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Power and Politics

Presented by

Anish Kumar
Antony David
Ilavarasi
Krithika
Vijaychandar
The Meaning of Power

Power is the capacity of a person, team, or


organization to influence others.
-The potential to influence others.
-People have power they don’t use and may not
know they possess.
-Power requires one person’s perception of
dependence on another person.
SOURCES OF POWER

PERSONAL POWER POSITION POWER

1.Reward power 1.Expert power


2.Coercive power 2.Rational Persuasion
3.Legitimate power 3.Referent power
4.Process power
5.Information power
SOURCES
6.Representative power
INFLUENCE

Influence is a behavioral response to the exercise of


power.
TYPES OF POSITION POWER

REWARD POWER:
The power to give pay raises, promotion, praise,
and other rewards to subordinates to control them.

COERCIVE POWER:
The power to give or withhold punishment, such as suspension,
termination, or even the withholding of praise and goodwill to
control others.
This is mainly dependent on fear.
Cont..

LEGITIMATE POWER:
The power to control and use organizational
resources to accomplish organizational goals.
PROCESS POWER:
The source of this power is the placing of the
individual in a position to influence how inputs
are transformed into outputs for the firm.
It is the control over the methods of production
and analysis.
Cont..

INFORMATION POWER:
The power that stems from access to and
control over information flow.
The “right to know” and use of information is
conferred to the position.
REPRESENTATIVE POWER:
It is the formal right conferred by the firm to
speak as the representative for and to a potentially
important group.
TYPES OF PERSONAL POWER

EXPERT POWER:
Influence is based on special skills
or knowledge.
RATIONAL PERSUASION:
It is the ability to control another’s behavior
through individual’s efforts, where the person
is convinced and accepts the view point.

REFERENT POWER:
It is based on identification with a person
who has desirable resources or personal traits.
The desire to please…
Building influence
 Developing power to have an effect
on others and to help shape the
decisions they make and the
actions they take
Building influence
Building position power

 Work units are highly relevant to


organizational goals.
 Expanding their network of
communication contacts.
 Suggest the subordinates to take on
certain roles.
Building personal power
 Three personal characteristics:
 Expertise
 Political savvy
 Likability
Using information and influence
techniques
 Increasing visibility and control over
information.
 Controlling decision premises.

 Perfecting influence techniques.


Power ,formal authority, and obedience

 Obedience

 Acceptance of Authority
 Zone of indifference
OBEDIENCE

vCompliance
vDuty
vAgreement
vRespect
v
Mailgram's psychological Test

v
Acceptance of authority

The following are the 4 circumstance should be met:-


Ø The subordinate can and must understand the


directive.
Ø The subordinate must feel mentally and physically
capable of carrying out the directive.
Ø The subordinate must believe that the directive is not
inconsistent with the purpose of the organization.
Ø The subordinate must believe that the directive is
not inconsistent with his or her personal interests.
ZONE OF indifference

 It is in the range of authoritative to which a subordinate is


wiling to respond without subjecting the directives to critical
evaluation or judgment
Empowerment
 Empowerment is the process of increasing the
capacity of individuals or groups to make choices
and to transform those choices into desired actions
and outcomes.
 Central to this process are actions which both build
individual and collective assets, and improve the
efficiency and fairness of the organizational and
institutional context which govern the use of these
assets.

key elements of empowerment

 Changing Position power


 Expanding the zone of indifference
 Access to information
 Inclusion and participation
 Accountability
 Local organizational capacity


What Empowerment - Is
 Responsibilityand ownership.
 Working independently towards
common objectives.
 Weighing the impact of decisions of all
affected stake holders.
 Making more trade –offs, not less.

 An earned privilege. It is not a given


right!!
What Empowerment - Is
 Responsibilityand ownership.
 Working independently towards
common objectives.
 Weighing the impact of decisions of all
affected stake holders.
 Making more trade –offs, not less.

 An earned privilege. It is not a given


right!!
What Empowerment – Is not
 Throwing out the rule book.
 Bypassing everyone who will say “no”.

 Doing the “fun parts” of someone else’s


job.
 Freedom to unilaterally make decision to
impact others.
Give power away
 Power is an “expandable pie”… power is
not a zero-sum commodity, requiring
that for others to have more, the
leader must have less.
 “You have to give power to gain power”.
Frame work
 Organizations that adopt empowerment as
a key goal must also adopt empowering
processes and behaviors internally. Poor
people express the desire to be treated
with respect, honesty, care, and dignity in
their encounters with institutions.
Empowerment approaches by definition
include behaviors that build people’s self-
confidence and their belief in themselves.
Discussions about informal norms and
behavior that support ownership, dignity,
and respect need to be part of the
dialogue of institutional reform in
countries, in support organizations, and
within the World Bank.
Politics:
ØActivities concerned with gaining or using
power within organization or group

ØAny study of Power and influence leads to the


subject of politics
Organizational politics

In terms of use of nonsanctioned means and


self interest

Its management of influence to obtain ends not


sanctioned by organization and the art of
creative compromise among competing
interest
Conditions for Organizational
Politics

Personal
Scarce
Characteristic
Resources
s
Conditions
Supporting
Organizational
Politics
Complex and
Tolerance of
Ambiguous
Politics
Decisions
Political forecasting

 Gain a better understanding of political behavior to forecast future


actions by placing themselves in the position of other persons
involved in critical decision or events
Intergroup relation for Managers

Ø Work flow
Ø Service
Ø Advisory
Ø Auditing
Ø approval
Politics and corporate Strategy
Three aspects
Ø Absence of a political strategy in some corporations

Ø A political strategy is turning the government from a regular


industry to a protector.

Ø When and how to get involved in public process .


The politics of self-protection
Ø Individual can employ three common strategies
Ø To protect themselves. They can
1. Avoidance
2. Redirect responsibility.
3. Defend their turf.
Politics and governance
Ø Agency theory
Ø Resource Dependable
Ø Organizational governance
Ø Politics ,organizational Governance and ethics

Controlling Political Behaviour

Provide Remove
Sufficient Political Norms
Resources

Introduce Hire
Clear Rules Low-Politics
Employees

Free Flowing Increase


Information Opportunities
for Dialogue

Manage Change Peer Pressure


Effectively Against Politics
Case Study

Power or Empowerment at GM
Facts

 General motors parma,ohio, Finalized three


year agreement with united auto workers union,
local 2005 .

 Background
Ø Threat from GM to Parma corporation

Ø Team concept Implementation group


Ø Roger and bob relationship



The Real time situation

Ø Demands from new committee chairman.


Ø
Ø Needed to improve the quality of customer service
Ø
Ø Conclusion


Review Questions
Ø How would you describe Parma’s
environment in terms of its level of
uncertainty and complexity?
Ø How would you characterize Bob
Lintz’sapproach to communication,
decision making under exercise of power
in creating change at Parma?
Ø What were the most critical issues still
facing Parma and what should be done to
address them?
Ø How can resistance to change be overcome
utilizing the existing workforce?
Thank you !!!