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AUTHORS: Evens,Vyvyan & Melanie Green. 2006.

Cognitive linguistics: An
introduction. NJ & London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. xxvi + 830. ISBN 0-
8058-6013-4 (case).

REVIEWER: Dinha T. Gorgis, Jadara University for Graduate Studies, Irbid, Jordan.
E-mail: gorgis_3@yahoo.co.uk

This book, which is more of a portable library than a book to be stacked on a library
shelf, is a "comprehensive" introduction to cognitive linguistics which has grown
rapidly since the publication of Lakoff & Johnson's (1980) Metaphors We Live By.
It is recommended to be used as a text as well as a reference book. Reasonably
enough, Evans & Green suggest that the book as a text be used by tutors in three
different types of course (p.xxi). It comprises three main parts and a fourth which, as I
can see, need not to have been called a part because it is only a five-page chapter
compared with the length of each of the other 22 chapters which all end with a
summary, a section on further reading, and exercises. However, the book includes an
appendix in which tables and figures are presented, along with hundreds of references
and an index; a laborious task indeed.

SUMMARY

Part I: Overview of the cognitive linguistics (CL) enterprise contains four chapters
which tell the reader that CL is a "movement" (p.3) rather than a specific theory.
Therefore, this part provides an overview of what has been achieved over the years in
this revolutionary and interdisciplinary programme from different but complementary
perspectives while also drawing comparisons with the Chomskyan paradigm, in
particular, so often referred to throughout the entire book as formal grammar.

Chapter 1 explicitly states that CL attempts, just like any other linguistic enquiry, to
"describe and account for linguistic systematicity, structure and function" (p.20).
But to study language within the broadly conceived CL is to study patterns of thought,
i.e. conceptualizations, rather than the rules assumed generatively to underlie it. In
short,
CL is "a non-reductionist model" (p.701).

In chapter 2, one finds an overview of the assumptions and commitments of CL. In


the authors' words, "[t]hese are the 'Generalisation Commitment' and the 'Cognitive
Commitment'" (p.50) to which cognitive linguists adhere, particularly those
researching within cognitive semantics & grammars.The chapter also addresses the
issue of "embodied cognition" and the nature of the relationship between language,
mind and bodily experience. So unlike formal grammar, CL is meaning-based. And
this explains why "cognitive grammar assumes a cognitive semantics and is
dependent on it" (p.48).

Chapter 3 overviews universals and variation in language, thought and experience. In


contradistinction to the innate Universal Grammar thesis, CL holds that certain
commonalities across languages "are explained by the existence of general cognitive
principles shared by all humans, in addition to the fundamentally similar experiences
of the world also shared by all humans due to embodiment" (p.55). This licenses
cross-linguistic variation which underlies different conceptual systems in different
heads. As such, CL position is "consonant with a weak version of the Sapir-Whorf
hypothesis" (p.101).
Chapter 4 is an overview of language in use. CL is said to reject the distinction
between competence and performance because "knowledge of language is derived
from patterns of language use, and further, that knowledge of language is knowledge
of how language is used" (p.108). This should mean that both language production
and comprehension, as determined by context, are central issues in CL. It follows that
a child acquiring a language is a discoverer of "recurring words, phrases and
sentences in the utterances they hear, together with the range of meanings associated
with those units" (p.115). Such a task is claimed to be achieved via mainly
abstraction and schematization, among other things.

Part II, which includes eight chapters, is wholly devoted to cognitive semantics (CS),
an approach that is arguably set against truth-conditional semantics on one hand, and
the semantic/pragmatic division of labour on the other hand. Rather than using the
formal language of logic, meaning in CL is largely represented in terms of diagrams.

Chapter 5 starts with the characterization of CS and its guiding principles, viz. central
assumptions (principles) that read as follows:
"1. Conceptual structure is embodied (the 'embodied cognition thesis').
2. Semantic structure is conceptual structure.
3. Meaning representation is encyclopaedic.
4. Meaning construction is conceptualization" (p.157).

The first two assumptions are explored in more detail in chapter 6 where we find an
interesting account of image schema and its properties (cf. Johnson 1987). Image
schemas are contrasted with mental images. While the former are more abstract in
nature, emerging from ongoing embodied experience, the latter "are detailed and
result from an effortful and partly conscious cognitive process that involves recalling
visual memory" (p.185). The authors provide a partial list of image schemas that have
been proposed in the literature but rearranged according to the nature of their
experiential grounding (cf. p.190).

Chapter 7 examines the third assumption, viz. that meaning is encyclopaedic.


Fillmore's semantic frames, derived from his early Case Grammar, and Langacker's
basic domains are discussed and set against the dictionary view of meaning. While the
two theories "were developed for different purposes, together they provide the basis
for a theory of encyclopaedic semantics" (p.244), because Langacker's complements
Fillmore's.

Chapter 8 focuses on categorization, mainly as approached by prototype theory


scholars, and idealized cognitive models (ICMs) proposed by Lakoff (1987) as
inspired by the empirical findings obtained by that theory. Lakoff is reported to have
said that "ICMs depend upon (at least) five sorts of structuring principles for their
composition: (1) image schemas; (2)propositions; (3) metaphor; (4) metonymy; and
(5) symbolism" (p.280).

Two of these conceptual projections, viz. (3) & (4), are the concerns of chapter 9
which examines "the central claims associated with Conceptual Metaphor Theory,
including the recent challenges of primary metaphor theory. According to this
theory, the cognitive function of metaphor" is to foreground otherwise background
operations" (p.321). We also find in this chapter a brief introduction to the metaphor-
metonymy interface and, in particular, the metonymic basis of metaphor.

Building on insights gained from categorization and ICMs in the previous two
chapters, chapter 10 overviews what has come to be known as cognitive lexical
semantics, an approach which views lexical items as "conceptual categories,
structured with respect to a prototype" (p.356). But Evans is on the scene here
proposing with her research mate, Andrea Tyler, what they call "The Principled
Polysemy approach" (pp.342 ff.). This approach, they claim, differs markedly from
Lakoff's approach (see their illustration of a radical category, p. 347). In sum, "word
meaning involves a complex interaction between polysemy, context and
encyclopaedic knowledge" (p.356).

Recall now the fourth assumption which views meaning construction as "a dynamic
process whereby linguistic units serve as prompts for an array of conceptual
operations and the recruitment of background knowledge" (p.162). This process,
called conceptualisation (pp.363 & 396), is considered in chapter 11, primarily in
terms of Mental Spaces Theory which "accounts for a diverse range of linguistic
phenomena relating to meaning at the level of sentence and text, including referential
ambiguities and the role of tense and aspect in discourse management and
epistemic distance" (pp.396-7).

Chapter 12 is an overview of Blending Theory which derives from Conceptual


Metaphor Theory (outlined in chapter 9) and Mental Spaces Theory (presented in
chapter 11), but "differs from both in that it explicitly accounts for emergent
structure: the idea that meaning construction often results in meaning that is 'more
than the sum of its parts'" (p.439).

Chapter 13 concludes part II of the book. By comparing between CS in context and


truth-conditional (or formal) semantics on one hand, and Relevance Theory on the
other hand, Evans & Green state that while formal semanticists have been primarily
concerned with sentence meaning in terms of metalanguage, Relevance Theory,
being a theory of communication, emphasises "the role of ostensive-inferential
communication, relevance and inference" (p.465). Although Relevance Theory
comes close to CS, yet it assumes a generative stand and acknowledges the distinction
between linguistic and non-linguistic knowledge.

Part III, which contains nine chapters, overviews cognitive approaches to grammar
which, like CS, are said to be guided by the same theoretical assumptions despite the
inevitable differences. What unites them are the symbolic thesis which "entails that
sound, meaning and grammar are inextricably linked" (p.471) and the usage-based
thesis.

Chapter 14 outlines the above two theses which characterize a cognitive approach to
grammar and identifies four main types of theoretical approach, each of which being
followed by a brief overview. The relationship that holds between them is best
represented in a figure on (p. 483).
Chapter 15 is a detailed account of the first type, namely 'The Conceptual Structuring
System Model' developed by Leonard Talmy, and partly of the second type, viz.
Roland Langacker's 'Cognitive Grammar' which, viewed as complementing the
former (p.549), is further explored in three more chapters. Rather than drawing a
sharp boundary between grammatical knowledge systems, CL holds that "the
grammatical sub-system can semantically be characterised along the same lines as the
open-class sub-system" (p.512) because "language is represented in the mind of the
speaker in terms of a structured inventory. This inventory is structured in terms of a
network of links between symbolic units. These symbolic units may be either lexical
(open-class) or grammatical (closed-class) elements. This structured inventory
represents semantic structure" (p.513).

Chapters 16-18 are more detailed accounts of Langacker's Cognitive Grammar


(CG). They deal respectively with word classes, constructions, and tense, aspect,
mood and voice. For him, "a noun designates a THING and a verb designates a
TEMPORAL RELATION (a PROCESS)….. An adjective designates an
ATEMPORAL RELATION and has a THING as its TR, while an adverb designates
an ATEMPORAL RELATION and has a RELATION as its TR" (p.570). Langacker's
model of word class is represented in a diagram (p.571). Constructions in CG,
including words, are accounted for not in terms of the fashionable structure building,
but in terms of "the semantic relationships between the component parts of a complex
structure" (p.581). CG "approaches constituency and head-dependent relations
from the perspective of valence and by relying upon the idea of conceptual autonomy
and conceptual dependence" (p.610). Chapter 18 focuses on the verb string (or
group) within the clause. Tense and mood "are analysed in terms of a grounding
prediction" (p.615), "part of the verb string that is responsible for finiteness" (p.617).
The perfective and imperfective aspect "can be characterized in terms of
homogeneity versus heterogeneity and in terms of bounding" (p.637). And voice is
treated in terms of the clausal head where "auxiliaries are not viewed as 'purely
grammatical' elements but represent an extension from the other uses of that verb"
(p.620).

Chapter 19 explores the empirical motivation for a constructional model of grammar


by examining idiomatic expressions (constructions) as approached by Fillmore, Kay
and O'Connor (1988) and elaborated in Kay and Fillmore (1999). Their one-level
based grammatical representations "contain not only syntactic information but also
semantic information relating to argument structure as well as pragmatic information"
(p.653). But it remains to say that this model is broadly generative despite sharing "a
number of important assumptions" (p.660) with CG.

Three more construction grammars are overviewed and compared in chapter 20. More
detailed is Goldberg's model, which is said to depart from Kay & Fillmore's grammar,
though being influenced by their work and by the early work of George Lakoff (cf. p.
667), because "it is fully usage-based" (p.666). Goldberg's approach to verb argument
structure is claimed to have four advantages: (1) it "avoids the necessity of positing
several distinct senses for one verb" (p.669); (2) it "avoids circularity" (p.670); (3) it
"enables semantic parsimony" (p.670); and (4) it "preserve compositionality" (p.671).
While focusing on sentence-level constructions, "verbs are associated with rich
Frame Semantics which gives rise to participant roles that are mapped onto the
argument roles provided by the construction" (p.701). Croft's (2001) Radical
Construction Grammar (pp.692-697) focuses on cross-linguistic typological variation
and hence linguistic generalizations (or universals). In this model, grammatical
relations, such as subject/object, are not recognized. Rather meaning is linked by
symbolic relations as gestalts (cf. p. 695). Embodied Construction Grammar,
developed recently by Bergen and Chang (2005), is a model on on-line language
processing. It "assumes that all linguistic units are constructions, including
morphemes, words, phrases and sentences" (p.697). However, future research is still
required for the model to provide explanations for the inferences that "arise in
utterance comprehension" (p.699).

In chapter 21, Evans & Green provide "a descriptive overview of the
grammaticalisation process" (p.708) which is said to involve form-meaning change in
the history of a language. Three cognitively oriented theories of grammaticalisation,
which view change as a usage-based phenomenon, are presented and compared.
These theories, supported by case studies carried out on different languages, include:
(1) metaphorical extension approaches (pp.714-721); (2) Invited Inferencing Theory
(pp.720-727); and (3) the subjectification approach (pp.728-732).

Chapter 22 places cognitive approaches to grammar in a wider context. These are


compared and contrasted with generative and functional-typological approaches as
represented by a number of selective grammatical theories (see Figure 22.1, p.743).
The comparison is done in terms of their foundational assumptions, objectives and
methodology. The characteristics of a cognitive approach to grammar are best seen in
the form of a table (p.744). Despite the inevitable differences, the authors maintain
that the linguistic theories they so far discussed in their book are "united in the
objective of modeling the representation of knowledge of language in the mind of the
speaker" (p.771).

Part IV, which is made of one short chapter, takes the reader to the close of a long
intellectual journey. While the achievements of CL are highly appreciated, challenges
are said to remain. As such, the authors not only call for the continuation of
developing "a stronger empirical basis" (p.782), but also for the integration of
approaches.

EVALUATION

Although the book is primarily addressed to students, and hence the too many
reminders and reiterations appearing here and there, some readers, like me, may find
repetitions rather boring. One is made aware though that this technique in writing a
textbook on a relatively new discipline is used as a 'reinforcing strategy'. However,
this minor remark should in no way reduce the strength of the book; for it is after all
an indispensable reading. But my two major remarks, which I suggest to be
considered in a future edition, relate to "Lack of empirical rigour" (p.780). The first
concerns corpus-based approaches, e.g. Stefanowitsch & Gies (2006) whose earlier
work is only acknowledged. I reckon that a small section at least would have thrown
some light on ongoing quantitative and empirical research efforts. Unfortunately, too,
the reader finds nowhere in the book any mention of work done on 'mental models'
(see, for example, the excellent collection of papers in Rickheit & Habel 1999).
Although mental models have largely been researched by cognitive psychologists who
hold similar assumptions to those of cognitive linguists, yet they ought to have been
considered along with image schemas, mental image, semantic frames, domains, and
context.

Out of the ten trivial typos, starting from page 189 and ending with page 769, one
seems to be a slip of the pen. This is the word "excluding" (p.495, line 4 before last)
which must be read as 'including'. Despite all this, I whole-heartedly congratulate
Evans & Green for their laborious work and, accordingly, recommend it to be used as
a textbook.

REFERENCES

Bergen, Benjamin K. and Nancy Chang (2005). Embodied construction grammar in


simulation-based language understanding. In J. O. Östman and M. Fried (eds).
Construction Grammars: Cognitive Grounding and Theoretical Extensions.
Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp.147-190.
Croft, Wiliam (2001). Radical Construction Grammar: Syntactic Theory
inTypological Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Fillmore, Charles, Paul Kay and Mary Katherine O'Connor (1988). Regularity and
idiomaticity: the case of let alone. Language, 64, 3, 501-38.
Kay, Paul and Charles Fillmore (1999). Grammatical constructions and linguistic
generalizations: the What's X doing Y construction. Language, 75, 1-34.
Lakoff, George (1987). Women, Fire and Dangerous Things: What Categories
Reveal About the Mind. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Lakoff, George and Mark Johnson (1980). Metaphors WE Live By. Chicago:
Chicago University Press.
Rickheit, Gert and Christopher Habel (1999). Mental Models in Discourse
Processing and Reasoning. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Stefanowitsch, Anatol and Stefan Th. Gries, eds (2006). Corpus-Based Approaches
to Metaphor and Metonymy. Berlin & NY: Mouton de Gruyter.
ABOUT THE REVIEWER

Dinha T. Gorgis is currently professor of linguistics at Jadara University for Graduate Studies,
Jordan. He has been teaching English phonology (with occasional reference to Arabic) at a
number of Arab universities since 1975. During 1984-1999, he was mainly involved in
teaching graduate courses, e.g. syntax, semantics, sociolinguistics, pragmatics, discourse
analysis, and translation, and in supervising M.A. and Ph.D. research work pertinent to these
fields. He is co-editor of the international journal Linguistik online, and is member of IPrA. His
most recent publication (2005) is "Binomials in Iraqi and Jordanian Arabic", which can be
accessed freely in: Journal of Language and Linguistics, Vol. 4, No. 2, 135-151. He reviewed
Yavas, Mehmet (2006): Applied English Phonology, which appeared on LINGUIST List: Vol-
16-3630, and has recently written two book notices for eLanguage.

Published on LINGUIST List (2007), Vol-18-1165.