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HL 367 Major Project Fall 2014

Childhood Obesity
Erin Carlson & Abbie Hockstad

Our mission is to decrease obesity rates of children in elementary schools by teaching


the students nutritional education and implementing physical activities.

Table of Contents
Section 1: Mission...5-6
Section 2: Review of the Related Literature..6-17
Section 3: Synthesis of the Literature...17-22
Section 4: Programming...23-31
Section 5: Evaluation Design/Mission Fit....31-33
Section 6: Marketing and Communication......33-35
Section 7: Granting Agency.35-37
Section 8: Bibliography..37-41
Section 9: Reflection.42-43

Introductions
My name is Erin Carlson and I am a student at Northern Michigan University where I am
majoring in Community Health Education with a minor in Health and Nutrition. I was
born and raised in Negaunee, Michigan so; I have lived in the U.P. my entire 21 years of
life. I am on track to graduate in May 2015 where I hope to take my skills and
knowledge out west. I have always been interested in the health and nutrition field.
Childhood obesity has been a huge problem for years and since I want to work with kids
on the nutrition aspect of my degree, I am very passionate about this topic. I want to
teach kids fun ways to implement fruits and vegetables and that eating healthy can be
super fun and easy. I don't want kids to struggle with their weight their whole lives. I
want to teach them while their young in hopes that they will continue on and grow with
this healthy lifestyle.

Hey there! Im Abbie Hockstad, Im 23 years old and a senior here at NMU. I was born
and raised here in Marquette. I graduate in May of 2015 with my major in community
health education and a minor in clinical lab techniques. Im planning on moving to
Minnesota and hoping to work in the YMCA that is located in one of the towns outside of
Minneapolis. Im hoping to take this major and incorporate it with my love for sports,
especially with volleyball, and get some sort of camp/after school program started so
kids/young adults can come have fun while learning the sports as well as helping them
better their nutritional background. Id like to be that role model for them so that they
can better their personal wellness in the long run.

Weebly Website: childhoodobesity367.weebly.com

Goal #1:
1. Increase the daily servings of fruits/vegetables by the end of the program
Objectives:
Educate the students on the value and importance of eating healthy
Teach the students different ways to implement their fruits/vegetables
(smoothies, fruit kabobs, veggie pizza, etc.) to reach their daily recommendations
Being hands-on with the students and making these healthier recipes with them
By teaching the students a healthy, balanced diet they will be at less risk for
disease
Goal #2:
2. Get the students to partake in a daily physical activity
Objectives:
Teach students the importance of living an active lifestyle in an enthusiastic
environment
Give the students a logbook to record any activity outside of school
Engage with the students and show them any task can be fun to do
By teaching the students to be active, they will be at less risk for diseases

Section 1: Mission
1. What is your mission?
What is our mission? Our mission is to decrease obesity rates of children in elementary
schools by teaching the students nutritional education and implementing physical activities.
2. What are the variables (dependent variable; target population; independent variable or
intervention or program) in your mission?

The variables for our mission are:


Target Population = children in elementary schools
Dependent Variable= decrease obesity rates
Independent Variable = teaching the students nutritional education and implementing
physical activities

3. What is an agency in which you could realize this mission? Identify the agency and its
mission and include its logo/icon and link to the mission.
In what agency could we realize our mission? We could realize our mission in the YMCA
for youth development. The YMCAs mission is to put Christian principles into practice through
programs that help healthy spirit, mind and body for all.
http://www.ymca.net/youth-development

4. What job/position could you have in this agency that would allow you to engage your
personal mission in the agency? Identify the actual job description/demands of the job
and hot link to an actual job position in the agency. Cut and paste the job description in.

The job and or position we could have in this agency to engage our personal mission
would be a Community Program Director, or a program instructor. There are also group
leaders and child care services.
The Child Care Site Directors and Support Staff are seeking experienced caregivers to
work in our off-site afterschool programs. The position requires an Associates Degree in
education or equivalent certification, with a minimum of two years experience in a group

setting with school age children. This position also requires experience in staff
supervision, curriculum implementation, classroom management, and parental
communication. A community program director is responsible for the organization,
delivery and quality of YMCA programs for the Child Care and Sports Departments.
They work independently under general direction and is expected to determine how to
accomplish tasks. The program instructor instructs and implements the programs and is
a leader to the others within the group.
4b. What is your job position for the particular project however? That is integrating your
mission with the program planning and evaluation model.
Our job is to develop a program plan and evaluation plan to meet our mission of
decreasing obesity rates of children in elementary schools by teaching the students
nutritional education and implementing physical activities.
As such, we shall assess the need of educating children on nutrition basics and physical
education. Identify measurable objectives designed to help reach the goals of our
program. Plan an evidence-based program that has shown to decrease obesity rates
and increase physical activities. Implement our program we created to meet the needs.
Lastly, evaluate to see if we have met our objectives/need to decrease obesity rates
within children through our program, and therefore, meet our mission.

Section 2: Review of the Related Literature


5. What is our mission and the four questions for analyzing the literature in order to
develop our program plan and evaluation plan in order to do our job as listed in question
4b?
Our mission is: to decrease obesity rates of children in elementary schools by teaching

the students nutritional education and implementing physical activities


The mission variables are:
TP= children in elementary schools
DV= decrease obesity rates
IV= teaching the students nutritional education and implementing physical activity
The four Questions: To analyze the literature for relevant information, our four questions with
our mission dv and tp in are:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Does the piece identify the need to decrease obesity rates in children?
Does the piece theoretically define obesity rates in children?
Does the piece tell us how to measure obesity rates in children?
Does the piece give us a model program or education that has shown to promote
effective decrease in obesity rates in children?

6. Which pieces shall we use to analyze the literature to develop our program plan and
evaluation plan designed to meet our mission?
We shall use the following pieces and ask/answer the 4 questions under each:

http://search.proquest.com/docview/1519298834?pq-origsite=summon
Abstract: Over the past forty years various changes in the U.S. "built environment" have
promoted sedentary lifestyles and less healthful diets. James Sallis and Karen Glanz investigate
whether these changes have had a direct effect on childhood obesity and whether
improvements to encourage more physical activity and more healthful diets are likely to lower
rates of childhood obesity. Researchers, say Sallis and Glanz, have found many links between
the built environment and children's physical activity, but they have yet to find conclusive
evidence that aspects of the built environment promote obesity. For example, certain
development patterns, such as a lack of sidewalks, long distances to schools, and the need to
cross busy streets, discourage walking and biking to school. Eliminating such barriers can
increase rates of active commuting. But researchers cannot yet prove that more active
commuting would reduce rates of obesity. Sallis and Glanz note that recent changes in the
nutrition environment, including greater reliance on convenience foods and fast foods, a lack of
access to fruits and vegetables, and expanding portion sizes, are also widely believed to

contribute to the epidemic of childhood obesity. But again, conclusive evidence that changes in
the nutrition environment will reduce rates of obesity does not yet exist. Research into the link
between the built environment and childhood obesity is still in its infancy. Analysts do not know
whether changes in the built environment have increased rates of obesity or whether
improvements to the built environment will decrease them. Nevertheless, say Sallis and Glanz,
the policy implications are clear. People who have access to safe places to be active,
neighborhoods that are walkable, and local markets that offer healthful food are likely to be
more active and to eat more healthful food--two types of behavior that can lead to good health
and may help avoid obesity.
1.) Does the piece identify the need to decrease obesity rates in children?
Yes, this piece identifies the need to decrease obesity rates in children. However,
they do not have research-based evidence that more active commuting and a
nutritional environment will decrease such rates. They believe childhood obesity
is still in its infancy, but people who have access to safe places to be active and
local healthful food markets are likely to be more active and eat better to help
avoid obesity.
2.) Does the piece theoretically define obesity rates in children?
No, this piece does not theoretically define obesity rates in children.
3.) Does the piece tell us how to measure obesity rates in children?
No, this piece does not tell us how to measure obesity rates because they are
still researching the causes of childhood obesity and it is still in its infancy stage.
4.) Does the piece give us a model program or education that has shown to
promote effective decrease in obesity rates in children?
This piece does not provide us a model program, but it does state that their
policy implications are clear. People who have access to safe places to be active,
neighborhoods that are walkable, and local markets that offer healthful food are
likely to be more active and to eat more healthful food - two types of behavior
that can lead to good health and may help avoid obesity.
Sallis, James. "The Role of Built Environments in Physical Activity, Eating, and Obesity in
Childhood." ProQuest. ProQuest, 2006. Web. 6 Oct. 2014.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3016.2012.01269.x/pdf
Abstract: The current high prevalence of childhood obesity and its comorbidities is concomitant
with a low level of physical activity and an abundance of sedentary pastimes for Westernized
children. To increase the participation of a majority of children in a sustained physical activity,
interventions require a fair understanding and consideration of the influences of this behavior,
especially as children are overweight or obese. Basically, the physical activity behavior of
children depends on biological, sociocultural and psychosocial factors and their interplay. The
recent literature lends support to the fact that some psychosocial factors such as self-efficacy
and physical competence may be solid anchor points upon which to improve the participation of
overweight and obese children in free-living physical activity. Thus, interventionists should first
concentrate on improving these personal dimensions around which physiological and

environmental factors might revolve. The development of motor skills may be a good means for
enhancing the self-image of obese children.
1.) Does the piece identify the need to decrease obesity rates in children?
Yes, this piece identifies the need to decrease obesity rates in children.
2.) Does the piece theoretically define obesity rates in children?
No, this piece does not theoretically define obesity rates in children.
3.) Does the piece tell us how to measure obesity rates in children?
No, this piece does not tell us how to measure obesity rates, but based off of
recent literature, it lends support to the fact that some psychosocial factors such
as self-efficacy and physical competence may be solid anchor points upon which
to improve the participation of overweight and obese children in free-living
physical activity.
4.) Does the piece give us a model program or education that has shown to
promote effective decrease in obesity rates in children?
This piece does not provide us a model program, but they believe it is based off
the childrens behavior. The physical activity behavior of children depends on
biological, sociocultural and psychosocial factors and their interplay. The
development of motor skills may be a good means for enhancing the self-image
of obese children.
Guinhouya, Benjamin. "Pediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology Volume 26, Issue 5, Article First
Published Online: 11 APR 2012." Physical Activity in the Prevention of Childhood Obesity.
UDSL, 2012. Web. 06 Oct. 2014.

http://journals.cambridge.org/download.php?file=%2FPNS%2FPNS67_04%2FS0029665
108008653a.pdf&code=0126f49fd596612e7005a5003ed21b36
Abstract: The studies involving family therapy show it to be effective in preventing the
development of gross obesity during childhood. This type of therapy is also effective for weight
control in the severest cases of obesity (i.e. BMI>30kg/m2). The lowest extent of childhood
obesity, expressed in terms of BMI, at which future complications such as CVD and diabetes
start to be overrepresented, when compared with the normal-weight population, is not known.
However, it has been demonstrated that obesity in childhood is associated with major adverse
health effects. Studies involving obese adults who had been adopted in early life have
demonstrated the distinction between genetic and environmental influences on premature
death. Furthermore, improvements in skinfold thickness and physical fitness as a result of family
therapy may indicate that the difference between the treatment and control groups in certain
cardiovascular risk factors may be greater than that indicated by their respective BMI. In the
authors work intervention through family therapy has proved to be 40% more successful than
conventional treatment, which includes medical check-ups and dietary counselling (it is
important to note that conventional dietary counselling has inadequacies). Involvement of the
entire family in the dietary and exercise training programs is essential. Thus, an optimum

program will require participation of a multidisciplinary team to assist the pediatrician. Such
programs must be implemented and funded in pediatric clinics dealing with the prevention of
atherosclerosis and obesity. The family therapy techniques used were chosen from both the
structural family-based therapy and the solution-based-brief therapy. One therapist was a
psychologist and the other a pediatrician. This combination of specialism ensures that the
therapy has enough depth to cover all aspects of medical family therapy. The method has
subsequently been used by a multidisciplinary team. These studies are good examples of
medical family therapy in which provision is made for the different needs of the individual, with
standard family therapy techniques still achieving a good result. However, the need for urgent
action in relation to childhood obesity makes further research in this field necessary.
1.) Does the piece identify the need to decrease obesity rates in children?
Yes, this piece identifies the need to decrease obesity rates in children. The
studies involving family therapy show it to be effective in preventing the
development of gross obesity during childhood. This type of therapy is also
effective for weight control in the severest cases of obesity (i.e. BMI>30kg/m2).
2.) Does the piece theoretically define obesity rates in children?
No, this piece does not theoretically define obesity rates in children.
3.) Does the piece tell us how to measure obesity rates in children?
Yes, this piece does tell us how to measure obesity rates in children.
Improvements in skinfold thickness and physical fitness as a result of family
therapy may indicate that the difference between the treatment and control
groups in certain cardiovascular risk factors may be greater than that indicated
by their respective BMI. In the authors work intervention through family therapy
has proved to be 40% more successful than conventional treatment, which
includes medical check-ups and dietary counselling (it is important to note that
conventional dietary counselling has inadequacies).
4.) Does the piece give us a model program or education that has shown to
promote effective decrease in obesity rates in children?
This piece gives us a program known as family therapy. The family therapy
techniques used were chosen from both the structural family-based therapy and
the solution-based-brief therapy. One therapist was a psychologist and the other
a pediatrician. This combination of specialism ensures that the therapy has
enough depth to cover all aspects of medical family therapy. The method has
subsequently been used by a multidisciplinary team. These studies are good
examples of medical family therapy in which provision is made for the different
needs of the individual, with standard family therapy techniques still achieving a
good result.
Flodmark, Carl E. "Childhood Obesity: From Nutrition to Behavior." Proceedings of the Nutrition
Society. Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital in Malmo, 20 Aug. 2008. Web. 6 Oct.
2014.
<http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.cambridge.org%2Fdownload.php%3Ffile%3D%252FPNS%252FPN
S67_04%252FS0029665108008653a.pdf%26code%3D19f8141259b443f490aecae20ceafeb1>.

http://www.nutritionj.com/content/4/1/24
Abstract: Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five
percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in
childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The
mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder
with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play
pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity
are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there
are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and
steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all
around the world. Consequently, both overconsumption of calories and reduced physical activity
are involved in childhood obesity.
Almost all researchers agree that prevention could be the key strategy for controlling the current
epidemic of obesity. Prevention may include primary prevention of overweight or obesity,
secondary prevention or prevention of weight regains following weight loss, and avoidance of
more weight increase in obese persons unable to lose weight. Until now, most approaches have
focused on changing the behavior of individuals in diet and exercise. It seems, however, that
these strategies have had little impact on the growing increase of the obesity epidemic. While
about 50% of the adults are overweight and obese in many countries, it is difficult to reduce
excessive weight once it becomes established. Children should therefore be considered the
priority population for intervention strategies. Prevention may be achieved through a variety of
interventions targeting built environment, physical activity, and diet. Some of these potential
strategies for intervention in children can be implemented by targeting preschool institutions,
schools or after-school care services as natural setting for influencing the diet and physical
activity. All in all, there is an urgent need to initiate prevention and treatment of obesity in
children.
1.) Does the piece identify the need to decrease obesity rates in children?
Yes, this piece identifies the need to decrease obesity rates in children.
Overweight children and obesity in childhood are known to have significant
impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity
development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with

multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural


environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide.
2.) Does the piece theoretically define obesity rates in children?
Yes, this piece does theoretically define obesity rates in children. Twenty five
percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese.
3.) Does the piece tell us how to measure obesity rates in children?
Yes, this piece does tell us how to measure obesity rates. There are certain
factors that have triggered childhood obesity. Environmental factors, lifestyle
preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence
of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the
results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are
supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion
size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the
rising rates of obesity all around the world. Consequently, both over-consumption
of calories and reduced physical activity are involved in childhood obesity.
4.) Does the piece give us a model program or education that has shown to
promote effective decrease in obesity rates in children?
This piece is based off of research and proper physical and health education of
children. Prevention of obesity may be achieved through a variety of
interventions targeting built environment, physical activity, and diet. Some of
these potential strategies for intervention in children can be implemented by
targeting preschool institutions, schools or after-school care services as natural
setting for influencing the diet and physical activity. All in all, there is an urgent
need to initiate prevention and treatment of obesity in children.

Dehghan, Mahshid. "Childhood Obesity, Prevalence and Prevention." Nutrition Journal. BioMed,
2 Sept. 2005. Web. 04 Oct. 2014. <http://www.nutritionj.com/content/4/1/24>.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1751722211002010
Abstract: Overweight and obesity prevalence has dramatically increased during the last decade
and reached epidemic dimensions. By 2030 it is expected that there will be 2.16 billion
overweight individuals with 1.12 billion adults predicted to be clinically obese. Obesity is caused
by both genetic and non-genetic factors. BMI as a common measure of obesity is a highly
heritable trait with heritability estimates of 0.7 for both adults and children. Mutations in a few
genes such as LEPR and MC4R identified by molecular genetic analysis in children are known
to be involved in rare monogenic severe obesity. Their identification opened important insights
in fundamental pathways, in particular the leptin-melanocortin pathway, involved in control of
appetite and energy metabolism. However, the polygenic basis of common obesity with many
common variants conferring each modest risk to the phenotype is still one of the major
challenges in genetics of obesity. Driven by the availability of genome wide association (GWAS)
technology enabling analysis of millions of markers in thousands of individuals, multiple
polymorphisms/genes have been identified in the last 5 years. With common genetic variants in

genes such as FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated gene) a great number of additional
susceptibility variants have been identified altogether still accounting for a small percentage of
the overall risk for obesity. This review outlines the progress of research in genetics of obesity
during recent years in adults and children.
1.) Does the piece identify the need to decrease obesity rates in children?
Yes, this piece identifies the need to decrease obesity rates in children since the
prevalence has dramatically increased during the last decade.
.2.) Does the piece theoretically define obesity rates in children?
Yes, this piece does theoretically define obesity rates in children. By 2030 it is
expected that there will be 2.16 billion overweight individuals with 1.12 billion
adults predicted to be clinically obese.
3.) Does the piece tell us how to measure obesity rates in children?
Yes, this piece does tell us how to measure obesity rates. Obesity is caused by
both genetic and non-genetic factors. BMI as a common measure of obesity is a
highly heritable trait with heritability estimates of 0.7 for both adults and
children. Mutations in a few genes such as LEPR and MC4R identified by
molecular genetic analysis in children are known to be involved in rare
monogenic severe obesity.
4.) Does the piece give us a model program or education that has shown to
promote effective decrease in obesity rates in children?
No, this piece does not give us a model program or education to follow. This
piece is based off of research in genetics of obesity during recent years in adults
in children. With common genetic variants in genes such as FTO (fat mass and
obesity-associated gene) a great number of additional susceptibility variants
have been identified altogether still accounting for a small percentage of the
overall risk for obesity.
Bottcher, Yvonne. "Obesity Genes: Implication in Childhood Obesity." Science Direct. Elsevier
B.V, Jan. 2012. Web. 6 Oct. 2014.
<http%3A%2F%2Fwww.sciencedirect.com%2Fscience%2Farticle%2Fpii%2FS1751722211002
010>.

http://search.proquest.com/docview/902847578?pq-origsite=summon
Abstract: Nov. 10--Merced County saw a slight decrease in its childhood obesity rates from
2005 to 2010, according to a study released Wednesday. However, other counties in the San
Joaquin Valley, such as Fresno, Kern and Tulare, saw the rates go up. The percentage of
overweight and obese children in Merced County dropped by 1.7 percent over the last five
years, according to a study conducted by the UCLA Center for Health Policy Research and the
California Center for Public Health Advocacy. The study found that 43.7 percent of Merced
County children in fifth, seventh and ninth grades were obese or overweight in 2010. In 2005,
that figure was 44.5 percent. The percentage of overweight and obese children in the state
dropped by 1.1 percent. Still, more than 38 percent of fifth-, seventh- and ninth-graders at public

schools were obese or overweight in 2010, the study reported. "Overall, obesity and overweight
continue to be one of the major public health issues that California, the nation and certainly
Merced County continues to face," said Richard Rios, public health manager for the Merced
County Department of Public Health. Still, Rios noted public health officials would like to believe
that programs dealing directly with obesity have begun to show positive results. "It sort of
encourages us to work even harder with existing and new programs," he said. Most recently,
Merced County was selected for a Community Nutrition Expansion Project, a program from the
Network for a Healthy California. The public health department will work with the network and
the Merced County Human Services Agency to provide more intervention for SNAP-Ed (a
USDA food stamp program) recipients. The Central California Regional Obesity Prevention
Program also has played an important role in obesity prevention, said Tammy Moss Chandler,
director of the Merced County Department of Public Health. "They were one of the champions of
eliminating sugar beverages from school lunches," she said. "We know that those extra calories
are a big reason why obesity and overweight still remain a problem." Children who are
overweight have a high risk of being overweight as adults, said Dr. Tim Livermore, county health
officer. Being overweight or obese also increases the risk for health complications such as
diabetes, cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure and strokes, he added. And people with
diabetes and high blood pressure often don't know they have it unless they are screened by a
doctor, he said. More public and private money -- more than $21 billion -- is spent in California
on the health consequences of obesity than in any other state, according to the study. Moss
Chandler noted that Merced County's chronic disease rate is among the worst in the state, and
it's associated with obesity. "Much more intentional intervention and attention are needed for us
to see an improvement in chronic diseases that we want to see in our county," she said.
Many people in the county lose time from work and die at an earlier age because of diseases
such as diabetes and cardiovascular, Rios said. The California counties with the highest rates of
childhood obesity are Imperial County at 46.9 percent, Colusa County with 45.7 percent, Del
Norte County at 45.2 percent and Monterey County with 44.6 percent, according to the study.
1.) Does the piece identify the need to decrease obesity rates in children?
Yes, this piece identifies the need to decrease obesity rates in children. The
Central California Regional Obesity Prevention Program has played an important
role in obesity prevention. Merced County saw a slight decrease in its childhood
obesity rates from 2005 to 2010. However, there was a slight increase of children
who became obese.
.2.) Does the piece theoretically define obesity rates in children?
Yes, this piece does theoretically define obesity rates in children. Merced County
saw a slight decrease in its childhood obesity rates from 2005 to 2010. The
percentage of overweight and obese children in the state dropped by 1.1 percent.
3.) Does the piece tell us how to measure obesity rates in children?
Yes, this piece does tell us how to measure obesity rates. In this piece, obesity
was caused by poor eating habits and a lack of physical activity. By eliminating
sugar beverages from school lunches they became aware that those extra
calories are a big reason why obesity and overweight still remain a problem.

4.) Does the piece give us a model program or education that has shown to
promote effective decrease in obesity rates in children?
Yes, this piece has a program named the Central California Regional Obesity
Prevention Program. The Public health officials would like to believe that
programs dealing directly with obesity have begun to show positive results in the
area working with the children on decreasing their obesity rates since children
who are overweight have a high risk of being overweight as adults, said Dr. Tim
Livermore, county health officer. Being overweight or obese also increases the
risk for health complications such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, high
blood pressure and strokes, he added. And people with diabetes and high blood
pressure often don't know they have it unless they are screened by a doctor, he
said. The program was to educate the students.
Amaro, Yesenia. "Childhood Obesity Rates Decrease Slightly." ProQuest. Tribune Business
News, 10 Nov. 2011. Web. 6 Oct. 2014.
<http%3A%2F%2Fsearch.proquest.com%2Fdocview%2F902847578%3Fpqorigsite%3Dsummon>.
http://www.childhealthtx.org/pdfs/Childhood%20Obesity%20in%20Texas%20Report.pdf
Abstract: In the past decade, Texas has worked hard to reduce obesity among its children.
This dedication stems not only from concern for the well-being of Texans, but from an
acknowledgement of the high costs of obesity to the state. Texas leaders realize that obesity
leads to chronic diseases that carry a high medical price tag for both public and private payers.
Obesity also reduces productivity, both at work, and for the next generation, at school. To
reduce these costs, Texas policymakers have made the smart decision to focus on reducing
obesity in children. Not only do children incur medical and productivity costs themselves, but
they are very likely to become costly obese adults. Texas has turned to upstream solutions that
address the root, environmental causes of obesity. While medical treatment of obesity is crucial
for certain children, clinical intervention remains a costly and impractical solution for the largescale epidemic of childhood obesity. By addressing the causes of obesity, upstream solutions
show promise as cost-effective population-based approaches. In the past decade, Texas has
done much to change the environment at public schools, to ensure that children eat healthy and
exercise during the school day. According to one of the states leading childhood obesity
researchers, Dr. Deanna Hoelscher, The programs and policies implemented in Texas helped
to stabilize the prevalence of obesity among all grade levels in all regions. However, the rate of
child obesity in all counties is greater than the targeted national health goal of 5 percent
prevalence." In light of unchanging childhood obesity rates, Texas must do more to strengthen
and support its current childhood obesity policies.
Address away-from-school food: Texas must address the calories children consume
from non-school sources, in addition to those consumed at school. While healthy food at
school is important, children obtain most of their food away from school. For too many
children, that food remains unhealthy. Two recommendations could alleviate this reality.
First, Texas could increase access to healthy food by promoting farmers markets and
grocery stores in underserved areas. Second, Texas could discourage consumption of

unhealthy foods such as by imposing a fee on sugar-sweetened beverages. Healthy


choices could be cheaper than soda and push families to confront their unhealthy
consumption decisions. This option would also create significant revenue for the state,
as well as avert future health care costs.
Strengthen in-school physical activity: Texas must strengthen its existing physical
activity policies, to ensure that all children are physically fit and expend appropriate
amounts of energy. Such policy improvements might include increasing the required
number of physical activity semesters for middle school and high school students. In
addition, Texas could enhance the quality of physical activity offerings by leveraging the
Fitnessgram as an accountability tool, to motivate schools to improve quality.
Resources, such as the Texas Fitness Now grants are vital components of ensuring that
schools are able to offer high-quality physical activity programming.
Capitalize on the promise of CSHPs: Texas must build on the promise of CSHPs as
effective, comprehensive strategies to reduce childhood obesity. In all grades, Texas
could encourage high-quality CSHP implementation by holding schools accountable and
rewarding 35 top-performing schools. Following best-practice evidence, Texas could
encourage schools to incorporate community involvement into their CSHPs, through
public-private partnerships, or with community advisers. Finally, already-available early
childhood versions of CSHPs could be implemented in childcare settings, in order to
help the youngest Texans develop.
1.) Does the piece identify the need to decrease obesity rates in children?
Yes, this piece identifies the need to decrease obesity rates in children. This
dedication stems not only from concern for the well-being of Texans, but from an
acknowledgement of the high costs of obesity to the state. Texas leaders realize
that obesity leads to chronic diseases that carry a high medical price tag for both
public and private payers. Obesity also reduces productivity, both at work, and
for the next generation, at school. To reduce these costs, Texas policymakers
have made the smart decision to focus on reducing obesity in children. Not only
do children incur medical and productivity costs themselves, but they are very
likely to become costly obese adults.
2.) Does the piece theoretically define obesity rates in children?
No, this piece does theoretically define obesity rates in children.
3.) Does the piece tell us how to measure obesity rates in children?
No, this piece does tell us how to measure obesity rates.
4.) Does the piece give us a model program or education that has shown to
promote effective decrease in obesity rates in children?
This piece gives us a model that the school systems are using. The school
system is addressing obesity as an issue and taking certain measures to
decrease the rates and promote a healthy lifestyle.

Arons, Abigail. "Childhood Obesity in Texas." CHILDHOOD OBESITY IN TEXAS (2011): n. pag.
CHAT, Jan. 2011. Web. 7 Oct. 2014.
<http://www.childhealthtx.org/pdfs/Childhood%20Obesity%20in%20Texas%20Report.pdf>.

Section 3: Synthesis of the Literature


DOCUMENT, DOCUMENT, DOCUMENT. And, SHOULD BE NOTHING HERE THATS NOT
IN SECTION 2. Please put the questions in, bold them, and then answer them. Please put
your dv and tp in questions.

ASSESSING GENERAL NEED (LITERATURE REVIEW) TO CHANGE DV IN TP


7. What is the need for your mission? Please synthesize the literature for the first
question under each abstract from Section 2 showing general need for your mission.
Please document.

The need for our mission is to decrease childhood obesity. Childhood obesity has
reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are
overweight and 11% are obese. About 70% of obese adolescents grow up to become obese
adults. The prevalence of childhood obesity is in increasing since 1971 in developed countries.
(Nutrition Journal, 2005.) By 2030 it is expected that there will be 2.16 billion overweight
individuals with 1.12 billion adults predicted to be clinically obese. (Science Direct, 2012.)
Overweight children and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both
physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully
understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors,
lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of
obesity worldwide. (Nutrition Journal, 2005.) There are certain factors that have triggered
childhood obesity. In general, being overweight and obese are assumed to be the results of an
increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that
excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical
activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world.
Consequently, both overconsumption of calories and reduced physical activity are involved in
childhood obesity. (Nutrition Journal, 2005.) The literature we have found is to be believed that
childhood obesity is due to the lack of activity and overconsumption of calories, but they also
believe childhood obesity is still in its infancy. However, people who have access to safe places
to be active and local healthful food markets are likely to be more active and eat better to help
avoid obesity. (ProQuest, 2006.) There are ways to avoid becoming obese, but in other cases
obesity is in the genetics. Obesity is caused by both genetic and non-genetic factors. BMI as a
common measure of obesity is a highly heritable trait with heritability estimates of 0.7 for both
adults and children. Mutations in a few genes such as LEPR and MC4R identified by molecular
genetic analysis in children are known to be involved in rare monogenic severe obesity.
(Science Direct, 2012.)

THEORETICAL DEFINITION OF DV
8. What is the way (based on your literature review and your meeting with me) you will
theoretically define your dv? Please document and there should be nothing/no source in
this definition that is not in Section 2.
The way we will theoretically define our dependent variable, which is to decrease obesity rates,
will be through education. Children grow up learning about math, science, history, etc., but there
isnt enough health and nutrition education until they get into junior high or even high school.
Physical education classes are being cut and children are consuming too many calories with
little to no activity. In our growing generation children are more interested in video games and
having iPad/iPod. While we can educate them through activity-based learning, we can also
implement the apps we have collected in section 4 to help educate them on fun ways to eat and
use their video games to become active. According to the Childhood Obesity Decreases
Slightly article, obesity was caused by poor eating habits and a lack of physical activity. By
eliminating sugar beverages from school lunches they became aware that those extra calories
are a big reason why obesity and being overweight still remain a problem. (ProQuest, 2006.)
From making easy changes like that above, we can help to decrease obesity rates by
eliminating bad foods in the schools and promote healthier eating.
8a. How can you model the theoretical definition for your dv. This model should totally
reflect the words/concepts from 7a. We worked on this in your meeting with me.

http://cirrie.buffalo.edu/encyclopedia/en/article/301/
Kimani-Murage EW. 2010. Child Obesity. In: JH Stone, M Blouin, editors. International
Encyclopedia of Rehabilitation. Available online:
http://cirrie.buffalo.edu/encyclopedia/en/article/301/

ASSESSING SPECIFIC NEED (FINDING A VALID TEST TO MEASURE DV IN


SPECIFIC TP)
9. A test is valid if it measures what it says it will measure, and you say you will measure
your dv as theoretically defined. Please show the test that you developed or that you
found from the literature for your dv. PLEASE ALSO INCLUDE THE EVALUATION
DATA WHAT IS A GOOD, POOR TEST SCORE, ETC.

Student Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey


(http://www.surveymonkey.com/s/fspsstudent )
"STUDENT Nutrition and Physical Activity Questionnaire Exit This Survey." STUDENT Nutrition
and Physical Activity Questionnaire Survey. Survey Monkey, n.d. Web. 21 Oct. 2014.
<http://www.surveymonkey.com/s/fspsstudent>. (Changed/Edited by Abbie Hockstad)

1- How much do you know about nutrition?


a. poor amount of knowledge
b. fair amount of knowledge
c. good amount of knowledge
d. very good amount of knowledge
e. excellent amount of knowledge
2- How would you describe your health?
a. poor
b. fair
c. good
d. very good
e. excellent
3- When you eat, do you make healthy food decisions?
a. always
b. sometimes
c. never
4- During the past week (last 7 days), how many times did you consume fruit (fruit juice doesnt
count)?
a. one to three times
b. four to six times
c. twice daily
d. three or more times daily
e. no fruit at all
5- During the past week (last 7 days), how many times did you consume a salad?
a. one to three times
b. four to six times

c. twice daily
d. three or more times daily
e. no salad at all
6- During the past week (last 7 days), how many times did you consume vegetables?
a. one to three times
b. four to six times
c. twice daily
d. three or more times daily
e. no vegetables at all
7- Breakfast is an important meal of the day. During the past week (last 7 days), how many
times did you have breakfast?
a. once
b. twice
c. three times
d. four or more times
e. no breakfast at all
8- How much do you know about physical activity/exercise?
a. poor amount of knowledge
b. fair amount of knowledge
c. good amount of knowledge
d. very good amount of knowledge
e. excellent amount of knowledge
9- Is physical activity/exercise enjoyable to you?
a. never
b. sometimes
c. always
10- How would you describe your weight?
a. underweight
b. slightly underweight
c. average
d. slightly overweight
e. overweight
11- During the past week (last 7 days), how many times did you participate in physical activity?
(Add up all the times and select the correct number)
a. zero days
b. one day
c. two to four days
d. five or more days
12- During the school week, on average, how many hours do you watch TV?
a.
b.
c.
d.

one to four hours


five to nine hours
more than 10 hours
no TV during the school week

13- During the school week, on average, how many hours do you play video games?
a. one to four hours
b. five to nine hours
c. more than 10 hours
d. no video games during the school week
14- During the school week, on average, how many hours do you spend on the computer or
tablet that isnt related to school work?
a. one to four hours
b. five to nine hours
c. more than 10 hours
d. no computer or tablet unless its school related
15- In the box below, please tell us how old you are?

16- What is your gender?


a. male
b. female
9a. Test Validity: Please argue that your test has logical or content validity, that it
actually measures your dv (all content areas) per the theoretical definition of the dv.
Test validity - a test will be valid if it measures what it is supposed to measure and our test is
valid because it reflects our theoretical definition of obesity rates in children.
9b. Please say how you would develop test-retest reliability (test consistency) for your
test. (We will talk about this next class.)
Test reliability - we will be giving our students a pre-test/survey as well as taking their BMI at our
first meeting and we will be giving them the same type of test/survey as well as taking their BMI
again at the end of the program. This will show that our test is not only valid but reliable as well.
IDENTIFYING MEASURABLE OBJECTIVES (USING VALID TEST TO DETERMINE HOW
MUCH OF YOUR DV IS IN YOUR TP)
9c. Pretend you gave your test in a pretest situation for the tp. Please identify at least 4
measurable objectives using the proper format (i.e., Ms. Jones will lose 10 lbs. by the end
of the 10 wk. program).
Students will know and understand the value and importance of nutrition by the end of the
program.
Students will be able to implement fruits and vegetables into their daily routine by the end of our
program.

Students will know and understand the importance of living a fun and active lifestyle by the end
of the program.
Students will adjust their BMI to a healthy level by the end of the program.
http://www.childhealthtx.org/pdfs/Childhood%20Obesity%20in%20Texas%20Report.pdf (child
BMIs chart) defining overweight and obesity

Arons, Abigail. "CHILDHOOD OBESITY IN TEXAS." The Costs, The Policies, and a
Framework for the Future (n.d.): 8+. Childrens Hospital Association of Texas. Web. 21
Oct. 2014.
<http://www.childhealthtx.org/pdfs/Childhood%20Obesity%20in%20Texas%20Report.p
df>.

Section 4: Programming
Please Put Section 4: Programming on a new page. Use your literature review (Section 2) to
answer these questions.
DOCUMENT, DOCUMENT, DOCUMENT. And, SHOULD BE NOTHING in question 10 THATS NOT
IN SECTION 2. Please put the questions in, bold them, and then answer them. Please put your dv
and tp in questions.
PLANNING AN EVIDENCE BASED PROGRAM AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN
10. Based on the literature review, which program model from will you use? Identify the model and
then identify the steps in the model. Then, right next to it, show how you will adapt the model for
your content or time needs. Please go into very specific detail about what your program is, WHAT
YOU WILL COVER, and how you will implement it. THIS IS THE PROGRAM YOU WILL USE TO
TRY TO CHANGE YOUR DV IT IS IMPORTANT THAT YOU FLESH IT OUT IN DETAIL. MAKE
SURE YOU FOLLOW THE MODEL COMPLETELY. See the example below from GET FIT WITH THE
GRIZZLIES.

Mission of Program: To support and improve students health knowledge and health
behaviors regarding physical activity and nutrition to decrease childhood obesity rates
within our 3 month program. We will be meeting once a week for 3 months (14 weeks)
during school hours to meet with the children in the fifth grade.
The program model we will use will be the Precede/Proceed model. The
Precede/Proceed model is derived into 8 phases. Phases 1 through 4 implement the
precede program and phases 5 through 8 implement the proceed program. The phases
of the precede/proceed model are:
Phase 1: Social Diagnosis - Identify and evaluate social issues having an impact
on the quality of life of population
Phase 2: Epidemiological, Behavioral, and Environmental Diagnosis Determining and prioritizing health needs of the community, then developing
goals and objectives
Phase 3: Educational and Ecological Diagnosis - Selection of factors that will
most likely result in sustained behavior change
Phase 4: Administrative and Policy Diagnosis - Administrative and organizational
concerns
Phase 5: Implementation
Phase 6: Process Evaluation - Evaluation of whether program is being
implemented according to plan
Phase 7: Impact Evaluation - Measures effectiveness of program by looking at
intermediate objectives; also looks at changes in factors

Phase 8: Outcome Evaluation - Measures the effect the program had in the
overall health/well-being of the community
For our program to improve students knowledge and education on physical education
and nutrition to decrease obesity rates we will use the following phases by:
Phase 1: Assess the needs which are a lack of physical activity, overuse of
technology, poorly balanced diets, and low self-confidence. By assessing these
needs we can decide which action to take with how the students are taught.
Phase 2: Determining the kinds/amounts of food consumed, increase awareness
on all topics of nutrition basics and a physical lifestyle, and increases the amount
of physical activity. We will supply a survey for the students to fill out recording
what their day-to-day meals/activities are like.
Phase 3: Activity-based learning, encouraging the students to try new things and
get active, and leading by example. Being a positive role model to the students
so they can be inspired to change their bad habits. By teaching the students new
nutrition concepts with each meeting and trying a new game with them we will
encourage them to try new things and that it shouldnt be scary.
Phase 4: Our concerns would be the budget to supply our program with proper
materials, time slots throughout the school day, childrens learning barriers, and
whether or not the information we teach the students will be interesting for them
to learn and use. We will need to meet once a week for 3 months to run our
program and make sure our program is funded so we can get the supplies
necessary for teaching.
Phase 5: We will implement the program in schools through activity-based
learning. We will schedule a specific day during each month for 6 months to
make sure the kids are learning through our activities and hands on education of
nutrition. We will be spending half of the time with nutrition concepts and making
healthy eating fun and the other half of the time incorporating a physical activity
in which they will also be learning different games.
Phase 6: By overlooking the program and making sure it is being implemented
according to plan we can evaluate how the students are doing with this activity
based learning. We will ask the parents make note/record their childs behavior
throughout the time we are teaching them.
Phase 7: After the process evaluation, we can determine how the program
worked with the kids and if we accomplished our goals to meet the objectives.
We can track the process by reports from parents and teachers on whether or
not the kids seem more active and are choosing healthier alternatives with theirs
meals and or activities.
Phase 8: Through the outcome evaluation we can compare and contrast the
surveys from before the program and after the program was implemented. As
well as the logs/journals recorded by the parents or any additional behavior that

shows the effects of the program. We can see if their children are asking for
more vegetables at a mealtime, if theyre informing their parents/teachers what
they have learned or if theyre asking to go play outside.
The following chart provides the lesson plans for our 3 month (14 week) program for 5th
grade Sandy Knoll Elementary students:
Weeks

Passive Learning

Week 1:
3-5-15

Pretest: student nutrition/physical


activity survey, assess
needs/goals/objectives

Introduction Lesson:
Introduce ourselves and
introduce our program
Group Discussion:
What they think it means
to be healthy, how many
servings they think they
need along with activity
per week, begin basic
nutrition concepts

Week 2: 3-1215

My Plate My Pyramid Handout,


focus on fruit and vegetables

Recap on intro. week


Introduce the My Pyramid
hand out, teach them
daily recommendations
Lecture on fruits and
vegetables, different
ways to utilize/implement
them in meals

Week 3: 3-1915

My Plate My Pyramid Handout,


focus on grains, dairy, and protein

Recap on fruits and


vegetables, how to use
My Pyramid
Lecture on dairy and
grains
Lecture on
Macronutrients:
carbohydrates, protein,
fats

Week 4: 3-2615

Healthy foods activity


(http://www.choosemyplate.gov/kids/
downloads/CrosswordPuzzle.pdf)

Recap on dairy, grains,


and protein
Incorporate food activity
Introduce physical activity

Play freeze tag for 20 minutes (get


them warm and burn off some

Active Learning

energy)
Week 5:
4-2-15

K-12 half day, no lesson

Week 6:
4-9-15

Marquette School District spring


break, no lessons

Week 7:
4-16-15

Play a game of basketball, they will


be asked a nutrition/activity concept
question, if they get it right they will
get to move on to a new spot
(around the world with questions)

Recap on My Plate
recommendations
Discuss use of video
games and lack of activity
Inform students of ways
to get active while playing
video games (Zumba,
dance games, etc.
Teach activity

Week 8:
4-23-15

Rethink Your Drink Activity


(provide images of different
beverages and ask which is better
for you)

Discuss what they


students did over break,
active or making healthy
choices
Lecture on micronutrients
Hydration - importance of
water, 8 cups a day

Week 9:
4-30-15

http://www.choosemyplate.gov/kids/
downloads/Tipsheet2_BeAFitKid.pdf

Recap on hydration
Lecture on importance of
proper nutrition and
staying hydrated while
being active

Week 10:
5-6-15

Outside playing kickball for 30


minutes, different teams

Educate on proper
serving sizes; Meal
consists of 12
vegetables, 14 lean meat
or beans and 14 grains.
Example Servings: 14
cup is the size of a large
egg, 12 cup in the size of
a 12 baseball or 12
tennis ball, 1 cup is the
size of a fist or baseball
(http://www.buildhealthyki
ds.com/servingsizes.html)

Recap on serving sizes


Encourage asking for
more fruits/veggies,
politely at dinner (with
family)
Fun recipes implementing
healthy foods to make
with family
(http://kidshealth.org/kid/r
ecipes/ )

Week 11:
5-13-15

Teach them indoor activities for 30


minutes in the gym, stretching, jump
rope, hula hoop, pushups/sit-ups

Week 12:
5-21-15

Outside games 30 minutes, split


them up into teams for red-rover,
red-rover

Recap on indoor
activities, being polite
Encourage physical
activity
Teach benefits of
physical activity, positive
attitude, prevent health
risks as you age

Week 13:
5-28-15

Outside games for 30 minutes of


their choosing

Recap on benefits of
activity
Teach importance of
living a healthy lifestyle,
eating healthy and getting
active
Show pictures of
diseases they can
acquire if they dont make
changes at a young age
Group them up and have
them write down benefits
and how to maintain
healthy choices

Week 14:
6-4-15

Posttest; final survey on


behavior/knowledge. Compare and
contrast beginning survey to final
survey.

Final Lesson: recap on


program
Evaluate students
outcome from survey
Congratulate the students
and wish them the best
for a healthier, longer
future

11. What apps are out there that would help you with your programming? Id them, explain
them, show a pic of them if possible, and link to them.

One app that is online is called Apps for Healthy Kids. The Apps for Healthy Kids is a
competition that is a part of First Lady Michelle Obamas Lets Move! Campaign to end
childhood obesity within a generation. Apps for Healthy Kids challenges software
developers, game designers, students, and other innovators to develop fun and
engaging software tools and games that drive children, especially tweens (ages 9-12)
directly or through their parents to eat better and be more physically active.
"Apps for Healthy Kids." Apps for Healthy Kids. USDA, 2014. Web. 29 Sept. 2014.
<http://appsforhealthykids.challengepost.com/>.
Some other free apps that are linked with helping kids acquire healthy eating habits are:
Nicolas Garden, Nutrition and healthy Eating!, Awesome Eats, The Prisoner of Carrot
Castle, Yum Nums Galaxy, Fooducate, Eat-And-Move-O-Matic and, Food Truth.
Nicolas Garden was inspired by and partly designed by an eight year old kid. An app
designed by a kid for kids to promote healthy eating. This app provides simple recipes
that kids can help make (or make on their own). Kids love the fact that they can try out
recipes, take pictures, share them with friends, and recommend recipes as well. Get the
kids in your classroom interacting about healthy food options, and their parents are
likely to thank you! Platform: iPhone Cost: Free.
Nutrition and Healthy Eating! is an engaging app that allows students to interact with Bo
and his friends. The app reinforces the food groups, as well as making healthy eating
choices. Three games are included to reinforce concepts and make health and nutrition
fun. Platform: iPhone and iPad Cost: Free.
Awesome Eats is another fantastic healthy eating app. It may be a bit more advanced
than Nutrition and Healthy Eating! so makes a great follow-up. The app features 16 free
levels that involve sorting, stacking, and plating a variety of foods from the garden. A
total of 64 levels are available, including lessons on recycling. Platform: iPhone/iPad
Cost: first 16 levels free.
The Prisoner of Carrot Castle is an eBook type app designed to help kids learn about
healthy eating choices. The storyline is engaging and can be read by the app or a
person. Three simple puzzles are included to reinforce the ideas, and various elements
of the pages are interactive (producing sounds and expressions). Platform: iPad Cost:
$2.99.
Yum Nums Galaxy puts a space twist on nutrition with this engaging app for kids. Meal
orders are given to a cat who braves the dangers of space to gather ingredients and
cook the meal. Various levels and storylines are available. The recipes can actually
create healthy meals and are available for use. Platform: iPad Cost: $1.99.

Fooducate is great for older kids learning healthy eating habits. One of the best features
for kids in this age group is the ability to scan a barcode and see the nutrition grade for
the food item (A to D). If the item does not get a passing grade, healthier options are
suggested. The app can also be used to track calorie intake, dietary choices, and
exercise: a great way to get teens started on the path to a healthy life. Platform: Android
and iPhone/iPad/iPod touch Cost: Free.
Eat-And-Move-O-Matic is a great app to teach kids about calories. Choose different
foods and find out how much running or swimming you would have to do to burn those
calories off. Helps kids learn to think before they put food in their mouths. Platform:
iPhone and iPad Cost: Free.
Food Truth is an app that will help kids learn about eating foods in season: why foods
are healthier in their season, when to find which fruits and vegetables, and offer
preparation tips and recipes. Platform: iPhone/iPad Cost: Free.

All of the above apps can be found at:


Sam. "Top 10 Apps to Teach Kids about Healthy Eating." AvatarGeneration. Avatar
Generation, 11 Nov. 2013. Web. 29 Sept. 2014.
<http://www.avatargeneration.com/2013/11/top-10-apps-to-teach-kids-about-healthyeating/>.

As for finding apps to promote physical activity there isnt one to promote activity, but
there is such thing as exergames. Exergames are games that can be played on a
video gaming device such as a PlayStation, Wii, or Xbox. There are games that require
kids to control the remote will dancing, running in place, or even jumping to control and
play.
Resnick, Lloyd. "Exergames: A New Step toward Fitness? - Harvard Health Blog."
Harvard Health Blog RSS. Harvard Health Publications, 8 Mar. 2012. Web. 29 Sept.
2014. <http://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/exergames-a-new-step-toward-fitness201203084470>.
12. First do NO harm and then do good. What safety considerations for your program are there?
Explain. Include forms, liability waiver, PARQ, etc. if appropriate.

Some of the safety considerations we have to be aware of in our program are students
that may have certain allergies to foods we bring in, students who have asthma if we
are playing a game that includes running and moving for a period of time, objects in the
physical activity-based learning that the students could hurt themselves on. For
example if we took them outside and the school has a playground with a slide and the
student falls off, we would need to create and accident report. An accident report must

be filled out no matter if there is an incident where someone gets hurt while they are on
school grounds.
BEHAVIOR CHANGE JUST BECAUSE YOU BUILD THE PROGRAM FOR CHANGE IN THE
DV IN YOUR TP DOES NOT MEAN THAT YOUR TP WILL ENGAGE IT FINDING BARRIERS AND
FACILITATORS
13. Social Cognitive Theory Light says people are more likely to engage the prescribed program
behaviors if they know what to do (change the dv), know how to do it (enact your program), want
to do it (are motivated), believe they can do it (have good self-efficacy), and have a supportive
environment. How would you determine that:
Your tp knows what to do?
Your tp knows how to do it?
Your tp wants to do it (is motivated)?
Your tp believes it can do it (is self-efficacious)?
Your tp has a supportive environment?

We would determine that our target population, which is children, knows what to do
because we will be informing them of what to do to create a healthier lifestyle and
therefore decrease obesity rates. Our TP knows how to eat better and get outside and
play because we will be teaching them which foods are better for them to eat and the
importance of physical activity. Our TP wants to create a healthier lifestyle change
because we will teach them the importance of starting at their age. To decrease obesity
and lessen the likeliness of them getting a disease or health complication they will have
us as well as their classmates to keep motivated and encouraged. The children will
believe they can do it because of the importance it means to them and because we will
teach them that its fun and an easy thing to do. The children have their teachers,
instructors, parents, and each other to create a supportive and positive environment.

Section 5: EVALUATION Design/Mission Fit


12. What evaluation design will you use? Please show it in Os and Xs and label
each group if you use a control group (e.g., program group or control group) and
label what each O and X is. Document whose program model you are following.
The evaluation design we will use will be a pretest-posttest BMI control group.

PRETEST

INTERVENTION

POSTTEST

PROGRAM
GROUP:
TH
5 GRADE
SANDY KNOLL
ELEMENTARY
STUDENTS

Score on BMI
Inventory:

14 WEEK
PROGRAM
Healthy Kids,
Healthy Habits
(Modeled after)

Score on BMI
Inventory:

CONTROL
GROUP:
5th GRADE
NEGAUNEE
ELEMENTARY
STUDENTS

PRETEST
Score on BMI
Inventory:

POSTTEST
Score on BMI
Inventory:

30/64

30/64

30/64

50/64

13. Internal validity has to do with your ability to say that your
IV/intervention/program caused change in the DV, and not something else
(Oprah). What threats to internal validity accompany the evaluation design you
selected in #10? Identify and briefly explain please.
The students in our target population will not have the option to participate in our
program because it is a program that is required to partake in. We will be focusing on
grade 5 children to prepare them for junior high and summer vacation. The threats that

would affect our program would relate to the participants personal histories. These
would be genetics; if obesity runs in the family, nature/nurture; the students parents
could be overweight because of unhealthy habits, if the students family is not
supportive, low income family, lack of physical activity and health education. Some
external factors that would affect our program would be the weather/season. Since we
will be incorporating physical activities outside, the weather would decide if we could go
out or not. Also, we will be begin our program in March and we usually always still have
snow on the ground so depending whether its blizzardy or if the school has a snow day
on the day we come into the classrooms would be a factor. Some other external factors
would be if we have enough time during the school hours, the students current health
conditions; whether they have certain allergies or problems like asthma. If were
implementing different foods during our program we need to be aware of allergies as
well as any sensitivities. One other factor would be the schools holiday breaks. We are
implementing our program from March until May so; we will have to work around spring
breaks, Easter vacation, and days that schools plan during the year to have off.

14. Evaluation in program planning is about mission fit. What is your mission fit
question and what is the evidence that you met your mission?
Our mission fit question is did we decrease obesity rates through activity-based
education?
Our answer is yes, we did decrease obesity rates through our Healthy Kids,
Healthy Habits program.

Section 6: Marketing and Communication


17. How can you use social media or traditional media to market your
program (make your target population aware that it exists and make them
want to come to the program)? Develop at least one marketing tool related
to your program and show it/and link to it. Please place your agency logo
on the material.
For our program we could use social media to help market and get
reviews about us by making a Facebook page where parents can go to and
share previous experiences or any feedback from their kids as well as a website
that parents can go to and read about what we are all about. Since our target
population is children, we would have to go through the school board to let our
program be accepted into the school system as well as visit the classrooms of
the students to get them aware and prepared for what they will be starting. Our
program will be similar to the DARE program because we will be educating
students on healthy lifestyles and it is required to participate.

Our facebook page can be found at the link below:


https://www.facebook.com/pages/Healthy-Kids-HealthyHabits/374372542717954#
18. How can you use social media or traditional media to communicate with
the members in your program about the program? Develop at least one
communication tool related to your program and show it/link to it. Please
place your agency logo on the material.

For our program there isnt much marketing because we will have to get
the school board on to the idea. We dont need to sell our idea for our program
because the kids will have to participate in our program. What we will need to do
is promote a positive, fun-environment and invest in great opportunities for the
children. To communicate with the children in our target population, we can
provide parental consent forms for us to show them the apps we have found that
can be fun and helpful for making healthy food decisions that they can use with
parental advisory. For parents to sit down at the computer or engage in a
videogame that theyre dancing, playing virtual sports, or even doing yoga, it
would be a way to promote our healthy program as well as get the parents to
bond with their children. One of the helpful websites we have used for part of our
programming was different activities from the Choose My Plate website. The
website has a whole section devoted to kids showing different ways to eat
healthier and get active.
http://www.choosemyplate.gov/kids/index.html

Section 7: Granting Agency


19. Identify a granting agency to help you fund your program. It should
have a similar mission to yours and give its mission. Indicate the agency
and the mission and tell what the grant is and how it is compatible with
your mission. Put in the granting agency logo and link to the granting
agency.
http://www.grants.gov/web/grants/searchgrants.html?keywords=healthy%20habits
National Institutes of Health. "Healthy Habits: Timing for Developing Sustainable
Healthy Behaviors in Children and Adolescents." Grants Gov. Grants.Gov, n.d.
Web. 21 Oct. 2014. <http://www.grants.gov/web/grants/searchgrants.html?keywords=healthy%20habits>.

PA-14-177
Healthy Habits: Timing for Developing Sustainable Healthy
Behaviors in Children and Adolescents (R01)
Department of Health and Human Services
National Institutes of Health
Their mission states: This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) seeks to
encourage applications that employ innovative research to identify mechanisms
of influence and/or promote positive sustainable health behavior(s) in children
and youth (birth to age 21).
This grant is compatible with our program because its also looking to influence
and promote a positive health behavior changes in children and youth. Theres
has a wider range of age but were a portion of that age group but it would still
meet their goal as well as ours. The ultimate goal of this FOA is to promote
research that identifies and enhances processes that promote sustainable
positive behavior or changes social and cultural norms that influence health and
future health behaviors.
For additional information: http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PA-14177.html

Wertz, Ron. "PA-14-176: Healthy Habits: Timing for Developing Sustainable


Healthy Behaviors in Children and Adolescents (R21)." PA-14-176: Healthy
Habits: Timing for Developing Sustainable Healthy Behaviors in Children and
Adolescents (R21). Grants.Gov, May 2014. Web. 21 Oct. 2014.
<http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PA-14-176.html>.

Tentative Timeline

Aug. 26th-Nov.11th 2014: Planning program


Dec. 2014: Present program to school board
May 2015: Apply for grant
Apr. 2015-Feb. 2016: Hear back/Get proper funding/Prepare program
Mar.-June 2016: Implement (14 week) program to Sandy Knoll Elementary
School

th
th
Aug. 26 -Nov.11 2014: Planning our program

Section 8: Webliography
Amaro, Yesenia. "Childhood Obesity Rates Decrease Slightly." ProQuest.
Tribune Business News, 10 Nov. 2011. Web. 6 Oct. 2014.
<http%3A%2F%2Fsearch.proquest.com%2Fdocview%2F902847578%3Fpqorigsite%3Dsummon>.

"Apps for Healthy Kids." Apps for Healthy Kids. USDA, 2014. Web. 29 Sept.
2014. <http://appsforhealthykids.challengepost.com/>.

Arons, Abigail. "Childhood Obesity in Texas." CHILDHOOD OBESITY IN TEXAS


(2011): n. pag. CHAT, Jan. 2011. Web. 7 Oct. 2014.
<http://www.childhealthtx.org/pdfs/Childhood%20Obesity%20in%20Texas%20Re
port.pdf>.

Arons, Abigail. "CHILDHOOD OBESITY IN TEXAS." The Costs, The Policies,


and a Framework for the Future (n.d.): 8+. Childrens Hospital Association of
Texas. Web. 21 Oct. 2014.
<http://www.childhealthtx.org/pdfs/Childhood%20Obesity%20in%20Texas%20Re
port.pdf>.

Bottcher, Yvonne. "Obesity Genes: Implication in Childhood Obesity." Science


Direct. Elsevier B.V, Jan. 2012. Web. 6 Oct. 2014.
<http%3A%2F%2Fwww.sciencedirect.com%2Fscience%2Farticle%2Fpii%2FS17
51722211002010>.

Dehghan, Mahshid. "Childhood Obesity, Prevalence and Prevention." Nutrition


Journal. BioMed, 2 Sept. 2005. Web. 04 Oct. 2014.
<http://www.nutritionj.com/content/4/1/24>.

Flodmark, Carl E. "Childhood Obesity: From Nutrition to Behavior." Proceedings


of the Nutrition Society. Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital in Malmo,
20 Aug. 2008. Web. 6 Oct. 2014.
<http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.cambridge.org%2Fdownload.php%3Ffile%3D%252F
PNS%252FPNS67_04%252FS0029665108008653a.pdf%26code%3D19f81412
59b443f490aecae20ceafeb1>.

Guinhouya, Benjamin. "Pediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology Volume 26, Issue 5,


Article First Published Online: 11 APR 2012." Physical Activity in the Prevention
of Childhood Obesity. UDSL, 2012. Web. 06 Oct. 2014.

Kimani-Murage EW. 2010. Child Obesity. In: JH Stone, M Blouin, editors.


International Encyclopedia of Rehabilitation. Available online:
http://cirrie.buffalo.edu/encyclopedia/en/article/301/

National Institutes of Health. "Healthy Habits: Timing for Developing Sustainable


Healthy Behaviors in Children and Adolescents." Grants Gov. Grants.Gov, n.d.
Web. 21 Oct. 2014. <http://www.grants.gov/web/grants/searchgrants.html?keywords=healthy%20habits>.

Resnick, Lloyd. "Exergames: A New Step toward Fitness? - Harvard Health


Blog." Harvard Health Blog RSS. Harvard Health Publications, 8 Mar. 2012. Web.
29 Sept. 2014. <http://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/exergames-a-new-steptoward-fitness-201203084470>.

Sallis, James. "The Role of Built Environments in Physical Activity, Eating, and
Obesity in Childhood." ProQuest. ProQuest, 2006. Web. 6 Oct. 2014.

Sam. "Top 10 Apps to Teach Kids about Healthy Eating." AvatarGeneration.


Avatar Generation, 11 Nov. 2013. Web. 29 Sept. 2014.

<http://www.avatargeneration.com/2013/11/top-10-apps-to-teach-kids-abouthealthy-eating/>.

"STUDENT Nutrition and Physical Activity Questionnaire Exit This Survey."


STUDENT Nutrition and Physical Activity Questionnaire Survey. Survey Monkey,
n.d. Web. 21 Oct. 2014. <http://www.surveymonkey.com/s/fspsstudent>.

Wertz, Ron. "PA-14-176: Healthy Habits: Timing for Developing Sustainable


Healthy Behaviors in Children and Adolescents (R21)." PA-14-176: Healthy
Habits: Timing for Developing Sustainable Healthy Behaviors in Children and
Adolescents (R21). Grants.Gov, May 2014. Web. 21 Oct. 2014.
<http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PA-14-176.html>.

Section 9: Reflection
Please write a combined 1 - 2 page reflection piece on how this project
helped:
1) your professional growth relative to the program plan/eval process (do you
think you can assess a general need to have a warrant for proceeding, a specific
need to identify measurable objectives, find an evidence-based program,
implement it, and then evaluate?);
2) your independent/self-directed learning,
3) your critical thinking (determining what research is valid, and finding/using
valid materials); and
4) collaborative learning working with others to achieve common goals..

Erins Reflection:
1. My professional growth relative to this project has improved tremendously.
I can now utilize the program planning and evaluation model to assess
needs, identify measurable objectives, find an evidence-based program,
implement that program, and evaluate it. This project definitely gave me
insight on all the steps that go along with creating a program. There are a
lot of details and work that go into creating a program which was the
hardest part, but once I got through the major components, tweaking and
applying the information was a piece of cake.
2. As far as my independent learning goes, this project was a hand on
experience that prepared me for what it is to come with the community
health education profession. I will be using the behavior change models
for the rest of my career, and with the experience I have gained from this
project it prepared me for real life situations when it comes down to
planning and evaluating a program.
3. My critical thinking has been challenged when it came to finding
secondary literature and utilizing the research we found to make sure it
was valuable to our program. It was difficult to find the the research that
would be valid when it comes to narrowing it down to childhood obesity.
4. This project was quite a handful and since this was a 4 credit class,
working well with your partner was detrimental in terms of finding time
outside of class to work together. Luckily, Google Docs makes it easy to
work together and that is what we have done to create our project. We
assigned each other certain sections and worked together to create our
project as well as assigning deadlines to have the work done by so we can

assess it and make the changes needed. This project tested our time
management, creativity, and knowledge to use the proper resources to
work together and finish our project.
Abbies Reflection:
1) When it comes to my professional growth, Id say that it has grown a lot since the
beginning of this project. It has taught me that I can use the program and
evaluation model to assess the needs, identify objectives, find an evidencebased program, implement a program, and then evaluate it. I can now take what I
learned from this project when it comes to creating my own program and I know
that there are a lot of extra steps to creating a program but this project has
helped me to understand where to fix things before my program is finalized.
2) When it comes to my independent learning, Id say it was a great learning
experience. I prefer hands on learning and this project was a great way to learn
this model. This project has given me insight for my career in community health
and in a way what its going to take to be good at my job. I will not only be using
this model but many other models as well.
3) When it comes to my critical thinking and this project, it was definitely a
challenging experience. It took some time to find the right research that was valid
and specifically related to decreasing childhood obesity rates. Lots and lots of
reading and analyzing what was needed for our project.
4) This project was probably one of my biggest ones this semester because this
model has lots of steps to it. Thats why it was nice to have a partner to work on
this with. It was tough finding time to get together with each other to get our
project done, but with the help of google docs to communicate it helped with our
time management so our program could be completed on time.

Section 9: Living PowerPoint (Prezi, Emaze, Google Slides) presentation


HL 367 20 minute presentation to class
Slide 1: Your mission, variables, your names, agency and agency mission, AND
YOUR JOB IN AGENCY if can get it all on
Slide 2: ASSESS GENERAL NEED FOR A CHANGE IN THE DV IN YOUR TP
Your documented need for your mission document, document, document

Slide 3: Theoretical definition of your dv and a model of dv reflecting the theoretical


def. document please (may take two slides)
Slide 4: The test reflecting the theoretical definition argue that your test measures
your dv as you have theoretically defined it
Slide 5: ASSESS SPECIFIC NEED FOR A CHANGE IN THE DV IN YOUR TP
give sample numbers/results for pretest results on your test
Slide 6: IDENTIFY MEASURABLE OBJECTIVES TO CHANGE THE DV IN THE TP
Give at least 4 measurable objectives (in the Mrs. Jones will lose 10 pounds by the
end of the 10 week weight loss program) based on pretest results to posttest results.
Slide 7: PLAN AN EVIDENCE-BASED PROGRAM TO CHANGE THE DV IN THE
TP: Identify the program/s you have selected to use from your review of literature.
Document the program (who is the author, year, etc.).
Slide 8: Give the model of the program/s you have chosen to use.
Slides 9-11: IMPLEMENT THE PROGRAM: Now, show how you used the model to
flesh out your program show us your program and when you will implement
each section
Slide 12: How will you use a behavior change model (SCT light) to identify barriers
and facilitators to your tp actually engaging your program? Explain.
Slide 13: EVALUATE TO SEE IF CHANGED DV IN TP: Show your evaluation
design and explain each O and X document the X. What are the threats to
internal validity with this design?
Slide 14: Evaluation means mission fit in program planning and evaluation. State
your mission fit question and explain how you know if you met your mission or not.
Slide 15/16: Share your marketing and communication efforts.
Slide 17: Share your grant information agency, mission, grant and amount. How is
it compatible with your mission?
Slide 18: Webliography for powerpt
Finally, put in: Table of Contents after Title Page
Put project and powerpt on a wix or weebly
Have an about us section