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Chapter 4 Notes

1. Key Issue 1- Where are Folk and Pop Leisure Activities Distributed
a. Two elements of culture
i. Daily necessity
ii. Leisure activity
b. Habit: repetitive act that a particular individual preforms
c. Custom: a repetitive act of a group, preformed to the extent that it becomes characteristic of
the group
Originates at hearth. Often are
Often a product of developed countries.
anonymous hearths. May have
Traceable to person or corp. in specific place.
multiple hearths.
Arise form combination of advances in industrial
technology and increased leisure time.
Is transmitted from one location to Follows the process of hierarchical diffusion,
another more slowly and on a
diffusing rapidly and extensively from hearths.
smaller scale. Primarily through
Began in 1940s broadcasting music to soldiers
relocation diffusion.
and citizens where many were stationed during
Distribution Local physical and cultural factors Widely distributed across many countries. Is
influence distribution of folk
influenced by the ability to people to access the
culture. Through their choices of
material. Obstacles may be the lack of income to
subjects of paintings, each group
purchase item.
reveals how its culture mirrors the
religions and the individual views
of the groups environment.
e. Folk songs
i. Originate anonymously and are transmitted orally
ii. May be modified from one generation to the next as conditions change
iii. As people migrate, folk music travels with them as part of the diffusion of folk
iv. May tell a story or convey information about life-cycle evens such as birth, death,
and marriage
f. Popular songs
i. Written by specific individuals for purpose or being sold to or performed in front of a
large number of people
ii. Displays high degree of technical skill through manipulation of sophisticated
electronic equipment
iii. Have more connections with performers or similar styles
g. Sports
i. Soccer
1. No one knows how originated, but now most popular sport in world
ii. Surviving folk sport
iii. Cricket, wushu, baseball, Australian rules football

2. Key Issue 2- Where are Folk and Pop. Material Culture Distributed
a. Material culture include
i. Three most important necessities of life
1. Clothing
2. Food
3. Shelter
ii. Folk
1. Typically have unknown or multiple origins among groups of living in the
relative isolations
2. Diffuse slowly to other locations through relocation diffusion
iii. Popular
1. Vary more in time than place
2. Originate through the invention of a particular person or corp.
3. Diffuse rapidly across the earth to locations with a variety of physical
b. Clothing
i. Folk
1. Traditionally worn clothing in response to distinctive agricultural practices
and cultural conditions
ii. Popular
1. Clothing preferences generally reflect occupations rather than environment
iii. Folk Clothing vs. Popular Clothing
1. Wearing folk clothing in areas dominated by pop culture can be controversial
and vice versa
iv. Diffusion of popular clothing
1. Popular clothing habits reflect
a. Occupation
b. Income
2. Improved communications have improved rapid diffusion of clothing styles
3. Chain buyers and inexpensive reproduction, placing electronic orders
c. Food
i. Preferences affected/influenced by
1. Availability
2. Cultural traditions
3. Environment
4. Social, religious, and ethnic membership
ii. Folk
1. Embedded in environment
2. Inhabitants of region must consider the soil, climate, etc. to determine food
3. Tirroir- effects on a particular food item of soil, climate, etc. of local
4. Certain foods are eaten because of their natural properties are perceived to
enhance qualities desired by society
5. Taboos
a. Everything in nature carries a signature or characteristics based on its
appearance or natural properties
b. Some folk culture may establish food taboos due to concern for
natural environment
c. Also be restricted due to religious beliefs

iii. Popular
1. Are more influenced by cultural values than environmental features
2. Differences among countries
a. Name of Coca-Cola in USA, Canada, Russia
3. Regional differences w/in USA
a. Frequency of fast food restaurants
i. Krispy Kreme in Southeast vs. White Castle in Midwest
ii. Wine consumption higher in CA
b. Variations w/in the US are much less significant than differences
between the US and developing countries in Africa & Asia
iv. Environmental Factors
1. Climate
2. Topography
3. Soil
v. Cultural Factors
1. Location of production based on cultural values, both historically and
2. Diffusion of popular customs depends less on the distinctive environment of
a location than on the presence of beliefs, institutions, and material
3. Preserve production traditions because of sustenance and ritual
4. Ex. Vineyards owned by private individuals and corps. Rather than religious
organizations. Avoided by certain religions due to avoidance of alcoholic
d. Housing
i. Houses are reflections of cultural heritage, current fashion, functional needs, and the
impact of the environment
ii. Folk
1. A groups unique folk customs develop through centuries of relative isolation
from customs practice by other groups
2. Folk customs observed at a point in time vary widely from one place to
3. Type of building material used to construct folk houses influenced partly by
resources available
a. Most common: wood and brick
b. Ex. Kashgar, Turpan, Yinchuan, Dunhuang
4. Sacred spaces in houses
a. Form derives primarily from religious values and other customary
beliefs rather than from environmental factors
i. Ex. Doors in Java face South
iii. US Housing/Popular
1. US Housing
a. Newer housing in states reflect rapidly changing fashion concerning
most suitable house form
b. Style of pioneer homes reflected whatever style was prevailing at the
place on the East Coast from where they migrated
c. Hearth of house types
i. Ex. Middle Atlantic, Lower Chesapeake/Tidewater, New
2. US Popular Housing
a. Display popular culture influences

b. Distinctiveness in housing style has diminished due to rapid

communication and transportation systems which allow better access
to alternative styles
c. Houses show the influences of shapes, materials, detailing, and other
features of architectural style in trend at point in time.

3. Key Issue 3- Why is Access to Folk and Pop. Culture Unequal

a. Popular culture diffuses rapidly around the world, primarily through electronic media
b. Electronic media increases access to the popular culture for folk people and vice versa
c. Obstacles can be lack of access to electronic media and lack of income
d. Diffusion of Popular Culture
i. TV is the most important electronic media format
ii. TV important in popular culture because
1. It is the most popular leisure activity in the world
2. It has been the most important mechanism by which popular culture rapidly
diffuses across the Earth
iii. Diffusion of TV: Mid-Twentieth Century
1. Early twentieth century: Multiple Hearths
a. UK, France, Germany, Japan, and Soviet Union
2. Mid-twentieth century: United States Dominate
3. Late twentieth century: Diffusion to Europe
4. Early twenty-first century: Near-Universal Access
iv. Many watch TV, but not all the same programs
1. Ex. Sports in North America vs. news in Russia
v. The share of viewers around the world receiving programs over the air declined, but
for satellite dish has increased
e. Diffusion of Internet: Late Twentieth Century
i. Diffusion of internet service follows the pattern established by TV a generation
earlier, but at a more rapid pace
1. The diffusion of TV from the US to the rest of the world took half a century
whereas the diffusion of the Internet only took a decade.
2. Given the history of TV the Internet is likely to diffuse further in the years
ahead at a rapid rate
f. Diffusion of Social Media: Twenty-first Century
i. Familiar pattern has repeated in the twenty-first century
ii. People based in the US have dominated the use of social media in the earlier years
1. Facebook: US had started out with 1/3 of users worldwide but had declined
to 1/5 in later years
2. Twitter: US was the source of 1/3 all Twitter messages in 2011, but also
diffused to India which is a developing country
3. YouTube: US accounted for 30% of all users in the earlier years, but most
countries did not have YouTube users as of 2011
g. Challenges in Accessing Electronic Media
i. People in developing countries who embrace folk culture are challenged by the
diffusion of popular culture through electronic media, however the still welcome the
opportunity to view major events
ii. The threat to folk culture can be external or internal
1. External: most content of diffused through electronic media originates in a
handful of developed countries
a. Three developed countries dominate TV industry: UK, US, Japan
b. Entertainment/Cultural Imperialism
i. Themes, like violence and glorification of youth, may cause
conflicts and drive out traditional folk culture
ii. To avoid offending folk culture, certain programs are
censored and attempt to emphasize family values and avoid
controversial topics

c. News
i. Developing countries fear threat of news gathering capability
in media more than their entertainment function
ii. The news media in most developing countries are
developing countries are dominated by the government
iii. Fund are not available to establish independent news service
in developing countries
iv. The diffusion of information to the newspaper around the
world is by the AP, 25 largest media companies are all based
in developed countries
v. Many Africans and Asian governments officials criticize the
Western concept of freedom of the press
1. They argue that the American news do not reflect
American values and do not provide accurate views
of other countries
a. Ex. Natural disasters vs. health care and
2. Internal: the latest form of social media enable people to in developing
countries to originate the content themselves, as long as accessible
a. George Orwell-1984
b. Limiting access to TV
i. Changing technology has made TV a force for political
change rather than stability
ii. Internet and satellite enable people to choose from a wide
variety of programs produced in other countries, not local
government controlled stations
iii. Governments have had little success in shutting down
satellite technology
iv. Consumers can outwit the government because the small
size of satellite dishes allowing them to be easier to smuggle
out of sight
v. Countries limit access to four types of Internet content
1. Political content that express views in opposition to
those of the current government
2. Social content related to gambling, drinking, and
3. Security content related to armed conflicts or
militant groups
4. Internet tools such as email, internet hosting, and
vi. Eluding control: New technologies and social media
1. Social media have started to play a significant role in
breaking the monopoly of government control over
diffusion of information
2. Has become increasing harder to block individual
social media
3. Popular uprisings again undemocratic government
rely on individuals sending information through cell
phones, Twitter, blogs, and other social media

4. Key Issue 4: Why Do Folk and Popular Culture Face Sustainability Challenges
a. Elements of folk and popular culture face challenges in maintaining identities that are
sustainable into the future
b. Popular cultures challenge is the sustainability of practices designed to promote uniform
c. Sustainability Challenges for Folk Culture
i. Folk cultures challenge is to maintain unique local landscapes in an age of
ii. Increased connection with popular culture can make it difficult to maintain centuryold practices
1. Amish in United States
2. Marriage Customs in India
d. Sustainability Challenges for Popular Culture
i. Popular culture can significantly modify or control the environment
ii. Environment in popular culture is modified to enhance participation in a leisure
activity or promote the sale of a product
iii. However there can be negative impacts
1. Pollution of landscape
a. Ex. Hills flattened and valleys filled in for golf courses
b. Uniform landscape
i. The distribution of popular culture around the world tends to
produce more uniform landscapes
ii. Spatial expression to a popular custom in one location will
be similar to another
iii. product recognition
iv. Uniformity in the appearance of the landscape is promoted
by a wide variety of other popular structures in North
America such as gas stations and motels
v. Physical expression of uniformity in popular culture has
diffused from North America to other parts of the world
vi. Environmental Capacity
1. The environment can accept some levels of waste
from human activities, however popular culture
generated high volume of waste that must be
absorbed into the environment
2. Popular culture can also cause environmental
damage, especially when natural process are ignored
3. Widespread belief that indigenous people of W
Hemisphere practiced more natural agriculture.
2. Depletion of natural resources
a. Diffusion of some popular customs increases demand for animal
products, which may result in depletion or sometimes extinction of
some species
b. This unbalances the ecological systems of which the animal are
c. Folk culture may also encourage the use of animal skins, but are
usually smaller than popular culture
d. Increased meat consumption in popular culture has not caused
extinction, because more cattle is bred and raised

e. Recycling of resources
i. The developed countries that produce endless supplies of
consumer products for popular culture have created the
technological capacity both to create large-scale
environmental damage and to control it, but with high cost
and commitment levels
f. Recycling Collection
i. Pick-up and processing: Trash that is collected and sorted in
four principal ways
1. Curbside program
2. Drop-off center
3. Buy-back center
4. Deposit programs
ii. Manufacturing: Waste is manufactured into new products
1. Paper: most types can be recycled
2. Plastic: different types cannot be mixed
3. Glass: can be repeatedly with no loss in quality and
is 100% recyclability
4. Aluminum: the principal source of recycled
aluminum is beverage cans
iii. Four major manufacturing sectors accounted for more than
half of the recycling activity