have on
several occasions wanted the "untidy spreading
creeper overhanging" cut to clear the path-ways.

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109
Sir James Emerson Tennent describes the
Pus-wei as ­
"One monstrous creeping plant, called by the
Kandyans the Maha-pus-wael, or 'Great hollow
climber' " has pods, some of which I have seen fully five
feet long and six inches broad, with beautiful brown
beans , so large that the natives hollow them out. and
carry them as tinder-boxes. ,,2

"Apperently this species was already' well known,
long ago. I discovered it for the first time in the
Sinharaja forest in S.W. Ceylon, where E. Pusaetha
does not occur . There I found it plentifui in the
Udawatte forest (at the outskirts of Kandy Town), also
a common climber. So Tennent's remarks are partly
confirmed, that the Kandyans called it Heen Pus Wael ;
in his remarks on the lowland form, he is however,
completely wrong ."

And he continues in his dissertation,
Professor A.J .G.H. Kostermans of Bogor in
Indonesia discovered the endemic Pus-wei,
(Entada Zeylanica) during his stay at Peradeniya
as visiting Professor in 1979 and 1980. He has
published a scientific account of these species in
3
the Ceylon journal of Science in which he states

"I prefer to describe the Heen Pus Wael as a new
species, unless it is proved that E. Monosteya from
India is the same, which I doubt"4

Long before Kostermans or Tennent. a Dutch
botanist. Joannis Burmanni, saw the Pus-wael
and described it in a scientific paper he wrote on
5
the indigenous plants of Ceylon.

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1 Entada Pusaetha . The same plant when found in 10wEn situations. where it wants the soil and moisture of the mountains,. is so altered in appearance
that the natives call it the -heen-pus-wael- , and even botanists have taken it for a distinct species . The 'beautiful mountain region of·Pusilawa. now
familiar as one of the finest coffee districts in Ceylon, in all probability takes its name from the giant bean. ·Puswaelawa" .
2. Sir J. E. Tennent. Ceylon an account of the island. physical. historical and topographical with notices of its natural history. antiquities and productions.
London . 1859 . Vol. 11. p. 105.
.
3. AJ.G .H. Kostermans, "Notes on Ceylonese Plants I", Ceylon Journal of Science. 1979. p. 23 .
4 . AJ .G.H. Kostermans, op. Cil . p. 23
5 . Joannis Burmanni, "Thesaurus Zeylanicus", Amstelaedami. Janssonio-Waesbergios. & Salomonem schlouten. (1737). p. 139 .

Fan-tailed fly catcher

CHAPTER XV

BIRDS SEEN AT

UDAVATTEKALE

"Sing on. Sing on you gray-brown bird.
Sing from the swamps. the recesses. pour your chant

from the bushes.

Limitless out of the dusk. out of the cedars and pines

Sing on dearest brother. warble your reedy song,

Loud human song. with voice of uttermost woe.

o Ilqujd and free and tender I
wild and loose to my soul - 0 I wonderous singer!

You only I hear - yet the star holds me (but will soon

depart),

Yet the Iliac with mastering odor holds me ."

,

o

Walt Whitman (1819-1892)
From "When Lilac s La st In the
Dooryard Bloomed" in
"Leaves of Grass", 1891-2

J

J

Birds are an important attraction to the visitor
to any forest and Udavattekale is no exception .
Many more species than I have been able to
identify must have existed in this forest in days
gone by. According to Henry Sirr "every bird from
the peacock to the snipe'" were found here.
Quite a number of birds which were fairly
plentiful a hundred or more years ago when
Legge, Layard, Kelart and Templeton were
writing on the birds of Ceylon are either extinct or
.on the verge of extinction, due to reasons such
as de-forestation, burning of patnas, chemical
pollution, indiscriminate shooting, loss of habitat,
food supplies, nesting and roosting places .
t . Henry Charles Sirr. Ceylon and the Cingalese. London . 1850. p 97.

-18

Eleven species are on the endangered lis! out of

four hundred and twenty seven species and

sub-species recorded in Sri Lanka. There are

twenty-one endemic species of birds in Sri Lanka

and ' eighty one sub-species; one hundred and

seventy of them are known to be annual winter

visitors and a few are rare vagrants to the island.

A list of birds I have seen . at Udavattekale
between the years 1963-1976 is given in
Appendix No . 14. The best times to go bird
watching are between 6.15 a.m. - 8 .30 a.m.
and 4 .30 p.m. to 5 .30 p.m. The list is in
alphabetica( order.
There is an interesting tale about the Ceylon

Forest Eagle Owl or Devil Bird known as the

Ulama in Sinhalese.

At the Kandy Nursing Home, adjoining
Udavattekale, in Malabar Street, there used to
be an old male-attendant by the name of Wilbert.
On several occasions he has told me during an
emergency night visit : "Sir' Listen - the Ulama
is calling; tomorrow someone here will be laid to
rest '" To my utter amazement within the next
twenty four hours some unfortunate patient
would be laid to rest . Wilbert died a few years
ago and no one -has heard the Ulama's cry,.
since'

'-.,.

CHAPTER XVI

. "

INSECTS FOUND AT

UDAVATTEKALE

Insects belong to the category of Invertebrata,
a subdivIsion of the animal kingdom. The
invertebrata consist of a very assorted
assemblage of animals, in which is found diverse
forms of life as microscopic Protozoa, whose
bodies are not formed of cells; the Coelenterata
which includes the anemones, corals and Jelly
fishes; the worms which are numerous and
varied; the Mollusca - snails, mussels and
cuttle-fish; and the largest and most highly
specialized - the Arthropoda. The Arthropoda
are further divided into a number of
classes - the Crustacea (shrimps, barnacles,
lobsters, crabs etc.). Arachnida - (scorpions,
spiders, ticks and mites). myriapoda (centipedes
and millipedes). and Insecta which includes all
the insects. Some of the characteristics which
distinguish the classes Insecta from the other
classes of the Arthropoda are the fact that they
possess six legs - Hexapoda, the segments of
the body are grouped into three regions, the
head, thorax, and abdomen. The thorax has
three segments each of which bears a pair of
legs; the absence of walking appendages on the
abdomen and the possession of respiratory
system of air-tubes known as Tracheae which
ramify throughout the body and open out on the
surface of the body through openings called

spiracles. Insects also possess wings borne on
the second and third thoracic segment but this is
not universal. The class Insecta comprises many
orders such as Lepidoptera (moths and
butterflies). Orthoptera (Cockroaches, mantises,
leaf and stick insects). Isoptera (termites and
white ants). Odonata (dragonflies). Hemiptera
(bugs), Coleoptera (beetles), Hymenoptera
(ants, bees, wasps and ichneumon flies). and
Oiptera (midges, mosquitoes and files).
The average visitor mainly notices the
butterflies in the forest. Thirty two species have
been recorded In Udavattekale forest, out of
about 242 species found in Sri Lanka and
approximately thirteen thousand in the whole
world. The study of butterflies IS a wide, varied
and interesting subject Many books have been
written starting with Sir Emerson Tennent's "The
Natural History of Ceylon in 1861 up to L. G.O.
Woodhouse's book The Butterfly Fauna of
Ceylon, 1950, on the subject
A list prepared by Dr. Mrs. Thelma T. P
Gunawardena, Director, National Museums,
Colombo: is given in Appendix No. 15.

114

A rare lizard found at Udavattek'ale is the
Lyriocephalus Scutatus. (Sinhalese - Karamal
Bodiliya, Kandhu Bodiliya; English - Hump
nosed Lizard,) It is a very rare lizard, even in this
forest.
The shape and figure of this 'hump nosed
lizard' gives it a prehistoric appearance, and is a
facinating sight. The head is short and chubby
and has a snout with a rostral knob in the adult
which is longer in the male than the female , It is
cinnamon brown in colour, changing to a shade
of green and even blue , The gular sac is yellow
and its enlarged scales black. Numerous dark
brown lines radiate from its eyes, while the limbs
and tail have brown bands, (See illustration),
P.E. P. Deraniyagala, former Director of National
Museums, has described the animal in detail in
A Coloured Atlas of some Vertebrates from
Ceylon', Volume two, Colombo, 1953, pages
62-3, According to Deraniyagala, it measures
127 mm , from snout to vent and its tail is 116
mm , long .
This is an endemic animal of Sri Lanka; it is
very rare and cannot be kept in captivity for long
periods and is found in undisturbed jungles at
elevations of about 200 - 1,800 meters above
sea level. Jungles close to towns, like Dambulla,
Gammaduwa, Gampola, Kandy, Kurunegala,
Labugama, Matale, Pallegama, Ratnapura and

Ambawela were known areas where this lizard
was found but even in these areas one sees it
rarely because of its very good camouflage ,
According to Professor Dr. Gunther Herbst of
Feldbach Austria, who did a detailed study of this
Animal in Sri Lanka four years ago, it can hide
extremely well at the approach of an enemy. The
lizard normally stays vertically on a tree trunk, If it
sees danger at a distance, it turns round the tree
trunk on to the other side of the tree . When the
potential danger is about 10 meters away it ,
depends on its camouflage for safety, sitting
absolutely still . It never runs away when seen by
man, which makes it easy to capture it. Local
touts were selling this animal to tourists and
collectors for Rs, 25/- Rs , 50/- per specimen!
On being frightened it opens its mouth, exposing
its blood red mucous membrane and its fangs to
scare away any aggressor ,
According to Professor Guther Herbst earth
worms and typholops form eighty per cent of its
food, while Deraniyagala claimed it fed on young
shoots and buds,
After a lapse of nearly ten months since seeing
one, I was able to locate two specimens in
December 1983, but a few more have been
seEm since then by forest guards,

-'
On\3 colour picture of male lizard (Lyriocehpalus Scutatus)

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117

CONCLUSION

The royal forest of Udavattek"ale was known in
the past as Udawasalawatte - the forest above
the palace. It was, as has been seen, a Tahansi
Kale - a strictly prohibited forest, felled and
pillaged and almost annihilated by the British but
later re-forested and restored to its former status
of a reserved forest. Today, it still valiantly
preserves some vestiges of its primeval-ness in a
few surviving endemic species of which one is
found in two other places in Sri Lanka and no
where else in the world. Thus, Udavattek"ale
needs to be preserved amidst the onslaught of a
developing town with all its concomitant
population pressure on space for housing and
demand for fuel wood, for its uniqueness, for its
history and no less for its many curious features
and entrancing woodland charms .
In 1976 a memorandum was submitted to the
then Prime Minister, Mrs. Sirimavo Dias
Bandaranaike, for the preservation and
development of Udavattek·ale .

:l

Trees were being constantly cut down illicitly
in the forest and more so during the perahara
season when large numbers of kitul
trees - Caryota Urens (fish tail palm) - were
felled for feeding elephants. Encroachers and
illicit timber fellers were laying waste the forest
reserve until, acting on the aforesaid
memorandum, the then Minister of Agriculture
and Lands, H.S.R .B. Kobbekaduwa appointed a
committee for the development of Udavattek"ale.
The Committee was headed by the Government
Agent and consisted of members of the Forest
Department, Police, Army, Municipality, the
Member of Parliament for Senkadagala, the
Departments of Town and Country Planning, Soil
Conservation, Electricity, Wild Life, Survey, the
Botanical Gardens, the Grama Sevaka, and the
present writer. On the recommendations of the
committee, Kobbekaduwa allocated a sum of Rs.
150,000 for preliminary work which included
fencing the perimeter of the forest which is
nearly 5 1/2 miles . About two thousand nine
hundred fence posts were required.

With the change of government in 1977
representations were made a fresh to the new
Minister of Agriculture and Research, E. L.
Senanayake, and the money was re-allocated. In
order to save on labour costs and to inculcate in
school children a spirit of patriotism and to
create in them an awareness of the necessity of
protecting and preserving the environment - a
shramadana was organised on consequetive
Saturday mornings to erect fence posts. These
shramadanas continued for about eighteen
months. Each fence post was eight feet in length
and weighed nearly two hundred and fifty
pounds. Groups of school children in batches of
twenty five to thirty, working between 8.30 a.m .
and 11 a. m. on Saturdays, purely on a voluntary
basis, helped erect nearly six hundred fence
posts. The magnitude of the task can be
imagined when one considers the fact that in
certain sections of the forest the posts had to be
carried uphill to points between hundred to one
hundred and fifty feet above road level. Holes
were dug, 1 foot by 2 feet in depth, concrete
mixed on the side of the road-way, carried up in
relays and poured into the holes, prior to fixing
the fence posts. The children participated with
great zeal, in a happy atmosphere of
comradeship. They were made aware that their
only reward would be the sense of satisfaction
from participating in a ven!ure which would one
day help in preserving this beautiful forest for
posterity.
His Excellency, J. R. Jayewardene, the
President, paid a visit to the forest when the
school cadets were in the process of erecting
the fence and was deeply impressed by the
enthusiasm of the boys in undertaking such a
massive task. The Prime Minister, R. Premadasa,
also paid a visit when the boys were involved in
de-silting the Udavattek'ale lake and gave
encouragement to the work being done.
A group of prisoners serving long sentences
participated in de-silting the lake at Udavattekale
while one thousand school cadets helped to
plant cordia plants along the boundary of the

118

His Excellency, J . R. Jayewardene's visit to Udavattekale - 1979.

Aruppola-Lewella side of the forest . These
programs were organized with the help of the
police, headed by the late Upali Wijeratne ,
Superintendent of Police, Colonel M . Madawala,
Commander, Central Army Command, A. B.
Damunupola, Government Agent, Kandy, and
diligent forest officers. A great awareness of the
necessity of protecting forests was created by
these continued programmes .
Despite all this hard work, due to lack of funds
and forest department staff, touts, thieves,
poachers, illicit timber fellers and encroachers
still continued their depredations of th~ forest.
One day a woman was' found murdered in a
lonely spot and Newspapers high lighted this
story in order to focus attention on the sorry
state of the Forest Reserve . This was brought to
the notice of President Jayewarden,e, who then
requested A. B. Damunupola, the Government
Agent, Kandy, to submit a report on ways and
means of preserving the· forest. The committee
appointed by the' Government Agent included

--------

representatives of the Mayor, Army, Police,
Diyawadena Nilame, Maligawa, the conservator
of Forests and the present writer. The
committee recommended amongst its many
proposals that a wire fence should be put up
along the perimeter of the forest, apart from a
live impenetrable fence. Several extra watchers
have since been appointed and a fee is charged
for entering the reserve at the gate by Tapovane
Temple . Vehicular traffic is restricted to those
visitors wishing to meet the ven'ble monks of the
Forest Hermitage and the Senanayake Aramaya .
In the first year of operation of the entrance fee ,
a sum of Rs . 18,000 was collected .
It is hoped that in the future too the visitor to
this sanctuary and forest reserve will be able to
walk unimpeded , and be able to admire the
beauty and tranquility of its sylvan shade .
Generations to come, surely, will remember
those who strove to prevent the irreplaceable
loss of this priceless heritage .

119

APPENDIX I
PROCLAMA TION

By His Excellency Sir Henry George Ward. Knight Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished Order of St. Michael and
St . George. Governor and Commander-in -chief in and over the Island of Ceylon . with the Dependencies thereof Henry
George Ward .
WHEREAS by the Ordinance No . 24 of 1848 entitled "To regulate the felling and removal of Timber grown on the
Crown Lands in the Island". tt is amongst other things enacted. that it shall be lawful for the Governor. with the advice of the
Executive Council. by Proclamation in the Government Gazette. to set apart arid define any tract of Crown Land. as
reserved forest land. within the limits of which no wood shall be cut or removed. either for firewood. or for fencing land. or
for making ploughs or other agricultural implements. or for any other purpose whatsoever. And whereas it appears to us
expedient that the tract of Crown Land hereinafter defined. should be set apart as Reserved Forest land. Now therefore we
the said Governor with the advice of the Executive Council. do hereby proclaim and make known that the tract of Crown
land called Udawatte Kelle in the district of Kandy. and hereinafter there particularly defined. is hereby set apart as Reserved
forest land. within the limits of which no wood shall be cut or removed. either for firewood. or for fencing land. or for
making ploughs or other agricultural implements. or for any other purposes whatsoever ;- that is to say. a tract of Crown
Land bounded on the north and north-east by the villages of Watapoloa and Aruppola ; on the east and south-east by the
village called Talawatte and by lands claimed by Gangaramaya Vihare and by private parties; on the south by General
Fraser's property. by private and crown lands. and the Garrison Burial Ground above Malabar Street; on the west by the
Commissariat Ouarters. the Kandy Cutcherry. the Government Agent's house. the Pavilion Gardens and by private lands
above Trincomalee Street; and on the north-west by land claimed by private parties.
Given at Colombo in the said Island of Ceylon. this Twenty-fifth day of October. in the year of our Lord One Thousand
Eight-Hundred and Fifty Six .
By His Excellency's Command
Signed C. J MacCarthy
.
Colonial Secretary

God Save the Oueen !
U.K.R.F. Fill No . 111/22 C. Division

to
to
he

120

APPENDIX /I
NOTICE OF PROCLAMATION
"Whereas. I. Herbert Raymer Freeman have been appointed Forest Settlement Officer under section 6 of the
Ordinance 10 of 1885.
And whereas it has been proposed that the land known as Udawattekale situated in the village of Uda Mahayawe.
Watapuluwa. Diwulwewa and Aruppola in Yatinuwara Gangawatte Korale within the boundaries stated in the schedule
below shall be constituted a Crown Forest Reserve .
I do hereby give notice as provided by the 7th clause of the said Ordinance that on and after the 6th day of July.
1894. no right shall be acquired in and over the land whatever within the said limits except by inheritance or succession or
under a grant or contract in writing made or entered into by or on behalf of the Crown or some person in whom such right
or power to create the same was vested on or before the said 6th of July. 1894. and on such land no new house shall be
built or plantation formed no fresh clearing for cultivation or for any other purpose shall be made and no trees shall be cut
for the purpose of trade or manufacture except with the permission In writing from the Government Agent.
And I further give notice that the following consequences will ensue on the reservation of the land contained in the
said limitsRights in respect of which no claim has been preferred and of the existence of which no knowledge has been
acquired shall therefore be extinguished. Rights to pasture or Forest Produce which shall have been admitted shall not be
alienated by way of grant. sale. lease. mortgage or otherwise without notice thereof to the Government Agent except in the
case of rights continued for the beneficial enjoyment of any land or house no right of any inheritance or succession or under
a grant or contract in writing made by or on behalf of the Crown or some person in whom such right or the power to create
such right was vested when the Proclamation declaring the forest which it is intended to be reserved was published . Any
forest officer may under certain restrictions stop any public or private way or water course in a reserved forest.

~

c

L

S

H
A person who in a reserved forest (a) trespasses or pastures cattle or wilfully causes cattle to trespass (b) causes
any damage by negligence in felling any tree or cutting or dragging any timber (c) wilfully strips off the bark or leaves or
otherwise damages any tree (d) in contravention of any rules made by the Government Agent of the.Province in that behalf.
hunts. sports. fishes. poisons water or sets traps or snares or guns or uses any explosive substance shall be guilty of an
offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine which may extend to Rs. 50/- or when the damage resulting from the
offence amounts to more than Rs. 25/- to double the amount of such damage. I
Any person who (a) makes any fresh clearing prohibited by section 8 ; or (b) sets fire to a reserved forest or in
contravention of any rule made by the Government Agent kindles any fire or leaves fire burning in such manner as to
endanger the reserved forest or any part thereof or who in a reserved forest (c) kindles. keeps or carries any fire except at
such seasons and in such manner as the Forest Officer specially empowered in the behalf may from time to time notify (d)
fells. girdles. lops. taps. or burns any tree (e) quarries stone. burns lime or charcoal or collects subject to any manufacturing
process or removes any forest produce (I) clears or breaks up any land for cultivation or any other purpose shall be guilty of
an offence and shall be liable to be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months or with a fine
which will extend to Rs . 500 or with both in addition to such compensation for damage done to the forest as the Convicting
Court may decree to be paid. Such compensation when awarded shall be treated in all respects as a fine. shall be
recoverable as such. and shall not exceed the amount of fine which such court has power to impose . Whenever fire is
caused wilfully or by gross negligence in a reserved forest by any persons having right in such forest or having permission to
practise chena cultivation therein or by any person in his employment or whenever any person having right in such forest
contravenes the provisions of section 24. the government may (not withstanding that a penalty has been inflicted under
section 27 in respect of such fine) direct that in such forest or any specified portion thereof the exercise of all or any of the
rights of pasture or to forest produce shall be extinguished or suspended for any such penod as he thinks fit. and may
withdraw any permission to practise any .chena cultivation in such forest or portion.
And I do hereby require every person claiming any right or making any right claim to any land or portion of any land
within the said limits either. to present to my address at the Kandy kacceri before the 30th day of October. 1894 a written
statement specifying or to appear before me at noon on the 30th day of October. 1894. at the Kandy kacceri and state the
nature of such right or claim .

E

l

121
Schedule
Northern Boundary

the

The Forest boundary on the north side commences where Reserve path branches off from Lady Horton's Walk.
This path forms the boundary until it strikes Title Plan 79186. Then on the boundary follows the southern boundary of Title
Plan 791 86, the western and southern boundary of the plan 82798, the southern and eastern boundary of Title Plan
98020 until it strikes Torrington Road; from this point the Forest boundary runs into this road until it strikes the
Bandaragetenne Ella, then it follows the ela until the southern boundary of Lot 11122 (claimed by M. A Philip) is reached.
It then follows the southern boundary of Lot 11122 until Green Gallop is reached, then the boundary follows Green Gallop
in a northerly direction until it strikes the southern boundary of Lot 11120, it then follows this boundary in a westerly
direction until Bandaragetenna Ella is reached, it then follows this Ela in a northerly direction until southern boundary of Title
Plan 50072 is touched, and then marches along the southern boundaries of Title Plan 500 a/2 and 500163 until Lady
Anderson Road is reached.
Eastern Boundary

be
cut

the

Lady Anderson's Road forms the boundary until the point where the northern boundary of Title Plan 50073 is
touched, it then follows the northern and western boundaries of Title Plan 50073, the western and southern boundaries of
Title Plan 50614 when it again strikes Lady Anderson's Road; it follows this road for a short distance and marched along
the northern boundary of Title Plan 50074, it then follows the western boundaries of Title Plans 50074,50165,50128,
50129,50130 and of Galketiyawatta claimed by Harmanis Zoysa until it strikes Lady Anderson's Road.
Southern Boundary
From this point the Forest boundary marches along the northern boundaries of lands claimed by Wewattegedera
Kalu, Panwila Kumbura claimed by Munasinghe Gravets Mohandram and the threshing floor thereof, a strip of chena land
claimed by Pinhami Watturala ; it then follows along the eastern and northern boundary of Title Plan 8031 2 when it strikes
Lady MacCarthy's Road, it then marches along this road until it touches the northern bounda ry of land claimed by Messrs.
Soysa & Co., it follows this boundary until it strikes the path to the Eastern Redoubt Western boundary.
From this point the Forest boundary follows the path to the Eastern Redoubt for a short distance when it strikes Lady
Horton's Walk; it then follows Lady Horton's Walk until Russel Path is reached.

an
the

The land within the above stated boundaries known as Udawattekale exclusive of the roads and paths and a chain's
extent on either side of roads and half a chain on either side of paths. The roads and paths are shown in the "Plan of
Udawattekale, Kandy" dated Surveyor-General's Office, Colombo, 14th April, 1893.
(Initialed) B. B.
1.

in
to
at
(d)

U.F.R.F. File No. 111/22 C Div.

122

I'

APPENDIX III
PROCLAMA TION
By His Excellency the Right Honourable Sir J. West Ridgeway, Knight Commander of the Most Honourable Order of
the Bath, Knight Commander of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India, Governor and Commander-in-Chief in and over
the Island of Ceylon, with the Dependencies thereof.
WEST RIDGEWAY
WHEREAS by the 19th section of the Forest Ordinance, 1885, as amended by the 6th section of Ordinance No.
of 1892, it is enacted that whenever the following events have occurred , viz ­
(a) The period fixed under section 7 of the said "Forest Ordinance, 1885" for preferring claims has elapsed,

and all claims (if any) made within such period have been disposed of by the Forest Settlement Officer; and
(b) If such claims have been made, the period fixed for appealing from the orders passed on such cla ims have

elapsed, and all appeals (if any) presented within such period have been disposed of by the Supreme Court ;
and
(c) All lands (if any) to be included in the proposed forest which may be acquired under section 13 of the

last-mentioned Ordinance have become vested in the Crown-

it

IS

The Governor shall, by Proclamation to be published in the Government Gazette, specify the limits of the forest which
intended to reserve, and declare the same to be reserved from a date fixed by such Proclamation .

And whereas all things necessary for declaring the forest hereunder mentioned to be a reserved forest have been
fulfilled , and all times herein-before recited have elapsed, and it is expedient to specify the limits of such forest.
We know all Men that We, the said Governor, do by this Our Proclamation proclaim the forest. the limits of which are
set forth in the schedule hereto subjoined, to be a reserved forest as from and after the 1st day of January, 1898, the
following rights being, nevertheless allowed.
A right of way to the public over the following roads and paths, viz.
(1 ) Lady Horton's Road (carriage road)
(2) Lady MacCarthy's Road (carriage road)
(3) Lady Gordon's Road (carriage road)

(4) Gregory Path (footpath)
(5) Lovers' Walk (footpath)

(6) Russell Path (footpath)
(7) Green Gallop (riding and footpath)

(8) Cemetery Path (footpath)
(9) Marble Seat Path (footpath)
(10) Byrde's Lane (footpath)
(11) Lady Torrington ' s Road (riding road and footpath)
(12) Lady Anderson's Road (riding road and footpath)

123
r

And also a right to the Municipal Council, Kandy, to collect the following forest produce, viz., surface soil, stone,
clay , gravel, earth, sticks suitable for mammoty handles, from the reservations of one chain on either side of roads Nos . 1,
2, 3 and from the reservations of half a chain on either side of roads and paths Nos . 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 , 10, 1 1 and 1 2 in the
following list :­
(1) Lady Horton's Road
(2) Lady MacCarthy's Road

of
fer

(3) Lady Gordon's Road
(4) Gregory' s Path
(5) Lover's Walk

,1

(6) Russell Path

Id,
nd

(7) Green Gallop
(8) Cemetery Path

Ive
rt ;

(9) Marble Seat Path
(10) Byrde's Lane
(11 ) Lady Torrington ' s Road
(12) Lady Anderson's Road
The Forest produce so taken to be used for the purpose of effecting repairs to the said roads and paths, and not to
be bartered or sold.
And we do hereby further specify the limits of the said reserved forest to be those set forth in the said schedule.
Given at Colombo, in the said Island of Ceylon, this Thirteenth day of October, in the year of the Lord One Thousand
Eight Hundred and Ninety-Seven .
By His Excellency 's command,

E. NOEL WALKER
Colonial Secretary
GOD SAVE THE QUEEN
(2)

SCHEDULE

f

Land situated in the village of Uda Mahalyawa, Watapuluwa, Diwulwewa, Aruppola , Buwelikada, Talwatta in
Gangawatta Korale of Yatinuwara, in the District of Kandy, known as Udawattekele, described as lots 11120, 11123A.
11123 (exclusive of the portion of this lot north of Torrington Road and the portion east of Lady Anderson 's Road) ,
11124, 11129, 11130 in preliminary plan , 4189 title Plan 50079 lot 10152 in preliminary plan 3638, and land not
described in any preliminary plan : bounded on the north by the southern boundary of title plan 79186 on the east and
south by lot 11123 in preliminary plan 4189 and on the west by Russell Path - the whole of the proposed reserved forest
being bounded as follows :
North - By the southern boundary of title plan 79186 the western and southern boundaries of title plan 82798, the
southern and eastern boundaries fo title of title plan 98020, and easte.rn boundary of title plan 82798 to the junction of the
latter boundary with Torrington Road, the eastern boundary of title plan 82797 until it strikes the southern boundaries of
title plan 135125 until Torrington Road is again reached : then the boundary runs along this road until it strikes the western

124
boundary of title plan 50078 ; it then follows the western boundary of title plan 50078 and of lots 11121, 11122, then
along the southern boundary of lot 11122 then along the eastern boundaries of lots 11122, 11121 title plans 50078,
61241 and lot 11127 then along the northern boundary of lot 11127 until 8andarage Tenna-ela is reached ; it then
follows this ela in a northerly direction until the southern boundary of title plans 50072 is touched: it then marches along
the southern boundary of title plans 50072, 50163 until Lady Anderson's Road is reached .
East- from the last-mentioned point the boundary runs along Lady Anderson's Road until it reaches the northern
boundary of title plan 50073 ; it then follows the northern and western boundaries of title. plan 50073, the western and
southern boundaries of title plan 50164, when it again strikes Lady Anderson Road; it then follows this road for a short
distance and marches along the northern boundary of title plan 50074 ; it then follows the western boundaries of title plan
50074, 50165, 50075, 50128, 50129 the western and southern boundaries of title plan 50130 and the western
boundary of Galketiyawatta claimed by Harmanis Soysa, until it strikes the Lewella road.
South - from the last-mentioned point the boundary then follows the road for a short distance to the northern
boundary of land claimed by Wewawattagedara Kalu ; it then runs along this boundary and the eastern boundary of
Panwilakumbura claimed by Munasinha, Gravets Muhandiram, till it reaches the eastern boun.dary of lot 10152A in
preliminary plan 3638 ; after following the eastern, northern and western boundaries of the said lot 10 152A. it runs along
the north-eastern boundary of land claimed by Pinhami Watturala, the eastern boundaries of title plan 80312, and of lot
11128 the western boundaries of title plan 8031 2, 80311 till it strikes Lady MacCarthy's Road; then along the northern
boundary of land claimed by Messrs. Soysa & Co. until it strikes the path to the eastern redoubt.
West - from the last-mentioned point the boundary follows the path to the eastern redoubt. Lady Horton's Walk,
and Russell Path, as far as the south-western corner of title plan 79186 .
(Extract from the "Ceylon Government Gazette" No. 5,504 of October 15, 1897)

125

en

f

8,

en
APPENDIX IV
Part I (General) - CEYLON GOVERNMEI'H GAZETTE - July 29, 1938
PROCLAMATION BY THE GOVERNOR.
L.D. - B 83/37/M/AL - AF 6/34

rn

BY HIS EXCELLENCY THE GOVERNOR.

rn
of

in
9
rn

A.
A.

Proclamation .

CALDECOTT.

KNOW Ye that by virtue of the powers in me vested by section 2 (2) of the Fauna and Flora Protection Ordinance,
No.2 of 1937. I. Andrew Caldecott, Governor of Ceylon , do by this Proclamation declare that the several areas of land
specified in the schedule hereto shall be Sanctuaries for the purposes of that Ordinance.
And I do hereby further declare that this Proclamation shall come into force on the 1st day of August. 1938.

k,
By His Excellency"s command,
E. R. SUDBURY,
Secretary to the Governor.

Colombo, July 12, 1938

GOD SAVE THE KING .
Udawattakele Sanctuary
The area of land shown in the sketch. situated in Uda Mahaiyawa, Watapuluwa, Diwulwewa, Aruppola, Buwelikada
and Talwatta within the Municipal limits of Kandy, in the Kandy District of the Central Province, containing extent about 257
acres, and bounded as follows :­
North by the southern boundary of T .P. 79.186 ; the western and southern boundaries of T. P. 82.798 ; the
southern and eastern boundaries of T P 98,020 ; the eastern boundary of T P 82.789 to the Junction
of the latter boundary with Lady Torrington road; the eastern boundary of TP 82.797 until it meets the
southern boundary of T.P. 135.125 ; the southern and eastern boundaries of T.P. 135.125 ; the Lady
Torrington road; the western boundaries of T.P. 50, 078; lots 11 , 121 and 11,122 ; the southern
boundary of lot 11,122 ; the eastern boundaries of lots 11.122. 11 , 121 in preliminary plan No. 4 , 189.
T.P. 50,078, 61,241 ; the eastern and northern boundaries of lot 11,127 in preliminary plan No.
4,189 ; the Bandagetenna ela and the southern boundaries of T.Ps . 50,072 and 50,163 .
East by the Lady Anderson's road until it meets the northern boundary of T.P. 50,073, by a line in prolongation
of the said boundary, the northern and western boundaries of T.P . 50,073 ; the western and southern
boundaries of TP 50,164 ; the northern boundary of lot 11,124 in preliminary plan No.4, 189, the
Lady Anderson's road, the southern boundary of lot 11,124 in preliminary plan No.4, 189 the western
boundaries of T.Ps. 50,074, 50,165, 50,075, 50,128 and 50,129 ; the western and southern
boundaries of T.P. 50 , 130 ; and the western boundary of Galketiyawatta (which is also the eastern
boundary of lot 11,123 in preliminary plan No. 4, 189)
South by the Lewella road, the northern boundary of land claimed by Wewawattagedara Kalu and the eastern
boundary of Panwilakumbura (both of which also form the southern boundary of lot 11,123 in preliminary
plan No.4, 189), the eastern, northern, and western boundaries of lot 1 in preliminary plan No. 7,045 ,
the eastern boundary of land claimed by Pinhami Wattarala (which is also the southern boundary of lot
11,123 in preliminary plan No.4, 189) the western boundary of T. P. 80, 312; the eastern , northern,
and western boundaries of lot 11,128 in preliminary plan No.4 , 189, the western boundaries of TP
80,311 ; and the northern boundary of land claimed by Meesrs. Soysa & Co. (which is also the southern
boundary of lot 11,123 in preliminary plan No.4, 189)
West by the bridle path to the Eastern Redoubt. the Lady Horton's Drive and the Russel path.

~.~--

-

;.

126

APPEND/XV
The Lieutenant General the Honourable Sir Edward Paget Knight Guard ... of the Most Honorable'Military Order of
the Bath, Governor and Commander in Chief in and over the British Settlements and Territories in the Island of Ceylon with
the Dependencies thereofEdward Paget

To all to whom these Presents shall come - Greeting

Whereas His Majesty has been pleased by his instructions transmitted to us, to direct that Grants of Waste Lands
belonging to His Majesty in his Dominions in the Island of Ceylon and its Dependencies should be issued to His Majesty's
European subjects, and to such Europeans or their Descendents as were settled in Ceylon before the Conquest thereof, by
His Majesty, and who by their good conduct since, may have entitled themselves to that indulgenGe ­
And whereas the Reverend Samuel Lambrick, the Reverend Thomas Browning, the Reverend Robert Mayor and the
Reverend Benjamin Ward Clerk have made application to us for a Grant of a certain piece of land, the property of His
Majesty in His Government of Ceylon lying and being near the Rama Wihare in the District of the Town, Kandy, within the
said settlements and bounded on the North by Rama Wihare on the East and West by Gardens and on the South West by
the Road to Trincomalee containing in extent Four Acres, One square Rood, Thirty-One Square perches, Five Square Yards
and four square feet as appears by a survey and description thereof, herewith annexed to be granted to them as Trustee of
a Voluntary Society in or near London called or known by the names of the Church Missionary Society for Africa and the
East, and to be applied to the use and purposes of the Society. And Whereas we have deemed it fitting to comply with the
said application and have consented to make a grant of the premises, upon the conditions hereafter specified, known ye
that we the said Governor acting here on His Majesty's behalf by virtue of the Powers and Authorities in us for that purpose
vested, have in consideration of the conditions hereinafter contained to be done and performed by the said Reverend
Samuel Lambrick, the Reverend Thomas Browning, the Reverend Hobert Mayor, and the Reverend James Ward of their
assigns granted and assigned and by these presents do grant and assigns to the said Samuel Lambrick, Thomas Browning,
Robert Mayor and Benjamin Ward as Trustees for thE; Voluntary Society therein aoove reterred to and for the uses and
purposes of such Society, all the said piece of Land together with the all rights and appertenances there unto belonging .
To have and to hold the same to them the said Samuel Lambrick, Thomas Browning, Robert Mayor and Benjamin
Ward Trustees as aforesaid and their successors in the said Trusts and their respective assigns forever, upon and subject
to the conditions following to wit: That they the said Samuel Lambrick, Thomas Browning, Robe~t Mayor, and Benjamin
Ward shall from and after the First day of January which will in the Year of our Lord One Thousand Eight Hundred and
Twenty-Two till which date ,he or they shall have the said land free of Tax or Duty, be subjected to payor cause to be duly
paid to His Majesty in the Government of Ceylon all such Dues and Taxes as other trusts of the same description in the said
District of the Town of Kandy shall be by law liable to. And the buildings to be constructed on the said land shall be
substantial that is built with Brick or Stone and covered with Tiles or Terraces and shall be erected upon a plan or plans to
be approved of by us or our successor and none of such buildings shall be so placed as to overlook that commonly called the
Governor's Pavilion. That if at any time thereafter it shall happen and be made apparent, that the said Land has been for
Five Years or upwards neglected, or uncultivated, then and in such case the Grant shall be utterly void and of non effect.
In witness thereof we have caused His Majesty's seal for the Island of Ceylon be affixed to these Presents, Given at
Colombo on the said Island of Ceylon the Thirteenth day of July in the Year of Our Lord One Thousand Eight Hundred and
Twenty-Two.
By His Excellency's Command
(signed) Geo. Lusignan
Sec. Kan . Provo
Memorandum

J27

It is assented to by the Grantees that the extent and limits of the land granted are those appearing in the survey itself
although the limits are erroniously described in the writing below and thence copies onto the grant . 1.
(signed)
Geo. Lusignan
S.KP.*

If of
!'lith

Inds
Ity's

The second grant is as follows:
By His Excellency Lieutenant General Sir Edward Barnes Knight Commander, of the Most Honourable Military Order
of the Bath, Governor and Commander in Chief in and over the British Settlements, and Territories in the Island of Ceylon,
with the dependencies thereof .
(signed)
E. Barnes

f, by

the
His
the

by

To all to whom these presents shall come - Greeting
Know ye that we the said Lieutenant General Sir Edward Barnes Governor, by virtue of ·the Power in us vested by His
Majesty, have demised and granted and by these presents do demise and grant unto the Reverend Samuel Lambrick and
the Keverend Thomas Browning and their respective assigns and on behalf of the Church Missionary their respective assigns
and on behalf of the Church Missionary Society, two parcels of ground as described in the accompanying survey coloured
red and marked A & B. The following . .. A bounded on the north by houses of different owners on the East by Mission
ground granted by Government 30th July 1822 , on the South by house of Mauriam Bebee and on the West by
T rincomalee Street. containing in Extent two roods and thirty six square perches, and B bounded on the West and East by
Government grounds on the South by missi~:m ground granted by Government 30th July 1822 and on the West by Houses
of different owners containing in Extent one Rood and Twenty-Five Square Perches .
To have and to hold the said premises w ith their and every of their appurtenances,unto the said Reverend Samuel
Lambrick and Reverend Thomas Browning Trustees as aforesaid and their successors in the said Trust and their respect ive
assigns for ever . .. full right as paraveny or heritable . . . sUDJect to the following conditions that the buildings that
may be constructed on the said premises shall be substantial, that is ; built with Brick or Stone , and covered with tile 01
terrace , and shall be erected upon a Plan or Plans to be approved of by us or our successors and none of such buildings
shall be so placed as to over look those commonly called the Governor's Pavilion .
And we the said Lieutenant General Sir Edward Barnes Governor do hereby pronounce and grant for our successors
in the said Government the said premises before mentioned to be demised and granted in perpetuity as a aforesaid upto
the said Reverend Samuel Lambrick and Reverend Thomas BrowninrJ Trustees as aforesaid and their successors in the said
Trust and the respective assigns against all and every other persOn or persons whomsoever shall and will warrant and
defend .
Given under our hand and seal at Colombo in the Island of Ceylon this Fourteenth day of January in the year of Our
Lord One Thousand Eight Hundred and Thirty-One.2
By His Excellency's Command
signed
P Anstruther,
Depy Secy

1. SL.NA 7/14 3

2. S.L NA 7/ 404

· Secretary Kandyan Provinces.

-20

128

APPENDIX VI
"Sir,
I have the honour herewith to forward a copy of a letter from the Rev. Mr. Von Dadelszen Colonial Chaplain of Kandy
dated 3rd inst. relative to enlarging the present Burial Ground by entering on the Military Reserve.
"I should have forwarded it earlier but that on my going over the ground with him, he could not
point out what was wanted and it was not until the 15th that I found the boundaries staked out. I had
requested, and my Assistant Superintendent being unwell, I am unable to lay it out accurately by
measurements. However the accompanying plan on which it is sketched and marked with the dotted line,
will be sufficient for the present purpose.
"2. With respect to what Mr. Von Dadelszen says about the Burial ground being chiefly a Military
Burial Ground and its convenience to the troops, on account of its present pOSition to the Hospital, I have
only to state that there is a piece of ground marked S, on the plan which would be still more convenient to
the Military, and extensive enough for the casualities likely to occur among the soldiers for years to come
and I yesterday consulted with the Senior Medical Officer, Dr. Cameron 37th Regiment, who on looking
at the ground saw no sanitary objection, or any other annoyance to the patients in the Hospital, more
than from the present Burial Ground which is also within hearing of the firing over the soldiers' graves.
"3 . It is not for me to enter into the question as to where ground is to be had for the interment 'of
Civilians, more than to say that I ·understand there is already a space set apart near the Trincomalee
Road for that purpose and which is certainly not so convenient for the officiating Clergyman and followers
of funerals as the present Burial Ground but I do not consider that a sufficient reason for encroaching on
the "Military Reserve" which had been, on due consideration by former Governors set apart for such
purposes and the boundaries marked out 498421 by authorised and competent persons viz . The Govt .
Agent Mr. Buller, the Govt. Surveyor, Mr. Robertson and the Commanding Royal Engineer, K. P., Lieut.
Col. Phillpotts. Because, if once an encroachment is allowed it becomes a precedent for sanctioning
another and thus, by degrees the whole of the "Military Reserve" might be alienated for other purposes.
"A glance at the sketch will show the moderation of the present request. the space wanted
comprehending more than half the cleared area one portion ~f which in rear of the Staff Officers Quarters
was cleared by him and the other portion of which was I understand specially set apart by a late Governor
Sir Colin Campbell, and building ground for Officers Quarters for the Ceylon Rifle Re.giment whose mess
room is in its immediate vicinity and ' for which purpose it would be useless were the Burial Ground
allowed there, and which actually includes the former well .
"Nor is it an unwarrantable supposition that at some future period when this graveyard becomes
full or crowded, the Clergyman or Government Agent of the day might wish a still further enlargement
and the make a forcible annexation of the adjacent Barrack ground as it has been actually exemplified by
the present case, the Government Agent having sent in his prisoners to mark our boundaries and cut
Jungle on the Military Reserve" without any reference whatever to me as Commanding Royal Engineer
who is Ex-Officio in Charge of it. I wish however to do him the justice to say that on my writing him a
private note on the subject he desisted but I think it most desirable that such a· procedure should not
again occur.
"5. The foregoing reasons alone are sufficient for my respectfully submitting that the application of
the Revd . Mr. Von Dadelszen and which far surpassed what I oriQinally understood his wishes to be,
should not be complied with and that no infringement whatever be permitted on the "Military Reserve".
"6 . I wish also to draw attention to the fact that the ground within the line ABCD is sketched as
jungle is exceeding steep and rough and utterly useless as a Burial Ground, not only on account of the
difficulty of digging graves, but that in the rainy season the earth would be washed out of them and cause
great annoyance and inconvenience to the Staff Officers, as stated by him in the accompanying letter of
this day's date . 1
1. S.L.NA 18/3411 . 18 December 1851 .

129

APPENDIX VII
Victoria by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Queen Defender of the Faith .
(Seal)

(signed) G. W . Anderson .

To all to whom these presents shall come, Greetings­
"Know ye that we being thereunto requested have given granted and confirmed and by these presents do
give grant and confirm unto Edward Rawdon Bingham Power Esq ., Acting Government Agent for the Central
Province, Lieutenant Colonel George Pinder Commandant of Kandy, Lieutenant Henry Schaw, Assistant Civil
Engineer and Commissioner of Roads, John Keith Jolly Esq ,George William Edema Esq ., and Captain Henry
Bird Trustees of the Episcopal Church of Kandy and their successors in the said Office of Trustee for the
purpose of a cemetary to be and to continue to be for ever dedicated and set apart for the burial of persons
professing the Christian Religion according to the rites of the United Church of England and Ireland, the
following premises , to wit; an allotment of Crown land situated within the Gravets of Kandy, Central Province,
and bounded on the North-East by a Road, on the East and South-East by land reserved for military purposes
and by that described in Plan No. 42420 on the West by land reserved for Military purposes and by the old
burial ground, and on the North-West by land described in Plan No. 49684, and containing in extent three acres
one rood and thirty three square perches, according to the annexed survey and description thereof duly
authenticated by William Henry Simms Esquire Surveyor General T.P. 49871 ."
To have and to hold the said premises with their and every of their appurtenances unto the said Edward Rawdon
Bingham Power Esq ., Acting Government Agent for the Central Province, Lieutenant Colonel George Pinder, Commandant
of Kandy, Lieutenant Henry Schaw Assistant Civil Engineer and Commissioner of Roads, John Keith Jolly Esq ., George
William Edema Esq ., and Captain Henry Bird Trustee as aforesaid and their Successors in trust for the purpose and use
aforesaid for ever.
In testimony whereof we have caused these our letters to be made Patent and the Public Seal of our said Island to be
hereunto affixed at Colombo in the said Island this Twenty Second Day of September in the year of our Lord one thousand
eight hundred and fifty four' .7

1. S.L. NA 18/655

130

APPENDIX VIII
By His Excellency the Right Honourable James Alexander Stewart Mackenzie Governor and Commander in Chief in
and over the British Settlements and Territories in the Island of Ceylon with the Dependencies thereof.
Signed J A. Stewart Mackenzie .
To all whom these presents shall come - Greeting
Whereas his late Majesty was pleased by his instructions transmitted to us. to direct that grants of land belonging to
his Majesty in his Dominions in the Island of Ceylon and its dependencies might be issued to his Majesty's subjects-and
whereas Lieutenant Colonel John Fraser hath made application to us for a grant of the lands herein after described which
had been held by him since the year one thousand eight hundred and thirty four .
Now know ye that we the said right honourable James Alexander Stewart Mackenzie Governor acting herein on
behalf of our Sovereign Lady Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Queen defender of the faith. by
virtue of the powers and authorities in us for the purpose vested have granted and assigned and by these presents do grant
and assign unto the said Lieutenant Colonel John Fraser his Heirs Executors Administrators and Assigns the following
premises to wit :
A piece of government ground situated in Malabar Street in the Town of Kandy bounded on the North and East anct
South by government grounds. on the West partly by Government Ground. and partly by the premises of Lieutenant D~·
Meaden being in extent four acres two roods and fourteen square perches and forty eight hundredth parts of a square
perch as will more fully appear by the annexed survey and description here of authenticated by Mr . George W . Van Hauten
District Surveyor. To have and to hold the said premises with their and every of their .appurtenances ~nto the said
Lieutenant Colonel John Fraser his heirs. executors. administrators and assigns Subject to the several provisions.
conditions and reservations herein after declared and contained concerning the same; that is to say. provided always and
upon condition that the ground stained green in the said annexed figure of survey shall also be reserved for military
purposes but may nevertheless be occupied by the said Lieutenant Colonel John Fraser or his heirs. executors.
administrators and assigns temporarily with the permission of government and provided always and upon further condition
that the said Lieutenant Colonel John Fraser or his Heirs. Executors. Administrators and Assigns shall not construct any
building of brick or stone upon the portion of ground stained yellow in the said annexed figures of survey herein before
recited whereon stands a building used now as a store or granary and which it is stipulated on the part of government shall
not be used for any other purposes than a store and that in the event of government ceasing to require the said building as a
store that then the said Lieutenant Colonel John Fraser or his heirs. executors. administrators and assigns shall be allowed
the option of purchasing the govt. building at an appraisement without including the value of the ground whereupon it
stands which shall then be transferred to him the said Lieutenant Colonel John Fraser or his heris. executors. administrators
or assigns wihtout any additional payment - and provided always to such regulation as now which and as may hereafter be
enacted relative to tenures on Landed property in general in this Island and we the said Right Honourable James Alexander
Stewart Mackenzie Governor do hereby promise and grant the said premises herein before mentioned to be granted and
assigned and every part thereof subject always to the condition. provision and reservation. herein before contained into the
said Lieutenant Colonel John Fraser his heirs. executors. administrators and assigns against all and every other person or
persons whomsoever shall and will warrant and defend - Given under our hand and seal at Colombo in the island of Ceylon
the nineteenth day of July in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty eight 1

1 S.L.N.A. 6/1475

131

APPENDIX IX
EXTENSION OF MAHAIYA W A CEMETERY

Wagolawatte Cemetery was acquired from Udavattek'ale on 14 January 1878 under Ordinance NO . 3 of 1876
entitled "An Ordinance to provide for the acquisition of land for Public Purpose". It consisted of 1 acre 2 roods 3 perches
described as Lot 7218 in Surveyor General's Plan No . 2168 dated 28/9/1877 It was required for the extension of
1
Mahaiyawa Cemetery.

)

j

h

A letter from the Kandy Municipal Council written to the Commissioner of Local Government. Colombo, through the
Government Agent. Central Province, Kandy and the Land Commissioner on June 30 1932 makes clear the position of the
cemetery :
"Sir,
With reference to letter No. P.P. 9203 of the 23rd ultimo from the Government Agent. c.P., Kandy, a
copy of which is hereto annexed, I have the honour to forward herewith a tracing of P.P. 9203 and to inform
you that the land shown therein has been used as a Cemetery since 1887.
2 . The Council is responsible for the supervision of this cemetery, and as it intends to effect certain
improvements and exercise better control over it, it is desired that the land, which is Crown land, be vested in
the Council for use as a Cemetery." 2

1. S.LNA 18/3417
2. U.K.R.F. File No . 111/22 No . 0240A Kandy, 30 June) 932

132

APPEND/XX
The plaintiff - respondent Ven'ble Jinasiri Thero alleged that Sonuththra Thero once he acquired the land in 1883
founded thereon a Buddhist Temple which was consecrated about 70 years prior to the date of action and that Rama
Vihare has existed as Sangika premises for a period "beyond the memory of any living person." He stated that Sonuththra
Thero thereby became the first Viharadhipati . He was succeeded by his senior pupil Kalutara Sudhamma and on the latter's
death in 1940 by his senior pupil Diyapththugama Dharmakeerthi. The plaintiff - Jinasiri Thero claimed to have succeeded
to the incumbency as senior pupil of Dharmakeerthi, and be declared as Viharadhipathi and that the defendent be ejected
from the premises .
The defendent denied that these premises were Sangika or that there was any place of worship on the land called
Rama vihare. He stated that it was the pudgalika property of Sonuththra Thero and after his death his lay heirs transferred
this land to Kotigala Sumanatissa Thero and Kalutara Sudharamma Thero upon Deed No . 657 dated 9 September, 1903 .
Sumanatissa Thero by Deed No . 4280 dated 27 December 1956 gifted a half share of the premis!=lS to the defendent. The
defendant also claimed that after the death of Sudhamma Thero, Sumanatissa Thero became entitled to the entirety. He
further stated that in 1938 a private Chappel was constructed on the land. The learned Judge has held that these premises
were Sangika and entered judgement for the plaintiff . From this the defendent appeals and counsel appearing for him, H.
W . Jayawardene, confined his argument to this question only. He stated that there was no proof that the premises were

Sangika and readily conceded that if there was proof the plaintiff was entitled to judgement . The learned Judge has referred

to certain documents wherein Sonuththra Thero, Sudharma Thero and Sumanatissa Thero are referred to as V,haradhipathi

of Rama Vihare. If someone or the other priest refers to himself as Viharadh(pathi they could not in any way be proof of

dedication . The issues on this point are as follows.

1. Did Suriyagoda Sonuththra Thero upon Crown Grant W 4472 dated 20 .3 1883 become the owner of the land
and premises described in the schedule to the Plaint
2. Did the said Suriyagoda Sonuththra Thero - a) Restore and ancient Vi hare which stood on the said land, and/or
b) re-establish a place of Buddhist worship thereon
3 . If so, did the said Suriyagoda Sonuththra Thero run and/or convert the said land into Sangika property
Issues 2 (a) refers to an ancient vihare which stood on the land the case of the plaintiff was that he ran the said
vihare as Sanglka property . Plaintiff's witness Kevitiyagala Dhammasidi Thero stated in cross-examination that he first went
to the premises in 1925 and at that time there was an old Vihare there and a Bodhi. In cross-examination he admitted that
he could not have gone there before 1930 and what he stated earlier was knowledge gathered from his tutor . His evidence
cannot be accepted as proof of the existence of a Vihare in 1883 at the time of the Crown Grant or .even later up to 1930.
The plan made in June 1917 only shows the "site of Rama Vihare" meaning thereby that Rama Vihare once stood there.
Further the Crown Grant conveys 3 roods of Udavattekale, a well known forest within the limits of Municipal Council of
Kandy.
Issue 2 (b) read with the second part of issue 3, means that Sonuththra Thero established a place of worship there
and converted it into Sangika property. There is not an iota of evidence to support this . In fact in 1917 when Sudharma
Thera and Sumanatissa Thero instituted action No . 25444 of the District Court of Kandy to indicate a right of way to this
land over the Defendant's neighbouring land. they claimed as owners of Rama Vihare Waite. If the plaintiff is to succeed in
this case he must prove that the premises was Sangika. he cannot claim to be Viharadhipathi of Gihi Santhaka lands.
Dedication is a sine quo non for these premises to become Sangika . "This dedication may take the form of a writing or may
be verbal, but in either' case it IS a formal act , accompained by a solemn ceremony in the presence of four or more priests,
who apparently represent the Sarva Sanga or entire priesthood" per Sampaya J . in Wickramasinghe vs . Unnanse (22
N.L.R. 236 and 242) It is "dedicated to the whole order , the Sangha present and future throughout the world, in all
directions north, south, east and west" (per Bertram c.J . Saranankara Unnanse vs Indrajothi Unnanse (20 N.L.R. 385 and
394) Basnayake C.J, described the ceremony in more detail as follows. - "There must be an assembly of four or more
Bhikkus, the property must be shown ; the donor and donee must appear before the assembly, and three times the formula
generally used in giving property to the Sangha with the necessary variation according as it is a gift or more . Water must be
poured into the hands of the donee or his representative . The Sangha is entitled to possess the property from that time
onwards . No property can be Sanghika without such a ceremony Sometimes there is a stone inscription recording the
grant or a deed being given" Wijewardene vs. Buddharakkita Thera (19 N.L.R. 121 and 124) .
The mere fact that a temple has been given to the Sangha does not make it Sangika. It must be dedicated in the
manner prescribed by the Vinaya to become Sangika. There is no proof of such a ceremony in respect of Rama Vihare
Walta. The plaintiff therefore fails in his claim . There are other issues based on whether it is pudgalika property. No claim in
this respect was made in the plaint and I would therefore leave them open for decision in a properly constituted case .
Subject to this the appeal is allowed and the Plaint iff's action is dismissed with costs in both Courts . '

"'
1. Judgment in SC No. 423/73 (F) ; D.C Kandy Case No. 8919/L decided on 25 .05.1978 .

133

APPENDIX XI A
A translation of the rock inscription.
"At the time of the glorious and supreme King Kirti Sri
Raja Sinha, born of the excellent solar race, powerful
and majestic like the sun, a lion to the powerful inimical
kings, like elephants, like a kalpaddruma in liberality,
sagacious, sincere, energetic, and endowed with many
eminent virtues, like Indra in stately grandeur.
"When Kirti Sri Raja Sinha, having been inaugurated
King of Lanka, was making great advancement in
religious and worldly affairs, noticed a stone statue of
ancient date in a rock lying in the palmirah garden in the
vicinity of Mahaweli-ganga " f
"Then he caused a vihare to be made containing stone
walls of 13 cubits in length, 7 in breadth, and 11 in
height, surrounded by stone pillars, and above a roof
with rafters covered with tiles . Within the walls a stone
image of 9 cubits in height was made, beautified its
robes with vermilion painting , covered its different
members with golden leaves painted around with
paintings of five hues, and completed it after enshrining
it with bodily relics . In the year of Saka 1674, on the
eight day of Poson, on Monday, the second day of the
first quarter of the bright part of the moon , when all the
works of the supremely magnificient image of Buddha,
variegated with golden workmanship, were completed
in the vihare , bearing the appellation of Gangarama ,
two eyes were affixed to the image . In the year of Saka
1674, of the month Poson , and on Monday, the eight
day of the increase of the moon, under the
constellation Hata, eyes were affixed to the image,
accompanied with great solemnity, rejoicings, and
excessive offerings, and then satisfied the workmen by
giving them appropriate gifts . In acquiring the merits
accruing there from for the continuance of worship
inviolate, the king caused to be appointed men for
different grades of service; and considering that fields
and gardens are also necessary he dedicated from the
village
Bibila
4
amunu
Wewakumbura,
Hemagahakumbura, aswedduma, Galpottekumbura ,
and Watte Arachchiyakumbura ; from the village
Aruppola 7 amuna Migaskumbura , Muttetuwa,
Galahitiyawa, Pihili-anga , Pusse-anga, Getahadeniya,
Aswedduma, Kalanchiyakumbura. Pindeniya 12 amunu
and
2
pelas.
Asweddumwela,
Tarale,
Weralugahadeniya, Alupota, Hapugahadeniya,
Walakumbura, Murutepalle, Galahitiyawa, Uda
Galahitiyawa, Palkade, Dodangahakumbura; from
Wattarantenna 6 amunu and 1 pela of
Gadadehimaditta and Hapugaswela ; from Bogambara
6 amunu and 2 pela from Halmehikandure-ela 6 pelas ;
from Ampitiya Alugolla of 5 pelas ; from Dumbara 2
1

pelas of Hatamune Aswedduma ; from the village
Diyagama in the Deyaledahamunu pattuwa of Four
Korales 30 amunu, Welideniya, Iriyakumbura,
Mahakumbura, Pattamale, Kerembule, Nila-ambe,
Dengahadepela, Welikumbura , Galahitiyawa;
Dematamalpela, Palkumbura, Ambakumbura , Uggala ,
Ritikumbura, Minumbura, Munamale, .Hewarikittawa,
Bogahadepela, Kumbalkumbura, Butkumbura ,
Dorakumbura , Arabada, Alugolla, Kendope , Purana ;
from the attached village Amunugama 5 amunu and 2
pelas of Handugamuwa, Muttetuwa , Kitululla,
Dangahadeniya ;
from
the
village
Dahenpahuwedenepitiya,
Amunekumbura,
Siyambalakumbura, Mahakumbura, Wewakumbura,
Liyanguliyadda, Devatagahakumbura, Aswedduma ;
from Matgamuwa of Kandupalata in Udunuwara,
Handurukumbura of 5 pelas extent, to be possessed by
Suramba and his posterity for the purpose of beating
tom-tom on the days of poya. All these lands
comprising 83 amunu and 3 pelas sowing extent·,
together will all the appurtenant high lands, low land,
houses, trees, and plantations , inclusive , to be
perpetuated for ever ; were inscribed on the rock by the
command of the king, who sat on the throne of
Sriwardhanapura in Senkadagala , like Indra in stately
grandeur .
"A man who takes either grass of tlrewood, or a
flower, or a fruit from what is dedicated to Buddha shall
be a pretaya in the world to come . Thus it is said by
Buddha from his own mouth that whosoever taketh
even grass or firewood with desire, as after suffering
heavily like crows and ghosts, shall ultimately be born
to suffer in the eight hells. ,,2.

And the article in the Gazetteer continues :
It is said that on the occasion of the festival of
painting the eyes of the image, two personal taxes
were abolished, Pali and Marala Hungan . Pali Hungan
was a tax enacted from all. Marala was exacted from
headmen only .
"A Sannas . Saka 1674 , in favour of Abarana
Achariya for lands at Keliyalpitiya in Udunuwara , in
consideration of workmanship on the image at the
gangarama Vihare (Jud. Com. 14th February, 1823) .
"The Vihare was built by Gannoruwe Loku
Muhndirama. The vihare is possessed by the Chief
Priest of the Malwatte Vihare (34,396) . Government
purchased part of Halmehikandure muttettu from the
vihare for rai lway purposes for £ 123 10s. (34,932 ,
34,55866 ,3 13) The vihare owns 83 amunu and 3
pelas of muddy land , but of that only about 15 amunu
are muttettu in the possession of the priests; the rest
IS held by tenants
,,3

The palm irah garden was known as Talavana - present Talwatte ; Mahaweli-Ganga-Mahavaluke ; Sannas With Nayaka Thera, Gangarama Vihara .

2 . A. C Lawrie. Gazetter ofthe Central Province of Cevlon. Vol.lI. Colombo 1898. 00.817 -8 .
3 . A. C Lawrie. Gazetter of the Central Province of Ceylon. Colombo. 1898. pp.817-8

134

l
APPENDIX XI B
Endowments of the vi hare in the Kandy and Kegalle Districts.
Number
of
Pangu

Village
Kandy

Extent
of
Fields
A. P. K.

Extent
of
Gardens

Extent
of
Hen

A. P. K.
0

A. P K.

o2

Talwatte

4

2 8

Wattarantenna

4

2 2 7

2 0

Mawilmada

3

2

3 5

Siyambalagastenna

4

2 2 0

Mapanganwafura

2

0

Aruppola

7

Halmehikandura

Sirimalwatta

2

Napana

2

Tennekumbura

2

Rs. c.
30 5

61 25
2 2 2

55 90

0

57 25

2 8

0 0

31 70

6 3 3

9 2 8

8 0 0

108 30

o0

2

o0

0 5

2 90

7

6 3 0

6

36 75

Malgomuwa

0

Value
of
Services

2 3

o

3

3 0

0

7

65 90

o

3 0

o2

5

7 90

o

3 5

1 2 0

34 5

16

19 0 4

6 3 7

4

4 0 2

52

45 0 8

Kegalle
Diyagama
Dehunpahuwa

Total

o

3 9

34 1 1

53 2 3
4 0
74 3 7

291 40
80 5
863 40

"The four pangu in this village :­
1. Itipandan (a field of about quarter of an acre) - Tenant: Jayasundara Mudiyanselage. Service (commutable for Re.
1.60: to supply two wax candles once very month to the vihare .
2 . Hewisi (a field of 1 acre. and half an acre of garden) - Tenant: Pattiniyalage. Services (commutable for Rs. 2060) :
to beat tom-tom during six alternate months of each year. from Bakmaha. for the tewawa. and to appear before the
incumbent on the first auspicious day after the new year with presents of vegetables.
3. Rajakari (1 1/2 acre fields) - Tenants : Katupelellege and Bibilige. Service to pay four shillings a year .
4 . Walandena (3/4 acre fields and half an acre garden) - Tenants: Panditage. Service commutable for Rs. 5.85 : to
deliver eight pingos earthenware according to custom. and to appear before the incumbent after the new year with
penum of 12 appalla and 2 mutti.
5 . Pandama-allana-Maruwena."

135

1
APPENDIX XII
The Schedule of the land was :
A portion of Udawattekele forest reserve , subsequently surveyed as lot 1 in P.P .A. 184 called Udawattekele situated
in the village of Talwatta within the Municipal limits of Kandy , in the District of Kandy, Central Province, containing in extent
OA. OR . 25 .3P and bounded as followsEast by lot 2 in P.P.A. 184 (reservation along main road). and Siriwardhanaramaya (Assessment No . 61)
Gangarama Temple claim, and on all other sides by the Udawattekele forest reserve.
This proclamation was gazetted in the Ceylon Government Gazette. No. 8,085 of October 19, 1934.
Accordingly, a notice was issued by the Land Commissioner putting into effect the Proclamation Order.

NOTIFICA TION UNDER LAND SALE AND LEASE
REGULATION 58 AND 59
Notice is hereby given under the provisions of Land sale and Lease Regulations 58 and 59 that an application has
been received from Mabopitiye Pandita Medhankera Thero of the Sinwardhanaramaya , Lewella Road, Kandy, for the lease
to him of the land called Udawattekele in extent OA. OR . 25 3P situated in the village of Talwatte within the Municipal
Limits of Kandy described as lot 1 in P.P.A. 184 for the purpose of cutting back the bank and extending the space behind
the pansala .
In view of the fact that the close proximity of the bank to the pansala adversely affects the applicant's health and that
of the pupilpriests residing in the pansala, the said lot will be leased preferentially to the said applicant for a period of 99
years on an annual rental of Rs . 1.25 unless valid reasons to the contrary are adduced in writing to the undersigned within
six weeks from the date thereof .
sgd/- C V. Brayne
Land Commissioner
Land Commi ssi oner's Office,
Colombo , 26th October 1934.

~l

-

-

~.

136

APPENDIX XIII
A Tentative check list of the ferns and flowering plants found at.Udaval1ekale •
Acac ia Caesia. Hinguru-wel (weed)

Acalypha ciliata (weed)

Acanthephippium bicolor (orch id )

Achyranthes aspera. Gas-karal-heba
Acronychia pedunculata. Ankenda

Adenanthera pavonina. Madatiya

Adiantum cauda tum. Walking fern

Adiantum concinnum. (fern)
Adiantum latifolium (fern)

Ageratum conyzoides (weed), Hulan-tala

Agertatum houstonianum (weed). Hulan-tala

Aglaonema commutatum
Aglaonema oblongifolium (aroid)
Alangium hexapetalum (A salvifolium). liana
Albizia chinensis (A stipulata). Kabal-mara
Albizia flacataria (A falcata) . Rata-mara
Albizia odoratissima. Huri-mara
Aleurites moluccans (A triloba). Tel-kekuna
Aleurites montana
Allophyllus cobbe. Wal-kobbe, kobbe
Alocasia cucullata. Panu-habarala
Aloca sia indica
Alocasia macrorrhiza. Haba-rala
A lpinia speciosa Aratha
Alstonia macrophylla, Havari-nuga
Ai stonlcscholans. Ruk-aththana
Allernanthera sessilis. Mukunuwenna
Alysicarpus V~inalis (weed). Asvenna
Amaratnlhus vindus (weed). Kura-tampala

Amomum spp

Anacardium occidentale. Cadju, Cashew

Anamirata coccu. us (Iiana). Tirra-wel

Ane imi a phyllitidis fern)

Angiopten s evecta (fern)

Anona muricata . Katu-anoda. Sour-sop

Anodendron manubriatum (Iiana). As-wei. Gerandi-wel

Antlde sma bunius. Karawala-kebella

Ap orosa lindleyana. Kebella

Areca catechu, Puwak. Arecanut

Aristologhia elegns (vine)

Aristolochla indica. Sap-sanda (creeper)

Artabolrys uncinata (Iiana)

Artocarpu s altllis. Breadfruit . Rata-del

Artocarpus heterophyllus (A integra . Jak. Kos)
*Artocarpus nobilis . Wal-del, Bedi-del
Argyreia population (vine). Giri-tala
Ardl sla missionis
Ardisla spp.
Asparagus falcatus (vine). Hathawariya
Axonopus compressus (grass) . Potu-tana

Bambusa spp .
Begonia humilis
Begonia spp
Bldens chinen sis (weed)
Blophytum reinwardtil (weed). Gas-nidikumba
Blechnum occidentale (fern)
Blechnum orientale (fern)
Bougainvillea glabra
BougainVillea spectabilis
Breynia retusa. Wal-murunga
Breynia thamnodies. Gas-kayila
*Broussonetia zeylanica (Allaeanthus zeylanicus). Alandu
Brucea java nica (B . amarissima), Wal-papul
Bryophyllum pinnatum, Akkapana
Caesalplnia pulcherrima (ornamental shrub)
Caladium blcolor (escape from cultivation)
*Calamus thwaitesi. Maha-wewel, Cane palm
Calamus zeylanicus. Cane palm
Callicarpa lanata (C lomentosa), lila
Cananga adorata. Wal-sapu
Canna indica. Budu-sarana
Cansjera rheedi (liana) . Eta-mura
Canlhium dicoccum, Panduru, Pana -karawa
Carallia brachiata. Dawta
Careya arborea. Kahara
Cassia hirsuta (weed). Parangi-rora
Cassia mimosoides. Bin-siyambala
Cassia occidentalis. Pani-tora. peni-tora
Cassia siam ea. wa
Cassia spectabllis
Careya arborea, Kahata
Caryota urens, Kirul. Fishtail palm
Castilla elastica
Cedrela taona. Toon
Ceiba pentandra . Kapok
Cel tis cinnamomea, Gurenda
Celtis Wightii
Cen te lla asiatica. Gorukola
Centrosema pubescens (vine twiner)
Chonemorpha fragrans (vine) Bu-wal-anguna
Chuckrasia velulina (C tabularis). Hulan-hik
Chrysophyllum cinnamon
Cinnamom um verum (C zeylanicum). Kurundu
Cipadessa baccifera. Hal-bembiya .
Cissus heyneana (vine)
Clausena dentata
Clausena Indica
Cleidion Javanicum. O-kuru
Clerodendrum fragrans (C phillippium)
Clerodendrum nutans (C Wallich i). ornamental shrub
Clerodendrum paniculatum, Pagoda flower
Cliloria terneta (creeper) . escape from cultivation

.j

Wal-del - by Shanta Gunaratna.

r •

Maha Weval - by Shanta Gunaratna .

139
Ciusla rosea .
Cocclnea grandis
Cocos nuclfera, Pol, Coconut palm
Codlaeum vanegatum (several cultlvars), Crotons
Colasasla esculents, Wei-ala
Columella pedata (vine)
Commelma benghalensis
Commellna clavata
Commelina diffusa, Girapala
Commellna kurzil
Cordia spp .
Cordyline terminali s
Costus speciosus, Tebu
Cost us spiral is (escape from cultivation)
Crassocephalum crepidioides (Gyuura crepldloides)
Crepis japonica (weed)
Crotolana pailida (weed)
Crotolana zanzlbarica (weed)
Croton lacclfer , Kepetiya
Cyclea burmann i, Kehi-pi{(an
Cyclosorus spp (ferns) IThelyptens spp
Cymbopogon nardus, Mana
Cynoglossum zeylanlcum
Cyperus rOlundus (weed). Kalanduru
Cynococcum tngonum (grass)
Oalbergla pseudo-sissoo (0 champloni). Bambara-wel
Datura suaveolens, Devils trumpet
Oelonlx regia. Flamboyant
Oendrocalamus spp
Oesmodlum heterocarpum , Et-undu-pwa /i
Oesmodium heterophyllum. Maha-undu-plya/i
Oesmodlum tnfl orum, Heen-undu-plya/i
Oianella ensifolia, Monara-petan
Olchapetalum gelenloides
Oleffenbachla seguine, Dumb-cane
Oloscorea pentaphylla (vine), Katuva-ala
Oioscorea spicat a (vine). Gon-ala
Oopartlum juncea (marsh plant)
"Oracaenil thwaitesii
Orymana cordata, Kukulu-pala
Orymoglossum heterophyllum (fern)
Orynarla quercifolia (fern)
Ouranta repens, ornamental shrub
Ouno zlbelhina us, ourian
Oysoxylum blnectanferum
Elaeagnus latifolia (liana/sh rub), EmbJ/la
Elaeoparpus serratus, Weralu
Elephantopus scaber, Et-adi
Eleutheranthera ruderall s (weed)
Elytarla aea ulis
Emilia exserta, Kudu-para
" Entada zeylanica (Ii ana). Pus-wei
Eranthemum capense
Eranthemum nervosum
Ewsgnglum foetidum, Andu
Erythnna litho sperma , oadap
Erythrina variega ta, Erabadu
Eugenia malaccensis, Jambu, Malay apple
Euphoria longana, Mora

Fagraea cellanica (F zeylanica), Etamburu
FIcus aspemma, Bu-thedwa, Kota-Slmbula, Sevena -mediya
FIcus callosa, Wal-gona
FIcus fergusoni, Nuga, Kos-gona
FIcus hlsplda , Kota-dimbula
FIcus n8rliosa, .Kala-maduwa
FIcus parasllica, Wal-ehelU, Gas-nelUl
FIcus racemosa (F glomerata)
FIcus religlosa. Bo
FIcus retusa (F microcarpa)
FIcus tSjakela, Kiri-pella
Filicium decipiens, Plhimbiya
Flacourtia ramonthi, Uguressa
Flemingia strobllile ra (Mohanla strobillfe ra), Hampinna
Furcrea glgantea, Hana
Galinsoga parviglora (weed)
GarClnla morella
Garclnla tlnctoria (G Xanthochymus), Rata-Goraka
GarClnia Ouaeslta (G Cambogia), Goraka
Gaertnera veglnalis
Geophlla herbacea
Glronniera spp . (G reti culata), Wal-muna-mal
Gilincldla maculata (G sepium), Kona
Glelchenia lineans (Oicranopteris linearis) (fern), Kekila
Glochidlon moonll, Bu-hunu-kirilla
Glonosa superba, Niyangala
Glycosmis mauritiana, oodan-pana
Glycosmis pentaphylla
Gmelina arborea, Etdemata
"Goniothalmus Gardner , Kalu-Kera
Gouania mlcrocarpa (vine)
Grevillea robusta
Grewla columnaris
Grewla micrococcus
Grewia onentalis
" Gynnops walla, Walla
Hemldesmus indi cus (vine), Iramusu
HeminiotlS arlfolia (fern)
Hevea brasiliensis, Rubber
Hibiscus furcatus (vine) Napiritta
Hiptage bengalenSIS (liana)
Hydnocar pus Venenata, Makula
Hudrocotyle javanica, Maha-gotu-kola
Hyptis capita ta (weed)
Ichnocarpus frute scens (vine), Kiri-wel
Impatiens fla ccida, Kudalu-mal
Imperata cylindrica (weed), IIluk
Ipomoea learll , Morning Glory
Ipomoea obscura, Tel-kola
Ipomea triloba
Isouandra Spp.
Isotoma longifolla
Ixora spp (horticu ltural va rieties)
Jasmlnum afgustifolium, Wel-plchcha, WJ/d Jasmine
Jatropha curcas, Wata-endaru
Justicla betonlca
Justlcia procumbens
Jussiaea peruvlana (marsh plant)
Jussiaea tenella

.,

Nuga - by Shanta Gunaratna .

141
Kylingia monocephale (Cyperus). Sedge

',.

Lagenandra oveta , Ketala (Vatala)
Lagerstroemia spec iosa
Languas spp .
Lantana aculeata (weed)
Lantana trifolia (escape from cultivaton)
Leea indica , Burulla
Lepisanthes tetraphylla
Leucaena leucocephala, ipil-Ipil
Leucas biflora, Tumba
Lindernia spp . (Herbs)
Lindsaea ensifolia (fern)
Litsea deccanensis, Lena-ida, Kosboda, (Lan-idden)
Litsea glutinosa, Bo-mi
Litsea longifolia, Rata-ke/iva
Lobelia spp
Ludwigia perennis
Lycopodium cernuum
Lygod ium circinatum (climbing fern)
Lygodium flexnosum (cl imbing fern), Pamba
Macaranga peltata, Kenda
Madhuca longifolia , Mee
Maesa perrottet iana , Matabimbiya
Malaxis purpurea
Mallotus philippinensis, Hamperila
Mallotus tetracoccus, Bu-kenda
Mallotus Walkeri
Mangifera indica , Amba, Mango
Mangifera zeylanica, Etamba
Manihot glaziovi
Mappia ovata, Gandapana
Melia dubia, Lunu-midella
Meliosma simplicifolia, EI-bedde
Melochi umbellata , Mal-kenda
Mamycylon spp . Kora-kaha
Merrema cymosa (vine), Kiri-madu
Mesua ferrea (M nagassarium), Na
Michelia champaca , Sapu
Micromelum minutum, Wal-karapincha
Mikania scan dens (M cordata) (weed), Wathu -pala
Mimosa pudica , Nidikumba
M irabilis jalapa , Four-o ' clock-flower
Molineria capitula, Wagga-pul
Morinda umbellata (vine). Maha-hiri-wel
Murraya paniculata , Eteriva
Mussaenda frondosa , Mussenda
Myrist ica dactyloides , Malaboda
Myroxylon balsamum , Kata-kamanchal
Murdanla spirata (Aneleima spiratum)
Naravelia zeylanica (vine). Nara-wel
Neolitsea cassia , Davul-kurundu, Kududavula
Nephrolepis cordifolia (fern)
Nephroiepis exaltata (fern)
Nothopegia beddomei , Bala
Ocimum gratissimum , Maduru-tala
Ophiorrhlza mungos, Dat-ketiya
Ormosla dasycaype
Osbeckia octandra, Heen -bowitiya

-

Ouratea zeylanica, Bo-kera

Oxal is corniculata (weed). Hin-embul-embiliva

Oxalis corymbosa

Pachystachys coccinea (escape from cultivation)
Pagiantha dichotoma (ReJona dichotoma). Divi-kaduru
*Pandanus thwaitesii
Pandanus zeylanicus
Panicum maximum, Guinea grass
Panicum repens , couch grass
Paramignya monophylla , Wel-dehi
Psidium guajava, Pera
Passiflora foetida
Passiflora suberosa
Pavetta blana (P. indica var . montana). Pavatta
Peltophorum pterocarpum (p ferrugineum)
Peperomia fraseri
Philodendron spp .
Phyllanthus myrtifolius
Phyllanthus urlnaria, Rat-pitawakka
Pi lea microphil la
Piper sylvestre , Wal-gammiris
Piper umbellatum (Heckria umbellata). Maha-Iabu
Pittosporum ferrugineum (P timoriense)
Pitvrogramma calome lanos , Silver-fern
Plecos'permum spinosum, Katu-timbol
Plumeria acutifolis, Araliva, Temple tree, Frangipani
Plumeria rubra, Araliva
Pogostemon heyneanus
Polygonum spp.
Polystichum aristatum (fern)
Pometia exima (P. tomentosa). Na-imbul Bulu-mora
Pongamia pinnata (P . glanra). Karanda
Portulaca oleracea, Kenda-kola
Pthos scandens, Pota-wel
Pouzolzia walkeriana
Pouzolzia spp .
Pseudarthria viscida
Psychotria nigra
Pteris ensiform is (fern)
Pteris quadriaurita (fern)
Pterocarpus indicus
Pterospermum canascens , Velangu
Pterygota thwaitesii
Pyrossia adnascens (fern)
Ouerc ifilix zeylanica (fern)
OlJisqualis indica (escape from cultivation)
Reisantia indica (Hippocrates indica)
Rhipsalis cassytha, Vel-navahandi
Ricinus communis
Rivinia humilis, Blood berry
Rourea minor
Rubus spp. (R . moluccanus). Wel-bute
Salacia retlculata, Himbatu-wel
Salmalia ceiba (Bombax ceiba). Katu-imbul
Samanea saman, Mara

Sansevieria zeylanica and other spp.

Spindus laurifolius (S. trifoliatus). Kaha-penela

-

--~

142
Scleria lithosperma (sedge)
Schefflera stellata, Itta-wel
Scindaspus aureus (root climber)
Schleichera oleosa, Kon
Scoparia dulcis.
Semecarpus obscura, Badulla
Sida rhombifolia, Kotikan-bevilla
Smilax prolifera, Maha-kabarana
Solanum aculeatissimum
Solanum nigrum, Kalu-kamberiya
Solanum torvum (S ficifolium), Tibattu
Sonchus oleraceus (weed)
Sonchus wightianus (S. arvensis)
Spathodea campanulata, Kudalu-gaha
Spondias pinnata
Spondias spp .
Stachytarpheta dichotoma, Balunakuta
Stachytarpheta urticifolia, Balunakuta
Stenochlaena palustris (lianoid form)
Stephania Japonica', Lunnuketiya-wel
Stercul ia balanghas, Nava
Stereospermum personatum, Lunu-madella
Streblus asper, Geta-nitul
Strombosia zeylanica
Swietenla macrophylla, Mahogany
Symplocos cochin-chinenSIS (S . spicata). Bombu
Syndrella nodiflora (weed)
Syngonium podophyllum, Wel-kohila
Syzygium caryophyllatum, Dan, Heen-dan
Syzygium gardneri, Damba, Bata-damba

Thea sinensis. Tea
Theobroma cacao
Thaulococus erectus
Thunbergia alata. Black-eyed Susan
Thunbergia erecta
Thunbergia fragrans
Thunbergia grandiflora
Thunbergia diversifolia. Mexican sunTlower
Toddalia asiatica. Kudu-miris
Trema orientale. Geduma. Gedumba
Tridax procumbens
Triumfetta rhomboidea. Epala
*Tropidia thwaitesii (orchid)
Turpinia malabrica, Eta. Hirilla
Tylophora spp .

Tectaria decuuens (fern)
Tectona grandis, Teak
Terminalia catappa, Kotamba

Terminalia bellinca. Bulu

Tetrameles nudiflora, Mugunu. Hame.

Xanthosoma sagittifol ium, Kiri-ala

Uncaria elliptica \U thwaitesii}
Urens lobata, Patta-epala
Uvaria spp .
Vanda spp .
Vent ilago maderaspatana
Vernonia cineria, Monara-kudumbiya
Vernonia hookeriana
Vernonia zeylanica, Pupula
Vitex pinnata, Milia
Vltis spp .
Wendlandia notoniana, Rawan-idala

Wikstroemia indica

Zingiber zerumbet. Wal-inguru
Zizyphus oenoplia, Hin-eraminiya
Zizyphus rugosa (Iiana), Maha-eraminiya

143

APPENDIX XIV
A list of Birds seen at Udavatteka'le between the years 1963 - 1976
Dark Print = Scientific Name and Name in English . S = Sinhalese; T = Tamil
Ref. Annotated Checklist of the Birds of Ceylon - W. W . A.

Philips .

1. Rhopocichla Articepes Nigrifrons (Blyth)

Southern Ceylon Black-fronted Babbler or Black

headed Babbler.

S :- Hisa-kalu punchi demalichcha T :­

1 1. Hypsipetes Madagascariensis Humii
(Whistler + Kinnear)
Ceylon Black Bul Bul or Ceylon Forest Bul Bul
S :-Kalu Kondaya T-Karuppu Konde-Kuruvi

2. Pellorneum Fuscocapillum Fuslocapillum (Blyth)

Ceylon Brown-capped Babbler

S\ - Dumburu Demalichcha or Redi Diang ' T :­

1 2 . Pycnonotus Melanicterus Melanicterus (Gmelin)
Black-capped Bulbul or Black-headed Yellow Bulbul
S- Hisa-Kalu Kaha Kondaya T :- Kaloo Kuluppai

3 . Turdoides Affinis Taprobanus (Rfpley)

Ceylon white-headed Babbler, Common Ceylon

Babbler or 'Seven Sisters'

S- Demalichcha T :- Velaikara-Kuruvi or

Kalam -Kuruvi or Puliny-Kuruvi

4 Pomotorhinus Schisticepes Melanurus (Blyth)

Southern Ceylon Scimitar-Babbler

S- Dumburu Deketti Dema/ichcha T :- Pulini =
Kuruvi or Kalani-Kuruvi
5 . Megalaima Zeylanica Zeylanica (Gmelin)

Green Barbet or Brown Headed Barbet

S :- Pollos Kottoruwa T :- Kutur Kukkuruvan or

Kukkuru-Pachan

1 3 . Pycnonotus Cafer Haemorrhousus (Gmelin)
Red-vented Bulbul
S- Kondaya T- Konde-Kuruvi or Konde-Klattan
14 . Pycnonotus Luteolus Insulae (Whistler + Kinnear)
Ceylon White-browed Bulbul
S- Galu-Gadu Kondava T :­

1 5 . Hypsipetes Indicus (Jerdon)
Indian Yellow-browed Bulbul
S :- Indianu Kaha Kondaya T :­
16 . Chloropsis Aurifrons Insularis (Whiatler + Kinnear)
Gold-fronted chloropsis or Leaf-bird

S - Gira-Kurulla T ­
1 7 . Chloropsis Cochinchinensis Jerdoni (Blyth)
Jerdon's Chloropsis or Gold-mantled Chloropsis or
Leaf Bird
S- Jerdonge Gira-Kurulla T :­

6 . Megalaima Flavifrons (Cuvier)
. Yellow-Fronted Barbet
S :- Kandukara Kottoruwa T :- Kutur Kukuruvan or
Kukkuru Pac han

18. Centropus Sinensis Parroti (Stresemann)
Southern Coneal. Crow-Pheasant or 'Jungle-Crows'
S- Atti Kukula T- Chempakam

7 . Megalaima Rubicapilla Rubicapilla (Gmelin)
Small Ceylon Barbet. Crimson-throated Barbet , Ceylon
Coppersmith
.

19 . Corvus Splendens p'{0tegatus (Madarasz)
Ceylon House Crown/or Grey-Necked Crow
S :- Kolomba Kaka T : Oor-Kakam

S- Heen Kottoruwa T :- Sinna Kukkuruvan
8 . Megalaima Haemacephala Indica (Latham)

Crimson-breasted Barbet or Coppersmith

S - Mal Kottoruwa , T - Sinna Kukkuruvan

9

Merops Leschenaulti Leschenaulti (Viellot)

Chestnut-headed Bee-Eater

.S - Ketl-Pendatti Kurumini - Kurul/a

T- Kattalan -Kuruvi or Panchan Kam

10 Merops Phillippinus Philippi nus (Linnaeus)
Blue-tailed Bee-Eater
S- Maha-Kurumin;-Kurulla T- Kattalan-Kuruvlor
Panchankam
-22

20 . Corvus Macrorhynchos Culminatus (Sykes)
Black Crow or Jungle Crow of 'Village Crow'
S-Kaka ofiikaputa T :-Kaka or Kakam or Oor-Kakam

21 . Streptopelia Chinensis Ceylonensis (Reichenbach)
Ceylon Spotted Dove or 'Ash-Dove'
S- Alu-Kobeyiya T :- Mant-Pura or Umi-Pura

2 2 Chalcophaps Indica Robinsoni (Baker)
Ceylon Bronze-wingea Dove , Green-winged Dove or
Emerald Dove
S- Nila-Kobeyiya T :- Pathekai Pura or Tham" Pura
23 . Dicrurus Caerulescens Leucopygialis (Iyth)

Da'rk White-Vented or Dark Whi !e-beilled Drongo

S- Kauda T- Irattai- Val-Kuruvi

144
24 . Dicrurus Caerulescens Insularis (Sharpe)
Pale White-vented Orongo or White-bellied Orongo or
Common Ceylon Orongo
S- 8ada-Sudu Kauda T :- lrattai- Va/~Kuruvi

31 . Muscicapa tickelliae jerdoni (Holdsworth)
Tlckell's Blue Flycatcher or Ceylon Orange-breasted
Blue Flycathcher
S :-Kopi Kurulla T : Kopi Kuruvi

25 . Spizaetus cirrhatus cirrhatus (Gmelin)
Crested Hawk-Eagle or Ceylon Hawk-Eagle
S-Konde rajaliya T :-Ronde rasali or Kalugu
26 . Hallaeetus leucogaster (Gmelin)
White-bellied Sea-Eagle
S _Muhudu rajaliya T-Kadal ali or Malai-kanni
27 . Spilornis Cheela spilogaster (Blyth)
Ceylon Crested Serpent-Eagle of Snake-Eagle
S-Sarpa rajaliya T-Mullai-kuruvi or Kudumiyan or
Piranthoo or Kudumby-ala

Ceylon Orange - breasted Blue Fly catcher or
TickeU's Blue Fly catcher.

32 Terpsiphone paradisi paradisi (Linnaeus)
Indian Paradise - Flycatcher or 'Cotton Thief'
S .-Sudu redi-hora T :- Vedi-vat kuru VI
Piramawa-kuruvi

or

33 . Terpsiphone paradisi ceylonensis (Zaraudny &
Harms)
Ceylon Paradise Flycatcher
S -Sivuru-hora T _ Vedi-vat kuru vi or Piramana-kuruvi

34 Gracula religosa indica (Cuvier)
Ceylon Crested Serpent - Eagle or 'Snake - Eagle'

Common grackle, Southern Indian prackle or H ill
Mynah
S :-Sela-lihiniya T :-Malai-nakanam-patchi

28 . Oicaeum erythrohychos ceycQnense (Babault)
Tickell's Ceylon Flowerpecker or Ceylon Small
Flowerpecker
S-Pillial- Gedi sutikka T­

29 . Monarcha azurea ceylonensis (Sharpe)
Ceylon Black-naped Flycatcher of Ceylon Azure
flycatcher
S-Nil-Kurulla T30 . Muscicapa latirostris (Raffles)
Brown Flycatcher
S-Oumburu marawa T .

35

Aegithina tiphia multicolor (Gmelin)
Common lora or Ceylon lora
S :-8ada-kha Panu-kurulla T-Sinna mampala-kuruvi

or

36

Elanus caerulus vociferus (Latham)
Black-winged kite or 'Gull-Hawk'
S -kobaye-ukussa T :-Rarundu or ala or Piranthoo

37

Haliastur indus indus (Boddaert)
Brahminy Kite
S - 8rahamana ukussa T :-Sem
Chem-Parun thu

parundu

or

145'

,ted

Ceylon Paradise - Fly catcher .

38 . Cexy erithacus erithacus (Linnacus)
Three-Toed Kingfisher
S :-Range Pilihuduwa T : Sinha min-kotti
or

45 . Lonchura striata striata (Llnnaeus)
White-backed Munia
S-Pita sudu wee-kurulla T :-Nellu-kuruvi or Tmayan or
tina i-kuru vi

39 . Alcedo Atthis Taprohana (Kleinschmidt)
Ceylon Common Kingfisher
S _Mal pilihuduwa T-Min-kotti

&
40. Halcyon smyrnensis fusca (Boddaert)

Indian white-breasted Kingfisher

S-Pilihuduwa T :- Min-kotti or Kiklupai

41 . Eudynamys scolopacea scolopacea (Linnaeus)

Ind ian koel

S :-Koha T _Kuyilor Kusil

42 . Loriculus beryllinus (J .R. forster)

Ceylon Lorikeet

S-Gira malichcha T :-Kanni-kili or Thennang-Kili

VI

43 . Pricrocotus cinnamomeus cinnamomeus (Linnaeus)

Small Min ivet or Ceylon Little Minivet

S _Hingini-kurulla T :­

44 . Pericrocotus flammeus flammeus (Forster)

Scarlet Minivet or Orange Minivet

S _Gini-kurulla T :-Mampala-kuruvi

-

Indian White- breasted kingfisher.

-

~

146
46 . Lonchura kelaarti kelaarti (Jerdon)
Ceylon Hill Munia or Kelaart's Munia
S :- Kandukara wee-kurulla T :-Nellu-kurupvi or Tinavan
or Tmai-kuruvi

Brachyu ~a Brachyura (Linnaeus)
Indian Pitta or "P'ainted Thrush "
S :-Avichchiva T-Aru -Mani-Kuruvi or Thotta-Kallan

53 Pitta

54 .

47 Lonchura punctulata punctulata (Linnaeus)

Spotted Munia

S-Pulli wee-kurulla T :- Nellu-kuruvi

Copsychus Saularis ceylonensis (Sclater)
Southern Magpie-Robin
S :-Polkichcha

55 . Saxicoloides Fulicata Leucoptera (Lesson)
48 Acridotheres tristis melanosterwus (Legge)

Ceylon Black-robin or Ceylon Black-backe d Robin
S -Kalu- Polkichcha
T : -Kari-Kuruvi
Kaddukari-Kuruvi

Common Ceylon Mynah
S :-Mvnah T :- Nakanam-patchi or Mvnah or Nakklan or
Nakkana-val

56 .
49 . Sitta frontalis frontalis (Swainson)

vVelvet-fronted Nuthatch

S-Nil panu-kurulla T :-$ittu-kuruvi

Copsychus Malabaricus Leggei (Whistler)
Ceylon Shama or Long -Tailed Jungle Robin

S :-

Accipiter Badius Badius (Gmelin)
Ceylon Shikra
S - Kurulu-_Gova T :- Valluru

58 .

Lanius Cristatus Christatus (Linnaeus)
Brown Shrike
S-Oumbara As-Pativa T .­

Ceylon Black-headed Oriole

S :- Kaha-kurulla T :-Mampala-kuruvi

51 Strix leptogranimica indranee (Sykes)

Indian Brow n Wood OWl

S :-Wana bakamuna T :-Andai

Wal-P~kichcha

57 .

50. Driolus zanthornus ceylonensis (Bonaparte)

or

59 . Hemipus Picatus Leggei (Whistler)

52 Chalcophaps-Indica Robinsoni (Bflker)
Ceylon Bronze-Winged Dove , Green-Winged Dove or
Emerald Dove
S-Nilakobeviva T-Pathekai Pura or Thamil Pura

Ceylon Pied Cuckoo-Shrike, Pied Flycatcher-Shrike or
Ceylon Pied Shrike
S-Gomara As-Pativa T :­

Ceylon Black - Headed Oriole

147
60 .

Passer Domesticus Indicus (Jardiner-Selby)
Indian House-Sparrow or Ceylon House-Sparrow
S :-Ge-Kurulla T-Adaikalan -Kuruvi or Oor-Kuruvi

68 .

Apus Melba Bakeri (Hartert)
Ceylon 'Swift or Ceylon White Bellied Swift
S - Sudu-Udawatti
Wega-Lih iniva T -Periya
Tam-Padi or Ulavara Kuruvi

69 . Orthotomus Sutorius Sutorius (Pennant)
Common Ceylon Tailor- Bird
S :-Ba ttich cha T- Thaiyarkaran- Kuruvi
Koddia-Pakkan-Kuruvi or Val-Addi-Kuruvi

or

70 Parus Major Mahrattarum (Hartert)
Ceylon Grey Tit or Ceylon Great Ti t
S - Alu Panu-Kur~ T -Sittu-Kuruvi
/'

71 . Montacilla Saspica Caspica (Gmelin)
Grey Wagtail
S-Alu Halan~Penda T :- Valaddv-Kuruvi

,!

72. Phylloslopus Trochiloides Viridanus (Blyth)
Greenish Willow-Warbler, Greenish Leaf-Warbler or
Greenish Tree Warbler
S-La Kola Hambu-Kurulla T :­

t

1
.

,

73 .

I
I

Ceylon Purple - Bumped Sun Bird

61 .

Prinia Hodgsonii Pectoralis (Legge)
Frankin 's Prinia or Grey Breasted Prinia or Ceylon
Slaty-Breasted Wren Wabler or Ceylon Franklin 's
Lo ng-Tail Warbler
S -Franklinge Hambu-Kurulla T - Tinu-Kuruvi

74 . Amaurornis Phenicurus Phoenicurus (Pennant)
Whi te Breasted Waterhen or Swamp-hen
S-Korawaka T :-Kanan-Koli or Koova-Koli

Nectarinia Zeylonica Zeylonica (Linnaeus)

Ceylon Purple Rumped Su nbird

S-Mal Sutikka T - Thew Kudi or Pu-Kudichan

62 . Nectarinia Lotenia Lotema (Linnaeus)

Loten 's Sub Bird

S-Lotenge Rang-Suttikka T­

63 Nectarinia Asiatica Asiatica (Latham)
Purple Sun Bird
S :-Dam Sutikka T :- Then-Kudi or Pu-Kudichan
64 .

Hirundo Rustica Rustica (Linnaeus)

Common or European Swollow

S-Europeeva Wehi-Lihiniva T - Tam Padi or Tarai

lIIatha-Kuruvi

65 . Hirundo Daurica Hyperythra (Blyth)

Ceylon Swallow or Ceylon Straited Swallow

S :-Europeeva Wehi-Lihiniva T :- Tam Padi or Tarai

I/Iatha-Kuruvi

66 . Hemiprocne Longipennis Coronata (Tickell)

Indian Crested Tree Swift or Cres ted Swift

S :-Ko nde Wega -Lihiniva T - Ulavara -Kuruvi or

Thalai-lIIa-Kuruvi

67 .

Cypsiurus Parvus Hatasiensis (J. E, Grey)

Indian Palm Swift

S-Punchi Wega -Lihiniya T-Ulavarai-Kuruvi

Common Ceylon Tailo r Bird

75 .

Zosterops Palpebrosa Palpebrosa (Temminck)
Indian White-Eye or Small White Eye
S :-Heen Mal-Kurulla T : Pu-Kuruvi or Sitta-Kuruvi

148
76 .

Picus Chlorolophus Wellsi (Meinertzhagen)

Ceylon Yellow-Naped Green Woodpecker or Ceylon

Yellow-Naped Woodpecker

S -Konde-Kaha Kerella T -Maram-Kott/ or

Thachchan Kuruvi

77 . Dinopum Benghalense Psarodes (A. Lichtenstein)
Ceylon Red-Bac ked Woodpecker
S -Pita-Ratu Keralla T : -Maram-Kott i or
Thachchan-Kurivi

78 .

Dendrocopos Nanus Gymnopthalmus (Blyth)
Ceylon Pigmy Woodpecker
S-Chutti-Perel/a T-Siru Maram-Kotti or Sinna
Maram-Kotti

"

79 . Chrysocolaptes Lucidus Stricklandi (Layard)
Ceylon Crimson-Backed Woodpecker or layard ' s
Woodpecker
S : -Mukalang Kerella T : -Maram-Kotti or

Thachchan-Kuruvi

Ceylon Red - Backed Wood Peeker

---

- - --

-

--

149

APPENDIX XV
List of insects found at Udavattekale
Hymenoptera

1
2
3
4.
5
6.
7
8.
9
10.

Alysson ruflcollis Cam
Amegilla clngulifera
Amegilla scintallama
Angukka subinsularis strd .
. Amegilla puttalama strd .
Ampule ceylonica krombein
Antepipona bigutata
Amtepipona ceylonica Sauss
Apinaspis Lusciosus Bingh
Astata quellae Nurse
11
Auplopus aegina
12. Auplopus bimculatus (SM)
13 Auplopus blandus Guer
14 . Auplopus clypeatus Bingh

15
16
17 .
18 .
19 .
20.

il

Auplopus hima layensls (Cam)
Baeosega humide
Cerceris curcull.omcidae Krombein
Cerceris pictiventris navarae sauss
Cerceris specilica Turn
Cerceris vischnu Cam
Coelioxys confususs

(Anthophoridae)
do.
do.
do.
do .
(Am pulicidae )
(Eumenidae)
(Eumenidae)
(pompilidea)
(PorT'lpilldae)
do.
do .
do .
do .
(philanthidae)
do.
do .
do .

22 .
23 .
24 .
25
26 .
27 .
28
29
30 .
31
32.
33
34.
35.
36 .
37
38 .
39
40 .
41 .
42 .
43 .
44 .
45
46

MOTH

Argema selene

Cryptocheilus momus Blnch
Cyphononyx plebejus
Dasyproctus buddhe
Delta e. conoideum (Gmd)
Delta f. flavipictum (Blan)
Dicranorhina fasciatlpennis
Brachymeris Minuta (L)
Brachymeris lasus
Dolichurus albifacies krombein
Dolichurus silvicola krombein
Dlichurus taprobanae (Sm)
Dicranorhina ruficorms Cameron

Ectopioglossa keiseri Veeht

Enicospilus biharensis tow
Enlcospilus nigropectus
Enicospilus vestigator Tow
Episyron novarae Kohl
Episyron tenebricus Wahls
Episyron tenebricum wahis
Eumenes humbertianus
Hemipepsis ceylonica Sauss
Hemipepsis convexa (Bin)
Hemipepsis denticulata
Hemipepsis insulana Mlhi
Hemipepsis pseudoconvexa mihi

(pompilidac)

(Lorridae)
(Chalcididae)
do.
(Ampulicidae)
do.

do.

(Ichneumonidae)
do.
do .

(pompilidae)
do .
do.
do.
do.

MOTHS

150

Oxyambulyx Subocellata

Acherontia Lachesis

Macroglossum Corythus Luteatum
Daphnis Nerii
Rhyncholaba Acteus

47 .
48 .
49
50 .
51
52 .
53 .
54 .
55
56 .
57 .
58
59 .
60 .
61
62 .
63 .
64
65 .
66 .
6 7.
68 .
69 .
70 .
}O1

Theretra Boisouvali

Hippotion Celerio

Labus humbertiamus
Labus pusillus Vecht
Leptodialepis Ceylonica mihi
Liris vigilans (F. Smith)
Li ssocn emis brevipennis
LissocnemlS irra sa Kohl
Hylodynerus keiser!
Llri s nlgreipennis cameron
Methocha (Dryinopsis) Ceylonica
Mckelidia vulgaris Petersen
Megacampsomeris C ceylonica
Parawcistrocerus horni (Sm)
Perissosega venablei Krombein
Philanthus basalis Sm
Pison reg lie Sm
Pison regosum Sm
Sphex argentatus F
Sphex sericevs fa bricii Dahlb
Psen matalensis Turner
Sphex P melanopoda
Saltasega distorta Krombein
Serendibula Karunaratnel Krombein
Serendibula gracilis Krombein
Silbum cyan urum splendldum
Subancistrocerus sichelti

Meganoton Analis

Cephonodes Hylas

Compsogene Panopus

Hippotion Boerhaviae

(Eumenldae)
do .

(Pompilidae)
do .
(Eumenidae)

(Mutillidae)

(Crabromdae)
(Lorridae)
do.

(Crabromdae)
do .
(Chrusididae)
(Eumenidae)

MacroglosJum Aquila

Hyloicus Pinastri

Acosmeryx Socrates

72 .
73 .
74 .
75 .
76.
77 .
78 .

Marumba Juvencus

Agrius Convolvuli

Oxyambulyx Substrigius Broowus

Smicromyrme neglecta Hammer
Scolia faciatopunctata
Tachysphex fin c tipenni s
Tiphia knutsoni Krombein
Tiphia hillyardi
Trirogma caerutea
Vespa t. haematodes Beq

(Mut illidae)

Coleoptera
1. Gorhamia krombeln i
2 . Gincldela (Calochroa) diserpans Walk (Cicindelidae)
3 . Hister dlversifrons Sch
(Hi steridae) .
4 . Harmatelia bilinea Walker
5 Stenocladius ba salis pic
6 . Platydema velutinum Geb
7 Oxytelus varipennis kr
(Stuphymdae)
8 . Hoplobrachium dentipes Fair
(Tenebrionidae)
9 . Hemicera splenden s Wies
do .
10. Uloma sc ita Walk
do .
Orthoptera .
1. Pseudophloeba henryi Bol .
2 Stenocatantbps S splendens
3 . Eucoptacra ceylonica kby

(Acrididae)
do.

MOTHS

Othreis Homaena9
Erebus
Unidentliied

J

151

Othreis Homaena d Erebus Caprimulgus
Pandinus Imperator d
(Scorpion)
Asota Plana

Othreis Fullonia 9

Antheraea Helferi

Asota Producta

Othreis Fullonia d

Poecolotheria Fasciata
(Tarantula Spider)

Ophiusa Coronata

BUTTERFLIES

;.

(

Catopsilia Pomona d Catopsilia Pomona 9

Papilio Polymnestor Parinda 9 Vanessa Canace Haronica 9 Danavs Similis Exprompta 9

Polydorus Hector d Polydorus Aristolochiae Ceylonicus 9 Cethosia Nietneri 9 Chilasa Clytia Dimoph Dissimilis 9
Papilio Polytes Homulus 9
Papilio Polytes Romulus t5 Papilio Polymnestor Parindon
Craphium Sarpedon Teredon Papilio Crino d
(Hector Form)
Hypolimnas Bolina d

Hypolinnas Bolina 9 Loxura Atymnus Arcuata d Apatura Parisatis Camibad Papilio Demoleus9 Papilio Demoleus d

152

Odonata
1. Myrmeleon tennipennlS Ramb
Neuroptera
1. Glyprobasis nugax Walker
Dermaptera

1. Epilandex burri
Hemiptera

1. Argenis incisuratus (W)
2 Creontiades patrum (Dis!)
3 . rulvins praefectus Dist
4 . Lucitanus punctatus (Kby)
5. Pachypeltus humerale (Wlk)

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

13 Ptllocera fastuosa
14 . Metopia argyrocephala Mn

15 . T eleopsis ferruginea (Ascalaphidae)

(Borelli)

(Miridae)
do .
do .
do.
do.

Stechus libertus Dist
do
Metochus unigattatus (Thunb)
(Lygaidaect)
Nysius aliicolus (Hutch)
do
Paraeucosmetus pseudoincisus (States)
do
Hubertiella cardomomi
11 . Oncylocotis robustus­
(Enicocephalidae)
Homoptera
1. Centromeria viriCJistigma (Kby)
(Dictyopharidate)
2. Peregrinus maidis (Ashm)
(Delphacidae)
3. SQgatelia kolophon krik
(Delphacidae)
Diptera
1. Aedes (st) krombeini
2 . Chrysotoxum baphyrus Walk
(Syrphidae)
3 . Cx . (Lop). minutissimus
4 . EristaliQus aruosum Fab
(Syrphidae ).
5. Eristalinus multigarius (Walk)
do
6. Dideopsis aegrota (Fabr)
do
7. Monoceronyia javana (wied)
do
8 . Petrorossia ceylonica Brunn
9 . . Ptecticus australis
10 Nigritomyia maculipennlS
1 1. Hermetia illucent
1 2 . Plectlcns cingulatus

16. Udenocera brunnea (Ric)
Lepidoptera

1 Asura conferta Walker
2 . Chionaema peregrina Walker
3 . Cordex ceylonicus

4 . Platystathus crassicorn
5 . Neochara inops Wlk
6 Cispia punctlfascia Wlk
7. Idea Iynceus Jasonia
8 Danaus aglea aglea
9 . Danaus similis exprompta
1O. Danaus plexippus
1 1 Euploea core asela
12 . Orsotriaena medus mandata
13 . Mycalesis mineus polydecta
14 . Lethe rohia mlgiriensis
15 . Melanitls leda ismene

16 . Part hen os sylvia cyaneus

17 Euthalia evelina\ welina
18 . Neptis hylas varmona
19 . Hypolimnas bolina

20 Vanesa casace haronica

2 1. Chil.ades lajus laJus
22 . Delias encharis
23 . Catopsilia pomona
24 : Hebomoia glaucippe australis
25 . Troides helena darsius
26 . Graphium agamemnon menide~
27 . Graphium sarpedon teredon
28 . Papilio polytes romulus ·
29 . Papillo crino

30 Papilio polymestor parinda

31 . Chilasa clytia lankeswara
32 . Papllio demoleus demoleus

(Sarcophigidae)
(diopsidae)
(Tabanidae

(Archidae)
.. do

(Archidae)
do