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ORIENTATION IN SPACE 1

Objective
To provide a stable, although relative, system of reference by which to describe spatial
relationships and enhance the use of articulated, differentiated, representational space.
There are at least four reasons that our students may have difficulty with spatial orientation, its
representation, and communication.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Lack of need to form relationships (episodic grasp of reality)


Limited representation (here and now)
Lack of concepts or labels ( a system of reference)
Egocentrism (other points of view)

Unit 1
Symbolic presentation of spatial orientation
Lesson Plan 1
Cover page
Objectives
To arouse interest in the instrument through an analysis of its symbol?
To introduce the concept of orientation in space, define the terms, and discuss their meaning.

Vocabulary
Crossroads
Concrete
Abstract

cloverleaf
decision
criteria

alternatives
orientation
space

reversibility
direction

Lesson Plan 2 (page 1)


Objectives
To introduce the concepts of side and direction and to differentiate between them.
To introduce the concept of relationship.
To indicate that changes in relationship result from changes in orientation.

Vocabulary
relationship
left
right
relative

change
side
stable
front
direction orientation
back
closed system
pinwheel

Summary
The sides of ones body do not change. What does change is direction, orientation, and
relationships. These changes occur as a result of changes in position.

Unit II
Relationship between an object and its viewer, with the viewer as the referent.
Lesson Plan 2 (page 2)
Objectives
To define the problem in the absence of written instructions.
To differentiate between the stable (fixed) and relative (changing) elements in the
problem.
To recognize that the change in position results in a change in relationship.

Vocabulary
Position
Change
Constant
Cue

transformation
stable
fixed

in relation to
relative
relationship

Summary
To know the direction or location of an object in relation to a referent, one must know the
Position of the referent. In this case, the referent is the boy.
In order to give directions or to receive them, it is necessary to define ones starting
Position ( instructions to visitors, delivery people etc.)

In order to understand anothers point view, it is necessary to know where he or she


Stands from the start (politics, newspaper editorials, advertising claims).

Lesson Plan 3 Page 3


UNIT III
Objectives
To develop representational thinking.
To develop flexibility and plasticity by rapid transition from one perspective to another.
To use several sources of information simultaneously to arrive at a conclusion.
Subgoals
To provide specific practice while preventing boredom.
To gather information from a table.

Vocabulary
Table
Internalization
Representation
Unknown

hearing
sequence
explicit
missing

data
conclusion
implicit
position

given
logical evidence
transformation
cross-checking

Lesson Plan 4 Page 4 and 5


Same as above

Lesson Plan 6 Page 6


Objective
To indicate mastery of concepts of side and direction by their application in a novel situation.
Subgoal
To gather only the relevant information and communicate it clearly and precisely.

Summary
1. To be at the same place at the same time, both literally and figuratively, gives no
information on the point of origin and ultimate goal (e.g., students in the same class at the
same time; people in the grocery store etc.
2. It is important to know the point of origin of a person to understand him or her better.
3. Be careful to avoid overgeneralization and stereotypes.
4. As opposed to Organisation of Dots, in which direction does not affect the constancy of
an object, direction is important in spatial orientation and is a factor in describing an
object or a process.
5. The way to reach a goal from a given point of origin depends upon the paths that are
available and taking the correct turns.

Lesson Plan 7 Page 7


Objective
To introduce the concepts of traces, symbols, and signs
Subgoal
To contrast information presented pictorially and schematically.

Lesson Plan 8 Page 8


UNIT V
Objectives
To present the problem in a new, more abstract modality and without figural support.
To translate the verbal code into an operation.
Subgoals
To introduce the diagonal
To arrive at conclusion by inference
Vocabulary
Substitute
Extrapolation
Absolute
Reversal

universal
inferential thinking
particular
degrees, minutes, seconds
idiosyncratic
task-bound
necessary and sufficient conditions

Lesson Plan 9 Page 9


Objective
To discover that there are situations in which a number of alternatives are appropriate for
satisfying the demands of a task.

Lesson Plan 10 Page 10


Objectives
To encourage flexibility and plasticity by changing tasks from frame to frame.
To summarise the instrument.
Subgoal
To provide specific practice in identifying and constructing relationships in space.