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Al-Okaily, R. (2013).

Mobile learning and BYOD: Implementations in an Intensive English

Program. Learning and Teaching in Higher Education: Gulf Perspectives, 10(2).
Retrieved May 20, 2014, from
In this article the author talks about the rationale of using mobile devices in the
English classes are describes how to implement the usage of these devices.
What is mentioned in the article is the NMC Horizon Report which drives the
study carried out by the author. Furthermore, the definitions of mobile learning and
BYO/BYOD are listed and their use in higher education in justified. BYOD needs
careful planning and the use of Device Neutral Applications ( DNA), as the students
might be using completely different devices. Instructional language is highlighted as
well as some other challenges that need to be addressed before incorporating BYOD
into the course. The author mentions issues that might arise with devices themselves
and hardware, safety of the network, classroom management. All of these can be
overcome once carefully planned.
On the other hand there are many benefits for the organisations as the use of
own devices in the classroom can increase students' engagement, lower the
maintenance costs, foster digital literacies, personalise learning, give the access to
any material on the go at any time, trigger independent learning.
Then, the author describes the applications used in the study carried out in the
United Arab Emirates, but does not discuss methods or methodologies employed
when carrying the research.
Since the research done involved using mobile devices, there are many different
application mentioned as well as their use for particular activities. The author
mentions the following: dictionary apps, web searches, video projects, blogging,
online speaking practice, social networking sites, social learning platform.
Finally, the feedback from the students is analysed which is based on surveys
done online. The aim of the surveys was to get information on the four areas: mobile
ownership and use, using mobile devices for class work and homework, learner
independence and possible disadvantages. The outcome of the research was positive
and the author states that cultural issues should be always taken into account when
introducing new technologies in the classroom.
The article was helpful for me, as it showed that there have been some studies
carried out in the field of ELT and the use of BYOD in the classroom. There are
many limitations to the study, as it is set in the middle east, but some of the
comments very useful for me.
While reading the article I have learnt for the first time about DNA approach which
I believe is crucial when embarking on BYOD route.

Sweeney, J. (2012). BYOD in education: Nine Conversations for Successful BYOD

This article shows a study on Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) carried out in
Australia by one of the biggest IT Advisory services company. The author starts with the
definition of BYOD and describes how the trend moved from businesses to education. He
states that the main reasons for the introduction of BYOD in education is the cost
effectiveness but then argues that the organisations might not be saving money in reality, but
just shifting from the IT maintenance to IT support and staff training. He believes that any
changes should not be driven my money, stating that Education is not the same as
business: we are not about making or saving money. In education, if you are doing BYOD
to save money, you are missing the whole point.(Sweeney, 2012, p. 7)
Sweeney states that there must be a change in the pedagogy and how the teachers
perceive themselves. In most cases the educators will not tell the students how to do the
task, the students will decide how to do it, with their own devices. For many teachers that
change might mean losing control in the classroom and being just a guide for students, thus
might be really feared. On the other hand, in this way students experience full flexibility in
their learning.
The author argues that before implementing BYOD, every organisation should
consider nine issues i.e. pedagogy, control, duty of care, standardisation, funding,
ownership, support, management and network.
Then the article focuses on different models of ICT deployment and consideration:
OPD: On Premises Device (owned by school and only used at school)
SOD: School Owned Device ( owned by school but given to the students)
BYOSD: Bring Your Own Standard Device
BYOOD: Bring Your Own Other Device ( with guidelines from the school)
BYOD: Bring Your Own Device ( school might provide software)
BYOS: Bring Your Own Stuff ( complete freedom of choice of software and device)
EaaS: Education as a Service ( Schools only provide educational content)
What I found interesting about the article was that the author did not only see the positive
sides of BYOD in education but with the objectivity discussed different issues related to it.
The description of different considerations and kinds of models of BYOD made me think
about the most appropriate for my research and its implementation. I think BYOS would be
the best in my case and will give full freedom of choice for my students.
I completely agree with the author that BYOD should be just a tool in education and when
thinking about its implementation we should consider how it fits our syllabi, not the other
way round.

Dudeney, G., Hockly, N., Pegrum, M. (2013). Digital Literacies: Research and Resources in
Language Teaching. Harlow, UK.
The book is divided into several chapters focusing on how to move from research to
implications, then application, implementation and coming back to research. That is the
vision of the authors, when engaging on ITC path, to continuously improve the practice.
In the first chapter, the authors define digital literacies. They break the digital
literacy term into four main focus points i.e. language, information, connections and (re-)
design. Starting off with language focus we can differentiate seven literacies listed as
follows: print ( ability to write texts), texting (ability to use text messaging systems to
communicate), hypertext (ability to process hyperlinks), multimedia (ability to create
multimedia with text, sound, pictures and video), gaming (ability to achieve goals in a
gaming environment), mobile (ability to navigate the mobile internet), code ( ability to read
and write in HTML). The second focus is information and here there are four literacies
mentioned: tagging (ability to create online indexes with the use of tag clouds), search
( usage of search engines), information (evaluate online documents), filtering (reduction of
information overload by the use of online social and professional networking sites). Then
within the third focus, connections, there are the following literacies mentioned: personal
( ability to shape own identity online), network ( to communicate online, be a part of a
community), participatory ( to make contributions to online communities), intercultural (be
able to comprehend multi cultural information). Finally, in the re-design focus the authors
mention remix literacy which focuses on 'creating new meanings by sampling, modifying
and/or combining pre-existing texts and artefacts as well as building on other's remixes.
As the conclusion, it is stated that we have to embrace all literacies and plan our English
classes for students who already possess them and are getting ready for the future.
The second chapter of the books provides its readers with many useful lesson plans
for English classes, which focus on and foster digital literacies. But most of all, this chapter
gives guidelines how to integrate technology into lessons. Here, TPACK, and SAMR
models are mentioned.
Next chapter provides its readers with the overview on how to incorporate the ICT
based activities into the syllabi of ESOL classes. The authors state that the incorporation can
be take three different approaches i.e. the course book driven, topic-driven and digitalliteracies driven approaches. It is stated that the linguistic and technological competences
of students need to be taken into account as well as general teacher's technological abilities.
Furthermore, when assessing students' progress we can also focus on the digital literacy, and
can use the web 2.0 tools to engage students in peer feedback, and self -reflection.
Finally, the last chapter looks at incorporation of ICT activities into the syllabi and
then planning the action research with a cycle to measure the final outcomes of the
enhancement of the classes. Authors here also encourage to keep Personal Learning
Networks (PLNs) as well as a blog to become more accessible by others.
For me this book was highly important and all information from it I found really
useful. It triggered me to look into TPACK and SAMR model for the implementation. I
think the division of digital literacy into four subgroups makes a lot of sense and now when
dealing with my students I know how to approach them. The readymade activities from the
book are handy, especially for those who just start to use ICT in the classroom.

Stavert, B. (2013).BYOD Literature Review: State of NSW, Department of Education and

Communities. Eveleigh, Australia.
The review focuses on the most recent literature available and provides an overview
of BYOD. The author starts off with the definition of BYOD and states that there has been
some pressures put on its implementation in education. One of them is the financial side of
BYOD, as it pushes out the costs of maintenance of devices to the owners. Secondly, it is
implied that the students have changed and demand more of 'tablet and laptop' rather than
pen and paper. It is also a fact that more and more people own mobile devices which can be
used for more of a personalised style of learning.
On the other hand the author raises concerns with using BYOD in education. There
is an issue with equity of students which will just broaden the gap between the wealthy and
the poor. Moreover, still there is no evidence that BYOD is the best tool for teaching and it
gives the students the chance to be distracted from the class.
There have been many models of BYOD mentioned i.e. the one introduced by
Sweeney, 5 models by Dixon and Terney and Alberta's five models of BYOD. What they
have in common is that they determine to what extend BYOD is flexible, how it can be
adjusted to suit individual needs.
The review analyses also device capabilities and states that the tablets and laptops
are the best for BYOD classes, but there seems to be a trend towards more and more smart
phones these days. The very implementation of BYOD needs planning, organising and
drafting policies.
I found this review useful as it guided me to other articles and more information on
BYOD. The author seems really optimistic about the implementation of BYOD classes. He
also believes that the use of mobile devices can distract students from learning in the
classroom. I disagree that this can be the case, as the students can be easily distracted by
other students, some unexpected situations etc., and not only their mobile phones.
The different models of BYOD were really useful for my research and shed some light on
how I should shape my classes.

Hamza, A. , Fauzan Noordin, M. (2013). BYOD Usage by Postgraduate Students of

International Islamic University Malaysia: An Analysis. International Journal of
Science Invention 2(4). Retrieved 20th Oct 2014 from:
The paper analyses a study on the use of mobile devices by students at one of the
Malaysian Universities. The authors start the paper with the introduction to BYOD, giving
definitions of it and commenting on advantages and disadvantages of using it. The main
objective of the research is to analyze how the students use their mobile devices in the class
and check their level of satisfaction with it, analyse the impact it has on the studies.
In the literature review talks about the full engagement of students with the mobile
devices and states that students feel more inclined to use mobile devices especially
smartphones in the class.
The next part of the paper talks about the methodology employed when carrying out
the research. It is stated that the data was collected through the questionnaires randomly
distributed to students with the response rate of 80%.
The findings were divided into different areas starting off with the general
information about the respondents. The questionnaires showed that there was a good
balance of respondents from different faculties across the university. Majority of students
feel really comfortable with using mobile devices at the campus and are willing to use their
own devices for studying. Most of the students indicated that they use the laptops, rather
than smartphones and other mobile devices at the campus, and they spend more than 20
hours using their devices. The most important finding was that the majority of respondents
use the devices for educational purposes (especially the exchange of emails, instant
messaging and Facebook). The main issues students had with using BYOD were related to
the poor wifi, data security, loss/damage of the device. They also had the feeling that BYOD
increased the level of self- deficiency in learning. In the end, most of the students were fully
satisfied with the BYOD services offered.
The study concluded that BYOD is a natural trend that should be followed. It
showed its limitations and drafts recommendations on further research in the field.
I found this paper article I bit biased and the outcomes really predictable. I did not
learn anything from this paper, as it is not highly influential. I believe the study was a
breaking point for the Malaysian University and gave some insight into the ways the
students use their devices and wifi at the campus, but the final comments were not
surprising for me.

eSchool News Special Report. (2013). Powering the Digital Classroom. Retrieved
November 2014 from :

This report mainly focused on K-12 students in the USA, but the findings published
can refer to the current Net Generation of students. It is based on the Speak Up survey
which gathered information from respondents ( students and teachers) online and managed
to collate it in one final report which found out that there are many discrepancies between
what is taught in the classrooms and the reality of students. With regards to the introduction
of ICT in the schools, especially BYOD policies, many schools and educators adopted the
policies and approaches without a good strategy and planning. One vital thing about the use
of ICT is that the shift from traditional to more mobile learning is not just using devices for
old-school tasks, it is a total transformation of the way we teach today.
The report took on board also the most typical problems students encounter when
using BYOD in the schools. The most common issues were as follows: ' use of firewalls in
schools, blocking the social networking websites and texting sites, inability to use the
mobile phone in the class at all, too many confusing rules and regulations connected with
BYOD'. All of them can be easily addressed, in the planning stage.
The report focused also on the different mobile devices students prefer to use for
different tasks e.g. if they want to create a presentation they prefer to use a laptop, but for
communication - a smart phone. This leads to conclusions that students should have
freedom of choice and should not be restrained to one mobile device in the class.
Finally the report focuses on teacher training and moving from the traditional 'sage
on the stage' approach to more flexible and adoptable educators.
I found this report quite useful, and I think that even though it refers only to the
American reality, it reflects the most western countries and their policies on the use of
mobile devices when teaching. I think the part about the use of different devices for
different purposes was the most interesting for me and when starting my research I would
like to plan for good activities which can be done with smart phones, so mainly
communicative activities and tasks.

Alberta Education. (2012). Bring your own device: A guide for schools. Edmonton, Alberta.
Retrieved 10th November 2014 from
The report is divided into nine sections connected with the introduction of BYOD
into schools. I analysed the first six as I found them the most relevant to my practice and
research. The first section discusses the need for the use of mobile devices and defines six
basic categories of mobile devices ( laptop, netbook computers, smartphones, tablets, ebook
readers and audio mp3 players). It stressed the fact that the technology mentioned,
combined with the right pedagogy can bring many opportunities for students in any
educational organisation. Some schools provide the technology to the students, but still the
privately owned ones are much more useful. The report mentions five key differences

between personally owned and school-owned devices with some considerations for each of
1. Familiarity, transparency and facility with the device by the students
2. A seamless bridge between formal and informal learning
3. Currency and immediate traction
4. Social creation of knowledge
5. Cost and sustainability (Alberta Government. pp. 6-9)
The second section gives an overview of the existing BYOD models. It is stated that
there are five main models for management of BYOD programmes i.e. limiting the device to
be used a specific one, limiting devices to those that meet special technical specifications,
limiting the use of devices to those that have specific functions, accepting all devices as long
as they have the access to the Internet and finally, the hybrid of all four mentioned. Thus, the
division is based on the flexibility of choice of the device. Every model has its own
advantages and disadvantages, which are mentioned in this section of the report. The same
section outlines school's consideration prior to the introduction of BYOD (vision of the
school, technical considerations, training involved, content, affordability).
What is more, the next section provides the reader with the policy considerations
and states that we would always have to deal with the set of policies linked to the following
1. Responsible and appropriate use of technology
2. Equity of access
3. Network access and bandwidth for students
4. BYOD readiness in school and school authorities(Alberta Government. pp. 6-9).
Following sections raise the issues of digital citizenship, teaching, learning and
assessment through BYOD. It was stated that the BYOD can be used as a tool which enables
personalisation, participation and productivity. The first one enables students to link their
personal interests to the content taught at school, it also increases the engagement and helps
in deep learning. Then participation, deals with the communication online. In the advent of
Web 2.0 we can easily interact with each other using multiple devices. Here participation is
subdivided into three levels: communication, cooperation and collaboration. In each level
there the level of interaction differs ( just from making contact, sharing with others the ideas
to together working on a project). Finally, productivity means creating something ( a video, a
presentation etc.) which in the past was mainly accessible for professionals, whereas now a
regular Internet user can create something sophisticated. Here four different toolsets for
BYOD are listed: organisational tools, production tools, thinking tools and online assessment
Next section discusses the meaning of a digital content, which consists of resources
in digital format (Alberta Government. pp. 6-9). It is said that its proper combination can
facilitate engagement and motivate both educators and students. It can take different forms
(from online texts to multimedia resources). When it comes down to BYOD, there might be
some issues of using the digital content related mainly to accessibility, licences, privacy, wifi
access, digital literacies, context and copyright. There were some action steps provided when
we use the digital content on mobile, personal devices.
Even though the whole report is really long, it is highly informative. It provided me
with concrete classification of BYOD models and then focuses on different aspects of the use
of BYOD in the class. I still have not started with drafting policies for the use of BYOD in
my organisation, but due to the comprehensive reports from Alberta I know where to start and
how to approach it.

The Center for Digital Education, Avaya. (2011). Thought Leadership Paper: Mobile
Learning: Preparing for BYOD (Bring Your Own Device). Retrieved on 10th
November 2014 from:
The paper starts with the reference to the increased use of mobile devices in education
and supportive arguments for using own devices in the class. It is stated that the mobile
devices can be used for teaching across all subjects. With regards to English as a Second
Language digital content and language applications can help students learn vocabulary and
grammar and prepare for regular classroom instruction (The Centre for Digital Education,
2011 pg. 3).
Like many other documents and reports, this paper provides us with some
considerations before setting a BYOD class. First and foremost is the bandwidth, then the
quality of service, security, network management, staff training, the issue with school- owned
devices and policies on BYOD. Then a list of best practices in this field follow. It is noted
that the flexibility here has the most crucial role together with consistency with the activities,
regular monitoring of the wifi connection and review of all policies before starting. When
encountering some technical problems, the paper suggests some possible solutions.
Moreover, it is stressed that the general change should start with the heads of organisations
and their willingness to adopt to the changing society.
The paper is really short, what I found interesting is the troubleshooting information
about some technical issues that might arise when introducing BYOD. Since the paper dates
back to 2011, it might be a but outdated but still contains some useful tips to consider before
starting with BYOD.

Ackerman, A. S. & Krupp, M.L. (2012. October). Five Components to Consider for
BYOT/BYOD. Paper presented at: IADIS International Conference on Cognition
and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age ( CELDA), Madrid, Spain (pp. 35-41).
International Association for Development of the Information Society. Retrieved
February 14,2014 from:
The authors imply that before introducing BYOT/BYOD into an educational
organisation, it is worth to consider five main components. It is stated that there are
many advantages of using BYOD/BYOT in the classroom as it enhances learning
and boosts students' motivation. But prior to its implementation, all organisations
need to consider the security of students, network and also the institution. What is
suggested is a separate wireless network for the use of BYOD which needs extra
financial input, but is secure for all parties. Furthermore, there should be also
security codes added to the cloud storage available for students. Another vital
component is the involvement of all stakeholders, based on partnership and smooth
collaboration and communication. It is needless to say that there must be also
certain policies in place. The policies should include financial liabilities of mobile
devices, safe environment as well as user's netiquette. The fourth component relates
to Professional Development of all staff members which is inevitable for the
successful implementation of BYOD. Through training teachers will be more able to
fully engage students on a global and local scale. The last of five components deals
with the financial plan for the full sustainability of the projects. BYOD allows to
minimize the costs of buying new technology while brining innovation to the
The text I chose focuses on the five main issues we have to face when
introducing BYDO into educational organisations. I believe it is worth to follow that
path drafted by the authors of the article, as BYOD might allow us to change from
more passive to active learning. In my personal career I consider the approach as
really dynamic moving from traditional approaches to more constructive,
collaborative. The access to instant feedback, sources of information might
completely transform the future of schools we know today. It needs a lot of planning
but I think it is worth it.

Nielsen, L. ( 2011). 7 Myths About BYOD Debunked. The Journal. Retrieved February 20,
2014 from
Nielsen, L. The Innovative Educator Blog.
In the short article the author focuses on the most common myths connected with
Bring Your Own Device trend. She notices that there has been a lot of bad publicity around
BYOD and the digital divide between students and lecturers will exist no matter what
technology we employ when teaching. The choice of the devices does not influence the
educational process. Moreover, technology will enable the students to become more
motivated and self- directed as they have to discover their own devices, without any
distractions. The article states that the teachers do not have to be experts in the field of IT as
the students use their own mobile phones, tablets and laptops. Some students might engage in
dangerous activities online, but as stated in the article, BYOD does not increase this activity,
it only raises awareness among students and promotes self responsibility. It is suggested that
the mobile devices are getting faster and more efficient and there is no need for standardised
applications for all students. The author writes a regular blog and has her own website
dedicated to technology. Her blog provides information on using BYOD in the classroom,
gives tips on how to introduce new policies, how to get all stakeholders involved, and most of
all where to start.
As I have been analysing the use of BYOD for my final presentation for the module, I
wanted critically to analyse Lisa Nielsen's work. She has been very enthusiastic towards
using technology in the classroom and addressed the most prominent issues connected with
BYOD. But she only analyses seven main areas of concern and does not mention other
problems with BYOD. I think one of the issues we might be still facing in today's educational
organisations is still the digital divide and the access to mobile devices. Even though she
believes that the difference between digital natives and immigrants will not widen, I believe it
is still present and we have to take the digital literacy of our students into account when
planning the lessons. Once BYOD is well designed, it can be as beneficial as Nielsen
mentions, but it needs planning and a lot of involvement.

El-Hussein, M. O. M., & Cronje, J.C. (2010). Defining Mobile Learning in the
Higher Education Landscape. Educational Technology & Society, 13 (3), 1221.
Retrieved: February 26, 2014 from
The article defines mobile learning and analyses if it can be applied to higher
education. First of all, authors state that there has been many definitions of mobile
learning and the mobile devices have reshaped our societies, changed our
perception, access to information and even the language we use. There are some
limitations of mobile learning that might impede mobile education therefore
designers and technologists need to think about the users of all devices and the
functionality of the software they produce. On the other hand, the outcomes of
teaching through well designed tools make education more motivating and
successful. Success here depends, as authors suggest, on three areas of mobility:
Mobility of Technology
Mobility of Learners
Mobility of Learning
The first one, focuses on the available devices as well as their usability. Currently,
we have really advanced devices ( not only smart phones as shown in the article)
which are compatible with all online web 2.0 tools and can be used for education
while on the go. Mobility of learners refers to students who are constantly on the
move and can access online tools at any time and any place. The whole content of
many courses is suggested to be moved online and accessed via mobile devices
(mobility of learning). This will enhance learning and make it fully accessible for
Having analysed the text I am fully aware of the power of mobile learning
which is closely related to Bring Your Own Device approach as it allows students to
use their devices for learning in/outside of classroom. Even though the text was
published in 2010 and there has been many different mobile devices introduced onto
the market, it introduced very important three concepts of mobility. For BYOD all
three of the above are as important as for mlearning and need to be taken into
account before introducing to students. Mobility of technology is of my main
concern with two dominant operating systems ( IOS and Android), on the market,
causing problems when used in the classroom. When picking applications as tools
we have to remember about the constrains of programmes and the lack of access to
some applications in one of the two systems.