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Ncn{X¯nsâ ImWm-¸p-d-§Ä

þ kwL-IrXnI-fneq-sS þ

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Malayalam Charithrathinte Kanappurangal

-Sanghakrithikaliloode-

Author

:

:

:

:

:

:

Prof. P. J. Jose.

First Published

March 2009

Cover Design

Aneesh Vijayan, Sign Point

Type Setting

Elegant, Alappuzha.

Printed at

Thoduvelil Offset, Alappuzha

Publishers

Nakshathra Publications Post Box- 89, Alappuzha - 1. Rights Reserved

Price Rs. :

75 /-

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Ncn{X¯nsâ

ImWm-¸p-d-§Ä

þ kwL-IrXnI-fneq-sS þ

s{]m^. ]n.- sP. tPmkv

ImWm-¸p-d-§Ä þ kwL-IrXnI-fneq-sS þ s{]m^. ]n.- sP. tPmkv \£{X ]»n-t¡-j³kv t]mÌv t_mIvkv 89, Be¸pgþ1. - 3

\£{X ]»n-t¡-j³kv t]mÌv t_mIvkv 89, Be¸pgþ1.

- 3 -

P\\w þ 1946 sabv 5. ]nXmhv þ Be-¸pg, Im«qÀ tPm¬Ip«n ]Ån¸- d- ¼-

v, Poh³ cmKv.

³. amXmhvþ sÌÃm½ tPm¬Ip«n,

mwK- w. ]p{X·- mÀ þ

]p¶{] Ac-ÈÀIS- -hn IpSpw_-

PKXv {]im´-

mwKw. `mcy þ s{]m^: Pkn´ tPmkv, AcqÀ If¯-

d IpSpw_-

sadnäv kvtImfÀjn¸- pI- t- fmsS hnZym`- ymkw. sIm¨n³ bqWnt- hg- vknä- nb- n \n¶v assd³ _tbmfPn-bn _ncpZw. 1968  tNÀ¯e, skâv ssa¡nÄkv tImfP- n kpthmfPn A²ym]- I- \- mbn . 2001  {]n³kn¸- -

M.Sc.

embn hnca- n¨- p.

tIcfmbqWnt- hg- vknän AIzm«- n¡v _tbmf- Pn t_mÀUv Hm^v ÌUokv sa¼À, Ieh- qÀ "AÀ¨\ ss^³

BÀ«vkv'Iemk- mwk-

AwKw, sImÃw "s{_bn³kv CâÀ\mjW-

v¡mc- nI kwLwØm]I{]knU-

â,v AÀ¯p¦- Â\{kmWn `qjW kamPwtI{µ`- c- W kanXn

³' sNbÀam³. Úm\]- oTw XIgn inhi- -

 FUyqt¡j-

³ ^ut­j-

¦c- ¸- nÅ t]{S\- mbn "PKXv Poh³ ]pkvXI kwLw' Øm]n¨p.- XqenIm\maw þ tPmkv Im«qÀ.

{]kn²- oI- -cn¨ ]pkvXI- -§Ä :

1.

tKm]pcw ]Wnb- p¶-

h- À

(t\mhÂ)

2. kqtcymZb- hpw Im¯v

(Ihn-XI- Ä)

3.

s]mcpÄ tXSn

 

(Ncn{-Xw)

]nXr_en

(Nc- n{-Xw)

5.

Be¸- pg- ¡-

Y- I-

Ä

(XI- g- n, ]n. F. F. JmZÀ,

 

tPmkv Im«qÀ, cmP¸- ³ X®oÀap-¡w, ]t{¦j-

ykv {km¼n¡-

Â,

sI. sP. kneÌ-

n³, ]n. BÀ. tdmant- bm, D®n tPmk^-

v,

A`b-

³ Ieh- qÀ, km_p Im«qÀ, Pkn´ tPmkv)

6.

\·X- n·- I- f- psS kq£n¸- pI- mÀ (IYI- Ä-þt- Pm-kv Im«- qÀ, Pkn´ tPmkv, PKXv {]im-´v, Poh³cmKv)

7.

Ncn{-XN- a- b- §-

f- psS s]mfnbpw sXfnbpw þ ]´nc- p-Ipew sFXnlyw Hcp ]p\Àhmb- \ þ

- 4 -

\µn

]{X-{]-hÀ¯\ cwKs¯ Xe-sb-Spt¸m, tPmen¯nct¡m H¶pw {]ZÀin-¸n-¡msX Hcp tPyjvT ktlm-Z-

csâ kvt\l-t¯msS, Cu {KÙ-c-N-\-bv¡m-bpÅ Fsâ {ia-§sf ÇmLn-¡p-Ibpw anIhpä Ah-X-c-W-¡p- dn¸psIm­v {KÙ¯n\v Xne-I-¡pdn NmÀ¯p-Ibpw sNbvX {io sI.- Fw. tdmbv kmdn-t\m-SpÅ BZ-chpw IS- ¸mSpw \µn-]qÀÆw tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯s«.

{]tbmP- \{]Z-§f- mb ]pkvXI- -§fpw d^d³kpIfpw \ÂInbpw kwib- -\n-hm-cW- w- \S¯- nbpw Cu {KÙ-

c-N-\b- n kl-I-cn¨ s{]m-^. G.-än. sk³]nÅ, s{]m^. sF. CkvXm¡v, s{]m-^. hnjvWp-cmX- ³ \¼q-Xn-cn, {io

cmP³ Fw. hÀ¤okv, ^m. s\Âk¬ ssX¸-d-¼nÂ, {io sI. ]n. iin-[-c³ \mbÀ, XpS-§n-b-hÀ,

hmbn¨pw Xncp-¯nbpw sUkv¡v tSm¸v {]nân-wKneqsS klm-bn¨ {io s\hn³ CutctÈ-cnÂ, Pb-e£van. BÀ., PohnX-¯n-se-¶-t]me Xs¶ kÀ¤-]-c-amb {]hÀ¯-\-§-fnepw XpWb- mI- p¶ Fsâ kl[- À½nWn s{]m^. Pkn´ tPmkv, cN-\-IÄ¡v D]-I-cn-¡p-sa¶p ImWp¶ ]pkvX-I-§fpw CâÀs\-än \n¶pÅ hnh-c-§fpw tiJ-cn¨p \ÂIp¶ Fsâ ]p{X-·m-cmb PKXv {]im-´v, Poh³ cmKv,

_n. Fkv., _p¡v amÀ¡,v {]`mXv

]»n-t¡-j³kv XpS-§n-b-h-bn-eqsS hnX-cWw km²y-am-¡p-Ibpw sNbvX \£{X ]_vfnt¡-j³kv, hninjy B {]km[- I- t- hZ- nb- psS kmcY- nbpw Be¸- pg ssdtägkv v t^mdw {]knUâ,v kmlnX- ya- n{Xw amknIbpsS ]{Xm[n]À F¶o \neI- f- n tkh\w AÀ¸n¡- pI- bpw sN¿p¶ tUm. sP. sI Fk.v ho«qÀ, FÃm-h-tcm-Sp-apÅ IS-¸mSpw \µnbpw tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶p.

kÀtÆm-]cn {KÙ-¯nsâ {]kn-²o-I-cWw Gsä-Sp-¡p-Ibpw

F³.

BZc- -]qÀÆw,

s{]m^. ]n. sP. tPmkv.

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DÅ-S¡w

1. Ah-Xm-cnI : {io sI. Fw. tdmbv

2. am\hNcn{Xw cq]w sImÅp-¶-sX-§s\

3. ]Xnä- p-¸-¯ne- qsS

4. ]Xn-äp-¸-¯nse ss{IkvXh ]cm-aÀi-§Ä

5. {Zmhn-U-`m-jm-t]m-j-Whpw BZna ss{IkvX-hcpw

6. ]pd-\m-\q-dn-eqsS

7. F³. hn. IrjvW-hm-cyÀ hnhÀ¯\wsNbvX AIwIhn-X-Ifpw sI. F³. Fgp-¯-Ñsâ Ipdp-s´mI hnhÀ¯-\-hpw.

8. kwL-Ir-Xn-I-fn-eqsS k©-cn-¡p-t¼mÄ

9. ]pd-\m-\q-dnse ss{IkvX-h-]-cm-aÀi-§Ä

10. Xncp-¡p-dÄ, ]mbncw

11. A\p-_Ôw

- 6 -

Ah-XmcnI

"A£-c-§f- psS I­p-]n-Sp¯w Úm\w tXSp-¶-h-cpsS a\-Ên adhn krjvSn¡pw, ImcWw AhÀ

CXp-aqew X§-fpsS HmÀ½-iàn {]tbm-P-\-s¸-Sp¯- p-I-bn-söXpXs¶. ]ns¶ AhÀ hnizk- n-¡pI A£c en]n-Isf am{X-am-bn-cn¡pw. AÃmsX FÃmw HmÀ½bn kq£n-¡m³ a\-Êp-h-bv¡p-I-bnÃ.' kl-{km-_vZ- §Ä¡p ap³]v a\p-jyÀ A£cw I­p ]nSn-¨-t¸mÄ hnaÀi-IÀ DbÀ¯nb hmZ-am-bn-cp-¶p CXv. Cu hmZ- K-Xnsb ]n´m§nb hyàn-bm-bn-cp¶p tkm{I-«o-kv. F¶m A£-c-ame I­p-]n-Sn-¨-Xp-sIm­p am{X-amWv H¶pw-Xs¶ Fgp-Xn-h-¨n-«n-Ãm¯ tkm{I-«o-knsâ ZÀi-\-§Ä C¶pw temIw NÀ¨-sN-bvXp-sIm­ncn-¡p-¶- sX-¶-XmWv bmYmÀ°yw.

iXm-_vZ-§Ä¡p tijw PÀ½³Imc-\mb Kp«³_ÀKv A¨Sn I­p-]- n-Sn-¨-t¸mgpw CtX

hnaÀi\apbÀ¶p. ssZhimkv{XPR-\mbncp¶ tPm¬{Xn-tX-en-b¯v F¶ ]ptcm-ln-X³ A¶p ]d-ªXv, a\p-jy\p e`n¨- n-«pÅ hc-Zm-\-amb HmÀ½iàn CtXmsS ZpÀ_-ea- m-Ip-sa¶pw tZhme- -b-§-fn \n¶v {ihn¨v HmÀ½bn kq£n-¨n-cn-¡p¶ alXvhN-\-§-f-{Xbpw a\p-jyÀ hnkva-cn-¡p-sa-¶p-am-Wv. ]s£ Kp«³_ÀKv

BZy-ambn A¨-Sn¨ ss

bnÃ.ss

im-e-I-fn-sebpw Ae-am-c-I-fn Øm\-w ]nSn-¨-Xp-sIm­mWv.

nÄ-

t]mse hmbn-¡-s¸-Sp-Ibpw HmÀ-½n-¡-s¸-Sp-Ibpw sNbvX {KÙw thsd-

n-fns\¡pdn¨v

C{X-tbsd hymJym-\-§fpw ]T-\-§-fp-ap-­m-bXv, AXv ]T-\-apd- n-I-fn-sebpw {KÙ-

Ncn{-X-sa¶- Xv ]g¼- m-«pt- ]mse Xe-ap-d-IÄ ssIamdn ]mSn-tIÄ¡m-\pÅ- -XÃ. Ncn-{X-]-WvUn-X-·mc- psS

]T-\-¯n\pw hni-I-e-\-¯n\pw A]-{K-Y-\-¯n\pw hnt[-b-am-Ip-t- ¼mgmWv Ncn-{X-¯nsâ Bg-§-fn ]pX- ªp-In-S-¡p¶ kXy-¯nsâ ap-¯p-a-Wn-IÄ {]Im-in-X-§-fm-Ip-¶Xv. ]s£ Cu ]T-\-§Ä ]eXpw hyàn- \n-jvTamsW¶XpsIm­,v B hyàn-bpsS CjvSm-\n-jvS-§Äaqew Ncn-{X-¯n\p Nmbvhpw sNcnhpap­m- sb¶p hcpw. ImcWw am\-h-cm-inb- psS {]bmW- s¯ kzmÀ°X- m-ev]-cy§- Ä¡-\p-kr-X-ambn kzm[o-\n¡- m³

Ign-b-W-sa¶ e£y-t¯m-sStbm, Nne A{]nb kXy-§Ä Ccp-«p-sIm­p aqSn-h-bv¡Wsa¶ ZpjvS-em-t¡m- sStbm Bbn-cn¡pw A§-s\-bpÅ A]-{K-Y-\-§Ä \S-¯-s¸-Sp-I.- Imew AXn-s\-sbms¡ AXn-Po-hn-¡p- sa¶v BÀ¡mWv Xd¸n¨p ]-d-bm³ Ign-bpI? Imew A§-s\-bpÅ ]e-Xn-s\bpw AXn-Po-hn-¨n-«nà F¶- XmWv kXyw. ]s£ Imew Ncn-{X-Im-c-·m-cpsS ho£-W-¯n ka-{K-amb amä-§-fp-­m-¡n-bn«p-­v. ]Xn-s\«mw \qäm-­p-hsc Ncn-{X-Im-csâ ho£Ww Hcp `uXnI imkv{X-ÚtâXn\v kam-\amb H¶m-bn-cp¶p. KWnX imkv{XXXz-§Ä¡-\pk- r-X-ambn {]hÀ¯n-¡p¶ Hcp bm{´nI kwhn[- m-\-amWv {]]-©¯n\- pÅsX¶v Ncn- {X-Im-c-·mÀ hniz-kn-¨p. AXp-amdn, Ncn-{X-sa-¶Xv Poh-nX-ssNX\y¯nsâ Bhn-jvIm-c-am-sW¶pw AXp- sIm­pXs¶ AsXmcp PohnX {]{InbbmsW-¶pa- pÅ Nn´mK- Xn Ncn{-X-Im-c·- m-cn hfÀ¶p. a\pjy Nn´- bn \n¶p-d-h-sbS- p¯ A¯-c-w DÄ¡mgvN-I-fmWv ]s¯m³]Xmw \qäm-­n Ncn-{Xs- ¯-¡pd- n-¨pÅ ]pXnb At\z-jW-§Ä¡v Ncn-{X-]-WvUn-X-·msc \nÀ_-Ôn-X-cm-¡n-bXv. AXnsâ ^e-ambn Ncn-{X-]-cn-Wma {]{In- b-bp-ambn _Ô-s¸« F{Xtbm k¦oÀ® {]iv\-§-fmWv ad \o¡n- ]p-d¯p h¶Xv. Ch-bn-te-bvs¡Ãmw

Ncn-{Xs¯ \bn¨ kw`-h-hn-Im-k-§Ä Kuc-h-X-c-amb ]p\Àhn-Nn-´-\-¯n\v hnt[-b-hp-ambn. CXns- âs- bÃmw

^ea- mbn F{Xtbmhn{Kl- §-

Xpd-¡-s¸-«p.

ZoÀLImew imkv{Xm-²ym-]-I\mbn-cp¶ s{]m^kÀ ]n.- sP. tPmkv Xsâ Pohn-X-km-

bmÓamcw`n¡p¶- X- n\p ap³]p-Xs¶ Hcp Ncn-{Xm-t\zjI\mb- n-amd- nb ]WvUnX- \- m-Wv. kw`-h-§sf tImÀ¯n-

W-¡p¶ Hcp N§-e-bmWv Ncn-{X-sa¶ A_²-[mcW am\-hcmin Dt]-£nt¨ aXn-bmIq F¶ ZrVNn´- bn Dd¨p \n¡p¶ hyàn. bpàn-bpsS Dc-I-Ãn Hcn-¡-Ât¸mepw Dc-¨p-t\m-¡n-bn-«n-Ãm¯, Xosc ZpÀ_-e-amb amdme \mcp-IÄsIm­mWv Cu N§e XoÀ¯n-cn¡p¶sX-¶mWv s{]m-^-kÀ tPmkv hniz-kn-

¡p¶- Xv. AXp sIm­pXs¶ GsX-¦n-ep-samcp ikv{X{-InbmkqNn-bpsS IqÀ¯ ap\-sIm­v sI«p]n-Wª- p-

In-S-¡p¶ Cu amdme¨§ebn sXm«m AXmsIbnfIn I®n-IÄ NnX-dp-sa¶v {KÙIÀ¯mhv Nq­n- ¡m-«p-¶p. A§-s\-bpÅ B I®n-IÄ Cf-Ip-t¼mÄ D­m-Ip-¶Xv Hcp Xp¼n-bp-sS Nnd-ISn krjvSn¡p¶ t\À¯ Imäm-sW-¦nepw AXp sImSp¦m-ämbn amdm-\pÅ km²yX BÀ¡p-w \n-cm-I-cn-¡m-\m-hnÃ.

Ä X¨pS- b- v¡s- ¸«- p. F{Xtbm Aaq-ey cl-kyt- K-l-§-fpsS Ihm-S-§Ä aeÀs¡

Ncn{-X-¯nsâ thcpI- Ä tXSn CXnl-

m-k§-

f- n-tebv¡pw a\pjyam\k§-

f- n e_v[-{]X- njvT t\Snb

sF-Xn-ly-§-fn-tebv¡psaÃmw Cd-§n-s¨-ÃpI, kXy-k-Ô-X-bpÅ Ncn-{X-Im-cs\ kw_-Ôn-¨n-S-t¯mfw Hc- Xn-km-l-kn-IXbmsW¶v s{]m-^-kÀ tPmkv \t¶ a\-Ên-em-¡n-bn-«p­v.ImcWw Xe-ap-d-IÄ ssIam-dnb hnizmk kwln-X-I-sf-bmhpw ]e-t¸mgpw AXv De-bv¡pI; Asæn aX-Nn-´-I-sf-bmhpw AXv hn{`-an-¸n-

¡p-I 1 .

- 7 -

\ZoXS-§-fmWv ]pcmX\ kwkv¡m-c§fpsS DÛh Øm\-§-sf-¶Xv \ntj-[n-¡m-\m-hm¯ Ncn{X bmYmÀ°y-am-Wv. knÔp KwKm \Zn-Ifpw sXwkv \Znbpw bq{^-«okv ssS{Knkv \Zn-Ifpw ss\ \Znbpw NmMvPnbmMv \Zn-bpw Um\yq_psaÃmw ]cn-t]m-jn-¸n-s¨-Sp¯ \mK-cn-IX-bpsS Ncn-{X-amWv temIw ]n¶n-«n- «p-ÅXv. ]s£ {]IrXnbpsS hnIrXnIÄ aqe-ap-­mb {]f-b-§Ä B \mK-cn-I-X-bpsS k´-Xn-Isf ae-bn-Sp- ¡-pI-fn-te-bv¡mWv ]n¶oSv ]em-b\w sN¿n-¨Xv. AXv kwkv¡m-c-§-fpsS ]cn-Wm-a-{]-{InbIsf-¡- p-dn-¨pÅ Ncn-{X-Im-c-·m-cpsS ]T\w Zpjv¡-c-am-¡n-XoÀ¯p F¶p-Å-XmWv Hcp bmYmÀ°yw.

À tPmkv

\nÀÆl-- n-¡p-¶Xv. aeb- mf- s- a¶-

bm{X. {InkvXp-hn\p tijw H¶p apXÂ A©p-h-sc-bpÅ \qäm-­p-I-fnse kwL-Im-e¯v tIcfw hnkvXr-

X-am-bn-cp¶ Xang- I-¯nsâ `mK-am-bnc- p-¶p.AXn-\pt- ijw \qäm­- p-IÄ sIm­mWv BZnaebmfwXs¶ cq]w

Ncn-{X-]T- -\¯-

nsâ Imcy¯-

n Gsd {ia-Ic- -amb ZuXy-amWv Cu {KÙ-¯n-eqsS s{]m-^k-

«- ¯-

nt- e¡-

mWv At±l-

Xv tIhew {]mNo\ Xangv am{X-am-bnc- p¶ ImeL-

-¯nsâ

·- m-cpsS `cWIme¯mhWw

B cq] amä-¯nsâ XpS¡w. AXp-sIm­pXs¶ {InkvXp hÀj-¯nsâ Bcw-`w-ap-X-epÅ tIcf Ncn-{X-s¯-¡p-dn-¨pÅ ]T\w F{X-t¯mfw {]bm-k-I-c-amhpw F¶v Duln¡m-hp-¶-tX-bp-Åp. AXn\v {]mNo\ Xangv `mjsb am{X-aà ]lvehn , ]men XpS-§nb `mjIfn-epÅ ]pcm-X\ enJn-X-§-sfbpw B{i-bn-t¡-­n-bn-cn-¡p-¶p. Ncn-{X-

¯nsâ CcpÄ \nd-ª-]m-X-bn kXym-t\z-j-W-¯n-\n-d-§-p¶ kmaq-lnI {]Xn-_-²-X-bpÅ Hcp Ncn-{X-t{]- an-¡p-am{Xw Gsä-Sp-¡m-hp¶ ZuXyw. Cu -Zu-Xy-\nÀÆ-l-W-¯n s{]m-^-kÀ tPmkns\ lrZbw Xpd¶v

A`n-\-µn¡- m³ Cu {KÙ-¯ne- qsS IS¶- p-t]m-Ip¶, Ncn-{Xs¯ kvt\ln-¡pI- bpw hne-a-Xn¡- p-Ibpw sN¿p¶

GsXmcp hyànbpw -\nÀ_-Ôn-X-\m-hp-I-bmWv.

sImÅp¶X- v. Hcp]s£ c­c iXm_-

vZt- ¯mfw \o­p\- n¶ c­mw tNccmPm¡-

sIm¨n³ þ 20, 29 þ 10 þ 2008.

sI.- Fw. tdmbv.

1. {KÙ-IÀ¯m-hnsâ Ncn-{X-N-a-b-§-fpsS s]mfnbpw sXfnbpw þ ]´n-cp-Ipew sFXnlyw Hcp ]p\Àhm-b\ þF¶ IrXn-sb-bmWv Ah-Xm-cn-Im-Im-c³ ChnsS kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶-Xv.

- 8 -

am\hNcn{Xw cq]w sImÅp¶-sX-§s\

bpànbpw hniz-mkhpw

temIw Ime-¯ne- qsS k©-cn-¡pt- ¼mÄ hogp¶ ASb- m-f§- -fmWv Ncn-{X-ambn k©-bn-¡-s¸-Sp-¶Xv. Ime-¯neqsS Hgp-Ip¶ kw`h-§-fpsS XpSÀNn{X-am-W-sX¶p ]dbmw. kw`-h-§-fm-Ip¶ I®n-IÄ LSn- ¸n¨v \o­p-t]m-Ip¶ N§-e-bmWv Ncn-{X-sa¶p [cn-¨mÂ, sXän. Hmtcm I®n-bn \n¶pw Øe-Im-e-§-fn- eqsS hnhn[ Zni-I-fn-tebv¡p \ofp¶ At\Iw N§-e-I-fp-­v. Npcp¡n¸dªm Øe-Im-e-§Ä \ndsb kw`-h-§ÄsImcp¯ he-¡-®n-IÄ sI«p-]n-W-ªp-In-S-¡p-¶p. Hcp I®n-bn sXm«m sam-¯-an-fIpw. Hcp Xp¼n-bpsS NndISn sImSp¦m-ämbn amdp-¶Xv Ncn-{Xm-t\z-j-Is\ kw_-Ôn-¨n-S-t¯mfw ]qÀ®ambpw t_m²y-s¸Spw. Hcp kw`-h-¯nsâ Imcy-Im-c-W§Ä At\z-jn-¨n-d-§p¶ Ncn-{X-Im-c\v temI-N-cn-{X-am-Ip¶ sImSp¦m-änsâ Cc-¼¯- n \n¶v Ah-\-t\z-jn¡- p¶ "Xp¼n-bpsS NndI- Sn i_vZw' thÀXn-cn-s¨-Sp-¡m³ GIm- {K-amb X]-Ên s\Sp-\mÄ apgp-tI-­n-hcpw.

{]mNo\ Ncn{Xw tXSn ]pcm-tW-Xn-lm-k-§-fn-tebv¡pw sFXnly-§-fn-tebv¡pw inemþXm{a enJn-X- §-fn-tebv¡pw ]qÀÆm-h-inj- vS§- -fn-tebv¡pw kmln-XyIrXnI-fnt- ebv¡pw Iemc- q-]-§-fn-te-bv¡p-saÃmw Cd- §n-s¨-Ãp¶ At\z-j-I³ Pm{K-X-tbmsS Ncn-{Xmw-i-§sf hnth-Nn-¨-dn-bWw. AhnsS kw`-h-§-fpsS kz`m- hhpw kw`-h-§Ä \S¶ Imehpw Øe-hp-saÃmw `mh-\-bpsS AÛp-X-tem-I-§-fp-ambn CS-I-eÀ¶v IqSn- ¡p-gªv InS-¡p-I-bm-Wv. Gsd {ia-I-c-amWv ChnsS Ncn-{XIm-csâ ZuXyw. am{X-hp-aÃ, Cu ZuXy \nÀÆ-l- W-¯nÂ, ZoÀLI- me- -wsIm­v Znhy-§f- mb hnizm-k§- f- mbn P\-lrZb§- f- n {]XnjvT t\Sn-¡g- nª ]eXpw tNmZywsN¿-s¸-Sp-¶-Xnsâ `hn-jy-¯p-IsftbmÀ¯pÅ `oXnbpw Ncn-{X-Im-cs\ [À½ k¦-S¯n-em¡pw. Cu {]Xnk- -Ôn-Is- fs- bÃmw AXn-Po-hn-¡p¶- -h-\mWv bYmÀ° Ncn-{XI- mc- ³. AsÃ-¦n Ime-¯ns- \m¯p]m- Sp¶ Hcp BØm-\-Km-b-Isâ Øm\ta Ah-\Àln-¡p-¶p-Åp.

e£y-{]m-]vXn¡- p-th­n a\pj- y³X\- n-sbbpw Iq«pt- NÀ¶pw \S¯- p¶ bm{XI- f- psS hnh-c-W-§-fmWv

Ncn{Xw. im´n tXSn-bpÅ bm{Xbpw Aim-´n-bn-te-bv¡pÅ bm{Xbpw Ncn-{X-¯n ImWmw. c­p-k-©mc ]Y-§fpw bm{X-Xp-S-cp-t´mdpw \o­p-\o­p t]mIp-¶-h-bmWv. Cu hgn-IÄ Fhn-sSsb¦nepw Ah-km-\n-

¡p-¶ps- ­¦- nÂ, H¶p-In "kzÀ¤' ¯n Asæ- n "\cI'¯nemsW¯n-t¨c- pI. c­pw \nXy-am-Wv. ]ns¶

bm{X-bnÃ; Ncn-{XhpanÃ. At¸mÄ "Ncn{Xw' Hcp "j«n Ifn't]mse-bm-Wv. kzÀ¤-¯n\pw \c-I-¯n-\p-an-S-bn-

epÅ "hnf-bm-SÂ'. kpØn-ca- mb cmjv{Sk- wh- n[- m\w, Iem]- -cl- nX- a- mb kmaql- ym-hØ, ]cm{-ib- a- nÃ- m¯ k¼ZvhyhØ F¶n-§s\ im´-amb Pohn-X-¯n-\pÅ `uXnIm-hew_§Ä¡v iàn-£bw kw`-hn-¡p-t¼mÄ BIp-e- amIp¶ a\p-jy-a-\Êv bpàn-bn \n¶p ]n³h-enªv AXn-`u-XnI Xe-§-fn-epÅ hnizm-k-§-fpsS Zni-bn- tebv¡v {]bmWw XpS-§p-¶p. aX-§Ä Øm]n-X-am-Ip-¶Xpw C¡m-e-¯m-Wv. sle-\n¡v ({Ko¡v) bpàn- t_m-[-¯n \n¶v AXn`uXnI hnizm-k-§f- p-ambn kcX- pj- v{S-aX- hpw blqZ- a- -X¯nsâ \hoI- c- -Whpw \thm- °m-\-hp-amb {InkvXp-a-Xhpw CÉmw-a-X-hp-saÃmw P·-wsImÅp¶Xv C¯cw Aim-´-amb Ime-k-ÔnI- - fne- m-Wv. BZna sskÔ-h-tem-I-¯nsâ, Imew-I-s­-Sp-¯p-sImt­bn-cn-¡p¶, cmjv{S-\n-cm-I-c-W-t¯m-f-sa- ¯nb sskzcy-I-me-hm-ks¯ aXm-XoX ZmÀi-\n-IXsb \ncm-ew-_-am-¡p¶ Bcy-k-¶n-th-i¯nsâ Aim- ´n-bn ]nd-hn-sIm­h-bmWv sshZn-I-a-Xhpw _p²-þ-ssP\ ZÀi-\-§fpw. ]n¡me Imep-jy-§-fp-sSbpw Iem-]-§-fp-sSbpw \Sp-hnÂ, cmPm-¦-W-§-fn am{Xw km²y-am-Ip-am-bn-cp¶, hne-Iq-Snb tam£-Zm-b-I-amÀ¤- §-fmb bmKtlmamZn-I-fpsS Øm\¯v, ]mh-s¸« {ZmhnU Ihn-I-fpsS `à-KoX§fpsS ]n³_-e-¯n DbnÀsIm­ sslµ-h-a-Xhpw bpàn-þhn-izmk Zzµz-§-fpsS AXn-Po-h-\-t]m-cm-«-¯n Aim-´-amb ]cn-

tXm-h-ØI- Ä hnizm-k¯- n-\p-ta XoÀ¸p-I-ev]n-¡p-¶-Xnsâ \nZÀi\-am-Wv. Hcph- n-[-¯n ]d-ªm Øe-

Im-e-§Ä¡-\p-tbm-Py-am-bh sXc-sªSp¡s¸-Sp-sa¶ UmÀhnsâ kn²m-´-¯n\v asämcp sXfn-hp-IqSn. hyXnbm\-§fpw AXn-Po-h-\-¯n-\pÅ t]mcm-«-§fpw (Variations and Struggle for existence) XpSÀ¶p- sImt­bn-cn-¡pw. Cu t]mcp-I-fp-sSbpw Ah-bv¡p-Imc- -W-§-fmb hyXn-bm-\-§-fp-sSbpw Nn{X-§-fmWv Ncn-

{X-ambn Bte-J\w sN¿-s¸-Sp-I. bpànbpw hnizm-khpw Ncn-{X-K-Xnsb \nb-{´n-¡p¶ \nÀ®m-bI LS-I-§-fm-Wv. im´-am-b-Imew bpàn¡v Du-¶Â \ÂIp¶p. XXzi- m-kv{X-§fpw Ah-bn-e-[n-jvTn-X-amb `c-W-Iq-S§- fpw kmaq-ly-{Ia-§fpw P·w-sImÅp¶-Xn-¡m-e-¯m-Wv. [mcWIfpsS, Adn-hnsâ ]cn-Wm-a-a-\p-k-cn¨v bpànbpw hnizm-khpw amä- §Ä¡p hnt[-ba- mW- v. bpànb- psS temIw Xmc-Xt- ay\ thK-¯n amdn-s¡m­ncn-¡p-t¼mÄ hnizmk¯- nsâ temIw kmh-[m-\ta amdq. Imem-Im-e-§-fn cq]w {]m]n-¡p¶ bpàn-bpsS temIw hnizm-k-§-fn Dd-¸n¨p \nÀ¯m-\mWv A[o-iXzw e`n¡p¶hÀ {ian-¡p-¶-Xv. N{I-hÀ¯n ssZh-¯nsâ {]Xn-]p-cp-j-\m-bn-am-dpI, amÀ¸m-¸m-sb-

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t¸m-epÅ ]ptcm-ln-X-t{i-jvT-cn \n¶pw IncoSw kzoI-cn-¡pI, cmjv{S-¯n\v HutZymKnI aX-ap-­m-¡pI, cmPmhv Ipe-ssZ-h-§Ä¡mbn tZhm-e-b-§Ä \nÀ½n-¡pI, ssZh-¯n\v cmPy-wk-aÀ¸n¨n«v ]I-c-¡m-c-\mbn `cn-¡pI Ch-sbÃmw CXn\pZml-c-W-§-fm-Wv. sFXnly-§fpw an¯p-I-fp-sams¡ P·w sImÅp¶Xv Cu {]{Inb-bpsS `mK-am-bm-Wv. bh\ Nn´ (Hellenic - Gnostic thought) bpàn-bn-e-[n-jvTn-X-am-bXpw tdma³Nn´, hnizm-k-§-fn hne-bw-sIm­Xp-am-bn-cp-¶p. bh\ZÀi\w ]pcm-X\ CuPn]vjy³ XXz-hn-Nm-c-§-fn \n¶pw ISw-sIm­v hnI-kn-¸n-¨-Xm-sW¶v ]n¡me Ad-_n-]-WvUnX-·mÀ Ah-Im-i-s¸-Sp-¶p-s­-¦nepw Ct¸mÄ ad-\o-§n-h- cp¶ {]mNo\- sskÔht- emI- ¯- ns- âbpw Z£nt- W´- y³ {ZmhnU ZÀi\- §- f- p-sSbpw sImSp¡-hm-§-epI- fneq- sS tamSn-]n-Sn-¸n-s¨-Sp-¯-Xm-sW-¶p-thWw Icp-Xm³.

hn[nbpw Ncn-{Xhpw

bpàn-bp-sSbpw hniz-mk-§-fp-sSbpw CS-s]-S-ep-IÄsIm­v \nÀ½n-¡-s¸-Sp¶ AXnÀh-c-¼p-I-fmÂ

am{X-amWv Ncn-{X-¯nsâ ]pd-§Ä thÀXn-cn-¡-s¸-«n-cn-¡p-¶-sX-¶-[m-cW icn-bÃ. C{µn-b§fpsS am-{X-aÃ,

a\-\-tij- n-bpsS {Kmly-Xe-¯n\- p- a¸pdw \n¶p-sIm­v a\pjyhn[nsb \nÀ®m-b-I-ambn kzm[o-\n-¡p¶ {]Xn- `m-k-§-sf-¡p-dn-¨pÅ At\z-j-W-¯n bpàn-sbt¶m hnizm-k-sat¶m DÅ hnNm-c-W-t]mepw \ncÀ°-I- am-Wv.

]pcm-tW-Xn-lm-k-§-fn a\p-jy-cpsS kt´mj k´m-]-§-fn-tebv¡v Cd-§n-h¶v `uXnIm-Xo-X-i- àn-IÄ hn[n \nÀ®-bn-¡p¶ kµÀ`-§Ä [mcm-f-ap­v. temI-¯nse Gä-hpw-]p-cm-X-\hpw al-¯p-am-bn- cp¶ sskÔ-h-kw-kv¡mcw XIÀ¡m³ A[n-\n-th-i-I-cmb Bcy-·-mcpsS IpXncIÄ¡pw Ccp-¼m-bp-[- §Ä¡pw iàn-t]m-cm-sX-h-cp-sa-¶-Xn-\m knÔp\Zn-bpsS Ccp-I-c-I-sfbpw hngp-§p¶ Hcp shÅ- s¸m¡ambv ap³Iq-«n-¯s¶ ( _n.-kn. 1900þ ) {]]©w CS-s]«v sskÔ-h-]p-c-§-fn \miw hnX-bv¡p-¶- XvIm-Wmw. ]g-b-\n-b-a-¯n blq-Z-P-\-t¯m-sSm¸w k©-cn-¡p¶ btlmhm AP-¿-cmb i{Xp¡- -fpsS ]S-I- pSo-c-§-fn alm-am-cn-I-fmbv B{I-an-¨p-I-S¶p-sN-Ãp-¶p. hm«Àeq bp²-¡-f-¯n-tebv¡v amÀ¨sN-bvXn-cp¶ PÀ½³ ]«m-f-¡m-cpsS ap¶n Fhn-sS-\n-t¶m {]Xy-£-s¸« Hcp CS-b-_m-e³ h\-KÀ`-§-fn ad-ªp-In-S- ¡p¶ NXp-¸p-\n-e-§Ä Hgn-hm-¡n-s¡m­v "AXn-se-A-Ã, CXnse' F¶v hgn-Im-«n-s¡mSp¯Xv "]mh-§Ä' F¶ hnJy-mXt\mhen hnh-cn-¨p-sIm­v hnIvSÀlyqtKm ]dbp¶p, "B CS-b-s¨¡³ Ncn-{X-K-Xn-sb-¯- s¶-bmWv Xncn-¨p-hn-«Xv'. hm«Àeq-hn hnP-b-t¯m-S-Sp-¯p-sIm­ncp¶ {^©p-tk-\-bpsS t\sc, FÃm-w ap³Iq«n ImWp¶ s\t¸m-fn-b-s\-t]mepw AÛp-X-s¸Sp¯ns¡m­v A{]-Xo-£n-X-amb `mK-¯p-IqsS, Icp- Xn-bnc- p-¶-Xnepw t\cs¯ PÀ½³ ]«mfw Cc¨- p-I-b-dnb- -XmWv s\t¸m-fnb- sâ ]cm-P-b-¯n\- p-Im-cWw. s\t¸m- fn-b³ hnP-bn-¨n-cp-s¶-¦n temI-N-cn-{X-wXs¶ asäm¶mIp-am-bn-cp¶p. Hcp-tIm-Sn-tbm-fw-t]À bp²-ap-J-§-fnepw 77 e£-t¯m-fw-t]À XS-h-d-I-fnepw sImÃs¸Sp-Ibpw c­ptImSn ]¯p-e-£-¯n-e-[n-Iw-t]À AwK-`-wK¯n\ncbmIp-Ibpw sNbvX H¶mw-tem-I-a-lm-bp-²-¯n\v, s]mSp¶-s\b- pÅ XpS-¡wI- p-dn¨Xv 1914 Pq¬amk-¯- nse Hcp-I-dp¯- Z- n-\¯- n Hmkv{Snb- mb- nse BÀ¨vUyq¡v {^m³knkv s^ÀUn-\mân\- p-t\s- c, \ne-sXä- nb GtXm-\na- n-j-¯n Hcp-skÀ_nb- ³ tZiob- h- m-Zn (Kmhvdntem {]n³kn-]v)bpsS tXm¡n \n¶v ]mª shSnb- p-­bm-sW¶- dnbpt¼mÄ, Ncn{Xw ]et- ¸mgpw \½psS ssI¸n- Sn-bn F{X-I-cp-X-tem-sS-bn-cp-¶mepw hgp-Xn-t¸m-Ip-¶Xv ImWmw. AWn-b-d-bn bp²w Hgn-hm-¡m-\pÅ Xo- {h-{ia- -§Ä \S-¶ps- Im­ncn-¡p¶- -Xn-\n-S-bn-emWv AXp kw`-hn-¡p¶- -Xv. a\p-jy-cpsS ap³I-cp-X-ep-Isf XIn- Sw-adn-¡p¶ BIkvan-IXIfpw Ncn-{X-K-Xnsb \nÀ®-bn-¡- p-¶-Xn kmc-amb ]¦p-h-ln-¡p-¶p-s­¶v Npcp-

¡w. {]]-©-¯nse FÃm {]hÀ¯-\-§Ä¡pw Hcp Xmf-{Iaw (Rhythm) D­v. Xmf-¯nsâ BhÀ¯-\- amWv N{Iw (Cycle). {Kl-§-fpsS \nb-X-amb {`a-W-kz-`mhw Cu Xm-f-{I-a-¯nsâ {]I-S-amb DZm-l-c-W-am- Wv. \½psS ssPh[À½§- Ä t]mepw Zn\X- m-f-hp-ambn _Ô-s¸-«-Xm-W-tÃm. bps\kvt¡mbpsS (UNESCO) UbdIvSÀP\-d-em-bn-cp¶ Pqen-b³ lIvkven 1300 þ Â]cw N{I-§-sf-¡p-dn¨v ]T\w \S-¯n-bn-«p-­v. Imem- hØ, sXmgnÂ, ImÀjnI þ hymh-km-bnI D¸m-Z\w, hne-\n-e-hmcw, bp²w, aX-\-ho-I-cWw XpS-§n-b-h- bpsS-sbÃmw Ah-Øm-t`-Z-§Ä¡v Hcp Nm{InI Xmfap-s­¶v At±lw Is­-¯n. kq-cy-\n Nne-s]m«pIÄ AYhm If-¦-§Ä (Sun Spots) {]Xy-£-s¸-Sp-¶Xv ]pcm-X\ Ime-¯p-

Xs¶ {i²n-¡-s¸«- n-cp¶- p. Acn-tÌm-«ne- nsâ injy\mb Xntbm{-^mÌkv kqcyIf¦- §- -sf¡- p-dn¨v hnhc- n-¡p-

¶p­v.

kqcysâ {Iam-Xo-X-amb Pze\w Zp:iIp-\-ambn kwL-Ime Ihn-I-fpsS IrXnIfnepw kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶p-­v. kqcy-\nse ¹mkvamkap{Z¯nep-­m-Ip¶ then-tb-ä-§Ä kqcy-Pz-e\w hÀ²n-¸n-¡p-¶-XmWv kqcyIf-¦- §Ä¡p Imc-Ww. kznävkÀeânse dptUmÄ^v hqÄ^v (Rudolf Wolf), Cw¥­nse BÀ.-kn. Imcn-MvS¬ (R.C. Carrington) F¶n-hÀ \S-¯nb ]T-\-§Ä kqcy-I-f-¦-§Ä {]Xy-£-s¸Sp-¶-Xn\v Hcp Nm{In-I-kz-`m-h-

_n.-kn. H¶mw \qäm-­nse ssN\okv enJn-X-§-fnepw kqcyIf¦§sf¡pdn¨v ]cm-aÀin-¡p-¶p-­v.

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ap-s­¶v Is­¯n. If-¦-§Ä I­p-Xp-S-§p-¶-Xp-ap-X 11 .1 hÀjw sIm­v Ah-bpsS F®w Gähpw A[n-Iw-s]-cp-Ip-¶p. ASp-¯ 11 .1 hÀjw-sIm­v If-¦-§Ä {ItaW Ipdªp Ipdªv Xosc-bn-Ãm-Xm-Ip-¶p. AXm-bXv 22.2 hÀj-an-S-hn-«m-Wv Gähpw IqSp-X kqcy-I-f¦§Ä {]Xy-£-s¸-Sp-¶-Xv. 15 hymg-h-«-¡me ssZÀLy¯n (180- hÀjw) BhÀ¯n-¡-s¸-Sp¶ kqcy-I-f-¦-§-fpsS {Iam-XoX hÀ[-\-bpsS Hcp N{Ihpw imkv{Xtem-I-¯nsâ {i²-bnÂs]«n-«p-­v. "loentbm _tbm-f-Pn-bpsS ]nXmhv' F¶-dn-b-s¸-Sp¶ s{]m^. Ae-IvkmW- vUÀ entbm \ntUm-hn¨v NnjhvkvIn (1897þ1964) kqcy If-¦-§-fpsS Nm{InI kz`m-hs¯ ASn-Øm-\-am¡n, 2400 hÀj-¡m-es¯ a\pjy Ncn-{X-s¯-¡p-dn¨v ka-{K-am-sbmcp ]T-\-w\-S¯n. Iem]w, bp²w, hn¹-hw XpS-§nb P\-Io-b-ap-t¶- ä-§-sfÃmw Cu N{I-hpambn _Ô-s¸-«n-cn-¡p-¶p-sh¶v At±lw Is­-¯n. kqcyIf¦§Ä Xosc Ipd-hm- Ip¶ Ime¯v P\-§Ä kwL-Sn¨p {]hÀ¯n-¡p-¶-Xn hnap-Jcpw kmaqly cmjv{Sob {]i-v\-§-fn A{i- ²-cp-am-bn-cn-¡pw. Cu Ime-L«w s]mXpsh im´-am-W-v. ASp¯ L«-¯n ]pXnb Bib§fpw ]pXnb t\Xm-¡fpw P·w sImÅp¶p. hnhn[ Iq«pI- fpw ]c-kv]cw FXnÀ¡p¶ tNcn-Ifpw cq]s- a-Sp-¡p-¶p. aq¶mw L«-¯n kap-Zm-bw, cmjv{Sw XpS-§nb kz´w tNcn-I-fpsS t]cn {`m´-amb Hcp-Xcw Bth-i-¯n-\-Sn-s¸- Sp-Ibpw Iem]w, hn¹-hw, bp²w XpS-§n-bh s]m«n¸p-d-s¸-Sp-Ibpw sN¿p-¶p. kqcyIf-¦-§Ä Ipd-ªp-h- cp¶ \memw L«-t¯msS {ItaW Bthiw sI«S- §n kqcyN{I¯- nsâ Bcw`Imes¯ Ah-Ø-bnt- ebv¡v aS§nt¸m-Ip-¶p. aq¶mw L«-¯nsâ a²y`mK-¯mWv Gähpw IqSp-X kqcyIf-¦-§Ä Zriyam-Ip-¶-Xv. {]]© hn[n-bpsS ASn-a-I-fmbn Ign-bp-¶-h-cmWv a\p-jy-sc¶ [mcW \ap-s¡m«pw kln¡m-\-mhp- ¶-XÃ. ]s£, cmP-hw-i-§-fps- Sbpw aäp IpSpw_- §- -fps- Sb- p-sams¡ Xe-apd- I- Ä ]cnt- im-[n¨- m hwi-§Ä¡v t\«-§fpw {]ik- vXnbpw D­m-¡p-¶Xpw Ipe-\miw hsc- hc- p¯- p-¶-Xp-amb Xe-apd- -I-fpsS BhÀ¯\- -¯n\v GtXm Hcp Nm{InI kz`m-h-ap-s­¶v AÛp-X-t¯msS \ap-¡w-Ko-I-cn-t¡­n hcpw.

Ncn-{Xm-cw`w

tlmtam-km-¸n-b³kv F¶ B[p-\nI \c-hwiw P·w sIm­ BZy-\m-fp-I-fnÂXs¶ Hcp-Iq- «À tZi-a-²y-¡-S-emb Imkv]n-b³ IS-ensâ Xoc-t¯bv¡v IpSn-tbdn. "Adn-bm\m' F¶mWv Ch-cpsS A[n- hm-k-`qan Adn-b-s¸-«Xv. Adn-bm-\m-¡m-cmWv "Bcy-·mÀ' BbXv. "Adn-bm\m' F¶ ]Z-¯nsâ cq]-t`-Z-amWv "Cdm³'. C´y³ alm-k-ap-{Z-¯n-\p-Np-äp-ambn ØnXn-sN-¿p¶ cmPy-§-fpsS Xoc-§-fn IpSn-tb-dn-b-hÀ¡v kap{Z k©m-c-¯n-eqsS ]c-kv]cw D­m-bn-cp¶ k¼À¡w tZia²y¡-S-emb Imkv]n-b³I-S-ensâ Xoc-`q- an-bn HXp-§n-\n-¶nc- p¶ Bcy·- mÀ¡nÃ- m-bnc- p¶p. kap-{ZX- o-c-§-fmb Xpd-hn-S-§-fn A[n-hmk- a- p-d-¸n¨- h- - cmWv "Xpdh- n-SÀ' AYhm "{Zmhn-UÀ'. XpdhnS§Ä ]pdw \mSp-I-fnÂ\n-¶p-apÅ IpSn-tb-ä-§Ä¡pw hÀ¤- k¦-e-\-§Ä¡pw \nc-´cw hnt[-b-am-bn-cp-¶p. Xpd-hn-S-sc-t¸mse hÀ¤ k¦-e-\-¯n\v CS-h-cmsX, kz´w "hwi-ip²n' Im¯p kq£n-¡p-¶-Xn Bcy-·mÀ Duäw sIm­ncp-¶p. Xpd-hn-SÀ kap{Z k©m-c-¯n-eq-sS- bpÅ ]c-kv]c _Ô-¯n\v Du¶Â \ÂIns- ¡m­v Hmtcm cmPys- ¯bpw h\I- mÀjnI hn`-h§- fpw {]IrXnZ- ¯-amb cXv\-§Ä, ap¯p-IÄ XpS-§n-b-hbpw IcIui-e-h-kvXp-¡fpw ]c-kv]cw ssIam-dp¶ hmWnPy¯neqsS k¼¯pw kwkv¡mc- hpw BÀÖn¨psIm­ncn-¡pt- ¼mÄ, Bcy-·mÀ Ica- mÀ¤a- pÅ k©m- c-¯n\v Du-¶Â \ÂIn, IpXn-c-Ifpw sa¨-s¸« Bbp-[-§fpw kzmb-¯-am¡n, {Zmhn-U-cpsS k¼-¶-`q-an-IÄ Iog-S-¡p-hm-\pÅ X¿msdSp-¸n-em-bn-cp-¶p. CXn-e-hÀ hnP-bn-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp. Iog-S-¡-s¸-Sp¶ \mSp-Isf Bcym-hÀ¯-sa-¶-t]-cn HXp¡n \nÀ¯n ]pdw temI-hp-am-bpÅ k¼À¡w XS-bp¶ kzX-kn²amb k¦pNnXXzw AhÀ FÃm-bn-S¯pw BhÀ¯n-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp. IS IS-¶m PmXn-{`-jvSm-Ip¶ \nb-a- sams¡ Cu Bcy k¦p-NnX at\m-`m-h-¯nsâ k´-Xn-I-fm-Wv. F¶m Imew sN¶-t¸mÄ ]te-S-§-fn- embn Bcy-·mÀXs¶ hnhn[ P\-]-Z-§-fmbn XoÀ¶-Xn-\m Ch-cpsS Xs¶ ]p¯³ IpSn-tb-ä-§fpw t]mcm- «-§fpw \nan¯w BcymhÀ¯-§-sfÃmw kwLÀj `qan-I-fm-bn-XoÀ¶p. BZn{Zmhn-U-cpsS im´n-Xo-c-§- sfÃmw AhÀ¡-\y-am-Ip-Ibpw Bcy-·m-cpsS taÂt¡m-bva-bn HXp-§n-¡qSn \-jvSkzXzcmbn-- Xocp-Ibpw sNbvXp. kap-{Z-Xo-c-§-fn \n¶pw, \Zn-I-fpsS ]X\ `mK-§-tfm-Sp-tNÀ¶ XS-§-fn \n¶pw IqSp-X DÄ{]- tZ-i-§-fn-tebv¡v a\p-jyÀ Ib-dn-¸mÀ¡m-\pÅ Imc-W-§-fn apJyw shÅ-s¸m¡§fpw IS-em-{I-a-W- §fpamWv.tIc-f-¯nse ae-{¼tZi§-fn \n¶pw 5000 hÀj-t¯mfw ]g-¡-apÅ a\p-jy-m[n-hm-k-¯nsâ Ah-in-jvS-§Ä Is­Sp¡-s¸-«n-«p­v. Ah ]n¡me A[n-hmk tI{µ-§-fpsS Ah-in-jvS-§-fm-Wv. C¡m- e-t¯-¡mÄ ]e-k-l-{km-_vZ-§Ä¡v ap³t] kap-{Z-Xo-c-§-fnepw Xoc-t¯mSp tNÀ¶ \Zo-X-S-§-fnepw Ch- cpsS ]qÀÆnIÀ hmk-ap-d-¸n-¨n-cp-¶p. Cu Xoc{]-tZ-i-§-fn \n¶v {]mNo\ a\p-jy-hm-k-¯nsâ Ah-in- jvS§Ä I­p-In-«m-¯Xn\p ImcWw Ah {]f-b-Im-e¯v IS-]p-gIn IS-ensâ Bg-§-fn-tebv¡v hoWp-t]m- b-Xp-sIm­mWv.

\c-hwi- ¯- nsâ BZy {]`mXw hnSÀ¶Xv aea- S- ¡- p-If- nse \n_nU- h- \- §- -fn BsW-¶-[mc- W sXäm-

Wv. \c-]qÀÆnI-cpsS Xmh-f-am-bn-cp¶p ImSv. Im«nse s]cp-a-c-§-fn \n¶v ]pÃp-Ifpw Ipän-s¨SnIfpw hf-

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cp¶ ka-X-e-§-fn-tebv¡nd§n h¶-t¸m-gm-WhÀ a\p-jy-cm-bXv. ]n¶o-S-hÀ ImSp-I-fn-te-bv¡-v Ib-dp-¶Xv

ImbvI\- n-IÄ tXSm\pw arK§sf th«-bm-Sm\- p-am-Wv. A¶-¶s¯ PohnXw Pohn¨p XoÀ¡m³ th­n-am{Xw

apgp-h³ ka-bhpw A[z-m\nt¡­nbn-cp-¶ -Ah-ØbnÂ\n¶v arK-§sf CW-¡n-h-fÀ¯m\pw IrjnsN-

¿m\pw ]Tn-¨-t¸mÄ s]mSp¶s\ amäw h¶p. Pem-i-b-§-fpsS Xoc-§-fn Ønc-hmkw XpS-§n. hwi-§fpw

tZi§- fpw cq]-sa-Sp-¯p. sa¨s- ¸« {]tZ-i§-

D]-I-c-W-§fpw Bbp-[-§fpw Ie-Ifpw `mj-Ifpw hnizmk-§fpw BNm-c-§-fp-saÃmw ]nd-hn-sb-Sp-¯p. BZn-Im-e¯v hf-sc-]-Xnsb am{Xw Nen-¨n-cp¶ Ncn-{X-¯nsâ cY-N-{I-§Ä P\-]-Z-§-tfm-sSm¸w hgn-]n- cn-bp¶ ]Y-§-fn-eqsS AXn-thKw Dcp-­p-Xp-S§n.

Ä tXSn-bpÅ bm{X-Ifpw t]mcm«- -§-fp-amc- w`- n¨p. ]pXnb ]pXnb

Ncn-{X-c-N\

A¶p-hsc Is­-¯nb Ncn-{Xm-h-in-jvS-§sf Bkv]-Z-am-¡n-bmWv Htcm-Im-e¯pw Ncn{Xw cNn-¡- s¸Sp-¶Xv. cN-\-bpsS Ime¯v \ne-\n¡p¶ P\-k-aqlw F§-s\-sbms¡bmWv B AhØbnse-¯n- t¨À¶sX¶ At\z-j-W-amWv Ncn-{X-Im-csâ hnjbw. CXn-\mbn ]pcm-X\ enJn-X-§Ä, sFXnly§Ä, ]g- samgnIÄ, kmln-Xy-IrXnIÄ, hmkvXpin¸-§Ä, \mW-b-§Ä, Øe-\m-a-§Ä F¶n-§s\ \nc-h[n Ncn-

{X-kq-N-I§-fn-eqsS IS-¶p-t]mbn hkvXp-X-Isf thÀXn-cn-s¨-Sp-t¡-­-Xp­v. cN-bn-Xm-¡-fpsS ImgvN-¸m-Sp- IÄ hkvXpX-Isf hnebn-cp-¯p-¶-Xnepw {]Xn-^-en-t¨-¡pw. AXp-sIm­pXs¶ ]pXn-b -k-ao-]-\-§-fn-eq-sS- bpÅ Ncn-{Xm-t\z-jWw F¡m-e¯pw XpS-tc-­-Xp-­v. am{X-hp-aÃ, ho­pw ]pXn-b- N-cn-{Xm-h-in-jvS-§Ä Is­¯p-¶-Xp-sIm­pw Ncn{Xw XpSÀ¶psImt­bn-cn-¡p-¶-Xp-sIm­pw kZm \ho-I-cn-¡-s¸-tS-­-hb- mWv Ncn-{X]- m-T-§Ä.

Ncn{-XI- m-c·- mÀ ]eXpw ImWm-sX-t]mh- pI kzm`m-hn-Ia- mW- v. NneÀ Is­¯- p¶ kXy§sf ssIhn«p

Ifbpw; ImcWw Ah DÄs¸-Sp-¯n-bm ap³hn-[n-Isf Øm]n-s¨-Sp-¡pI Zpjv¡c-am-Ipw. C§s\ Xa- kvIrXam-Ip¶ Ncn{X kXy-§Ä tiJ-cn-¡m³ ap³Ime Ncn-{X-Im-c·mÀ t]mb-h-gn-I-fn-eq-sS-Xs¶ ho­pw k©-cnt- ¡­- X- p­v. Hmtcm Ncn{X{KÙhpw A¶p-h-sc-bpÅ Ncn{-X-cN- \- I- -fqsS Ncn{XwIq-Snb- mI- p-¶Xv AXp- sIm­mW-v. aXZ- Ài-\§- fpw aXm-ßI IrXnI-fp-saÃmw Ncn-{X¯- n\p {]nb-s¸-«-h-bm-sW¦- nepw cmjv{Sob Ncn{Xw Is­-¯m³ Ah {][m-\-tc-J-I-fm-sb-Sp-¡p-¶Xv Bim-ky-aÃ. \nÀ`m-Ky-h-im {]mNo\ `mc-X-¯nsâ Ncn- {X-sa-gp-Xn-b-hÀ A§-s\-bm-Wv I-­Xv. Bcy-ssh-Zn-I-hÀ¤-¯nsâ kwkvIrXc-N-\-I-fn ImWp-¶-XmWv `mcX- ¯- nsâ al¯- mb Ncn{-Xs- a¶v ]Tn¸- n¨- Xv apJy-ambpw bqtdm]- y³ A[n\- nt- hi- I- -cm-Wv. 19þmw \qäm­nsâ

a²y-Z-i-I-§-fn HmIvkvt^mÀUv bqWn-th-gvkn-än-bn kwkvIrX `mjm s{]m^k-dm-bn-cp¶ PÀ½³Im-c- \mb s{^U-dn¡v amIvkvap-ÅÀ Bbn-cp¶p Ch-cn {][m\n. "Ncn-{X-¯nsâ cmPm-¡-·mÀ' F¶m-Wv Bcy- hw-i-P-\mb apÅÀ Bcy-·msc hnti-jn-¸n-¨Xv. aXw, kwkv¡m-cw, hmWnPyw F¶n-h-sIm­v temI-¯nsâ hnhn[ `mK-§sf _Ôn-¸n-¡p¶ Znhy-ZuXyw \nd-th-än-bXv Bcy-hÀ¤-amsW-¶s{X apÅ-dnsâ A`n-{]m-bw.

]pcm-X\ C´ybnse XnI¨pw A]-cn-jvIrXcm-bn-cp¶ P\-Xsb, BcyA[n\nthiw kwkv¡mc k¼-¶-cm- ¡n-b-Xp-t]mse \ho\ Bcy-·m-cmb (Neo Aryans) Cw¥o-jp-ImÀ hymh-km-bn-I-bp-K-¯n-tebv¡v ssI]n-Sn- ¨p-bÀ¯n C´y³P-\-Xsb hfÀ¯n-sb-Sp-¡m\pÅ \ntbm-K-hp-am-sb-¯n-b-h-cm-sW¶v t_m²y-s¸-Sp-¯p-I- bm-bn-cp¶p, apÅÀ Bcy-kvXp-XnI-fn-eqsS. {Ko¡v an-t¯mfPnbn {Koknsâ Ncn{Xw ImWm³ bqtdm-]y³ Ncn-{X-Im-c·mÀ X¿m-dm-bnÃ. F¶m Bcy-·m-cpsS ]pcm-tW-Xn-lm-k-§-fn AhÀ C´y-bpsS Ncn{Xw

Btcm-]n¨- p. F¶n-cp-¶mepw Ahc- mWv C´ybv¡v BZy-ams- bmcp Ncn{Xw \nÀ½n¨p X¶-sX¶ kXyw AwKo-

Icn¡msX Xc-anÃ. ]pcm-X\ `mc-X-¯nsâ Ncn{Xw cNn-¡pI Xmc-X-tay\ t¢i-I-c-am-Wv. {Kokn\pw ssN\bv¡pw Ah- Im-i-s¸-Sm-hp¶ Ncn-{X-Im-c-·mÀ ]pcm-X\ `mc-X-¯n-en-Ãm-bn-cp-¶p. G.-Un. 11 þmw \qäm-­n C´y-bn-se- ¯nb AÂ_n-dqWn `mc-XobcpsS Ncn-{X-]-c-amb A{i-²-sb-¡p-dn¨v ]d-bp-¶p­v. kz´w cmPm-¡-·m-cpsS Ime-{I-a-s¯-¡p-dn¨pt]mepw C´ym-¡mÀ¡-dn-bn-sÃ-¶mWv At±lw tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-cn-¡p-¶Xv. AtX-¡p- dn¨p tNmZn¨m AhÀ Ahn-iz-k-\ob§-fmb IY-IÄ ]dªp XpS-§p-as{X. Ae-Ivkm-WvU-dnsâ B{I-a- W-¯n\p ap³]pÅ `mc-X-¯nse Ncn{X kw`-h-§-fpsS Ime\nÀ®bw km²y-as-öpw apÉow B{I-a-W- ¯n\p ap³]pÅ tZiob CS-]m-Sp-Isf ]c-kv]c _Ô-t¯msS Ah-X-cn-¸n-¡pI ZpjvI-c-am-sW-¶p-amWv s]mXpsh Ncn{-X-Im-c-·m-cpsS A`n-{]m-bw. ASp-¯-Im-e-¯p-­mb Ncn-{X-{K-Ù-§-fn t]mepw ]e \qäm-­p- IÄ X½n-epÅ hyXymkw, PohnX Ime-L«w hyà-a-Ãm¯ Nne-cpsS IrXnIsf ASn-Øm-\-am-¡n-bmWv \nÀ®-bn-¡-s¸-«n-«p-Å-Xv. AXn-\m km{am-Py-§-fpsS {]Xm-]-Imew (ImperialAge), kphÀ® bpKw (Golden Age) XpS-§nb hnti-j-W-§Ä Nne-t¸mÄ \me©p iX-I-§Ä \o­ Hcp hwi-¯nsâ `c-W-Im-e¯p \n¶pw asämcp km{am-Py-¯nsâ Ime-t¯bv¡v amän Øm]n-t¡­n hcp-¶p. DZm-l-c-W-ambn t{ijvThpw ià-hp-amb `cW- I- qS- ¯- nsâ kq£av LSI- §- sft¸mepw khnkvXcw {]Xn]- mZ- n¡- p¶ IuSne- ysâ "AÀ° imk{vXw' _n.-kn. \mev, aq¶v \qäm-­p-I-fn Fgp-X-s¸-«n-«n-söv B[p-\nI ]T-\-§Ä shfn-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶p.

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At¸mÄ Gsd tLmjn-¡-s¸« aucy-·m-cpsS {]Xm-]-Imew (_n.-kn. 320 þ 180) F¶Xv kwi-b-¯nsâ Npgn- bn hogp-¶p. AtX-t]mse Imfn-Zm-k³ Pohn-¨n-cp-¶Xv F.-Un. 500\p tij-am-sW¶pw hyà-am-bn-«p-­v. A§-s\-bm-sW-¦n Kp]vX-·m-cpsS kphÀ® bpKhpw (F.-Un. 320 þ 500) Ccp­p XpS-§-p¶p. t£{X Nph- sc-gp-¯p-Ifpw imk-\-§fpw {KÙ-h-cn-I-fp-sa-Ãmw-sIm­v Gsd-¡psd Ncn{Xw hyà-am-Ip¶ F.-Un. 6 þmw \qäm-­p-ap-X-epÅ Ime¯v \mev]-Xntesd cmP-hw-i-§Ä Ime-tZ-i-§-fn-eqsS Ib-dnbpw Cd-§nbpw kam- ´-c-ambn ØnXn-sN-¿p-¶-Xn-\mepw enJnX tcJ-IÄ AXypànIÄ \nd-ª-hbm-b-Xn-\mepw kXyw Xncn-¨- dnªp tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯pI t¢i-I-c-am-Wv.

`c-W-Iq-S-§fpw Ncn-{Xhpw

cmP-hw-i-¯n-sâtbm `c-W-IqS- -¯n-sâtbm Ncn{Xw tXSp-¶-hÀ {][m-\-ambpw At\z-jn-¡p¶- Xv AXv \in-¡m-\p-­mb Imc-W-§-fm-Wv. Iq«-¯n AXv A{Xbpw Imew \ne-\n¡m-\pÅ Imc-W-§fpwIqsS Is­-¯n- Iq-«n-tNÀ¡p-t¼mtg Ncn{Xw ]qÀ®-am-Ip-¶p-Åp. At¸mÄ am{Xta `cn-¡p-¶-hcpw `cn-¡-s¸-Sp-¶- hcpw X½n-epÅ hn\n-a-b-§-fpsS Nn{X-§Ä A\m-h-cWw sN¿-s¸-Sp-I-bpÅp. F{X ià-amb `c-W-Iq-S-am- bmepw `cn-¡-s¸-Sp-¶-h-cpsS Bi-bm-`n-em-j-§-fm-bn-cn¡pw `c-W-Iq-S-¯nsâ \ne-\n¸ns\ \nÀ®-bn-¡p-I. cmP-hmgvN, ]utcm-ln-Xym[- n]- Xyw (Theocracy) , {]`p-Xzm[- n]- Xyw (Aristocracy), hwim-[n-]Xyw, GIm- [n-]Xyw, DZm-c-G-Im-[n-]Xyw, P\m-[n-]Xyw F¶n-§s\ ]e-cq-]-¯n-epÅ `c-W-Iq-S-§Ä temI-cm-Py-§-fpsS Ncn-{X-¯n amdn-amdn {]Xy-£-s¸-Sp-¶Xv ImWmw. CXn-te-XmWv D¯aw, GXmWv A[aw F¶v s]s«¶v hn[n-¡pI {]bm-ka- mW- v. Ime-tZi- -§-fpsS ]cn-tXmh- -Ø-Isf B{i-bn-¨m-bnc- n¡pw Htcm-¶n-sâbpw \·Xn·-

IÄ. {]hm-NI `cWw \ne-\n-¶n-cp¶ Ime¯v blqZ P\X cmP`c-W-¯n-\p-th­n apd-hnfn Iq«p-¶-Xp- ImWmw. i{Xp-¡-fpsS B{I-a-W-§Ä¡v \nc-´cw hnt[-b-am-bn-s¡m­ncp¶ B P\Xbv¡v ià-\mb Hcp cmPm-hn-s\b- m-bn-cp¶p Bh-iyw. P\-Iob {]t£m`§- -fneqsS cmP-hmgvN Ah-km\- n-¸n¨v P\m[- n-]Xy `cWw Øm]n-¡p¶ cmPy-§Ä At\-I-ap­v, Ncn-{X-¯nÂ. F¶m BZy-Im-e¯v P\m-[n-]Xy kwhn-[m\w \ne- \n-¶n-cp-¶- {Ko-knse \Kc cmjv{S-§Ä HSp-hn N{I-hÀ¯n-am-cpsS km{amPy§Ä¡v P·w \ÂIp-¶Xpw Ncn{-X-w Im«- n-¯-cp-¶p. cmP-`-c-W¯- n-s\-Xnsc P\m[- n-]-Xy-hm-Zn-IÄ \bn¨ {^©p-hn¹- -h-¯nsâ ]cy-hk- m\w s\t¸m-fnb- ³ t_mW¸- mÀ«nsâ N{Ih- À¯n`cW- -¯nemWv. N{Ih- À¯n]Zw ]cni- p²- t- dmamknwlmk- -\¯- n\p hnt[-b-am-bn-cn-¡p-hm³ amÀ¸m-¸-bm BioÀÆ-Zn-¡-s¸« IncoSw [cn¨ N{I-hÀ¯n-am-scbpw Ncn-{X-¯n ImWmw. t]m¸ns\ [n¡-cn-t¡­n h¶-Xp-sIm­v sNt¦m \jvS-s¸-«-h-cp-ap­v. `c-W-am-ä-§-Ä¡nSbnep- ­m-Ip¶ Acm-PIXz¯nsâ Ime-L-«-¯n s]m§nh-cp¶ kwL-SnX hÀ¤-amWv ]e-t¸mgpw P\-X-bpsS hn[n \nÀ®-bn-¡p-¶-Xv. {]kvXpX hÀ¤s¯ \bn-¡p¶ hyàn kzmÀ°\pw Icp-¯-\p-am-sW-¦n GIm-[n- ]-Xy-¯ntebv¡mbn-cn¡pw ASp¯ ImÂshbv¸v. Npcp-¡-¯n Hcp `cW kwhn-[m-\hpw Ft¶-bv¡p-ambn \ne-sImÅm³ tbmKy-am-sW¶ \nK-a\w Ncn{Xw \ÂIp¶ ]mT-§-fp-ambn s]mcp¯-s¸-Sp-¶-XÃ.

Hcp]- s£, C\nbpw cq]-s¸-Sm-\n-cn-¡p¶ Ipäa- ä Hcp alm`- -cW- I- qS- -¯nsâ BhnÀ`m-h¯- n\- pa- p³]pÅ

Acm-PI- X- z¯- nsâ \o­ CSth-f-bn-eqs- Sb- tà am\h- N- c- n{Xw C¡me- -a-{Xbpw \o§n-s¡m­ncn¡- p¶- Xv F¶pw ktµ-ln-t¡-­n-bncn-¡p-¶p. A§-s\-sb-¦n B `mhn-`-c-W-Iq-S-¯nsâ cq]-`m-h-§Ä Ah-[m-\-]qÀÆw IrXyXtbmsS hmÀs¯-Sp-¡m³, a\p-tjym¸-¯n-ap-X IWn-i-§-fmb XoÀ¸p-I-sfm¶pan-ÃmsX \ofp¶ Ncn{-Xm-\p-`h ]c-¼-c-I-fnÂ\n¶pw hyà-amb Hcp ZmÀi-\n-Ic- q]w "aqim-cn-bpsS Icp' F¶-t]mse Dcp¯ncn- tb-­-Xp-­v. AXn-\mbv Cd§n ]pd-s¸-Sp¶ am\-h-[n-jWbv¡v Hcp-X-cn-sh-fn-¨-sa-¦nepw \ÂIp-hm³ D]-I-cn- ¡p-¶-Xm-hWw HmtcmN- -cn-{X-c-N-\-bpw.

kwL-Ir-Xn-I-fn-eqsS ap³hn-[n-I-fn-Ãm-sX-bpÅ k©mcw F. Un. BZn-i-X-I-§-fn \ne-\n-¶, am- \p-j-sc-Ãmcpw H¶p-t]m-seBbn-cp¶, sFiz-cy-k-ar-²-amb Hcp kaq-l-¯n-sâbpw B kmaq-lym-hØ ssiYn-Ãy-¯n-tebv¡v hgp-Xn-ho-gp-¶-Xn-sâbpw Nn{X-§Ä Im«n-¯-cpw. hcpw-Im-e-N-cn{X inev]n-IÄ¡v hne- bn-cp-¯m³ Gsd hc-Ifpw Ipdn-Ifpw \nd-ª-h-bmWv B Nn{X-§Ä.

- 13 -

G. Un. BZn-i-X-I-§-fnse Z£n-tW-´y³ {InkvXp-amÀ¤-¡m-cpsS Nabw (k`) BWv BtKmf {InkvXp-k-`bv¡v amÀ¤-ZÀi-I-am-b-Xv. \nXy-\pw, {]]-©-]-cn-]m-e-I- \p-amb ssNh\v (in-h-\v) Bcm-[\ AÀ¸n-¨n-cp¶ Cu {ZmhnU aX-hn-izm-k-¯nsâ tI{µ-_nµp ]nXr-ssZ-h-amb amtX-h(a-lm-tZ-h) Bbn-cp¶p.

- 14 -

]Xnäp¸¯neqsS

Ncn{X¯nsâ IpgnamS§fn PoÀ®n¨pt]mIm¯ AØniIe§fp­v; A\pam\¯nsâ h{P¸ibn Ahsb H«ns¨Sp¡pI;

AhnsS \n\¡v Poh\pÅ Hcp Ncn{XwImWmdmIpw. þZfn-XÀs¡gp-Xnb kphn-tijw, Ihn-bqÀ apcfnþ (A²ymbw 11, hmIyw 30 apXÂ 32 hsc)

{]]t©mev]¯n¡p \nZm\amb BZnalmNe\w AYhm _nKv_mmmwKv kn²m´s¯ \mZ{_lvamb Hmw Imchpambn _Ôs¸Sp¯p¶ ZmÀi\nI ho£Wap­v. CXp Xs¶bmWp inhsâ \ScmP k¦ev]hpw. inh (ssNh) F¶ tZhk¦ev¸-¯n\v BZyambn cq]w sImSp¯Xv lmc¸³ P\-X- bmb {ZmhnUcmWv 1 . sskÔhcpsS ]ip]Xn ap{Zbnse ImfbpsS apJ¯p \n¶pw Hmw Imcw Dcp¯ncnbp¶sX§s\sb¶v aebmfnbmb sI.sI. cma³ sskÔh ap{ZIfnepd§p¶ Ncn{X kXy§Ä F¶ {KÙ¯n hyàam¡p¶p­v. (]pdw 51,52) sskÔhen]nIfpsS aqecq]amb ]ip]Xnsb AhÀ k\mX\ ssZhamb ssNhsâ {]Xn_nw_ambn {]XnjvTn¨p. sskÔhÀ Cu k\mX\ _nw_s¯ ]ndaw (]nd + Aw, BZnbpw A´hpambXv þ BÂ^m&HtaK) F¶pw hntijn¸n¨ncp¶Xmbn A\pam\n¡mw. ]n¡me¯v sskÔh þ Adambn¡v en]nIsf ka\zbn¸n¨v P·w sIm­ {_mlvan en]nbpsS t]cnsâ DdhnSw sskÔhcpsS ]ndaw Xs¶bmhWw. hÀ¯IP\Xbmb sskÔhcpambn \nc´c k¼À¡-¯nembncp¶ t]Àjy, Z£ntW´y,

CuPn]väv XpS§nb Øe§fntebv¡pw sskÔhcpsS ssihZÀi\w IS¶p sN¶p. {Ko¡p ]pcm-W-§- fnse knbqkv tZh³ inh³ Xs¶bmsW¶v tIkcn _me-IrjvW]nÅ Nq­n-¡m-«p-¶p­v. inh F¶ ]Zw {Ko¡n knh F¶mbn. {Ko¡p-\m-a§fpsS Ah-km\-¯n kv tNÀ¡pw. knhkv BWv knbpkv BbXv. BZyIme t]Àjy³ ss{IkvXhÀ ]nXmhmb ssZhs¯ inh´mKv F¶p hnfn¨ncp¶Xmbv Ncn{XtcJIfn ImWp¶p (2) .inh´mKn \n¶pw a\pjyc£bv¡mbv AhXmcw sNbvX ssZh]p{X\mbmWv AhÀ {InkvXp (Cui) hns\ I­Xv. bh\\mSpIfn \ne\n¶ncp¶ Kvt\mÌn¡v ZÀi\w (Úm\hmZw) \nXy\pw ]cnip²\pamb ssZhs¯ inh (k\mX\) F¶p hntijn¸n¨ncp¶p. ss{IkvXh hnizmkw IS¶p sN¶t¸mÄ ]nXmhmb ssZhhpw inh\pw H¶p Xs¶bmbn. CtX coXnbn Xs¶ Z£ntW´ybnse BZyIme {ZmhnU ss{IkvXhcpw ssNh(inh) ]p{X\mbmWv anssN sb (aninlmsb) DÄs¡m­Xv. Cu {ZmhnU ssNh³ {]]©krjvSn¡p ImcWambh\pw {]]©s¯ ]cn]men¡p¶ kvt\lkzcq]\pw ]m]{KkvXambnXoÀ¶ am\hcminbpsS c£bv¡mbn ]p{Xs\ AhXmc ]pcpj\mbn \ÂInbh\pamWv. Cu ssNh\mWv tNcP\XbpsS amtXh (almtZh).aninlmsb, a\pjyc-£bv¡mbn ]nXmhmb ssNh\m NmÀ¯v (A`ntjIw) sN¿s¸«hs\¶ \nebn NmÀ¯³

(Nm¯³)

saUnätd\nb³ Xoc§fnepw t]Àjybnepw {]_eambncp¶ Úm\hmZnIfpsS (GNOSTICS) hnizmka\pkcn¨v a\pjycpsS Gähpw henb ]m]w AÚXbmbncp¶p. AÚXsb¶ AÔImcw \o¡m\mbn AhXcn¨ {]Imi ambmWv aninlmsb AhÀ kzoIcn¨Xv. tXmakv At¸mkvXe\pw Cu Bibw DÄs¡m­ hyànbmbncp¶p. blqtZXc P\XIÄ¡mbn kphntijsagpXnb tbml¶msâ H¶mw teJ\w tbip temI¯nsâ {]ImiamIp¶p F¶ XXzw AhXcn¸n¡p¶p­v. kqcymcm[\¡mcmb an{XaX¡msc tbip ZÀi\¯nte¡m-IÀjn¡m³ Cu AhXcWw Gsd D]Icn¡pIbpw sNbvXp. CuPn]vänse kqcymcm[\¡mÀ kqcysâ P·Zn\ambn BtLmjn¨ncp¶ Unkw_À 25 BWv {InkvXpakv

(3)

F¶v {ZmhnU ss{IkvXhÀ hntijn¸n¨ncp¶p.

1) ‘Siva is thought to have risen from the status of a fertility God perhaps dating from Harappan times’ “A HISTORY OF INDIA ”; BURTON STEIN, OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, IV IMPRESSION, 2006 -p :84’

2) sP.sP. tamdnkv : aq¶p Xm{aimk\§fpw a¬adªp InS¡p¶ Ncn{XkXy§fpw (1993)]pdw:34.

3) Nm¯³ : {ZmhnU¯n NnÃv ]et¸mgpw ]Z§fn \n¶pw A{]Xy£amImdp­v, DZm : \nIÀ¯pI þ- \nI¯pI. NmÀ¯³ Nm¯³ BIp¶Xpw C{]ImcamWv. ssNh]p{X\mbNm¯sâ hniZmwi§fpw _Ôs¸« thZhymJym\§fpsaÃmw DÄs¡mÅp¶ {ZmhnU ]ZamWv Nm¯w. Nm¯w F¶m Nm¯sâ k¯ Nm¯w kw_Ôn¨ ]T\amWv Nm¯ncw. Nm¯ncw BWv imkv{Xw Bbn kwkvIrXhXvIcn¡s¸Sp¶Xv. Nm¯ncw ]Tn¡p¶hs\ Nm¯nc³ F¶p hnfn¨p. ssZhs¯¡- pdn¨mbncp¶p Nm¯ncÀ¡p IqSpX ]Tnt¡­nbncp¶Xv. Iq«¯n `mj, hymIcWw, XÀ¡w apXembhbpw DÄs¸«ncp¶p. Nm¯ncw sNmÃp¶XmWv, tNm¯ncw (ssZhkvXpXn). tNm¯ncw BWv kwkvIrX¯n kvtXm{Xw BbXv.

- 15 -

Zn\ambn {InkvXpk` kzoIcn¡p¶Xpw. tXmakv At¸mkvXe³ Z£ntW´ybn Øm]n¨ {InkvXp k`, tbip temI¯nsâ {]ImiamIp¶p F¶ Bib¯n\v {]m[m\yw Iev]n¨ncp¶Xn\m {]Imicq]n F¶ \nebn tbiphns\ Cssdh³ (Cssd = Ray), ambh®³, (Acq]n), Cchn, apcpI³,

ImÀ¯ntIb³ XpS§nb t]cpIfn hntijn¸n¨ncp¶p. ]n¡me A[o-i-·m-cpsS \nÀ_-Ôn-X- am-än-¯oÀ¡-ep-IÄ¡v hnt[-b-am-bn-«p-s­-¦nepw, ]pcmX\ {ZmhnU kwkv¡m-c-¯nsâ tijn-¸p-I-fmbn \ne- \n¡p¶ sX¿w, Xnd, tXmäw F¶o BNm-cm-[n-jvTnX Iem-cq-]-\m-a-§-fpsS AÀ°w bYm-{Iaw ssZhw, {]Im-iw, kvXpXn F¶n-§s- \-bm-sW-¶p-a-dn-bp-I.BZntNc tIcfs¯ amthen\mSv (amthfnsâ \mSv) F¶t]mse chnaWvUew F¶pw hnfn¨ncp¶p. chnaÞew D]tcm[n¡cptX F¶v tIcfw B{Ian¡ms\¯nb cmjv{SIqScmPmhmb AImePeZt\mSv A`yÀ°n¡p¶Xmbn IpetiJc hÀ½sâ X]Xo kwhcWw A©mw A¦¯n ImWmw. G.Un. 4þmw iXI¯n (A.D. 313) tIm¬Ìssâ³ N{IhÀ¯nbpsS Ime¯mWv ]Snªmd³ tZi§fn {InkvXp k`bv¡v kzX{´ambn {]hÀ¯n¡m\pÅ Ahkchpw A[nImchpw e`n¡p¶Xv. F¶m Z£ntW´ybn G.Un. BZy iXIw apX cmPm¡·mcpsS kwc£Wbn ss{IkvXh kaqlw {]_eamb kzX{´k`bmbnhfÀ¶ncp¶p. G.Un. 325þ tIm¬Ìssâ³ N{IhÀ¯nbpsS t\XrXz¯n IqSnb \nJymkp¶ltZmkn al¯mb C´y³ k`bpsS {]Xn\n[nbmb sPmlm¶kv sa{Xmt¸men¯m ]s¦Sp¯ncp¶sh¶v tcJs¸Sp¯nbncn¡- p¶Xn \n¶v A¡mes¯ C´y³ ss{IkvXh kaql¯nsâ {]m[m\yw hyàamIp¶p. \nJym-kq-\-l-tZm-kns\ XpSÀ¶v ]Sn-ªm-dp-\n-¶pÅ kpdn-bm\n k`m-[n-ImcnIfp-sS -ssh-ZnI\nb-{´Ww iàns¸«p XpS§nbtXmS, {ZmhnU ZÀi\§fpw BNmc§fpambn ka\zbn¡s¸«v A¶phsc k`mXeh\mb s]cpamfpsS Iogn im´nbnepw kar²nbnepw Ignªncp¶, {ZmhnU ss{IkvXh kaql¯n `n¶XIÄ apfs]m«n. ]Xnäp¸¯v 10þmw ]¯n hÀ®n¡s¸Sp¶sX¶v A\pam\n¡s¸Sp¶ bmss\¡SvtNbv am´c³ tNcensâ Ime¯v, k`mXeh\mb s]cpamÄ Øm\w tNccmPmhn \n¶pw t]Àjybn \ns¶¯nb sa{Xm\nte¡v ssIamdp¶p­v. ]pdsa \n¶pÅ s]cpam¡·mcpsS `cWw F¶ ]pcmX\ tIcf Ncn{X¯nse kaky, G.Un. 347 apX G.Un. 671 hsc tNcN{IhÀ¯namcpsS kwc£Wbn amss´ DÄs¸sS hnhn[ tI{µ-§Ä BØm-\-am¡n tIc-fo-bcÃm¯ ]ptcm-ln-X-·mÀ BtKmf {InkvXp k`-bpsS \nb-{´-W-§Ä¡p hnt[-b-ambn k`m`cWw \S¯nbXmWv. G.Un. 671 hsc Chcpw s]cpam¡·mÀ F¶mWv Adnbs¸«ncp¶Xv. ]c-tZ-in-I-fmb s]cp-am-¡-·msc¡pdn¨v tIc-tfm-ev]-¯n-bn-epÅ ]cm-aÀi-§Ä t\m¡mw. Ncn-{X-

kXy-§- sf hf-s¨mSn¨pw Ime-tZ-i-§sf amän-a-dn¨v _Ôn-¸n¨pw t_m[-]qÀÆw Ahy-àX krjvSn¨p-sIm-

­mWv tIc-tfm-ev]¯n¡YIsfÃmw sa\-ªn«- p-ÅXv. F¶n«pw Hcp tIc-tfm-ev]¯-

{KÙw hf-sc- B-scbpw Im«-cptX'

fnÂ, -Fs¶-¦nepw t\cp-IÄ shfn-s¸-«p-t]m-Iptam F¶ `bw F{X-bm-g-¯n IpSn-sIm­ncp¶psh¶p a\-

Êne- m¡mw. {_mÒW- À X½n Htcm Iqdp sNmÃnbpw Øm\w sNmÃnbpw Iel- n¨p XpS§- nb- t- ¸mÄ IÀ½`qan

£bn-¨p-t]m-Im-Xn-cn-¡m³ s]cp-s©-ÃqÀ, ]¶n-bqÀ, ]d-¸qÀ, sN§-¶qÀ F¶o \mev A[n-Im-c-tI-{µ-§-fmb

IgI- -§Ä¡v cq]w sImSp¯p. hnhm-Z-§Ä¡p XoÀ¸v Iev]n-¡m³ {_mÒ-W-cpsS hn[n-IÀ¯m¡- -fmbn Be-

¯qÀ {Kma¯n Bgvhmt©cn km{am-¡sf Npa-X-e-s¸-Sp¯n. Hmtcm IgI-¯n \n¶pw Hmtcmcp-¯À

aqhm­- p-hoXw cmPyw `cn-¡m-\pÅ hyh-Ø-bp-ap­m-¡n. tNcN- -{I-hÀ¯n-amc- psS cmPy`-cWs¯¡- p-dn-¨pÅ

hnhcW-amtWm CXv! {_mÒ-W-cpsS AXm-bXv BZn-tN-c-·m-cpsS Imes¯ ]nd-a-W-cpsS k`m`cWamWn- hnsS kqNn-X-am-Ip-¶-sX¶v hyàw. "IgIw' C¶s¯ "cq]X' t]mse GXm\pw {Kma§-fpsS AYhm CS-h- I-I-fpsS `cW tI{µam-bn-cp-¶p. ta¸-dª \S-]-Sn-IÄsIms­m¶pw Ie-l-¯n-\-dp-Xn-h¶nÃ; ho­pw cq£-am-Ip-I-bm-bn-cp¶p. At¸mÄ 64 {Kma¡mcpwIqSn Xncp-\m-hmbv aW-¸p-d¯v k` tNÀ¶v ]c-tZ-i-¯p-\n¶pw s]cp-am-¡-·msc hcp¯n `cWw Gev¸n-¡m³ Xocp-am-\n-¨p. CX-\p-k-cn¨v Chn-sS-sb-¯nb s]cp-am-¡-·m-cn ]ecpw tIc-f- ¯n-\p-]p-d-¯pÅ {]mtZ-inI k`-I-fpsS X-e-h-·m-cm-bn-cp-¶p. Ch-cn Xt±-iob-sc-Iq-SmsX hntZ-i-¯p-\n- ¶p-sa-¯nb k`m-t{i-jvT-·mcpw DÄs¸-«n-cp-¶-Xmb\pam-\n-¡mw. AXn-\m-emWv \nÝnX`c-W-Imew ]qÀ¯n- bm¡n kztZ-i-t¯bv¡p aS-§p-¶-h-cn NneÀ a¡-t¯bv¡p (t]Àjy-bn-te-bv¡v) t]mIp-¶-Xmbn ImWp- ¶-Xv.{Zmhn-UÀ ]Ånsb amSw F¶pw hnfn-¨n-cp-¶p. amS³ ]Ån-bnse Bcm-[\m aqÀ¯n-bm-Wv; amS-s¸-cp- amÄ ]Ån-bpsS ta A[n-Im-c-apÅ hyànbpw. BZn-cm-Ps¸cpamsf, AXm-bXv cmPm-[n-Im-capÅ BZy s]cp-amsf hmgn-¡p¶ IY hnNn-{X-am-Wv. {_mÒ-WÀ ]c-tZ-i¯p sN¶v IrjvW-cm-bsc I­v ]´o-cm­v tIcfw hmgp-hm³ X¡-h®w BZn cmP-s¸- cp-amsf Iev]n¨p-h-s{X. hnP-b-\-Kc cmPm-hmb IrjvWtZ-h-cm-bsc kao-]n-¡p-¶Xv ]n¡me sshjvWh {_mÒ-W-cm-sW¶Xn kwi-bn-t¡-­-Xn-Ã. IrjvW-tZ-h-cm-b-cpsS hmgv¨¡mew 1509 apX 1530 hsc-bm- Wv. apKÄ N{I-hÀ¯n-bmb _m_-dpsS Cu ka-Im-en-Is\ tNc-cm-Pm-¡-·m-cp-ambn _Ôn-¸n-¡p¶ tIc-t-

n bpsS Ah-km\w "Cu

(4)

F¶v Fgp-Xn-bn-cn-¡p-¶-Xn \n¶v tIc-tfm-ev]-¯nbpsS cN-bn-Xm-¡-

- 16 -

fmev]-¯n¡- m-c³ Imes¯ t_m[]- qÀÆw Iogvta adn-¡pI- -bmW-

v. BZn cmPs- ¸c- p-am-fns\ XpSÀ¶v ]{´­p

hÀjw `cn¨ hmWns- ¸-cpa- mf- n\p tij-amWv tIcfw ]e-\mS- p-I-fmbn `mKn¨- p-sImSp¯n«v a¡t¯bv¡p t]mb tNc-am³ s]cp-am-fpsS hmgvN-¡m-e-sa¶v tIc-tfm-ev]-¯n-¡m-c³ ]d-bp-¶p. tNc-am³ s]-cp-amÄ 36 hÀjw

cmPy-w `-cn-¨n«pw ]c-tZ-i-t¯bv¡v aS-§n-t]m-Im-¯-Xn tIm]n¨v Irj-vW-cm-bÀ tIcfw B{I-an-¡m-s\-¯n- t]mepw. tIcfw hn`-Pn-¡-s¸-Sp-¶Xv, Ipe-ti-Jc hmgvN-bv¡-dpXn hcp-¯nb cmtP-{µ-tNm-f³ H¶m-asâ (1014 þ 1044) B{I-a-W-t¯m-sS-bm-Wv. tIcfw hn`-Pn-¡m-\pÅ Imc-W-ambn tIc-tfm-ev]-¯n-bn ]d-bp-¶Xv, " C\nbpw _u²·- m-cpsS ]cnj h¶v N{I-hÀ¯nsb {`an-¸n-¨m {_mÒ-WÀ¡v ]c-tZ-i-t¯bv¡v t]mtI­n hcp-sa¶pw AXp hcm-Xn-cn-¡m-³ cmPyw ]eÀ¡mbn JWvUn¨p sImSp¯p' F¶p-am-Wv. ChnsS kqNn-¸n- ¡p¶ _u²-·mÀ A¡m-e¯v tIc-f-¯n {]_-e-k-aq-l-am-bn-cp¶ {InkvXp amÀ¤-¡m-cm-Wv. {]Pm-t£-a- Xev]ccm-bn-cp¶ tNcN{IhÀ¯namÀ ]et¸mgpw sshjvWh{_mÒWcpsS CwKnX-§Ä¡v hg§- nbncp¶- n-Ã. AXn-\m N-{I-hÀ¯n`cWw Ah-km-\n-¸n¨v X§-fpsS shdpw Ifn-¸m-h-I-fmb \m«p-cm-Pm-¡-·msc krjvSn-¡p-I-sb-¶Xv sshjvWh{_mÒ-W-cpsS Bh-iy-am-bn-cp-¶p. ap³hn[n ]peÀ¯p¶ N{cn{X-Imc·mÀ C\nbpw IS¶psN-Ãm³ aSn-¡p¶ tIcf Ncn-{X-¯nse \nKq-VXbmWv Ipe-ti-Jc km{am-Py-¯nsâ ]X-\- ¯n-\n-S-bm-¡nb kmaq-lnI ]Ým-¯ew. BZn tNc-km-{am-Py-¯nsâ A´yw Ipdn¡m\n-S-bm-¡nb cq£- amb aX-I-elw t]mse-Xs¶ ssihcpw sshjvW-hcpw X½n-epÅ t]mcmWv Ipe-ti-Jckm{am-Py-¯nsâ \mi-¯n\pw Imc-W-am-bXv. {]Ya N{IhÀ¯n-bmb Ipe-tiJc BgvhmÀ am{Xsa sshjvWh ]£-t¯mSv Iqdp ]peÀ¯n-bn-cp-¶- pÅp. XpSÀ¶p hcp¶ FÃm IpetiJc-·mcpw ssih-cm-bn-cp-¶p. G.Un. 5þmw \qäm­n XpS§n 7þmw iXI¯n aqÀ²\ymhØ {]m]n¡p¶ aXIelw BZyIme

{ZmhnUs- s{IkvXh BNmc§fpw hnizmk§fpw ssIhnSnsöp iTn¨hcpw Ahbn ]eXpw Dt]£nt¨

Xocp F¶v \nÀºÔw ]nSn¨ t]Àjy³ k`m[nImcnItfmSp tNÀ¶hcpw X½nembncp¶p. þ Cu aXIel¯nsâ bYmÀ° kz`mhw CcpIq«cpw AhchcpsS Ncn{X¯n XakvIcn¨n«ps­¶XmWp kXyw.þBtKmf k`mt\XrXz¯nsâ BioÀhmZt¯msS c­mas¯ hn`mKw hnPbn¨t¸mÄ, ]gbhnizmkw ]peÀ¯nbncp¶hcn {]amWnamcm-bncp¶hÀ AhcpsS ZÀi\§sfbpw tZhk¦ev]- §sfbpw Bcyh¡cn¨v DÄs¡mÅm³ X¿mdmb sshZnIaX¯nte¡v BIrjvScmbn. 7þmwiXI¯n \S¶ aXIel¯nse Ccp tNcnIsf \bn-¨Xv, H¶v kpdnbm\n ss{IkvXh k`m

t\XrXzhpw asäm¶v Bcy sshZnIcpsS t\XrXzhpw Bbncp¶phsÃm. BZy Iq«À A¶phsc D­mbncp¶

{ZmhnU ss{IkvXh thZ{KÙ§fpw kmlnXyIrXn -IfpsaÃmw \in¸n¨psIm­ncp¶t¸mÄ

(5)

c­mas¯ Iq«À Ah-sbms¡ ]p¯³ sFXnly§fpsS klmbt¯msS amänsbgpXpI-bmbncp¶p. (6) ]gb {ZmhnU IrXnIfn Ipsdsb®sa¦nepw \in¸n¡s¸SmsX Ahtijn¡m³ ImcW¡mÀ c­mas¯ Iq«cmWv. IShpÄ hmgv¯pw H¶mw-]¯pw ]¯mw]¯pw \jvSs¸« AhØbnemsW¦nepw C{]Imcw e`n¨ Hcaqey {]mNo\ {ZmhnU IrXnbmWv ]Xnäp¸¯v. G.Un. 64  tXmakv At¸mkvX-e\n \n¶pw {InkvXp amÀ¤w kzoIcn¨ N{IhÀ¯n (7) apX G.Un. 347 hscbpÅ Imes¯, k`mXeh·mÀ IqSnbmb tNc{IhÀ¯namcmWv ]Xnäp¸¯n hÀ®n¡s¸Sp¶Xv.

5) 4þmw \qämt­msS ss{IkvXh k` XÅn¡fbpIbpw \in¸n¡pIbpw sN¿p¶ Kvt\mÌn¡v kphntij§fn tXmaÊnsâ kphntijhpw \S]Sn¸pkvXIhpw DÄs¸Sp¶p­v. 6) tUm. Np½mÀ Nq­Â : P\PohnXhpw IeIfpw (tIcf t^m¡vtemÀ A¡mUan {]kn²oIcWw þ 2003 þ P\d FUnäÀ: tUm. Fw.hn. hnjvWp \¼qXncn,) ]pdw 37  þ Nm¯nc¡fn F¶pw t]cpÅ, \¼qXncnamcpsS kwLIfn bnse {][m\`mKamb \mep]mZw hnhcn¡p¶nS¯v tcJs¸Sp¯nbncn¡p¶Xp ImWpI :þ H¶mw L«w I­anc­ F¶ ]ZyamIp¶p þ ssihkvXpXn. c­mwL«w _p²\pw amXmhpw A¿¸\pw `{ZImfn bpambn Xocp¶Xv . _p²aX¯n Hcp amXmhv Csöncns¡ ChnsS ]dbp¶ _p²\pw amXmhpw _p²aX¯nteXsöp hyàamWv. I¹n§m«p \¼qXncn¸mSnsâ tIctfmev]¯n bn Im\mbn sXm½s\bpw kwLt¯bpw _u²À F¶mWv hntijn¸n¨ncn¡p-¶sX¶v tIkcn _meIrjvW]nÅ tcJs¸Sp¯p¶p. ( Ncn{X]T\§Ä ]pdw 123,124). Nm{Xm¦ (Nm¯n-cm-¦) kmcmÀ®hw F¶ ssIsbgp¯p -]pkvXIs¯ B[mcam¡nbmWv kwL¡fn Nn«s¸Sp¯nbncn¡p¶Xv. 7) tXmakv At¸mkvXe\n \n¶v {InkvXp amÀ¤w kzoIcn¨ tNcN{IhÀ¯n hym{Ltk\³ Bbncps¶¶v tIkcn _meIrjvW]nÅ tcJs¸Sp¯nbncn¡p¶p þ Ncn{X ]T\§Ä (1992) ]pdw 54, aebmfat\mca jjvSy_vZ]qÀ¯nkvamcIw þ 1950 þ ]pdw 69. hnbmIctX\³ F¶ {ZmhnU cq]amWv hym{Ltk\³ BIp¶Xv. hnbmIc³ sXäpw icnbpw hnthNn¡p¶h\mWv. k`mXeh\mb tI¸m Bbt¸mÄ N{IhÀ¯n¡p e`n¨ _ncpZamhWw Cu \maw. IpcphÀ½³ F¶pw Ct±ls¯ hnfn¨ncp¶p. Ipcp , Kpcp BWv. hdpa³ (hÀ½³) F¶ {ZmhnU ]Z¯n\v t]dp¶h³ F¶mWÀ°w. PSm[mcnbmb ]mÞycmPs\ PSmhÀ½³ (NSb³) F¶pw IoÀ¯nbpÅh\v IoÀ¯nhÀ½³ F¶pw alXzw t]dp¶h\v amdhÀ½³ (amÀ = alm) F¶pw t]cv \ÂIp¶Xv ImWmw. kwLImeIhnIÄ cmPm¡·mcpsSbpw alm·mcpsSbpw bYmÀ° \ma¯n\p ]Icw {]tXyI hntijW§Ä \evIn hÀ®n¡pIbmbncp¶p ]Xnhv.

8) ]ngnaIngv -þ bh\\mSpIfn \n¶pw Ac¡n«pd¸n¨ Ip¸nIfn Cd¡paXn sNbvXncp¶ hoªv.

- 17 -

{]mNo\ {ZmhnU `mjbpsS alnasb¡pdn¨v AIw IhnXIfpsS hnhÀ¯\¯nsâ BapJ¯n F³. hn. IrjvW-hmcnbÀ tcJs¸Sp¯nbncn¡p¶Xp ImWpI, AXy´w kwt£]- WiànbpÅ H¶mWv kwLXangv. Hcp ]t£ kwkvIrX `mjtb¡mÄ IqSpX kwt£]W iIvXn Cu `mjbv¡p­v aebmf¯n\v Cu kwt£]W iàn Ft¶ \jvSs¸«ncn¡p¶p . kwLIrXnIÄ hnhÀ¯\w sN¿p¶Xnsâ t¢iw Cu hcnIfn hmbn¡mw. `mjm ]ÞnX\mb tUm. sI. F³. Fgp¯Ñ\v \mep hcnbpÅ kwLIhnX hnhÀ¯\w sN¿m³ ]¯p-h-cn-IÄ Fgp-tX-­n-h-¶p (Ipdps´mI þ hnhÀ¯\w, ]m«v : 3 a®pw hn®pw , ]pdw þ 23).

thÄhn

\à sh¬Xn\ AcnbpsS tNmäp ]nÞ¯nepw ]ngnaIngv (8) F¶ hoªnepw AÀ¸n¡p¶ _en G.Un. BZyiXI-§fn Z£ntW´ybnseÃmbnS¯pw BtLmj]qÀÆw \S¯s¸«ncp¶-Xmbn kwLIrXnIÄ km£yw hln¡p¶p. thÄhn, Abv´hn F¶o t]cpIfnednbs¸«ncp¶ Cu _ensb F§s\ hymJym\n¨mepw BcysshZnIcpsS Aizta[hpw cmPkqbhpw B¡m\mhnöv hymJymXm¡Ä¡dnbmw . thÄ ({]`p) Ahn BIp¶XmWv thÄhn. thÄhnbnse thÄ BWv amthen \mSnsâ alm{]`p hmb amthÄ . Ahn F¶Xn\v tlma{Zhyw F¶À°w. Abn´hn bpw CtX _enXs¶. Abn´ Ahn¯mbh³ BWv Abn´hn¯m³ ; AXmbXv AÀ¸n¡s¸« _enhkvXp Bbh³. Ahn¯v , lhnÊv Xs¶bmWv. A kwkvIrX¯n l Bbn amdn. {ZmhnU¯nse X BWv kwkvIrX¯n k BbXv. DZm: Xt´mbw = kt´mjw. ({ZmhnU]Z§Ä kwkvIrX h¡cn-¨hbmWv kwkvIrX`mjbnse `qcn`mKw ]Z§fpw. Jcm£c§sf AXnJc þ arZpþ tLmj §fm¡pItbm, Dujvam¡Ä Iq«nt¨À¡pItbm sN¿pw. DZm: ]ndaw þ {_Òw, tIaw þ t£aw, abm\w þ ivaim\w. ]ZLS\bpsS imkv{XobXbpw AÀ°[z\nbpw CXneqsS \jvSs¸Sp¶Xp ImWmw.) s\btv ¯mÀ XqDbv ]en BWv thÄhn (s\btv ¯mÀ = càw, Xq = ]cnip²n, ]en = _en). thÄhnbn DbnÀsImÅp¶Xv ]ca]cnip²n Xs¶sb¶À°w. thÄhnbn \c_entbm arK_entbm H¶pw \S¯p¶panÃ. AXmbXv thÄhn ]ca]cnip-²\mbhsâ càw Nn´p¶ _enbmWv.

DsscNm Nnd¸ v AYhm hN\ {]tLm-j-W-t¯m-sS-bpÅ _en-bmtLmjw \S-¡p-t¼mÄ, ] Å n a pä ¯ pÅ a m S § f n  h n` h k ar ² a mb k Zy- (D q³ tN md v -= Cd ¨ nb n«p thhn¨ tNmdv) FÃmhÀ-¡p-am-sbmcp¡p¶p. tae§¯p - \mcmbW³Ip«n (9)- G.Un. BZy-iXI§fn cY, XpcKmZn-Ifpambv Aizta[nIÄ h¶v XangIs¯ BZnhmknIfn \n¶pw A[nImcw ssIhis¸Sp¯n sb¶pw, CfwIpfw Ipª³]nÅ BZntNc·mÀ cmPkqbw \S¯p¶p sh¶psaÃmw FgpXpt¼mÄ AhcpsS Ncn{Xt_m[y§Ä \ndª IrXnIfpsS CXc`mK§fneqsSIS¶p t]mIp¶hÀ-¡dnbmw G.Un. 8þmw \qämt­msS am{Xta Aizta[w, cmPkqbw XpS§nb bmK§Ä \S¯nbncp¶ BcysshZnIcpsS km¶n²yw tIcfkaqls¯ GsX¦nepw hn[¯n kzm[o\n¡p¶pÅp- sh¶v. ]Xn-äp-¸¯v 7þmw ]¯n hÀ®n-¡p¶ sNÂh-¡-Sp-t¦m-hm-gn-bm-X³ \S-¯nb bmK-§-sfbpw kZy- I-sfbpw Ipdn¨v hnh-cn-¡p-¶n-S¯v, Cfw-Ipfw Ipª³]nÅ, sNmÆpÅ sIm-¼p-Ifpw h³I®p-IfpapÅ

aqcnI- sf Iim-¸p-sN¿- p¶- 'Xpw ]db- p¶p­v (A-¶s¯ tIcfwþ1959 þ ]pdw 61). thÄhn-tbmSp tNÀ¶v C¯cw

kZy-IÄ \S-¯p¶Xv sshZn-I-{_m-Ò-Wtcm _u²tcm ssP\tcm BsW¶p ]d-bm\mhptam? "thÄhn' Fs´¶p hniZoIcn¡m³ ]e Ncn{XImc·mÀ¡pw {]bmk-am-sW¶XmWp kXyw. AXp hniZoIcn¡m³ {]m]vX-cmb ss{IkvXh ]WvUn-X-·mÀ, \¼q-Xn-cn-am-cpsS km¶n²yw _n.-kn. Ime-

L«w apX- tIcf¯nep-s­¶ anYymhmZw X§sfgpXn ]nSn¸n¨ncn¡p¶ ASn¯dbnÃm¯ Ncn{X alnabv¡v DXIp¶XmsW¶p I­v au\nIfmIpIbpw sN¿p¶p. thÄhn sb CcmNNqbw (cmPkqbw)F¶v hntijn¸n¡p¶ Hcp ]m«v ]pd\m¶qdn D­v. {io. hn. BÀ ]ctaizc³]nÅ `mjm´cw \nÀÆln¨ ]pd\m¶qdn 16þm aXmbn sImSp¯ncn¡p¶ tNmg³ CcmNNqbw th« s]cp\À InÅnsb ]än ]m­c¦®\mÀ ]mSnb ]m«mWX.v Cu ]m«nsâ ]{´­maXv hcn Xmsg sImSp¡p¶p:

apcpIÀ Nodd¯pcpsIgpIpcpNn apcpIÀ Nodd¯v F¶Xn\v apcpIsâ tIm]w F¶Ã ChnsSbÀ°w ImtW­Xv. apcpIsâ NoÀ AYhm Ir] kXyambv DcpsIgp¶ Ipcniv F¶mWv Cu hcnbpsS AÀ°w. (Adw = kXyw). Cu Ir]bpÅXp sIm­mWv aämcpsSbpw XpssWth­mNv s]cp\ÀInÅn bp²w Pbn¡p¶sX¶s{X Ihn ]mSp¶Xv. tNmg³th« CcmNNqbw GsX¶v hyàamWtÃm. thÄhn \S¯nbncp¶hÀ Bsc¶v Nne¸XnImc¯n Im\mbnsXm½sâbpw kwL¯nsâbpw hchns\¡pdn¡p¶ ]Zyw hyàam¡p¶p.

NXp¡]qXÀ h©nbq«´p AXps¡mÄ thÄhn tht«m\mbn\pw. NXp¡]qXÀ = NXpjv¡`qXÀ {Ko¡v sFXnly¯n NXpÀ apJ\mb t{ImWkv tZh³ kvjvSn¨XmWv Xo_vkv AYhm Im\m³ tZiw. AXn\m Cu tZis¯ NXpjv¡sa¶pw hnfn¨ncp¶p. (10) h©nbq«´p = (tNcXeØm\amb) h©nbnse¯n AXps¡mÄ = AXp§Ä (AhÀ) thÄhntht«m\mbn\pw = thÄhn th«hcmbncp¶p. Im\mbnsXm½sâ BKa\¯n\p ap³]p Xs¶ XangI¯v {InkvXpamÀ¤¡mÀ thÄhn th«hÀ F¶dnbs¸«ncps¶¶v Cu {]kvXmhw hyàam¡p¶p. ]Xnäp¸¯v H¼Xmw ]¯nsâ ]XnI¯n Im\mbnsXm½s\bpw kwLs¯bpw hntijn¸n-¡p¶Xv ac]nÀ Nm´n th«hÀ F¶mWv. ac]nÀ Nm´n F¶m IpcnÈn ]nd¶ _en F¶À°w. ( ac]nÀ F¶Xn\v acn¨p DbnÀ¯h³ F¶pw AÀ°w I¸n¡mw). AXmbXv ac]nÀ-Nm´nbpw thÄhnbpw H¶pXs¶; ss{IkvXhcpsS Znhy_en . tdma³ N{I-hÀ¯n-am-cpsS ]oU-\-§Ä aqew ]mÝm-Xy-tZ-is¯ {InkvXym-\n-IÄ Hfn-k-t¦-X-§- fn kt½-fn¨v, tbip-hnsâ A´y A¯m-gs¯ A\p-kva-cn-¨p-sIm­v A¸hpw hoªpw ]¦p-h-¨n-cp¶ BNm-cw, C¶s¯ coXn-bn-epÅ Znhy-_-en-bmbn Xocp-¶-Xn\v amXr-I-bm-bXv -thÄhn-¨msse ap³\n¶Z£n-tW-´y³ cmPm-¡-·m-cpsS A\p-{K-lm-in-Êp-I-tfmsS, BZn {ZmhnU{InkvXp-amÀ¤-¡mÀ \S-¯n-bn-cp¶ _en-bm-tLm-j-am-Wv. D]-tbm-K-th-f-bn {]tXyI Cuiz-cm-\p-{K-l-w e`n-¡p-sa¶ hnizm-k-t¯msS Bbp-[- §fpw sXmgn-ep-]-I-c-W-§-fp-sams¡ thÄhn \S-¡p¶ thZn-¡p-ap-¶n kaÀ¸n-¨n-cp-¶-Xmbpw kwL-Ir-Xn- IÄ km£y-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶p-­v.

]Xnäp¸-¯nse ss{IkvXh ]cm-aÀi-§Ä

c­mw]¯v

tNccmPmhp þ Cabhc¼³ s\Spt©cemX³. Ihn þ Ip½«qÀ I®\mÀ.

]m«v A©v

\nsscb shÅw (CSapdnbmsXmgpIp¶ shÅw þ Ir] þ)

hcn : 38 þ 40

GaamInb NoÀsIgp hnghn³ s\Sntbm\¶ \ÃnssN HSnbmssa´ \n³ ]¬]p ]e\bt´

GaamInb NoÀsIgp

= t{ijvTamb Ir]sNmcnbp¶

hnghn³

= BtLmj¯nsâ

s\Sntbm\¶

= s\Sntbm³ BIp¶

\ÃnssN

= \Ã CssN

(CssN = Cui, aninlm)

HSnbmssa´

= Ipdhp hcp¯msX

\n³ ]¬]p

= \nsâ IoÀ¯n

]e \bt´

= \oWmÄ \ne\nÀ¯t«

t{ijvTamb Ir] sNmcnbp¶ (thÄ_en) BtLmj-¯nsâ s\Sntbm³ BIp¶ \·kzcq]\mb aninlm H«pw Ipdhp hcp¯msX \nsâ IoÀ¯n \oWmÄ \ne\nÀ¯s«. thÄ_en BtLmj¯nse _enhkvXphpw _en AÀ¸I\pamb thÄ ({]`p) Bsc¶v Cu hcnIÄ hyàam¡p¶p.

]m«v Ggv

hew ]Sphnb³ ]ssW

- 19 -

(_enjvTPbt`cn, _en\njvT hnPbt`cn)

hcn : 6

]enXqDbv

]en

=

_en

Xq

=

]cnip²n

Dbv

=

DbnÀ

]cnip²\mbh³ DbnÀsImÅp¶ _en bp²w Pbn¨phcp¶ s\Spt©cemXsâ `S·mÀ ]m«pw \r¯hpsams¡bmbn thÄ_en \S¯p¶XmWv Ip½«qÀ I®\mÀ hÀ®n¡p¶Xv. thÄhn BNcn¡p¶XneqsS e`n¡p¶ \nXymbpÊns\ (tam£{]m]vXn) Nnd¸n³ AangvXp þ hcn 10, 11 þ F¶pw Ihn hntijn¸n¡p¶p.

aq¶mw]¯v

tNccmPmhv þ ]evbmss\ sNevsIgpIp«ph³ Ihn þ ]msse IuXa\mÀ

]m«v H¶v

ASps\bv bmhpXn (ASp¸nse s\bv BlqXn)

hcn : 1 þ 4

sNmÀ s]bÀ \m«w tIÄhns\©sa³dp sF´pS³ t]mänbssh XpssWbmI FÆ©qgmXp hnf¦nb sImÄssIIv Imsseb¶ NoÀNm hmbvsamgn

sNmÀ s]bÀ \m«w = alm]ptcmlnXcpsS \o«Â (\nÀt±iw) tIÄ = tI«v hns\©sa³dp = A©p ISaIsf¶v (Xncp k`bpsS Iev]\IÄA©pw C¶pw XpScp¶p. XpS¡w{ZmhnU ss{IkvXh k`bnemhmw.) sF´pS³ t]män = A©pw DSs\ ]men¨v Assh = k` XpssWbmI = XpWbmbncp¶p FÆ©qgmXp = Ch A©pw hogvN IqSmsX hnf¦nb = hnf§nb sImÄssIIv = sIm­v Imsseb¶ = cmhnse Xs¶ NoÀNm = Ir]sbmgpIp¶ hmbvsamgn = {]mÀ°\ alm]ptcmlnXcpsS \nÀt±im\pkcWw hnizmkn IfpsS A©p ISaIfpw apS¡w IqSmsX ]men¨v k`bv¡v XpWbmbncp¶v F¶pw cmhnse ssZhIr] HgpIp¶ {]mÀ°\IÄ \S¯p¶p

hcn : 5,6

DcpsIgp ac]nÀ IShpSv t]WnbÀ sIm­Xobn³ NqSÀ

DcpsIgp

ac]nÀ IShpSv

t]WnbÀ

= temImcm[y\mb (DcphwsIm­, AhXmcw sNbvX) = tbiphmIp¶ ssZhs¯ = [cn¨hÀ(injy·mÀ)

- 20 -

sIm­Xobn³ NpSÀ = A\p`hn¨ ]oUmán AhXmcw sNbvX (temImcm[y\mb) ac]nÀ IShpfnsâ injy·mÀ A\p`hn¨ ]oUIfpsS NqSnemWv thÄhn BtLmj¯n kZybv¡pÅ hn`h§Ä thhp¶sX¶v Ihn hÀ®n¡p¶p. ac]nÀ IShpÄ acn¨pbnÀ¯h\mb tbip BWv. ac¡pcniv F¶Xn\v BZna k`bn acw F¶p am{Xambpw ]dªncp¶p. ac¯n acn¨h³ BWv anssN (aninlm). Ipcnin ]nd¶ _en BWv thÄ_en AYhm ac]nÀ Nm´n sb¶v kqNn¸n¨ncp¶phsÃm. [z\n{][m\ §fmb ]Z§Ä \nÀ½n¡p¶Xnepwhn\ykn¸n¡p¶Xnepw {ZmhnUIhnIÄ AXn\n]pW cmbncp¶p. ac]nÀ F¶ ]Zw t]mseXs¶ ]ndaÀ (]nd¶ Aac³) F¶Xpw anssN bpsS hntijWambncp¶p. ]ndasd AWªhcmWv ]ndaWÀ . {InkvXpamÀ¤s¯ ]ndathXw (]ndathZw þ {_ÒthZw) F¶pw hntijn¸n¨ncp¶p. ac]nÀ IShpSvt]WnbhÀ sIm­Xobn³ NqSv Fs´¶dnbm³ A¡me¯v tdmamkm{amPy¯n {InkvXphnsâ A\pbmbnIÄ A\p`hn¨ncp¶ ]oUIÄ AdnbWw. icoc¯n ]ªn Npän IoeptX¨v, tdmam \KcnbpsS cm{XnIsf {]Imin¸n¡m\mbv {InkvXym\nIsf hoYntbmcs¯ XqWpIfn sI«n\nÀ¯n ]´wt]mse I¯n¨ncp¶ Imeambncp¶p AXv. tdmapambn hn]peamb hmWnPy_Ôw ]peÀ¯nbncp¶ tNcP\Xbv¡v CsXÃmw AdnhpÅXmsW¶pw HmÀ¡pI. IhnXbpsS [z\nam\§Ä IhnX]nd¶ Imehpambn _Ôs¸Sp¯n Nn´n¨mte IqSpX hyàamIq.

]m«v c­v

IbndpIpdp apIssh (]md¡nWÀ apJ§Ä)

Cu ]m«n Imaw,t{Im[w, tamlw XpS§nb ]m]§fn s]SmsX thZs¸mcpfpIÄ Im¯psIm­v (hcn 7) AaÀXpssW ]ncnbmsX (hcn9) `cWw \S¯p¶ ]enbmss\ sNÂ- sIgpIp«phs\ t]mse Xs¶ {]PIfpw shevsIgpXmss\ þ _enbn Fgp¶Åp¶hs\þ (hcn 16)

kvXpXn¨psIm­v A\ysâ hkvXp¡sfm¶pw tamln¡msX kXy¯nepw

kpJambn Pohn¡p¶Xmbv Ihn ]dbp¶p. thäps]mcpÄth ImXp (thZs¸mcpÄ Im¯p) Ignbp¶hsc ]ndÀ (hcn 7) F¶mWv Ihn hntijn¸n¡p¶Xv. sshZy\mY A¿À {]PIÄ F¶v XÀÖa sN¿p¶p. Cu hm¡n\v kv\m\¯m ho­pw ]nd¶hÀ F¶mWÀ°w; AXmbXv NmÀ¯v AYhm A`ntjIw kzoIcn¨hÀ.

{InkvXpamÀ¤¡mÀ NmÀ¯v kzoIcn¡p¶hcmIbm NmÀ¯À (Nm¯À) F¶padnbs¸«ncp¶p.

k·mÀ¤¯nepw Ncn¨v

]m«v \mev

NoÀ Nm shÅn (Ir]sbmgp Ip¶ shÅn \£{Xw)

hcn : 6 þ 9

HmX th«Â Assh ]ndÀ s¨bvX CuX Gä FâAdp]pcns´mgpIpw Adw ]pcnb´WÀ hgnsamgns´mgpIn Rmew \n³ hgnsbmgpI¸mS Nm³dp

HmX th«Â = hN\w kzoIcn¡pI (thZ{]amW§Ä kzoIcn¡pI)

Assh =

k`

]ndÀ s¨bvX = ]nd¡pI (kv\m\s¸SpI) CuX Gä = D]hn (]ckvt\lw) bmIp¶ ISa sN¿pI F³d = F¶ Adp]pcns´mgpIpw = apJy[À½s¯¡pdn¨pÅ Adnhv HgpIp¶. Adw ]pcn = [À½Úm\w (kXyw Adnbp¶) A´WÀ = Aw + X¬ + AÀ (ssZh¯m A\p{KloXÀ, hc§Ä e`n¨hÀ, ]ptcmlnXÀ)

- 21 -

Aw = A´yambh³ (ssZhw) X¬ = A\p{Klw (hcw) Rmew = cmPyw Nmâp = Nm´p¶p hN\w th« k`bnÂ]nd¶hÀ sNt¿­pw D]hn F¶ apJyISasb¡pdn¨p Adnhp]Icp¶ [À½Úm\nIfmb ]ptcmlnXcpsS amÀ¤\nÀt±isamgnIÄ HgpIp¶ \nsâ cmPys¯ hgnIfnseÃmw (\ns¶¡pdn¨pff) a[pc KoX§Ä Dbcp¶p. tNcsâ \m«nse im´nbpsSbpw kar²nbpsSbpw ASnØm\w {InkvXpamÀ¤w \nÀt±in¡p¶ apJy[À½amb CuX (D]hn) BsW¶v Ihn hyàam¡p¶p, CuX F¶Xv `n£ \eIpIbÃ; A]c³ tNmZn¡msX Xs¶ Ahsâ Bhiyadnªp Zm\w sN¿p¶XmWv. c­p hkv{Xw DÅh³ H¶nÃm¯h\p sImSp¡s« F¶ thZhN\¯nsâ \nÀÆlWamWXv.

]m«p ]¯v

]pIsâ hmbw (ImhÂt`cn)

hcn : 33 þ 38

ISp©n\ ISm Abv apgMvIp a´nc¯p Acp´nc ac]nd IShpSv t]WnbÀ DbnÀt´mt\´nb Acpws]dÀ ]n­w IcpMvISv t]bvaIÄ ssI]pssSbq D\Sp¦ s\bvt¯mÀ XqDb \nssd aIngncpw]en Fdpav]p aq´m Cdpav]qXp ac]nÀ

ISp©n\ ISm Abv = Dds¡ Dds¡ Bbv apg¦p = apg§p¶ a´nc¯p = a{´§tfmsS Acp´nc = ]ca ]cnip²³ ac]nd IShpSv = tbip t]WnbÀ = [cn-¨À (]p-tcm-ln-XÀ) DbnÀt´mt\´nb = apJy\mbh³ G´nb Acpws]dÀ = XncpAhXmcw sNbvXh³ ]n­w = icocw Icp¦Sv t]bvaIÄ = tLmcmÔImcamb ]nimNv ssI]pssSbq D\Sp¦ = ssIhnd¨p \Sp§p¶ s\bvt¯mÀ = càw Xq = ]cnip²n Db = DbnÀ \nssd = \ndbp¶ aIngncpw = hoªnepÅ ]en = _en Fdpav]p aq´m = Ddp¼cn¡m¯ Cdpav]qXp = ImcpWyaqÀ¯n ac]nÀ = tbip AXyp¨¯n apg§p¶ a{´P]§tfmsS ]ca]cnip²\pw acn¨pbnÀ¯h\pamb - ssZh¯nsâ ]ptcm-lnXcn apJy\mbht- \´nb, XncphhXmcw sNbvXhsâ icochpw (tNmäp]nÞw) tLmcmÔImcamb ]nimNnsâ Ic§sf hnd¸n¨p \Sp¡p¶, ]cnip²nbpsS càambv \ndbp¶ (amdp¶) hoªnepÅ _enbpw Ddp¼cn¡m¯ (Ipdhphcm¯) ImcpWy¯nsâ aqÀ¯nbmb acn¨pbnÀ¯htâXmIp¶p . Cu ]m«nsâ Ahkm\¯n Cssi hncp¶pw s]cpt©mäp hncp¶pw sshZy\mYA¿À AÀ°w ]dbp¶n-S¯pw kqNn¸n¡p¶p­v. Cssi hncp¶v ss{IkvXhcpsS Znhy_enbmWv.

- 22 -

_enbÀ¸n¡s¸Sp¶ A¸hpw, hoªpw tbiphnsâ icoccà§fmbn amdp¶p F¶ hnizmkt¯msS _enbn kw_Ôn¡p¶hÀ `£n¡pIbpw ]m\w sN¿pIbpw sN¿p¶p. BZna {ZmhnUss{IkvXhÀ _enhkvXphmbv A¸¯n\p ]Icw tNmäp ]nÞamWp]tbmKn¨ncp¶Xv. kwLIme¯v thÄhn BtLmjt¯mSp tNÀ¶v \S¯nbncp¶ hn`hkar²amb kZybmWv s]cpt©mäp hncp¶v. \jvSamb H¶mw ]¯v DXnbt©cens\¡pdn¨msW¶v A\pam\n¡s¸ Sp¶p­tÃm. Cu cmPmhv s]cpt©mäpXnb³ BIp¶Xv thÄhntbmS\p-_Ôn¨pÅ s]cpabmÀ¶ tNmdqWp \evIp¶Xp sIm­mWv. Ipcpt£{X¯n Iuch þ ]mÞhÀ¡v kZy \ÂInb s]cpt©mäpXnb³ Ds­¦n At±lw C¡me¯n\pw Hcp kl{km_vZw ap³]v (_n.kn. 1000-þm am­p Ime¯v) XangIw `cn¨ncp¶ N{IhÀ¯nbmWv. DXnb³tNc \ÂInb s]cpt©mäp kZybv¡v B[mcamb ]m«v]pd\m¶qdnse c­mw ]m«mWv; apc©nbqÀ apSn\mIcmbÀ ]mSnbXv. {]kàhcnIÄ Xmsg tNÀ¡p¶p. Ae¦pssf¸pchnssbhscmSp Nnss\C \ne´ssesIm­ s]me¼q´pss¼ Cussc¼ Xn·cpw s]mcpXpIfs¯mgnb]v s]cpt©mäp anIp]Xw hsscbmXp sImSpt¯mbv

AeMvIv = skuµcyw Dssf = \jvSamhpI AeMvIpssf¸pc = skuµcyw sI«pt]mbhcpsS Bhmk Øew (\cIw) -þkzÀ¤-¯nse amemJam-cn Hcp hn`m-KamWv ssZht¯mSv adp-X-en-¨-t¸mÄ ]nim-Np-¡-fmbn amdnbsX¶v sF-Xnlyw. þ hnssbhscmSp = kzÀ¤hmknItfmSv (hnbw = kzÀ¤w) Nnss\C = adpXen¨t¸mÄ(FXnÀ¯-t¸mÄ) \ne´ssesIm­ = Xe¸¯v \nesIm­ s]me¼q´pss¼ = I\Itim`bmÀ¶ tZhsâ Dss¼ = ssZhw Cussc¼ = tIm]taäv (CuÀ = tIm]mán ) Xn·cpw = Xn·-bpsS aqÀ¯n-IÄ (]nimNp¡Ä) s]mcpXp If-s¯mgnb]v=t]mcmSn-t¯mäv If-samgnbp¶ s]cpt©mÀ = alnabmÀ¶ _ent¨mdv anIp]XwhsscbmXv = Xr]vXn hcpthmfw \cIw kzÀ¤hmknItfmSv adpXen¨t¸mÄ AhtcmSv t]mcmSnbhcpsS Xe¸¯p\n¶ {]`m]qcnX\mb tZhsâ tIm]taä,v Xn·bpsS aqÀ¯n-I-fmb ss]im-NnI iàn-IÄ Ifsamgnbp¶ alnabmÀ¶ (_en)tNmdv Xr]vXn hcpthmfw \ÂInbh³.

aq¶mw ]¯v : ]XnIw

]enbmss\

sNÂsIgpIp«ph³

cmPy`mcw

Hgnªv,

cmP]ptcmlnX\mbncp¶

s\Spw]mcXmb\mÀ k\ymk PohnXw \bn¡p¶ ap´pd¡m«nte¡p t]mIp¶Xmbn ]XnI¯n ImWmw. AXn\p ap³]v At±lw tate¡S (Ad_n¡S ) apX Iogv¡S (_wKmÄ kap{Zw) hsc B\Isf \nc¯n \ndp¯n, CcpIS \ocpw Hcp ]I BSnbtijw Abnssc aebn {]XnjvTn¨ncn¡p¶ ]dbn (thZKÀ`, aninlmsb {]khn¨hÄ) bpsS \Sbn Dds¡ kvtXm{XKoX§Ä Be]n¡p¶p­v. c£I\pP·taIn \cIkÀ¸¯nsâ XeXIÀ¯hfmb adnb½³, BZna{ZmhnUss{IkvXhÀ¡v i{XpkwlmcaqÀ¯nbpambncp¶p.

- 23 -

\memw ]¯v

tNccmPmhp þ If¦mbvI®n\mÀapSn tNcemX³, Ihn þ ]msse Im¸nbmäp Im¸nb\mÀ.

]m«v H¶v

IpagvIpd Xpgmbv (s]menabmÀ¶ hN\ ]pIgvN) Xpgmbv F¶Xn\v Xpfkn F¶pw AÀ°w ]dªp ImWp¶Xn\m hN\¯mepÅ Xpfkname F¶ t]cpw Cu ]m«n\p \ÂImhp¶XmWv. Ipd F¶m hN\w. F¶À°w. hÅphcpsS Xncp¡qdÄ sâAÀ°hpw XncphN\w F¶mWv. tUm.sI. A¿¸]Wn¡À, sI.Pn. N{µtiJc³ \mbcpsS Xncp¡dÄ `mjy ¯ns\gpXnb AhXmcnIbn IpdÄ F¶ ]Zs¯¡pdn¨p ]dbp¶Xp ImWpI : IpdÄ Hcp {]tXyI PohnXZÀi\amImw, AXv ]cn]Izamb kmam\yhnthIw Xs¶bmbn- IqSmbvIbnÃ. th­nh¶m {ZmhnU kwkv¡mc-¯\nabpsS Hä hm¡nepÅ Npcps¡gp¯p IqSnbmImw.

hcn : 1 þ 11

Ip³dpXsse aW´p IpgpD¡SepSp¯ a¬sIgp Rme¯p am´scmcm¦IqIv ssINpa´edpw ]qNev amXnc¯p \mevthdp \\´sse Hcps¦gps´men¸Xv sXffpbÀ hSnaWnsbdnbp\À IsÃ\ D®mss]ªnew ]\n¯pssd a®n h­qXp s]menXmÀ¯ncp sRacIe¯pIv I¬s]mcp XnIncn¡agv Ipcäpgm Abv AeMvIÀ sNevh³ tNhSn ]chn s\©paen DhssIbÀXp©p]Xns]bc aWn\ndssabncpfIe \nemhncn]p

IpâpXsse aW´p = Ip¶n³ Xe¸pIÄ NqSn IpgqD¡SepSp¯ = XncIfpgnbp¶ ISens\bpSp¯ a¬sIgp Rme¯p = hnf§p¶ `qanbnÂ

am´scmcmMvI = amss´¡mÀ H¶msI IqIvssI Npa\vXedpw = Iq¸pssIIfpbÀ¯n Dds¡ sNmÃp¶ ]qNev amXnc´p = ]qPmP]§Ä \mevthdp \\´sse = \mepZn¡pIfpw \\¨psIm­v HcpMvsIgps´men¸Xv = H¶msbmen¡pt¼mÄ sXÅpbÀ = sXÃpbc¯n hSnaWnsbdnbp\À = \o­ aWnbSntI«mepSs\

IsÃ\

D®mss]ªnew = t\m¼pt\mäncp¶hscÃmw ]\n¯pssd a®n = Ipfn¨p ip²cmIpw h­qXp = h­pIfmÀ¡p¶ s]menXmÀ¯ncp sRacIe¯pIv = \dpaW¸q¡fpsS amebWnª I¬s]mcp XnIncn¡agv Ipcäv = I¬Ip-fnÀ¡p¶ kpIrX kp-K-Ô cq]w Dgm Abv = DbcpIbmbv Ae¦À sNevh³ = AewIrX ssZhw tNhSn ]chn = Xr¸mZw hW§n s\©paen = lrZb amen\y§Ä (]m]§Ä)

= ]pgbnÂ

- 24 -

DhssI

AÀXp©p]Xns]bc = `àÀ AdpXn hcp¯p¶p (s]bÀ = `àÀ) aWn \ndssa = Idp¯ CcpfIe = Ccp«Iän \nemhncn]p = \nemhp hncnbp¶p Ip¶n³ Xe¸pIÄ NqSn XncIfpgnbp¶ ISens\ bpSp¯v hnf§p¶ `qanbnÂ, amss´¡mÀ H¶msI Iq¸pssIIfpbÀ¯ns- ¨mÃp¶ ]qPmP]§Ä,\mep]mSpw \\¨psIm­v H¶msbmen¡pt¼mÄ, sXÃpbsc \n¶pw \o­aWnbSn tI«mepSs\, t\m¼p- t\m-än-cp-¶-h-scÃmw ]pg-bn Ipfn¨p ip²cmbvhcpw. h­pIfmÀ¡p¶ \dpaW¸q¡fpsS amebWnª, I¬IpfnÀ¡p¶ kpIrXcq]apbcpIbmbn; B AewIrX ssZh¯nsâ Xncp¸mZw hW§n `àÀ s\©Is¯ tZmj§Ä¡pw tcmK ]oUIÄ¡pw AdpXn hcp¯pw. AÔImcaIän \nemhp hncnbpIbmbn. Cu ]m«nsâ Ahkm\ hcnbpw IqsS ImWpI.

hcn : 36

= tcmK§Ä

t]mÀanIp IpcpNnev \o am­ss\ ]eth

t]mÀanIp = t]mcmSn Pbn¨ (aninlm a\pjyc£bv¡mbv t]mcm«w \S¯nb) IpcpNn = IpcnÈn am­ss\ = Bcm[\ ]eth = F{Xtbm aninlm t]mcmSn Pbn¨ IpcnÈn \osb{Xtbm Bcm[\IÄ AÀ¸n¡p¶p. {InkvXpamÀ¤¡mcpsS k`mXeh-\mb s]cpamfnsâ BØm\amb amss´ \Kc¯n \S¡p¶ hNt\mÕh-s¯bmWv Cu ]m«n hÀ®n¡p¶Xv. C¶s¯ Icnkvamän¡v {]Øm\¡mcpsS kphntij ip{iqjbpsS ssienbn Xs¶bmbncp¶p BZna {ZmhnU ss{IkvXhk`-bnse hNt\mÕh§fpw F¶v Cu ]m«n \n¶pw a\Ênem¡mw. ]m]s¸mdpXn IqSmsX tcmKim´n, _m[ Hgn¸n¡Â XpS§nb AÛpX {]hÀ¯\§fpw, hnizmknIfpsS a{´P]§Ä Bch§fmbpbcpt¼mÄ kw`hn¡p¶Xmbn ta¸dª hcnIfn ImWmw. s]´¡pkvXm A\p`hw (]cnip² {XnXz¯nsâ þ ap¡¨ns¨ÂhcpsS þ aq¶mw Bfmb dqlmbpsS hc§Ä) BZnak`bn kPohambncps¶¶p ss{IkvXhcpsS Ncn{X {KÙ§Ä km£ys¸Sp¯p¶p. AÂambcpsS (km[mcW hnizmknIfpsS) ]cnip²mß -hce_v[nbn ]utcmlnXym[oiXzw \jvSs¸t«¡msa¶ Bi¦bn BtKmfk`mt\XrXzw BZna k`bpsS IcnkvamänIv {]hÀ¯\§Ä¡v hne¡p Iev]n¡p¶Xpw Ncn{X¯n ImWmw.

]m«v c­v-

Issgbaev Ig\n ( X­pIsf Xmgv¯p¶ \nd^e§Ä)

hcn : 1, 2

am­ss\ ]eth t]mÀanIp IpcpNn ! \o amXncw hnf¡pw Nmev]pw sNss½bpw

amXncw hnf¡pw = a{´§tfmsS AÀ¸n¡p¶ Nmev]pw sNss½bpw = kvt\lhpw ImcpWyhpw F{Xtbm Bcm[\IÄ, (aninlm a\pjy c£bv¡mbv) t]mcm«w \ndthänb IpcnÈn ! {]mÀ°\m a{´§tfmsS \o ImgvNhbv¡p¶ kvt\lhpw ImcpWyhpw Bcm[\ Xs¶. \mÀapSnt¨censâ kZvKpW§Ä Hmtcm¶p hÀ®n¨n«v, i{Xp¡tfmSpt]mepw ]IImWn¡m¯ At±l¯nsâ £amioeamWv Gähpw al¯csa¶v Ihn ]dbp¶p., CXmWv Ipcnin\p tNÀ¶v Bcm[\bpw.

Ipdn¸v : tXmaÊv At¸mkvXesâ Imew apXÂ Z£ntW´-

- 25 -

y³ ss{IkvXhÀ¡v Ipcniv ]qPyhkvXphmbncp¶Xn\v

]Xnäp¸¯nse ]e ]m«pIfpw sXfnhp\ÂIp¶p. Hcp ]t£ temI¯v BZyambp­mb kzX{´ ss{IkvXh kaqlamb C´y³ k`bn \n¶pamhmw BtKmf {InkvXpk` ]e BNmc§fpw Bcm[\mcoXnIfpw BtLmj§fpw kzoIcn¨n«pÅXv.

]m«v A©v

sa¿mSp ]c´sse (ssZhs¯ incÊm¡n sa¿m«w)

hcn : 2

Dssc Nmâ\hmÀ s]cpssa \n³ sh³dn

Dssc Nmâ\hmÀ

=

hN\w

sh³dn

=

{]tLmjn¡p¶hÀ shÃn (Pbn¨p)

hN\ {]tLmjIcmbhcpsS (NmtâmcpsS) {]ikvXn-sbbpw \o ( \mÀapSnt¨c ) shÃp¶p. IhnbpsS Cu {]kvXmh\ hN\ {]tLmjIcmb ss{IkvXh thZ\mbIÀ¡v kaql¯nep­mbncp¶ al¯mb Øm\w hyàam¡p¶p.

]m«v H¼Xv

Ghew hnb³]ssW (_en\njvThnPbt`cn)

hcn : 1

]ndÀs¡\ hmgvXn \o bmI³ amtd

]ndÀs¡\ hmgvXn = ]ndÀ¡v ({InkvXpamÀ¤¡mÀ¡v) F¶pw cmPmhv \o bmI³ amtd = \o Xs¶ alms\ ]ndÀs¡¶pw \o Xs¶bmWv cmPmhv aq¶mw ]¯v ]m«v 2 ( IbndpIpdp apIssh ) ]ndÀ F¶Xn\v sshZy\mY A¿À {]PIsf¶v AÀ°w Iev]n¡p¶Xv icnbsöv Cu hcnImWn¡p¶p. ]ndÀ {]PIfmsW¦n AhÀ¡v - tNcN{IhÀ¯nbmb \mÀapSnt¨c Xs¶bmWv cmPmsh¶v {]tXyIw ]dtb­XnÃtÃm. i{Xphnsâ - B{IaW¯mtem, B`y´cIem]w aqetam cmPy¯nsâ GsX¦nepw `mKs¯ `cWm[nImcw \mÀapSnt¨cen\p \jvSs¸«mepw ]ndÀs¡¶pw At±lw Xs¶ hmgvXn (hmgp¶h³) BIp¶X,v At±lw {InkvXpamÀ¤¡mcpsS k`mXeh\mb s]cpamÄIqSn BbXpsIm­mWv.

A©mw ]¯v

tNc cmPmhv sN¦p«ph³ Ihn ]m«v Ggv

þ

ISÂ ]ndtIm«nb tNc³

þ

]cWÀ \¶pX hndenbÀ (D¯a \À¯InIÄ)

þ

hcn : 3

hsscanssN CgnXcpw Acphn

hsscanssN

=

aninlmbpsS hc§Ä

CgnXcpw

=

HgpIp¶

aninlmbpsS Ir]mhcwt]mse (A\pkyqXw) HgpIp¶ Acphn

]m«v F«v

t]scgn hmgvss¡(tIÄhntI«hmgvN) hcn : 12

]evs]mdn amÀ] !

]ev

=

]en (thÄ_en)

s]mdn =

C{µnbw

amÀ]

=

alm³

- 26 -

_en\njvT C{µnb§fm alXzw BÀ¶h³ thÄ_enbn \n¶pw DÄs¡m­ ssNX\y¯m C{µnb§sf \nb{´n¡m³ iànbmÀÖn¨h\mIbm sN¦p«ph³ - bmsXmcphn[ {]tem`\§fnepwAIs¸SpIbnsös{X Ihn Cu ]m«n hÀ®n¡p¶Xv.

Bdmw ]¯v

tNccmPmhv þ BSpsIm«p ]m«p tNcemX³.

Ihn

þ

Imss¡¸mSn\nbmÄ \s¨ssÅbmÀ (Im¡¸pÅnbpÅ AXnkpµcn)

]m«v A©v

Xp©pw ]´À ({]kn²amb ]´À) þhnetbdnb ap¯pIÄ hnfbp¶ ØeamWv ]´Àþ

hcn : 20, 21

XmMvIp\À¯ssI´ HÄhmÄ Hm¦epůp¡pcpNn ! \n³ \mtf.

XmMvIp\À¯ ssI´=

HÄhmÄ

=

Xm¦fpbÀ¯p¶ I¿n Hfn]mdp¶ hmÄ

Hm¦epůp =

lrZb¯n DbÀ¯p¶p

\n³ \mtf

=

\oWmÄ hmgpI

Xm¦Ä ssIIfn Xnf§p¶ hmfpbÀ¯pt¼mÄ lrZbw IpcninepbÀ¯p¶p; A§p \oWmÄ

hmgs«.

Bdmw ]¯v ]XnIw

Bdmw ]¯nsâ ]XnI¯n ]mÀ¸mÀ¡p Ip«\m«nse Hcp {Kmaw BSpsIm«p]m«p tNcemX³ Zm\w sN¿p¶Xmbn ]dbp¶p. sshZy\mY A¿À ]mÀ¸mÀ F¶Xv {_mlvaWÀ F¶p XÀÖa sN¿p¶p. ChÀ {_mlvaWcÃ; ]mcnsâ ]nXmhv F¶ AÀ°amWv ]mÀ¸m bv¡v. ChÀ ss{IkvXh ]ptcmlnXÀ BW.v ({ZmhnU¯n NnÃv s]mXpsh D¨cn¡s¸«ncp¶nÃ. ]mÀ¸m, ]m¸mbpw NmÀ¯³ Nm¯³ Bbpw amdp¶p.) ChscbmWv AeIvkm³{Unbmbnepw tdmambnepw aäpap­m-bncp¶, tIcf¯nse ss{IkvXh hÀ¯I kwL§fpsS tImf\nIfn IS ISs¶¯nb {_mlvaWcmbn ]e Ncn{XImc·mcpw Nn{XoIcn¡p¶Xv. NneÀ Chsc B\]m¸m·mÀ hscbm¡nbn«p­v.

Ggmw ]¯v

tNccmPmhv

þ

sNevhISpwtImhmgnbmX³.

Ihn

þ

I]neÀ

]m«v \mev

DsscNmÂthÄhn (hN\w HgpIp¶ thÄ_en)

hcn : 3, 4

AdMvIssc´p hbMvInb \mhnÀ ]nd¦nb DsscNmev thÄhn apSn¯ tIÄhn

AdMvIssc´p

=

kXy§Ä A©pw

hbMvInb

=

hg§nb

\mhnÀ ]ndMvInb

=

\mhn ]nd¶

DsscNmÂ

=

hN\ {]hmlw

thÄhn

=

thÄ_en

apSn¯ tIÄhn

=

{]Zm\w sN¿p¶ {]kn²n

kXy§f©pw hg§nb\mhnÂ\n¶papXncp¶ hN\{]tLmjWt¯msSbpÅ thÄ_enbpsS biÊv. {]kn²cmb cmPm¡·mÀ Gsdbps­¦nepw Xný bpsS (hcn: c­v) ASnØm\ kXy§Ä

- 27 -

A©pw lrZnØamb sNÂh¡Spt¦mbpsS hN\{]tLmjWt¯msSbpÅ thÄ_en \evIp¶ biÊv AhcpsSsbÃmw {]kn²nsb sISp¯n¡fbp¶psh¶v Ihn ]dbp¶p.

Xný =

tXm (k`)BIp¶ A½. ( tXm F¶ ]Z¯nsâ asämcp cq]-amWv Xn )

{InkvXpk`bpsS A©p hnizmk kXy§Ä

1. ]cnip²{XnXzw :þ

]nXmhv þ ]p{X³ þ dql (ap¡£n siÂhw, ap¡Sv sNÂhÀ)

]p{Xsâ a\pjymhXmcw, {Iqip_en,

2. {InkvXp ZÀi\w :

DbnÀ¸v,kzÀ¤mtcmlWw.

3. dqlbpsS (\o¯mÀ, ]cnip²mßmhv ) hc§Ä

4. ]m]tamN\w

5. icoc¯nsâ DbnÀ¸pw \nXyPoh\pw

aäp cmPm¡·mcpsS {]kn²nsb sISp¯p¶, thÄhnbm e`yamIp¶ biÊns\ I]neÀ D]an¡p¶Xv, hnNpav]nÀ ]³ao³ HfnsISRmbndp hnt\mSmWv (]m«v \mev : hcn. 12, 13). hnNpav]nÀ = BImi¯p ]nd¡p¶

]³ao³

=

\£{X§Ä

HfnsIS

=

{]Imiw sI«pt]mIp¶

Rmbndp

=

kqcy³

kqcysâ ap¶n BImi¯nse \£{X§fpsS {]Imiw A{]Xy£amIp¶Xpt]mse kqcy³ F¶v tbiphns\bpw hntijn¸n¨ncp¶phtÃm.

]m«v Ggv

sh¬t]mgv¡®n (hnip²amÃyw) hcn : 2þ4

]´À s¸cnb t]cnssN apXqÀIv IS\dn ac]nÀ ssIhev ]mW sX³ISÂ ap¯v

]´Às¸cnb t]cnssN

=

]´À F¶ t]cnÂ

apXqÀIv

=

{]kn²amb apXqÀ F¶ Øes¯

IS\dn

=

]ca kXyamb

ac]nÀ

=

tbip

ssIhev

=

ssIhÃyw (km^Ãyw)

]mW

=

]mW F¶ kwt_m[\ sXfnª ISÂ

sX³ISÂ

= tl ]mWm ]´À F¶ t]cn {]kn²amb apXqcnse sXfnª ISen hnfbp¶ ap¯v, IS\dn ac]nÀ \evIp¶ ssIhÃyamWv.

]m«v F«v

Gahmgvss¡ (tIaamb PohXw) hcn : 3

ISp©nsse IShp³ =

ISp©nsse IShp´gMvIp Ipcev apcNw alm{]ImiamIp¶ ssZhw

AgMvIp

=

AgIm˦

Ipcev apcNw

=

hN\amIp¶ Bbp[w

( hN\w , CcpXeaqÀ¨bpÅ hmÄ F¶p ss

- 28 -

nÄ)

alm{]Imiamb ssZh¯nsâ

ZnhyhN\amIp¶ Bbp[w .

]m«v H³]Xv

a¬sIgp Rmew (AgImÀ¶ tZiw) hcn : 1, 2

aebpdgv bmss\ hmtâmbv shevsImSn

hssc anssN bcphnbn³ hbn³ hbn\pS MvIIv

aebpdgvbmss\

hmt³dmbv = \bn¡p¶h³

shevsImSn = sh¶ns¡mSn

hssc anssN

bcphnbn³ = Acphnt]mÂ

CSXShnÃmsX

hbn³ hbn\pSMvIIv =

aet]mepÅ B\

=

=

aninlmbpsS hc§Ä

Nen¡p¶p aet]mepÅ B\sb \bn¡p¶ht\´p¶ sh¶ns¡mSn Acphnt]msemgpIp¶ aninlmbpsS Ir]mhcw IWs¡ CSXS hnÃmsX Nen¨p sImt­bncp¶p . sNevhISpwtImhnt\mSv Ihn XpSÀ¶p ]dbp¶p, \nsâ ]qÀÆnIcpw, \n³ t]mev, B ssNhn tImÄssIbcmIen\ ssNbmXp . (hcn 11). \ns¶t¸mse B ssZh¯n hnizkn¨v {]hÀ¯n¨hÀ BIp¶p . Cu IhnX Ahkm\n¡p¶Xpw ImWpI. \mevthdp \\´sse tbmcmMvIp \´ CeMvIp \mep]mSpambv, thÀXncnªp \nesImÅp¶hsc H¶mbv CW¡p¶ k`m-X-e-h-·m-cmb tNccmPm¡·mscbmWv Ihn hmgv¯p¶Xv. Ahsct¸mse AÃm¯hÀ¡v Htcm tZiw `cn¡phm-\ÃmsX, temIw apgph³AS¡n hmgphm³ F§s\ km[n¡pw? F¶v Ihn tNmZn¡p¶pap­v (sshZy\mYA¿À Cu ]m«nsâ AÀ°w hnhcn¡p¶Xnsâ Ahkm\ hmNIw).]- Xnäp¸¯n hÀ®n-¡s- ¸S- p¶ tNcN{IhÀ¯namÀ ss{IkvXh k`mXeh·mcmb s]cpam¡·mcpw Bbncps¶¶p Cu `mKw hyàam¡p¶p. k`mXeh·mcpsS `cWw tNccmPy¯p am{Xw HXp§p¶XÃ. Z£ntW´ybn FÃmbnS¯papÅ {InkvXp-amÀ¤¡mcpsS Xeh\mbncp¶p s]cpamÄ.

]m«v ]¯v

]ssd¡pcecphn (thZhN\ {]hmlw)

hcn : 11

heav]Sp hm³ Igev hbhÀ s]cpa:

heav]Sp =

_ehm\mb

hm³ = AhXmcw sN¿p¶ ]p{X³ X¼pcm³, tbip. -þ]cnip² {XnXz¯nsâ c­mamfmb ]p{X³ Xs¶bmWv Xncp¡qdfnsâ BapJ¯nepÅ Cuizc kvXpXnbn hÅphÀ c­maXmbn

hmgv¯p¶ hm³ þ

Igev

=

]mZw

hbhÀ=

hW§p¶hÀ

kÀÆià\mb aninlmbpsS Xr¸mZw hW§p ¶hcpsS alXzw kqNn¸n¨n«v sNÂh¡Spt¦mhnsâ `àm\pjvTm\§Ä Ihn hÀ®n¡p¶p.

hcn : 18 þ 19

thÄhnbnÀ IShpfcp¯nss\ tIÄhn DbnÀ \nsse bpeIss¯bcn³ ]pd¯nss\

- 29 -

thÄhnbnÀ

IShpfcp¯nss\

DbnÀ\nsse bpeIw =

]pdp¯-

= thÄ_en-bnse = ssZhs¯ kvXpXn¨v kzÀ¤w ]pIgv¯n

=

nss\

thÄ_enbnse ssZhs¯ kvXpXn¨p ]mSn , kzÀ¤Øcmbhscbpw ]pIgv¯n

Ggmw ]¯v þ ]XnIw

cmP]ptcmlnXt\¡mÄ thZImcy§fn AdnhpÅ-

h\mbncp¶s- NevhISpt¦m, ambh®\mb

(Acq]n AYhm {]Imicq]nbmb) ssZhs¯ kvXpXn¨psIm­p, thÄhn BtLmj¯n\pw aäp`àIÀ½§Ä¡pÅ sNehpIÄ¡pambvv HI¶qÀ F¶ tZiw thZ\mbIÀ¡v Zm\w sNbvXp F¶v ]XnI¯n ImWp¶p.

F«mw ]¯v

tNccmPmhv

þ

s]cpwtNc Ccps¼mssd AcnNn IngmÀ

Ihn

þ

]m«v c­v

Dcps¯gp shÅw (s]cpshÅw)

hcn : 5

A³]ssX Im¸ Adn-hp-h-en-bp-dp-¯p

A³]ssX Im¸

=

IcpWbpÅhsc c£n¡p¶

Adnhphenbpdp¯p

=

kXyamÀ¤w ]men¨v

hen

=

hgn

IcpWbpÅhsc c£n¡p¶ kXyamÀ¤w ]men¨v

þ Cu Adnhphenbqdp¯p BWv

Xncp¡qdÄ BapJ¯nsâ \memw A²ymb¯n hnhcn¡p¶

Ad³henbqdp¯Â . þ Cu ]m«nsâ Ahkm\¯n Ipcnins\ ]pIgv¯p¶p­v.

hcn : 15,16

aSMvIäobn\ ss\ssb Nn\MvsIgp IpcpNnev !

aSMvIäobn\ =

AÚX \o¡p¶

ss\ssb

=

\ymb

Nn\MvsIgp

=

alnabm˦

AÚX \o¡p¶ \ymb alna Fgp¶ Ipcniv

]m«v aq¶v - \nd´nIgv ]mNnssg

(Xnf¡amÀ¶ kzÀ®\qev) Cu ]m«n Cchpw ]Iepw

]evbmWÀ Ipcssh (hcn 9,10) Dbcp¶ ]pImÀ]pcn

s]cpt©cencp s¼mssd IogS¡nbXmbn ]dbp¶p. ]evbmWÀ = _en¡v AWbp¶hÀ tNmf XeØm\ambncp¶ ]pImÀ]pcnbpw (Imthcn]qw ]«Ww) thÄhnbn kw_Ôn¡p¶hcpsS Km\mem]w sIm­v cmhpw ]Iepw apJcnXambncp¶p A¡me¯v.

]m«v \mev

\ew s]dp XncpaWn (\· hnfbn¡p¶ XncpaWn)

hcn : 1, 2

tIÄhn tI«p¸Snh samSnbmXp thÄhn th«ss\ DbÀt´mcp h¸Nv

- 30 -

tIÄhn tI«p¸Snh samSnbmXp = {]tLmjWw

tI«p ]Tn¨Xp IqSmsX thÄhn th«ss\ DbÀt´mÀ = thÄ_en AÀ¸n¡p¶ ]ptcmlnX apJyÀ

h¸Nv

= Adnhpt\Sn

tI«p ]Tn¨Xp IqSmsX thÄhn AÀ¸n¡p¶ ]ptcmlnX apJy·mcn \n¶pw th­{X Adnhp t\Snbh\mb s]cpt©cencps¼mssd, hnNpav]mSp ac]nd bpsS þ hcn 15 þ (kzÀ¤Ø\mb tbiphnsâ) Bcm[\m IÀ½§Ä- apd -sXämsX A\pjvTn¡p¶h\mbncp¶p .

]m«v Bdv

amNnXdncpss¡ (k\ymknIfpsS Ccn¸nSw)

hcn : 11

]evhnssX bpghnÀ NntÃcmfÀ

]evhnssX bpghnÀ

=

_enbpsS hn¯pIÄ hnXbv¡p¶

NntÃcmfÀ

=

{]IminXcmb hyànIÄ

(Nn = {]Imiw, alXzw)

_enbpsS hn¯pIÄ hnXbv¡p¶ {]IminXcmb hyànIÄ

DgpXpadn¡p¶ \ne§fnÂ

HfnNnXdp¶ \·bpsS XncpaWnIÄ hnfbp¶ \mSpIÄ¡p \mY\mbht\ F¶v s]cpt©cencp- s¼mssdsb AcNn IngmÀ hmgv¯p¶p.

]m«v ]¯v -

]p®pssS sbdpgv t¯mÄ (Xg¼pÅ _etadnb tXmÄ)

hcn : 14

s\Spt´À aoanssN \pSMvIp sImSn

s\Spt´À

=

s\Snb tXcnÂ

ao anssN

=

aninlm ( ao F¶Xv ao³ þ

\pSMvIp

=

an¶p¶ þ F¶Xnsâ {lkzcq]-amWv; {]IminX³ F¶À°w) ]mdp¶

s\Snb tXcnsâ aotX ]mdp¶ aninlmbpsS ASbmfapÅ sImSn F¶v tNcemXsâ sImSnsb hÀ®n¨n«v, ]I ]pecp¶ a\ÊpIfn Cu sImSnbSbmf¯nsâ AÀ°w DZn¡pIbnsöpw Ihn ]dbp¶p­v.

Ipdn¸v : {ZmhnU ss{IkvXh k`bpsS sImSn ASbmfw abn Bbncp¶p. tXmakvAt¸mkvXe³ abnensâ ]pd¯v k©cn¨ncp¶-XmbpÅ sFXnly¯n\v ASnØm\anXmWv. k`mXeh\mb s]cpamfpsS sImSnASbmfw abnepw temI-¯nsâ {]Im-i-amb anin-lm-bpsS sImSn ASbmfw {]`m-X-¯nsâ BK-a\w hnfn-¨-dn-bn-¡p¶ ]qh³tImgnbpw (tNhÂ) Bbncp¶p.

H¼Xmw ]¯v

tNccmPmhv þ Cfw tNc Ccps¼mssd Ihn þ s]cpwIp³dqÀ IngmÀ

]m«p aq¶v

]evtXmev sXmgpXn (_enk`bpsS BioÀhmZw)

hcn : 3, 4

]evtXmev sXmgpXnsbmSp

s\Spt´À \pSMvIp sImSn thÄ_en AÀ¸n¡p¶ tXm (sshZnI kaqlw) -BioÀÆZn¨ sImSn ]mdp¶ s\Snb tXcpItfmSpIqSnb tNcssk\ys¯ hÀ®n¡p¶p.

]m«v Bdv -

- 31 -

sh´nd XSss¡ (Ir]m_eamÀ¶ ssI)

hcn : 11

s]m³sNbv ]qMvIpssg aoanssN t¯m³dpav

s]m³sNbv = s]m¶pXncpw (\· hÀjn¡p¶) ]q¦pssg = Xr¸mZw aoanssN = aninlm (ao = {]`bmÀ¶) tXm³dpav = hmgv¯p¶ Ir]mZmbIamb aninlmbpsS ]pWy]mZ§Ä \an¡p¶ CfwtNcencps¼mssdbpsS lrZbw, \ocmSm\nd§nb kpµcnIfpsS ImXpIfn \n¶pw hoW B`cW§Ä, Igpt¡mse¯m¯{X Bgaps­¦nepw Icbv¡p\n¶p t\m¡nbmÂt]mepw ImWmhp¶ hm\nbmänse * sXfn\ocnt\-¡mÄ \nÀ½eamsW¶v Ihn hmgv¯p¶p.

]m«v F«v

IevImev IhssW (IenIme IhW) þ ssZhP\¯nsâ c£bv¡mbv tKmenbm¯n\p t\sc _me\mb ZmhoZv {]tbmKn¡p¶ Bbp[amWv IhW þ

hcn : 11þ17

IpcpXn hnXnÀ¯ Iphhp t¨mäp¡pt³dmSp DcpsIgp ac]nÀ Ahnssc ]ssdC th´cpav thfncpav ]n³h´p ]WnbIv sImäsabvXnb s]cntbmÀ acpI! hnbepssfbcnam³ adMvsIgp IpcpNnev hnchp¸sW apgMvIp \nssc tXmevhssc¸n³ DchpIfnäp shevsImSn \pSMvIpav IpcpXnhnXnÀ¯ = _entbmSptNÀ¶ Iphhp = s]cpabpÅ tNmäpIptâmSp = tNmdp Iq\tbmsS DcpsIgp = icocw \ÂInb, P·w sImSp¯ ( {]kn²amb F¶pw AÀ°ap­v) ac]nÀ = tbip Ahnssc ]ssdC = Abnc aebnse ]dbn th´cpav = th´cpw(cmPm¡fpw) thfncpav = {]`p¡fpw

þ aninlm Bb {]`p-hn hniz-kn-¡p-¶-hÀ F¶pw AÀ°w I¸n-¡mwþ

]n³h´p ]WnbIv = tkhn¡p¶ sImäsabvXnb = \mSphmgp¶ s]cntbmÀ = s]cpamÄ

acpI =

hmgpI

hnbepssfbcnam³ = temI ]m]§sf \o¡p¶h³

(temI c£I³) acMvsIgp = thZclky§sfgp¶ IpcpNnev = Ipcnin hnchp]v = hncnbp¶ ]ssW = Bem]\w apgMvIp = apg§p¶ \nssc = \nc tXmÂhssc¸n³ = k`mhc§fpsS Dchp¡fnäp = hN\[mctbäv shevsImSn = sh¶nsImSn

* hm\nbmÀ þ Abncaebn \n¶papÂ`hn¡p¶ s]cnbmÀ.

- 32 -

\pSMvIpav = ]mdp¶p _entbmSp tNÀ¶ s]cpt©mäpkZytbmsS, aninlmbv¡p P·w \ÂInb Abnc]dbnsb cmPm¡·mcpw {]`p¡·mcpw - tkhn¡p¶, \mSn¶pStbm\mb s]cntbmsc hmgpI. - temIc£Isâ thZclky§sfgp¶ IpcnineÀ¸n¡-s¸Sp¶ Bcm[\mt`cnbnÂ, k`mhc§Ä \nc\ncbmsbmgpIn-sb¯p¶ hN\[mcbn (CfwtNcencps¼mssdbpsS) sh¶ns¡mSn ]mdp¶p.

]m«v H³]Xv -

Xphcm Iq´Â (Cud³ apSn)

hcn

: 10, 11

\mfn³ \mfn³ \mSpsXmgptX¯ DbÀ\nsse bpeI¯pbÀt´mÀ

\mfn³ \mfn³ = \mfpIÄtXmdpw \mSpsXmgptX¯ = \mSp sXmgpXmNcn-¡p¶ DbÀ\nssebpeI¯pbÀt´mÀ = kzÀ¤¯nte¡pbÀ¶hÀ kzÀ¤w ]qInbhsc \mfn \mfn \mSp sXmgp XmNcn¡p¶p sh¶v Ihn ]mSp¶Xn \n¶pw kzÀ¤¯n tes¡Sp¡s¸« ]pWymßm¡fpsS HmÀ½\mfpIÄ BtLmjn-¨ncp- s¶¶v ImWmw. sX¿§Ä F¶v {ZmhnUss{IkvXhÀ hntijn¸n¨ncp¶Xv almßm¡fmb Cu ]qÀÆnIscbmWv. ]pWyhm·mcpsS s]cp¶mfmtLmj¯n\v BtKmfss{IkvXh k`bv¡v amXrIbmbXv BZna{ZmhnU ss{IkvXhcmIWw. Nne¸XnImcw, aWntaJe XpS§nb Imhy§fnse \mbnIm\mbI·mÀ sX¿§sf {]Xn\n[oIcn¡p¶hcmWv.

hcn : 19

aos\mSp ]ssdbqMv IÀ]n³

aos\mSp = \£{Xt¯mSpIqSn

]ssdbpMv = ]dbnbmb (k`m \mY-bmb )

IÀ]n³

= I\yI

\£{Xt¯mSpIqSnb k`m-\mYbmb I\yI \£{X-§fpsS cmPvRn F¶v ss{IkvXhÀ tZhamXm-hns\ C¶pw kvXpXn¡p¶p­v. {ZmhnUcpsS sImässhtZhnbpw Abnssc ]dbnbpw tbiphns\ {]khn¨ tZhamXmhmW.v cmPys¯

]e sImä§Ä (IcIÄ) Bbn `mKn¨ncp¶p. Hmtcm Icbnsebpw ss{IkvXhcpsS Iq«mbvabmWv Assh (k`). AsshbpsS {]XnjvTmeb¯nse (Imhnse) tZhokzcq]amWv sImässhtZhn . {]Imiw Bbh³ F¶ AÀ°¯n tbiphns\ ao³ (an¶p¶,\£{Xw) F¶v hntijn¸n¨ncp¶p. BZnass{IkvXh-k`bpsS HutZymKnI NnÓw ao³ Bbncp¶p F¶Xpw kvacWobamWv. ao\¨n (A¨n = A½) F¶Xv {ZmhnU ss{IkvXhÀ -tZhamXmhn\p \ÂInb hntijWambncp¶p.

]m«p ]¯v -

hensIgp XSss¡ (_enIr]t]dp¶ ssI)

hcn : 11 þ 13

thÄhenbpdp¯p sNss½ ]q¬Sp Ad³hmg¯v \ÀIm¬S hndev am´c³ hndev acpI

thÄhenbpdp¯p = thÄ_enbÀ¸n¨v sNss½ ]q¬Sq = A\p{Klw t\Sn Ad³ hmg¯v = [À½ kvXpXnItfmsS \ÀIm¬S = \·IÄ ]pecp¶Xp I¬Sv hndev am´c³ = am´c³ t{ijvT³ hndevacpI = hnPbnbmbn hncmPn¨mepw thÄhn AÀ¸n¨v, AXn\mepff Ir]tbmsS, kXyamÀ¤ kvXpXnItfmsS \m«nse§pw \·IÄ

- 33 -

]pecp¶Xv I­v am´c³ t{ijvTm, hnPbnbmbn hncmPn¨mepw

Ipdn¸v : am´cÀ F¶p hntijn¸n¡p¶Xv k`m BØm\amb amss´ ( amtXhm bpsS Imhy cq]w) sIm«mc¯n ]mÀ¡p¶ tNccmPm¡sfbmWv. CfwtNc Ccps¼mssdbpw am´c³ BIbm k`mXeh\pamIp¶p. k`mXehs\bmWv BZntNc·mcpsS Ime¯v s]cpamÄ F¶v hntijn¸n¨ncp¶Xv; \mSphmgp¶ N{IhÀ¯nsb tNc BX³ F¶pw. N{IhÀ¯nbpw s]cpamfpw Htc BÄ Xs¶bmhmw. ]Xnäp¸¯nÂ-hÀ®n¡p¶- tNccmPm¡sfÃmw A§s\bpÅhcmWv.-]s£, k`mXehsâ `cWImew ]{´­p hÀjambn \nÝbn¡s¸«ncp¶Xn\m B Imemh[n Ignbpt¼mÄ \mSphmgp¶ N{IhÀ¯n s]cpamÄ Øm\w Hgnªncp¶p. ]Icw bphcmPmthm Asæn ]ÞnX\mb Hcp cmP_Ôpthm k`mXeh-\mbn Øm\ta¡pw. ]n¡me¯v \nehn h¶ tImbne[nImcn F¶ Øm\¯nsâ XpS¡anXmWv. k`mXeh\mb s]cpamfnsâ Øm\mtcmlWw ]{´­p hÀj¯nsemcn¡Â Xncp\mhmbv aW¸pd¯p IqSp¶ aImaI ¯n (almal¯nÂ) h¨mWv \S¶ncp¶Xv.

hcn : 17-- þ- 19

]³ao\m¸¬ Xn¦Ä t]me]v ]q¯v NpäpsamSp s]men´p tXm³dsse DcpsIgp ac]nÀ Abnssc ]chnbpav

]³ao\m¸¬ = \£{X§Ä Nqgv¶

Xn¦Ä t]me]v ]q¯v = N{µs\t¸mse {]tim`n¨v NpäpsamSp s]men´p

tXm³dsse = Npäpw

kvtXm{XKoX§fpsS

DcpsIgp ac]nÀ

Bchpambv

Abnssc ]chnbpav = acn¨pbÀ¯h\p P·w sImSp¯ Abnc aebnse

adnb½³)

Abncaebnse cmÚnbmbn hncmPn¡p¶ tZhamXm-hns\ \£{X§Ä Nqgv¶ N{µt\mSv D]an¨p kvXpXn¡p¶p.

cmÚn (k`mamXmhmb

{ZmhnU `mjmt]mjWhpw

BZna ss{IkvXhcpw

kwLIrXnIfnse `mjbpsS hSnhpw, Hgp¡pw ]m«pIfpsS hr¯\n_²Xbpw {]mk`wKnbpw Imhy_nw_§fpsaÃmw kwLIme¯n\pw ]e \qäm­pIÄ¡p apt¼ A]{`wimhØ ]n¶n« Hcp `mjbptSXmsW¶Xn kwibanÃ. CXphsc hmbn¨n«nÃm¯, _n.kn. ImeL«¯nse {ZmhnU inemenJnX-§Ä -B\ae, IgpIpae, Ipcp¦me¡pSn, InScn¸«n, Inehfhv, sIm¦m¸pebwIpfw,

Ip¶¡pSn, ap¯p¸«n, ama­qÀ, a¦ew, amÀKhe, ta«p¸«n, ]pIeqÀ, Nn¯\hmkÂ, Xncp¨nd¸Ån, Xncp¸³I³dw, hmhNnbqÀ, hn¡ncawKew- F¶nhnS§fnseÃmw -ImWp¶p­v. * -Acn¡taSp \n¶p In«nb ]m{X§fnepw Cu en]nIÄ ImWmw. Z£ntW´y apgph³ Cu en]n {]Nmc¯nencp¶psh¶v

I- cpXs¸Sp¶p. G.Un BZyZiI§fn Cu en]n¡p amäw kw`hn¡p¶p­v. sN½m¡nb (]cnjv¡cn¡-

s¸«) -{ZmhnU en]nIfmWv kwLIrXnIfnteXv. {InkvXp-amÀ¤¡mcmb ]ptcmlnXcpsS k` (tXmÂ) BWv Cu ]cnjv¡cW¯n apJy ]¦p hln¨n«pÅX.v AhÀ¡v tZio`mjbn thZ {KÙ§fpw {]mÀ°\Ifpw cNnt¡­n-bncp¶p. tXmakv At¸mkvXe\pw At±l¯n\ptijw F¯nb hntZi anj\dnamcpw {ZmhnU `mjmt]mjW¯n `mK`m¡pIfmbncn¡mw. aebmf `mjbpsS hfÀ¨bv¡mbn Kp­À«ns\t¸msebpÅ hntZinIfpw ]mXncnamcpw AÀ¸n¨n«pÅ tkh\w HmÀ¡mhp¶XmWv. AI¯nbÀ (AKkvXy³), sXmÂIm¸nb\mÀ, Cssd\mÀ XpS§nbhcpsS hymIcW (sXäpw icnbpw hnthNn¡p¶) {KÙ§fn hÀt®m¸¯n, ]ZþhmIyLS\,AÀ°w apXembhbv¡mbv ]ndaWcpsS ( ]ndaÀ Bb tbiphns\ [cn¨hÀ-, ac]nÀ t]WnbÀ) {KÙ§sf B{ibn¡m³ \nÀt±in¡p¶Xn \n¶pw ]ndaWcpsS thZ]pkvXI§fn `mjmhnÚm\obhpw DÄs¸Sp¯nbncps¶¶v hyàamIp¶p.

* sI. F³. Fgp-¯-ѳ : DgpX \ne-§Ä1968 þ ]pdw 84

- 34 -

Htc Hcp tNmZyw

Cu teJ\¯n Nq­n¡mWn¨h am{Xaà ]Xnäp¸¯nse ss{IkvXh ]cmaÀi§Ä. tbipZÀi\hpambn _Ôs¸Sp¯n-bpÅ -BNmcm\pjvTm\§sfbpw P\§fpsS ]ckv]c kvt\ls¯bpw Zm\ioes¯bpw aäpw hÀ®n¡m¯ ]m«pIÄ ]Xnäp¸¯n Csöp Xs¶ ]dbmw. kwLIrXnIfn {]Xn]mZn¡-s¸Sp¶ tZhk¦ev]§sfbpw, ZÀi\§sfbpw BcysshZnIaXw DÄs¡m­X,v temIaX§Äs¡Ãmw amXrIbm¡mhp¶ ka\zb¯nsâ amÀ¤w Xs¶bmWv. ]s£

ISw sIm-­-h-cp-sSbpw ISw sImSp¯hcpsSbpw ]n³ap-d-¡mÀ Cu bmYmÀ°yw AwKo-I-cn-¡m-Xn-cn- ¡p¶ AhØbp­mIcpXv. AtXt]mse Hmtcm Imes¯bpw IrXnIsf hnebncp¯p-t¼mÄ - Hmtcm¶pw cNn¡s¸« Imes¯ kmaqlymhØI-sfbpw hnizmk§sfbpsaÃmw XakvIcn¨v ]e \qäm­pIÄ¡p tijap­mb, hymJymXmhn\p kzoImcyamb ImgvN¸mSpIsf _em¡mtcW Btcm]n¡p¶ {]hWXbpw BimkyaÃ. {ZmhnU IhnXIfpsS ss\kÀ¤nIamb sas¿mXp¡hpw, tUm. A¿¸¸Wn¡cpsS hm¡pIfn ]dªmÂ, hm¡pIfpsS i_vZLS\bn AhbpsS B´cmÀ°w Is­¯p¶ i_vZbpàn{]`mhhpw, AÀ°¯nsâ ]e AScpIfpw Htc ]Z¯n \n¶papXncp¶ {ZmhnU hn¯phm¡p IfpsS `mhkm{µXbpsaÃmw \jvSam¡p¶XmWv Cu _em¡mcw. ]Xnäp-¸¯nsâ hnhÀ¯\§fn Cu _em¡mcw th­pthmfw -ZÀin¡mw. Ncn{X¯nsâ Nne t\cpIsf aqSn¡fbm\pÅ X{X¸mSn hyJymXm¡Ä Im«p¶ AanXmthiw- kwLm\´cIme¯p­mb IrXnIfpsS BkzmZyXsbbpw _m[n¡p¶p­v. Hcp DZmlcWw ImWpI:

]Xnäp¸¯nse ]m«pIfn ]ssdC F¶v Abncae-tZhnsb hntijn¸n¡p¶Xnse ]ssd BWv, ]{´­v BgvhmÀamcpsS sshjvWhkmlnXy {KÙamb Znhy{]_Ô¯n s]Sp¶ B­mÄ ]mSnb Xncp¸mssh bn I\ym{hXw t\m¡p¶ B­mÄ {ioIrjvWt\mSp At]£n¡p¶ ]ssd . AXv I\ym{hXw ]men¡p¶Xn\mhiyamb thZapd BWv. IrjvW`àbpw `Khms\ `À¯mhmbn hcn¨hfpamWv B­mÄ F¶ tImX. HSphn hfÀ¯NvO\mb s]cnbmgv-hmcp-ambn {iocwKs¯¯nb B­mÄ `Khm\n hnebw {]m]n¡bpw sN¿p¶p. {InkvXphnsâ aWhm«nam- cmWv {InkvXpthZ¯nse I\ymkv{XoIfpw F¶ Adnhv B­mÄ ]mSnb Xncp¸mssh bpsS - kwt£]W -kn²n¡pw -BkzmZyX-bv¡pw- angnthIpsa¶Xn kwibnt¡­Xpt­m? ]gb {ZmhnU IhnIÄ F¶pw kXyw ]dbp¶hcmbncp¶p. {]Imiam\amb At\Iw [z\nheb§Ä Nqgv¶ AhcpsS Imhy_nw_§fpsS {]` sISp¯p¶ hymJym\§Ä¡p sXfnhpIfmWv B­mÄ ]mSnb Xncp¸mhbnse ]ssd sb sIm«p¶ hmZyam¡p¶Xv; thZ_ÔnXamb I\ym{hXw F¶ AÀ°w DÄs¡mÅp¶ sXmÂ]mssh F¶ {]tbmKs¯ ]gabmb I\ym{hXw B¡p¶Xv; _enbpsS {]`mheb§Ä Bb ]Âhssf sb ]ehfIÄ B¡p¶Xv. DÅqÀ Fw. ]ctaizcsâ Xncp¸mssh hnhÀ¯\¯n\v F³.hn. IrjvWhmcnbÀ FgpXnb AhXmcnIbn ]dbp¶p, `mKhXw I­p FgpXnbXà Xncp¸mssh, `mKhX¯n tcJs¸Sp¯m¯ GtXm ]mc¼cyamWv Xncp¸mssh¡v B[mcw. CtXmsSm¸w, XmsgsImSp¯ncn¡p¶, XncpapcpImäp¸Sbnse hcnIfpw (tae§¯p \mcmbW³Ip«n : ]¯p¸m«v þ hnhÀ¯\w (2000) ]pdwþ47, hcn : 269 þ 270, 276 þ 278) tNÀ¯phmbn¡mhp¶XmWv. Acpavs]dÀ ac]nÀ s]cpav s]bÀ apcpI

\ssN bp\ÀIvIm¯pav CssN t]cmf,

(269þ270)

XncpAhXmcw sNbvXv acn¨pbnÀ¯hsâ alXzw t]dp¶ apcpI, \·sN¿p¶hsc Im¯p]cn]men¡p¶ CuibpsS \maw hln¡p¶hs\ t]mÀanIp s]mcp\ IpcnNn F¼e bm\dn Afsshbn³ G¯n B\mXp \n\v\f´dnX a\v\pbnÀ¡cpssabn³ ( 276 þ 278) (a\pjy c£bv¡mbv ssZhw) t]mcm«w \ndthänb Ipcnin Nn´p¶ AfhnÃm¯ Ir]tbXmtWm BbXv \o Af¶dnbp¶XmWv `qanbn \n¶papÅ DbnÀ¸n\v AcpabmbpÅX.v (\nXyPoh\nte¡pÅ ]mh\amÀ¤w) . hnhn[ aXZÀi\§fpsS hàm¡Ä kwhmZ¯n eqsSbpw ka\zb¯n-eq-sSbpw FÃm¯nsâbpw kmcmwiw H¶pXs¶-sb¶ Xncn¨dnhnset¯­Xv, am\h c£bv¡mbn AhXmcw-sNbvsX¶v temIaX§Ä hnizkn¡p¶ FÃm AhXmc]pcpj-·mcpsSbpw Iq«mb Bhiyambn XoÀ¶ncn¡p¶p, C¶v.- Asæn AhcpsS AhXmtcmt±iw Xs¶ hn^eambnt¸mIpw.- FtâXp am{Xw icn F¶ ]utcmlnXy imTyw Cu Xncn¨dnhn\v hne§pXSnbmIcpXv. aXs¯-A[nImc¯nte¡pÅ -Nhn«p-

- 35 -

]Snbmbn ImWp¶hscbpw hgn apS¡m³ A\phZn¡cpXv. P·wsIm­ ImewapX a\pjy\v Ahsâ AkvXnXz _Ônbmbn Htc tNmZy§Ä am{XtabpÅp; Cu {]]©¯nsâ BZnImcWw F´v? AXnsâ

e£ysa´v? Cu tNmZy§Ä-tNmZn¡m\pw D¯cw t- XSm\pw a\pjy[njWbv¡pam{Xsa Ignbp¶pÅp -

F¶XmWv- \½psS C¶p hscbpÅ t_m²yw. F¦n a\pjy\p am{Xambn Ft´m H¶v D­v. B

H¶v BWv CXc PohnIfn \n¶pw hyXykvXambn {]]©s¯ Adnbm\pw \ap¡p tbmPn¨ hn[w AXns\ sacp¡m\pw {]m]vXn-Xcp¶Xv. B H¶n\v {]]©¯nsâ ]- caamb -e£y\nÀhlW-¯nepÅ ]s¦´v? ssZhw, Bßmhv, aXw, PohnX e£yw ChsbÃmw Cu HscmätNmZy¯n\pÅ D¯c§fn \nesImÅp¶p.

]pd-\m-\q-dneqsS

{InkvXp-a-Xhpw `mc-Xhpw

Bcy-ssh-Zn-I-aXw, _p²-a-Xw, ssP\-aXw, lnµp-aXw, kn¡p-aXw F¶nh `mc-X-¯nsâ a®n P\n-¨p-h-fÀ¶-h-bm-Wv. CÉm-anse kq^n-khpw kn¡p-a-Xhpw Z£n-tW-´y-bn P·w sIm­ `àn-{]- Øm-\hpw X½n-epÅ _Ôw Ncn-{X-Im-c-·m-cpsS ]T-\-¯n\v hnt[-b-am-bn-«pap­v. F¶m {InkvXp-a-X- ¯nsâ Bcw-`-Im-e¯v, AXnsâ LS-\bv¡v cq]w sImSp¡m\pw ZÀi-\-§sf kmam-\y-P-\-¯n\v Ffp- ¸-¯n DÄs¡mÅm³ ]mI-¯n-em-¡n-¯oÀ¡m\pw Z£n-tW-´y-bnse {Zmhn-U-ss{I-kvX-h-k-aqlw hln¨ ]¦v Ncn-{X-¯n tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯msX InS-¡p¶ H¶m-Wv. A¡m-e¯v Xpd-hn-SÀ¡v ({Zmhn-UÀ¡v) am{Xsa A§-s\-sbmcp amän-¯oÀ¡Â km²y-am-bn-cp-¶pÅp-sh-¶-XmWv kXyw. {Zmhn-UÀ A§-s\-

sbmcpamäw \S-¯n-bn-Ãm-bn-cp-¶p-sh-¦n {InkvXp-a-X-¯nse {]_-e-a- mb Ing-¡³ k`bpw Bcy-ssh-Zn- I-a-Xhpw X½n ]d-b-¯¡ A´-c-sam¶pw D­m-Ip-am-bn-cp-¶nÃ. Cu \nK-a-\-¯n-se-¯n-t¨-cm-\pÅ bpànhnNmcw támÌn-kn-khpw Bcyssh-Zn-I-a-Xhpw F¶ asämcp teJ-\-¯nsâ hnj-b-am-I-bm ChnsS {]Xn-]m-Zn-¡p-¶nÃ. tbip-Po-hn-¨p- a-cn¨ tZi¯pw kao]-\m-Sp-I-fnepw G.- Un. 4þmw iXIw hsc {InkvXy-m\n-Isf {Iqc-ambn th«-bm-Sn-s¡m­ncp-¶-t¸mÄ Z£n-tW-´y-bn A¡m-es¯ temI- ¯nse Gähpw k¼-¶-amb tZim-[n-]-·m-cpsS kwc-£-W-bn {InkvXp-amÀ¤w hfÀ¶p-]-cn-e-kn¡p-I- bm-bn-cp-¶p. temI-¯v B-Zy-ambn cq]w sIm­ kzX{´ss{IkvXh-k-`bpw CXp-X-s¶-bm-Wv. Cu k`

cq]ws- ImSp¯ BNmc- m\- pj- vTm-\§- fmWv ]n¶oSv iàn{-]m]- n¨ BtKmf- {-Ink- vXpk- `bv¡v amXrIbmbXv.

\nÀ`m-Ky-h-im {InkvXp-hÀjw BZy-i-X-I-§-fn-te¡v shfn¨w hoip¶ {Zmhn-U-IrXnI-sfÃmw Xs¶ \jvS-s¸-«n-cn-¡p-¶p. Npcp¡w Nne kwL-Im-e-IrXnIÄ \io-I-c-Ws¯ AXn-Po-hn¨p ]qgn-¯n- sh-bv¡-s¸« CS-§-fn \n¶pw shfn¨w I­-Xp-Xs¶ `mKy-sa-¶p-I-cp-XWw. ]pd-\m-\qdv C¡q«- ¯nÂs¸« H¶mWv. {]kvXpX IrXnI-fpsS hnhÀ¯-\-§-fnÂt¸mepw {InkvXp-aX kw_-Ôn-bmb hnj- b-§-sf¶v \nÀ®-bn-¡-s¸-Sm³ km²y-X-bp-Å-h-sbÃmw aäp hn[-¯n hymJym-\n-¡-s¸-Sp-I-tbm amän- XoÀ¡-s¸-Sp-Itbm Hgn-hm-¡-s¸-Sp-Itbm sNbvXv A\p-hm-N-I-scbpw Ncn-{Xm-t\z-jn-I-sfbpw hgn-sX-än- ¡p-¶-Xp-ImWmw. X·qew ]e Ime-k-Ôn-Ifpw AÔ-Im-cm-hrXam-hp-¶p; ]e-N-cn-{X-k-a-ky-Ifpw ]qcn- ¸n-¡m-\m-h-¯-h-bm-bn-¯o-cp-¶p. th­-{X-sX-fn-hp-I-tfmsS ]pcm-X-\-N-cn{Xw Ah-X-cn-¸n-¡m³ kwL-Im- e-IrXnI-fn-eqsSbpÅ aX-]-c-amb At\z-jWw A\n-hm-cy-am-bn-¯o-cp-¶Xv AXp-sIm­mWv. ]g-b -a-X- hn-izm-k-§-fpsS Øm\-¯v ]pXnbh Øm]n-¡m-\pÅ {ia-¯n ]g-b- N-cn-{X-s¯bpw Xncp-¯n-¡p-dn- ¡p-¶p-­v. e`y-am-Ip¶ sXfn-hp-Isf A]-{K-Y-\-hn-t[-b-am¡n, bpà-amb \nK-a-\-§-fn-se-¯n-t¨-cp-I-bmWv {]mNo-\-N-cn{Xw At\z-jn-¡p-¶-hsâ [À½w. ]T-\-hn-t[-b-am-¡p¶ hnj-b-§sf c­n-\-§-fmbn Xncn- ¡mw. H¶v, aqew : {]mNo\ enJn-X-tc-J-IÄ, DXvJ-\-\-¯n-eqsSbpw aäpw e`n-¡p¶ Ncn-{Xm-h-in-jvS- §Ä, ]pcm-X-\-Xzw Ah-Im-i-s¸-Smhp¶ Iem-cq-]-§Ä þ BNm-cm-\p-jvTm-\-§Äþ \mW-b-§Ä XpS-§n- bh. c­v, ]T-\-§Ä : aqe-IrXnIÄ, inem-Xm-{a-en-Jn-X-§Ä, ]pcm-h-kvXp-¡Ä XpS-§n-b Ncn-{X-kvam-c- I§sf¡p-dn¨v \mfn-Xp-h-sc-bp-­m-bn-«pÅ ]T-\-§fpw hymJym-\-§fpw. a\-Ên-em-¡m³ Ign-bp-¶h H- cp-am-ähpw hcp-¯msX AtX-]Sn Ah-X-cn-¸n-¡pI, ap³hn-[n-]p-eÀ¯n-s¡m­v hymJym-Xm-hnsâ a\-Ên- en-cn¸v Øm]n-¡pI, ap³hn-[n-¡p-\n-cm-¡m¯h hn«p-I-f-bpIbpw ]pXn-b-Im-cy-§Ä {]Xn-jvTn-¡p-Ibpw sN¿pI F¶n-§s\ hymJym\w ]e-h-gn-I-fn-eqsS \o§mw. Ncn-{X-c-N\ taÂkq-Nn-¸n-¨- {]-h-W-X-IÄ¡v hnt[-b-am-Ip-¶-Xp-sIm­mWv AXv \nc-´cw Xncpt¯-­n-h-cp-¶Xv. am{X-hp-aÃ, {]mNo\ enJn-X-§fpw hkvXp-X-I-fp-sams¡bmbn ]pXn-b-h-]-eXpw Is­-¯-s¸-Sp-¶XpsIm­pw Ncn-{Xw \ho-I-cn-¡-s¸-«p-

- 36 -

sImt­bn-cn-¡pw. kwLIrXnIfpsS Is­¯Â A¶phsc FgpXs¸« `mcXobNcn{Xs¯, apJyambpw Z£ntW´y³ Ncn{Xs¯ amän FgpXphm³ \nÀ_ÔnXam¡psa¶Xn kwibanÃ. ]Icw A[oihÀ¤w ap³s] FgpXnØm]n¨p Ignª Ncn{Xt¯mSv kwLIrXnIfnse ]cmaÀi§sf s]mcp¯s¸Sp¯m\pÅ {ia§fmWv \S¡p¶Xv. kwLImeP\XtI«n«pt]mepanÃm¯ ]pcmW§fpw ]pcmhr¯§fpsaÃmw AhcpsS cN\IfpsS ta Btcm]n¡s¸Sp¶p.

kwLIrXnIfpsS hnhÀ¯\§Ä : HchtemI\w

kwLIrXnIfpsS hnhÀ¯\§tfmsSm¸w {ZmhnU aqew IqsS {]kn²oIcn¡mXncp¶m kwLkmlnXytam kwLImeNcn{Xtam Fs´¶dnbm³ km[ya- -Ã. F³.hn. IrjvW hmcy-cpsS AIw Ihn-X-IÄ hnhÀ¯-\hpw sI.- F³. Fgp-¯-Ñsâ Ipdp-s´mssI hnhÀ¯-\hpw DZm-l-c-W-§-fm-Wv. AXy´w at\m-l-c-§-fmb hnhÀ¯-\-§-fm-W-h. ]s£ AXv Ah-cpsS Ihn-X-I-fmWv. kwL-Im-e-I- hnIÄ F´v F§s\ Bhn-jvI-cn-¨n-cn-¡p-¶p-sh-¶-dn-bm³ \nhr¯n-bn-Ã. aqew \evIns¡m­pÅhnhÀ¯\§ÄImWpt¼mgmWv hnhÀ¯-Isâ ap³hn-[n-IÄ ASn-t¨Â¸n-¡p-¶-Xp- sIm-­pÅ AÀ°-hy-Xym-k-§Ä a\-Ên-em-Ip-¶Xv. {Zmhn-U-¯nse aqe-IrXn, ae-bm-fwþ Xan-gvþ sXep¦v XpS-§nb `mj-I-fn-te¡v ]IÀ¯n-sb-gp-Xp-

¶n-S¯pw ]e-Xn-cn-a-dn-Ifpw \S-¡p-¶p-s­-¶pw \ymb-ambn ktµ-ln-t¡-­n-bn-cn-¡p¶p. Hmtcm kwL-I-

hnb- p-sSbpw {]Xn-`s- h-fns- ¸-Sp-¶ At\Iw kµÀ`-§ÄIm-Wpt- ¼mÄ Nne-bn-S-§n Cu Ihn C{X s]mcp-

¯-an-Ãm-¯-h-kvXp-XIÄ tNÀs¯-gp-Xn-b-h-bv-¡ptam F¶p Nn´n-¨p-t]mIpw. ChnsS Ihn-bà D¯-c- hmZn, samgnamäw \S-¯n-b-h-cpsS at\m-K-Xn-bmsW¶p-kw-i-bn-¡p-¶-Xn sXäp-s­-¶p tXm¶p-¶n-Ã. kwL-Ir-Xn-I-fpsS Bkzm-Zy-Xbpw kwt£-]-W-i-ànbpw \jvS-s¸-Sp-¯p¶ C¯cw sNbvXn-I-Ä Xncn- ¨-dn-bm³ {ZmhnU IrXn-I-fnse A£-c-§-Ä aqe-Ir-Xn-bn ImWp¶ {]Imcw Xs¶ hnhÀ¯-\w sN¿- s¸-Sp¶ `mj-bn-te¡v amän-sb-gpXn {]kn-²o-I-cn-¡Ww. {Zmhn-U-¯n kzc-]p-Ån-IÄ¡p ]Icw kzcm- £-c-§Ä Xs¶-bmWv Fgp-Xp-I. aqew {]kn-²oI-cn-¡p-t¼mgpw A§s\ Xs¶-bm-h-Ww. {Zmhn-U-¯n \A\ Fs¶-gp-Xp-¶Xv \³ BWv. CXv \m³ Fs¶-gp-Xn-bm AÀ°w amdpw. Bkzm-Z-I\pw Ncn{Xw tXSp-¶-h\pw hgn-sXäpw. AÀ°w Adn-bm-¯-Xp-sIm­v hm¡pIÄ hn«p-I-f-tb-­-Xn-Ã. hnhÀ¯\w sN¿p¶ ]WvUn-X- \-dn-bm¯ {Zmhn-U-]-Z-§fpw {]tbm-K-§fpw ]ma-c-\mb BZn-hm-kn¡pw Zfn-X\pw ]cn-Nn-X-am-bn-cn¡mw. Fs´-¶m {_mlva-W-hn-c-Nn-X-§-fmb IrXn-IÄ Ah-cpsS ap¶n Xpd-¡-s¸-Sm-Xn-cp-¶Xn\m akvXnjvI {]£m-f-\-¯n\v hnt[-b-cm-hmsX ]g-a-\n-e-\nÀ¯nt¸m¶ Hcp ]mc¼-cy-¯nsâ DS-a-I-fm-W- hÀ. ]g-asb AXnsâ X\n-a-tbmsS NnI-sª-Sp-¡m³ AhÀ¡vIgn-bp-sa-¶p-d-¸m-Wv. Ihn-bqÀ apcfn At±-l-¯nsâ ZfnXv `mj (1997) F¶-{KÙ¯n Ipsd-tbsd {]mNo-\-]-Z-{]-tbm-K-§Ä {]kn-²o-I-cn- ¨n-«p-­v. CfwIpfw Ipª³]nff-bv¡v ZpÀ{K-l-am-bn-cp¶, D®n-\o-en-k-tµ-i-¯nse tZio-`m-jm-]-Z-§- fpÅ NnetÇmI-§fpsS AÀ°w {io. apcfn A\m-bmkw hnh-cn-¨n-«p-ap­v. B[p-\nI Xangv ]WvUn- X³amÀ¡v kwL-I-hn-I-fpsS `mjbpw {]tbm-K-§fpw ]qÀ®-ambpw a\-Ên-em-¡m³ Ign-bp-¶n-söv kwL-Ir-Xn-IÄ hnhÀ¯\w sNbvXn-«pÅ Xangv ]WvUn-X³amÀ Xs¶ tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-«p­v. C¶s¯ Xan-gn-t\-¡mÄ {]mNo\ ae-bm-f-t¯m-SmWv N-¦-¯-an-gn\v (kwL-IrXn-I-fpsS `mj) IqSp-X ASp¸- sa¶v `mjm-K-th-j-IÀ Is­-¯n-bn-«pap­v. DÅqÀ Fw. ]c-ta-iz-csâ B­mÄ ]mSnb Xncp-¸mssh hnhÀ¯-\-¯n\v F³. hn. IrjvW-hm-cyÀ Fgp-Xnb Ah-Xm-cn-I-bnepw thWp-tKm-]m-e-¸-Wn-¡À Xncp- ¸m-sshbpw ]g-b-a-e-bm-fhpw F¶-ioÀj-I-¯n-se-gp-Xnb ]T-\-¯nepw C¡mcyw kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶p-­v. kwL-Ir-Xn-I-fpsS aqew {]kn-²o-I-cn-¡msX hnhÀ¯\w am{Xw \evIp-t¼mÄ kw`-hn-¡p¶ Hcp-h-enb \jvSw {Zmhn-U-`m-j-bpsS i_vZ-`w-Knbpw ]m«p-I-fpsS Xmfhpw ebhpw H¶pw A\p-hm-N-I-cn- tebv¡v F¯n-s¸-Sp-¶n-à F¶-Xm-Wv. DZm-l-c-W-ambn Xmsg-sIm-Sp-¯n-cn-¡p¶ kwL-Ir-Xn-I-fnse Nne {]tbm-K§fpw Ah-bpsS AÀ°-hpw ImWp-I.

1. \pXn-th sIm­p \pXÀ hnbÀ XpssSbm¦v

\pXn-th = \pXÀ hnbÀ =

IqÀ¯-th s\änbnse hnbÀ¸v

Ip´-¯nsâ ]c-¶p-IqÀ¯ Xe-sIm­v s\än-bnse hnbÀ¸v XpS¡p¶p.

2. IS-e-hpw IÃhpw bmähpw ]ndhpw

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ISepw aebpw Bdpw \nehpw.

3. ASp-ss\-bm-bn\pw hnSp-ss\-bm-bn\pw sIm¶mepw shdpsX hn«mepw

4. hÃm-cm-bn-\pw hÃp-\-cm-bn\pw sImÅm-¯-hcm-b- mepw sImÅm-hp-¶-h-cm-bmepw.

5. hcp-´n-h-t´mÀ acp-¦p-t\m¡n IjvS-s¸S- p-¶-h-cpsSbh-Øb- -dn-ªv.

AÀ°w Adn-ªp-sIm­v aqew hmbn-¡p-t¼mÄ In«p¶ Imhym-\p-`hw F{X-h-en-b-]-WvUn-X- \m-bm-epw At±-l-¯nsâ hnhÀ-¯\¯n\p am{X-ambn \evIm-\m-hptam! kwkvIr-X-]-Z-§-fpsS _ew ]nSp-¯hpw ImSn-f-¡p¶ apg-¡-hp-aà kwL Ihn-X-IÄ¡v; AhnsS {Zmhn-U-cm-K-§-fpsS \oscm-gp-¡n- en-f-Ip¶ Ipªe-Ifpw Ip¯s\ IÃ-ap-J-§-fn hogp¶ Pe-cm-in-bpsS ]dapg¡w t]mepÅ NSp-e- Xm-f-§-fp-saÃmw tNÀ¶v {Xhn-S-¯nsâ ({Zm-hnU-¯nsâ) Nndp-]-Z-§Ä A\m-bmk \r¯w sN¿p¶Xp- ImWmw.

F³. hn. IrjvW-hm-cyÀ hnhÀ¯\w sNbvX

AIw Ihn-X-Ifpw

sI.-F³. Fgp-¯Ñsâ Ipdp-s´mI hnhÀ¯-\-hpw.

F³. hn. IrjvW-hm-cy-cpsS AIw Ihn-X-IÄ hnhÀ¯\w Bcw-`n-¡p-¶Xv, ]mcXw ]mSnb s]cp-t´-h-\mÀ cNn¨ IS-hpÄ hmgv¯p hnhÀ¯\w sNbvXp tNÀ¯p-sIm-­m-Wv. F«p-sXm-ssI-I- fn (kw-L-Ir-Xn-I-fn s]Sp¶ Hcp hn`mKw) ]e-Xn-sâbpw BZyw sImSp-¯n-«pÅ IS-hpÄ hmgv¯v

(Cuiz-ckvXpXn) ]mcXw ]mSn-b-s]cpwtXh-\m-cptSXm-sW¶pw Ct±lw cNn¨ ]mcXw (`m-c-Xw) I­p-

In-«nb- n«- n-söpw Ipdp-s´mI- b- psS XpS-¡-¯ne- pÅ Bdp-h-cn-¡-hn-X-bpsS hnhÀ¯\amWv ChnsS \evIn-

bn-«pÅsX¶pw kp{_lv-a-Wy³ thse-dn-ªp {Iu© ]ÀÆXw ]nfÀ¶ IY ]pcm-W-§-fn-ep-s­¶pw F³. hn. IrjvW-hm-cyÀ ASn-¡p-dn-¸mbn sImSp-¯n-«p-ap-­v. F³. hn. bpsS hnhÀ¯\w Xmsg sImSp- ¡p¶- p.

sN´m-act]me-g-sIgpw tNhSn sN¼-hn-gw-t]m¯n-f§pw Xncp-hp-S Ip¶n-t]mÂt¨m¶ ]«mw-_cw, Ip¶nsâ s\©w ]nfÀ¶p-Xo-Nn´pw s\Sn-b-th tNhÂs¡m-Sn-þ-C-h-bmÀ¶-h³Im-¡sh temI-¯n-s\-¶mfpw B\µ-a-Ãtbm? ta¡m-Wp¶ hnhÀ¯-\-¯n Ip¶nsâ F¶p hnhÀ¯\w sNbvXn-cn-¡p¶ ]Zw {Zmhn-U- aq-e-¯n Ip¶n F¶m-sW-¦ntem ! AtX-t]mse hnhÀ¯-\-¯nse s\Sn-b-th F¶Xv aqe- ¯n s\Sn-b-thÄ F¶p-am-bn-cn-¡ptam? F¦n ImÂh-cn-¡p-¶n s\©w ]nfÀ¶v a\p-jy-Ip-e- t¯m-SpÅ kvt\lm-án-Pz-en-¸n-¨-h-s\btà hmgv¯p-¶-Xv. lrZ-b-¯nse apdn¸m-Sn-eqsS Aán-Pzm-e-Nn- ´p¶ tbip-hnsâ Nn{X-§Ä HmÀ¡pI. Ip¶n F¶Xv Ip¶n³ (Ip¶n-sâ) Bbpw thÄ F¶Xv th Bbpw amdpI aqe-IrXn ]IÀ¯n-sb-gp-Xp-t¼mÄ H«pw {]bm-k-apÅ ImcyaÃ-tÃm. {]`p F¶ AÀ°w Xs¶ th F¶ {Zmhn-U-]-Z-¯n\v hnhÀ¯-IÀ\ÂIn-bn-cn-¡p¶ kµÀ`-§Ä ]e-Xp-­p- Xm\pw. AtX-t]mse Xs¶ s\Sp-th³ F¶v ]m«nÂIm-Wp-¶-Xn-\v s\Sn-b-th (Ip-´w) F¶-À°w ]d-bp-¶p-ap-­v. (]p-d-\m-\q-dvþ hn. BÀ. ]c-ta-iz-c³ ]nÅbpsS hnhÀ¯\w þ]m«v285, hcn11 ). A¨-Sn-¸n- i-Imhmw CsXm-s¡; AXp-a-Xn-btÃm AÀ°w amdm³. tNhÂs¡mSn (]q-h³tIm-gn-bpsS AS-bm-f-ap- Å-sIm-Sn) ]pXn-b-tem-I-¯nsâ DZ-b-s¯-Ip-dn-¡p¶, {]Im-i-amb apcp-Isâ AS-bm-f-am-bn-cp¶p kwL Ime-¯pw. tbip-hn-sâbpw ssNh(-in-h)-]p-{X-\mb kp{_-lva-Wy-sâbpw P\-\-s¯-¡p-dn-¨pÅ hnh-c- W-¯nepw kmZriyw ImWmw. ]c-a-in-hsâ tcXÊv Aán kzoI-cn¨v KwKmtZhn-bn \nt£-]n-¨p. KwKm- am-Xmhv 5000hÀj-t¯mfw BKÀ`w hln-¨-tijw ic-h-W-¸pÃpIÄ¡n-S-bn \nt£-]n¨ inip-hmWv kp{_lv-a-Wy³(-ap-cp-I³ ).]nXm-hmb ssZh¯nsâ ]p{Xs\ Aán-bpsS cq]-¯n {]Xy-£-s¸-Sp¶ ]cnip²m-ßm-hnsâ ( Xo-\mhv F¶À°w hcp¶ Xnd-\m¡v F¶pw Bhn-bmÀ , \o¯mÀ þ \oÀ+XmÀ þF¶ot]-cp-I-fnepw kwL-Ime {Zmhn-U ss{IkvXhÀ ]cn-ip-²m-ßmhns\ hnti-jn-¸n-¨n-cp-¶p.) {]hr-

- 38 -

¯nbm I\ym-tacn KÀ`w [cn¨v ]pÂs¯m-«n-bn ]nd-¶-h-\mWv tbip. ssZh]p{Xsâ amXmhv ]cn-

ip²- b- m-bn-cnt- ¡­- X- n-\m BZna- mX- m-]nXm¡- -fpsS ]m]-¯n\p ap³t] Ahsf Hcp-¡n- ]nXmh- mb ssNh-

³ Xsâ DÅn-e-S-¡n-bn-cp-¶p. AÀ²\mcoiz-c³ F¶ k¦Â¸-¯nsâ Dd-hnSw CXmWv. Cu Hcp-¡-

Ime-K-W-\-b-\p-k-cn¨v GI-

¯n\pw tbip-hnsâ ]nd-hn¡pw CS-bn-epÅ Ime-ssZÀLyhpw ss

tZiw 5000 hÀj-§Ä BWv. {InkvXphpw `K-hm³ IrjvW\pw X½n-epÅ kam-\X ]ecpw Nq­n-¡m-«n-bn-«p-Å-Xm-W-sÃm. IrjvW þ {InkvXp F¶o t]c-pI-fpsS kmayw, bmZh þ blqZ F¶n§s\ Ipe-\m-a-§-fpsS kmayw, c­p t]scbpw P\n-¨-bp-Ss\ h[n¨p Ifbm\pÅ {ia-¯nsâ `mK-ambn inip-¡Ä sImÃs¸-Sp-¶Xv, c­p-t]cpw ac-¯n h¨v h[n-¡-s¸-Sp-¶Xv, A§s\ kam-\-X-IÄ ]eXpw {i²n-¡-s¸-«n-«p-­v. GZ³ tXm«-¯n \n¶v BZ-s¯bpw lÆmsbbpw ]pd-¯m-¡p-t¼mÄ, ssZhw c£-Is\ hmKvZm\w sN¿p¶ thf-bnÂ, BZn-am-Xm-]n-Xm¡-fpsS ]X-\-¯n\p Imc-W-amb kÀ¸-t¯mSv kv{XobpsS k´-Xn-bmbn ]nd- ¡p¶ c£I- ³ \nsâXe XIÀ¡ps- a¶p ]db- p¶- p­- v. {ioIrjvW NcnX- -¯nse Imfnb aÀ±\w ss fnse Cu hN-\-hp-ambn tNÀ¯p hmbn-¡p-t¼mgpw kam-\X ImWmw. tZhm-kpcbp²-¯n tZh³am-cpsS tk\m-]-Xn-bmWv apcp-I³. Xmc-Im-kp-c³, aln-j³, alm- _-en-bpsS ]p{X-\mb _mW³, Xmc-Im-kp-csâ ]p{X-·m-cmb Xmcm-£³, Ia-em-£³, hnZyp-·m-en XpS- §n-b-h-scsbÃmw bp²-¯n tXmev]n¨v h[n-¡p-¶p-ap­v. tbip-\nÀÆ-ln-¨-ZuXyhpw \mc-Iobiàn- Isf Iog-S-¡p-I-X-s¶-bm-Wv. BZn-a-{Zm-hn-U ss{IkvX-h- À anin-lmbv¡v Ah-cpsS at\m[À½-a-\p-k- cn¨pÅ At\Iw ]cn-th-j-§Ä NmÀ¯n-s¡m-Sp-¯n«p­m-hWw. kzX-{´-k-`-bm-bn-cp-¶-Xn-\m AXn-\- hÀ¡v BcpsSbpw A\p-hmZw Bh-iy-ap-­m-b- ncp-¶n-Ã. C¶s¯ BtKm-f-ss{I-kvX-h-k-`-bpsS ZÀi-\-

§f- n \n¶pw ]e-hy-Xym-k-§fpap­mbncp¶-

A. D. 325  \S¶ \nJy-mkq\ltZmkn ]s¦Sp¯ C´y³k`m-{]-Xn-\n-[n-I-fp-¶-bn-¨- hmZapJ-§Ä Xs¶ AXn-\p-sX-fn-hm-Wv. ]nXm-hmb ssZhhpw ]p{X-\mb anin-lmbpw X½n Xpey-X-bn H¡p-¶n- ÃtÃm F¶v AhÀ kwibw D¶-bn-¨-Xmbn kq\-l-tZmkv tcJ-I-fn ImWp-¶p. ]n¡m-e¯v kq\- l-tZmkv Xocp-am-\-§-f-\p-k-cn-¨pÅ amä-§Ä kw`-hn-¨-t¸mÄ, ]gb k¦Â¸-§Ä ssIhn-SmsX \n¶- hÀ k` hn«p-t]m-hp-Ibpw sNbvXp. Ipdp-s´m-IbpsS XpS-¡-¯n-epÅ IS-hp-Ä hmgvs¯ ¶v F³. hn. IrjvW-hm-cyÀ FSp-¯p-]-d- ªn-«pÅ ]mcXw ]mSn-bs- ]c- pt- ´h- -\m-cpsS apcpIkvXpXn, Ipdps- ´m-I- apg- ph- -\mbn hnhÀ¯\w sNbvX sI.- F³.Fgp-¯-Ñsâ IrXn-bn \evIn-bn-«n-Ã. Nn¶-a-\qÀ sNt¸-Sp-I-fn ImWp¶ {]Imcw am]m- cXw Xangvs]Sp¯pw aXp-cm]- pcn¨¦w ssh¯pw (a-[p-cm-]pc- n-bnse kwLw-hm-gv¯nb, Xan-gvte¡v samgn- amäw sNbvX) am]m-cXw ]mWvUy-cm-Pm-hnsâ \nÀt±-i-a-\p-k-cn¨v Xan-gn cNn-¡-s¸« IrXn-bmWv. kwkvIr-X-¯n Fgp-Xnb alm-`m-cXw Xan-gn-tebv¡v hnhÀ¯\w sN¿m³ Hcp ]mWvUy-cm-Pmhv Bh- iy-s¸-SWsa-¦nÂ, AXv G. Un. 7þmw \qäm-­n-\p-ti-j-am-hms\ Xc-ap-Åp. ImcWw, tZh-\m-Kncn en]n At¶-P·w sImÅp¶p-f-fp. (sI. F³. Fgp-¯-Ñsâ DgpX \ne-§Ä þ1968þ]pdw: 94). kwL-Ir-Xn-I-Ä AXn-\p-ap³]v cNn-¡-s¸-«-h-bm-Wv. s]cp-t´-h-\m-cpsS ]mcXw F´psIm­v ImWm-Xmbn ! apgp¦p ap¶oÀ apgp-hXpw hssfC]v F¶v ]pd-\m-\qdv 18þmw ]m«nsâ {]Y-a-h-cn-bn ]d-bp-¶-Xm-Wv ]mcXw . apgp¦p ap¶oÀ F¶m apg-§p¶ \oÀ AYhm IS F¶À°w. ISens\ {Zmhn-U-¯n ]cXw

F¶p-hn-fn-¨n-cp-¶p. ]c-X-¯m hebw sN¿-s¸-«`qanbm-Wv ]mcXw . ]mcXw F¶ {Zmhn-U-]-Z-am-Wv kwkvIr-X-¯n `mcXw BIp-¶Xv. tNc-cm-P-]p-tcm-ln-X-\mb s\Spw]mc-Xmb\msc¡p-dn¨v kwL-Ir- Xn-I-fn ]cm-aÀi-ap­v (]-Xn-äp-¸¯v aq¶mw ]¯nsâ ]XnIw). ]WvUn-X-\m-b -s\Spw]mc-Xm-b\mcm hnc-NnXw F¶ \ne-bn s\Spw]mcXw F¶-t]-cnepw Hcp-IrXn Is­-¯n-bn-«n-Ã. ]mcXw F¶ {Zmhn- U-Ir-Xn-bnse {]Xn-]mZyw C¶v A\p-am-\n-¡-s¸-Sp¶-Xp-t]mse alm-`m-cXw Bbn-cpt¶m F¶v ktµ- ln-t¡-­n-bn-cn-¡p-¶p. {]kvXp-X-Ir-Xn A{]-Xy-£-am-bXv Cu ktµ-l-¯nsâ Bgw hÀ²n-¸n-¡p-¶p. IS-hpÄ hmgv¯p IqSmsX Iqdp-s´mI-bnse 22 ]m«p-IÄ IqsS F³. hn. IrjvW-hm-cyÀ hnhÀ¯\w sNbvXv AIw Ihn-X-IÄ F¶ {KÙ-¯n DÄs¸-Sp-¯n-bn-«p-­v. F³. hn . Ggm-a-Xmbn A]-hmZw F¶-t]-cn tNÀ¯n-cn-¡p-¶Xpw sI. F³. Fgp-¯-Ñsâ Ipdp-s´mssI hnhÀ¯-\¯- n ]gn-s¨m tImem-lew F¶ t]cn 391þmaXmbn sImSp-¯n-«p-ÅXpw Htc-]m-«nsâ hnhÀ¯-\-am-Wv. ]c-W-cp-tS-XmWv, Cu]m-«v. Ht¶m-ct­m Xh-W-am-{Xsa Imap-I\pw Imap-Inbpw cl-ky-k-am-Kaw \S- ¯n-bn-«p-Åp-sh-¦nepw AtX-s¨mÃn Ducn D­m-bn-cn-¡p¶ A]-hmZw hfsc hep-Xm-sW¶v , ad-ªp- \n¡p¶ Imap-I³ tIÄ¡m³ th­n tXmgn \mbn-I-tbm-Sp-]-d-bp-¶-XmWv ]m«nsâ {]tabw. CXp- tIÄ¡p¶ Imap-Is\ F{Xbpw thKw hnhm-lm-`yÀ°-\-bp-ambn \mbn-I-bpsS amXm-]n-Xm-¡-sf kao-

n-

p BZna C´y³ ss{IkvXh- -cpsS aninlm k¦e- v]-¯n\v.

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]n-¡m³ t{]cn-¸n-¡p-Ib- mWv tXmgn-bpsS e£yw. A]h- mZtImeml- -e-¯nsâ hen¸w F{Xs- b¶- ph- À®n- ¡p-¶n-S-¯mWv, ]c-W-À F¶ Ihn-bpsS {]Xn` shfn-hm-Ip-¶Xv. ]e-\m-Sp-IÄ Iog-S-¡nb ]Npw-]q¬ ]m­n-b³ sIm¦-tcmSpbp²w sN¿m³ Xsâ [oc-\mb tk\m-]Xn AXn-Is\ \ntbm-Kn-¨p. F¶m AXn-I³ Cu bp-²-¯n sImÃ-s¸-«p. At¸mÄ sIm¦À DbÀ¯nb BÀ¸p-hn-fnsb shÃp-¶ -hn-[-am- Wp-t]m Cu \nÊmc {]W-b-_-Ôs¯ ¡pdn¨v Ducn-ep-­m-bn-cp¶ ]gn-s¨m- tImem-lew . tIhew Hcp {]W-b-_-Ôsa¶ AIwImcy-¯nÂ\n¶pw Ihn F{X-k-aÀ°-ambn A¡m-es¯ tIÄhn-tI« Hcp bp²cwKs- a¶ ]pdw kw`-h¯- nt- ebv¡v A\p-hm-NI- sc \bn-¡p¶p. ]Npw]q¬-]m­nb³ ]n¶oSv sIm¦sc ]cm-P-b-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶p-ap­v. ]Xn-\m-dn-tesd \qäm-­p-IÄ¡v ap³]v kz´w cN-\-Isf AIwþ ]pdw F¶v thÀXn-cn¨v ImgvN- h-bv¡m\pw Ahsb ka-\z-bn-¸n-¨p-Im-«m-\p-apÅ hncpXv t\Sn-b- n-cp¶ {Zmhn-U- ZmÀi-\n-I-X, B[p-\nI sshcp-²ym-[n-jvTnX ZÀi-\¯nsâ hf-sc-b-Sp-s¯-¯n-\nÂ-¡p-¶p. {Zmhn-U-ZmÀi-\n-I-X-bpsS Dd-hnSw ss-k-Ô-h-cpsS (ssk-Ôhcpw {Zmhn-UÀX-s¶) A£c aqe-amb ]ip- ]Xn ap{ZbnemWv. (Cu ap{Z-bn \n¶pw en]n-IÄ¡p cq]w sImSp-¡p-¶Xv {io. sI.sI. cma³ sskÔ-h-ap-{Z-I-fnepd-§p¶ Ncn-{X-k-Xy- §Ä F¶ {KÙ-¯n hnh-cn-¡p-¶p­v). \nXy-\mb ssNhs\ Cu ap{Z-bn-em-Wv AhÀ {]Xn-jvTn-¨-Xv. BssZhw Ah-cpsS kÀ¤-ssh-`-h-¯nsâ, shfn-]m-SpIfpsSþ A{]-Xo-£n-Xhpw AÀ°-]qÀ®-hp-amb tXm¶-ep-I-fpsSþ Ah-ew-_-hp-am-Wv. Fhn-sS-bmWv CXnsâ \ne-\n¸v ? Ah-\-hsâ t_m[-¯n Xs¶; AIw ]ndaw (]nd+Aw, BZnbpw A´hpw). AIw ]nd-a-¯n\v Ah-\-hsâ DÅnÂam-{X-ambn \ne-\n¸n-sö-dn-bm\pw {Zmhn-U-ZmÀi-\nI {]Xn-`bv¡v Ign-ªn-cp-¶p. AXp-sIm-­mWv {]]-©- IÀ¯mhpw \nb-´mhpw \nXy\pw kÀÆ-hym-]nbpw Acq-]nbpw (am-tbm³) Bb ssNh³ F¶ ZmÀi- \n-I-Xo-À¸n AhÀ F¯n-t¨À¶Xv. Ch-sc-bmWv Ncn{Xw BZn-ssi-hÀ F¶p hnti-jn-¸n-¡p-¶-Xv. kmµÀ`n-I-ambn AIw-þ-]pdw ]cm-aÀi-§-fn \n¶pw {Zmhn-U-ZmÀi-\n-IX- -bntebv¡v IS-¶p-t]m- b-Xm-Wv. F³. hn. bpw Fgp-¯-Ñ\pw Ipdp-s´m-I-bnse Htc-]m-«pv hnhÀ¯\w sNbvXn-cn-¡p-¶Xv FSp- ¯p-Im-«n-bXv Cuc­p ]WvUn-X-t{i-jvTcpw hyXykvX AÀ°-¯n-em-Wv ]Npw-]q¬ F¶ {Zmhn-U-]Zw hnhÀ¯\w sNbvXn-cn-¡p-¶sX¶v Nq­n-¡m-«m-\mWv. ]Npw-]q¬ F¶Xv ]mWvUycm-Pm-hnsâ t]cm- sW¶v F³. hn. IrjvW-hm-cyÀ ]d-bp-¶p. kwL-Ir-Xn-I-fn ]Npw-]q¬ (]-ipw-]q¬) F¶t]-cn Hcp ]mWvUy-cm-Pmhpw tNc-cm-Pmhpw DÅ-Xmbn F³. hn. AIw Ihn-X-IÄ hnhÀ¯\w (2007FUn- j³) ]qdw 63 HuÆ-bm-dnsâ s\©n-t\mS v F¶ Ihn-X-sb-¡p-dn¨v hnh-cn-¡p-¶n-S¯v tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯n- bn-cn-¡p-¶p. XI-SqÀ Fdn´(Io-g-S-¡n-b) s]cpw-tN-c Ccp-s¼mssd F¶ tNc-cm-Pm-hnsâ asämcp t]cmWv ]Npw-]q¬ F¶pw F³. hn. ChnsS Nq­n-¡m-«p-¶p. F¶m sI. F³. Fgp-¯-ѳ ]Npw-

]q¬ F¶-Xn\v s]m¶-Wnª F¶ AÀ°w

IÄt]mepw ]e-{Zm-hn-U-]-Z-§f- p-sSbpw ap¶n CSd- n-t¸mI- p-¶p-sh¶v hyàw. AXn-\m IqSpX-  At\z- j-W-§-tfm-sS-bpÅ hnhÀ¯-\-§Ä kwL-Ir-Xn-IÄ¡v C\n-bp-an-\nbpw D­m-tI-­n-bn-cn-¡p-¶p. ]Npw-]q¬ F¶-Xn\v Cu teJ-I³ a\Ên-em-¡p¶ AÀ°w Ipdn-¡s«. ]q¬ F¶Xv ]¬]v F¶ {Zmhn-U-]-Z-¯nsâ hnti-j-W-cq-]-am-Wv. ]¬]v F¶m ]mWvUnXyw F¶À°w. ]Npw (]ipw) F¶ ]Z-¯nsâ AÀ°w ip²-am-bXv (I-d-XoÀ¶) F¶m-Wv. ]Npw]q¬ F¶m IdX- oÀ¶]- mW- vUnX- ya- pÅ F¶À°w. s]cpw-tNc Ccps- ¼mssd alm-]W- vUnX- \- m-bnc- p¶- ps- h¶v F«mw

]¯v ]m«v 10þÂ ImWmw.

\evIp-¶p.

_lp-`m-jm-]-WvUn-X-cmb alm-{]-Xn-`-

kwL-Ir-Xn-I-fn-eqsS k©-cn-¡p-t¼mÄ

kwL-Ime Ihn-IÄ.

NmÀ¯-s¸-«-hÀ AYhm kv\m\-s¸-«-hÀ F¶-bÀ°-¯n kwL-Im-e¯v Nm¯³ F¶Xv {InkvXpamÀ¤-¡mÀ t]cn-t\ms- Sm¸w tNÀ¯n-cp¶ Hcp _ncp-Z-ambncp-¶p. ]pd-\m-\qd- nse ap¸t- Xmfw ]m«p- IÄ Nm¯³amÀ ]mSn-bn-«p-Å-Xm-Wv. Nm¯-\mÀ F¶Xv Nm¯sâ ]qPI _lp-h-N-\-a-s{X. tamNn tNÀ¶p hcp¶ Ihn-\ma- -§fpw kwL-Ir-Xn-Ifn ImWmw. tamNn F¶ ]Z-¯nsâ AÀ°w k\ymkn F¶m-Wv. ]pd\m\qdnse 272þmw ]m«v tamNn-Nm-¯-\mÀ ]mSn-b-XmWv. Assh-bmÀ (Hu-Æ-bmÀ) F¶-t]- cn ]e Ihn-I-fp-ap-­v B¯n-¨pSn F¶ D]-tZ-i-Ir-Xn-bpsS IÀ¯mhv Hcp Assh-bmÀ BWv. I¼- cpsS Ime¯v asämcp Assh-bmÀ D­v. AsshbmÀ F¶Xv Hcp hyàn-\m-a-aÃ. Assh F¶m k` F¶m-WÀ°w. Hmtcm Ic-bnepw (sImä-¯nepw) DÅ ss{I-kvX-h-k-aq-l-¯n\v Hcp {]Xn-\n[n D­m-bn-cp-¶p. Cu hyàn {]kvXpXk-`m-k-aq-l-¯nsâ apJy ImÀ½n-I\pw (]q-tcmlnX\pw) Bbn-cp- ¶p. Cu Bsf-bmWv Assh-bmÀ F¶p hnfn-¨n-cp-¶-Xv. ]qXw , ]qX-\mÀ F¶o ]Z-§Ä tNÀ¶pÅ

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Ihn-\ma- §- fpw kwLI- m-e-¯p-ImWmw. Im\mb- nsXm½- sâ kwL-¯n s]«-hc- p-sSbpw Ah- c- psS ]n³ap- d-¡m-cp-sSbpw t]cnsâ IqsS Hcp-Xn-cn-¨-dn-b NnÓ-ambn D]-tbm-Kn-¡-s¸-«-Xm-hWw Cu ]Zw. NXq-¡- ]q-XÀ (N-Xq-jv¡-`q-XÀ) F¶mWv Im\m³tZ-i-¯p-\n-s¶-¯nb Cukw-Ls¯ BZy-Im-e¯v hnfn-¨n- cp-¶-Xv. bh-\sFXnly-a-\p-k-cn¨v NXpÀap-J-\mb t{ImWkv tZh³ krjvSn¨XmI-bm Im\m³ tZiw

NXpjv¡w F¶pw Adnb- -s¸-«n-cp-¶p. ]pd-\m-\q-dnse 219þmw ]m«v Icph- qÀ s]cpwNXp¡- Ihn-bp-tS-Xm-Wv.

-]q-X\- mÀ F¶

Cu temI-am-Ip¶ ISÂI-S¶v A¡-c-bpÅ kzÀ¤-¯n F¯m-\pÅ tXmWn Ad-hnss\

(kX- vIÀ½w) am{X-amW- v F¶p]- mS- p¶ (]qd- \- m-\q-dvþ]m«v357) ]nda- \- mÀ, k\ymk- s¯ hmgv¯p¶ hm³ao-

In-bmÀ (]p-d-\m-\q-dv-þ-]m«v 358), tNbv hnizm-kn-bmb N¦-h-cp-WÀ F¶ \mI-ssc-bÀ (]pd-\m-\q-dv-þ-]m«v

360) F¶o Ihn-\ma- -§-fpw {]tXyI {i²-bÀln-¡p-¶-h-bm-Wv. BZnbpw A´-hp-amb ]nd-a-¯nÂ, AXm- bXv \nXy-\mb ssZh-¯n hnizkn¡p¶h-\mWv ]nd-a-\mÀ . hm³ AYhm hn®p hns\ hmgv¯p- ¶-h-\mWv hm³ao-In-bmÀ . Ah-Xmc hnt[-b-\mb ssZh-]p-{X-s\-bmWv {Zmhn-U-ss{IkvXhÀ hm³

(hn-®p) F¶p-hn-fn-¨n-cp-¶-Xv. {XnssXz-I ssZh-¯nse (ap-¡Sv sNÂh-¯nse) c­m-a-\mb ]p{X³ X¼p- cm-\n-eqsS AXm-bXv hm\n-eqsS BWv ka-kvXhpw D­m-b-sX¶s{X ss{IkvXh ZÀi\w. kÀÆ-Im-e-

t¯b- v¡p-ambn ]m]-]-cn-lmc _en-bÀ¸n¨ anin-lm-bpsS {]Xo-Ia- mb \mI(\- m-K) {]Xn-as- Im­v thÄhn-

-bnse (BZn-a-{Zm-hnU ss{IkvXh-cpsS Znhy-_-en) tlma {Zhy-§-fmbncp¶ tNmäp ]nWvUs¯bpw ]ngn-a-In-gn-s\bpw(ho-ªv) BioÀh-Zn-¨n-cp-¶ tNbv AYhm Kvt\mÌnIv ss{IkvXh hnizm-kn-IÄ B-bn-cp-¶p, N¦-h-cp-WÀ F¶ \mI-ssc-bÀ , apc-©n-bpÀ apSn-\m-I-cm-bÀ(-]p-d-\m-\qdv ]m«v 2), \¶m-I- \mÀ (]p-d-\m-\qdv ]m«v 381) XpS-§n-b-hÀ.

Dd-§n-¡n-S-¡p¶ tamNn-Io-c-\mÀ F¶ Ihnsb hoin-s¡m­ncn-¡p¶ tNc-N-{I-hÀ¯n-sbbpw IssW¡m Ccp-s¼mssd F¶ cmPm-hns\ XS-h-d-bn \n¶v tamNn-¸n-¡p¶ Ihn-sbbpw A`yÀ°- \bpw imk-\bpw tNÀ¶ CS-s]-S-ep-I-fn-eqsS cmPy-§Ä X½n-epÅ XÀ¡-§Ä ]cn-l-cn-¡p¶ Ihn-I- sfbpw kwL-IrXnI-fn ImWmw. CXn-eqsS {ZmhnU kwkvIrXnbpsS al-XzamWv {]tLm-jn-¡-s¸Sp- ¶Xv.

Ad³, s]mcpÄ, C³]w.

cmPm-¡-·mÀ¡pw {]P-IÄ¡pw th­ [Àt½m-]-tZi§Ä \evIp-I, A\m-h-iy-bp-²-§Ä XS-bp- I, \nc-]-cm-[n-Isf in£-bn \n¶pw tamNn-¸n-¡p-I, Ai-c-WÀ¡v XpW-bm-hpI, kvt\l-a-bn-bmb kz´w `mcysb Dt]-£n¨v asäm-cp-h-sf-tX-Sn-t¸m-Ip-¶Xv cmPm-hm-bn-cp-¶mepw Ahsc AXnÂ\n¶pw ]n³Xn-cn-¸n-¡p-I, cmPm-¡-·m-cn \n¶pw {]`p-¡³am-cn \n¶pw k½m-\-am-bn-e-`n-¡p-¶-sXÃmw aäp-Å- hÀ¡mbn Zm\w sN¿p-I XpS§- nb k·mÀ¤ \njvTa- mb IÀ½-§-fn kwLI- me Ihn-I- Ä kZm PmKcqI- cm-bn-cn-¡p-¶-Xp-Im-Wmw. AhÀ Ihn-IÄ am{X-am-bn-cp-¶nÃ; hN\w Nm´p¶ thZ-\m-b-IÀ AYhm NtâmÀamcpw Bbn-cp-¶p. Ad³, s]mcpÄ, C³]w F¶ aq¶p IS-a-IÄ ]men-t¡-­-XmWv NmtâmÀam-cpsS [Àt½m-]- tZi¯nsâ kw£n-]vX-cq-]w. Ad³ F¶Xv bpàn Nn´-bpsS B[m-c-§fmb C{µn-b-§sf AS¡n, AXo{µn-b-amb t_m²yw AYhm A\p`- hw sIm­pÅ hnizm-k-am-Wv. ]c-a-k-Xy-am-sW-¶pÅ hnizm- k-t¯m-sS-bpÅ ic-W-amWv s]mcpÄ . Cu ic-W-s¸-S-emWv `àn. C³]w F¶m B\µ-am-Wv. ]¦p-shb- v¡e- ne- q-sSb- pÅ A\p-`qX- n-bmWv B\µw. ]¦p-shbv¸v c­p-hn[- a- mWv, Cuizc- \- pa- mbpw ktlm- Z-c-\p-ambpw. FÃm-hcpw ktlm-Z-c³am-cm-Wv, Fs´-¶m Hcp-tX-hÀ C« ap« -bn \n¶p-amWv FÃm- ¯n-sâbpw DÛhw. ktlm-Z-c\n ssZh-s¯ -ZÀin-¡p-t¼m-gmWv ]¦p-sh-bv¡Â ]qÀ®-am-hp-¶-Xv. kwL-Ir-Xn-I-fn ImWp¶ CuX Xs¶-bmWv C³]hpw. {Zmhn-U- {InkvXpk`-bpsS Ad³-þ-s]- mcpÄ-þ-C³]w F¶ ZÀi-\-amWv BtKm-f {InkvXpk` hnizmkwþi-cWwþD]hn F¶ ssZhnI ]pWy- §-fmbn kzoI-cn-¨-Xv. Cu ]pWy-§Ä BÀÖn-¡p-hm³ Imaþt{Im[-þ-tam-l-þ-a-Z-þ-a-Õ-c-§Ä \ot¡-W- sa¶pw Nm-tâmÀamÀ HmÀ½-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶p. {InkvXp-amÀ¤w A\p-im-kn-¡p¶ D]hn AYhm CuX hnizm-k-¯n \n¶p-apÅ ip{iqj BWv. (-]u-temkv ^nen-¸n-bÀ¡v Fgp-Xnb teJ\w, A²ymbw2þ-hmIyw17).

cmPm-¡-·m-cpsS {]Xm-]w.

tNc\v hnÃv, tNmf\v ]pen, ]mWvUy\v ao³, Bbv cmPm-¡Ä¡v B\ F¶n-h-bm-bn-cp¶p cmP- Io-b-Nn-Ó-§Ä. tdmw, CuPn-]vXv, {Kokv, t]Àjym, ssN\ XpS§nb cmPy-§-fp-ambn Xan-g-I-s¯-cm-Pm-

- 41 -

¡³amÀ \b-X{´ _Ô-§Ä ]peÀ¯p-Ibpw {]Xn\n-[n-kw-L-§sf Ab-bv¡p-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp-¶p. tNc³ sN¦p-«ph- sâ ssk\y¯- n At\Iw `mj-IÄ kwkm-cn-¡p¶hcp-­m-bn-cp-s¶¶v ]cW- À ]mSp- ¶p. (A-I-\m-\q-dv-þ-]m«v 212). [mcmfw {Ko¡v inev]n-I-Ä kwL-Im-e¯v tIc-f-¯n ]Wn-sb-Sp-¯n-cp¶p. At\Iw bh\ kpµ-cn-amcpw hntZ-i-bp-hm-¡fpw tNc-cm-P-[m\n-I-fn ]cn-Nm-c-I-cmbp­m-bn-cp-¶p. ]pd-\m-\qdv 257þmw ]m«nse sNcp-¸n-\n-S-bnÂI-bdnb sNdp-IÃv (Nn-dp-]-cÂ) F¶ ]cm-aÀi-¯n \n¶pw A¡me¯v ]mZ-c-£-IÄ D]-tbm-Kn-¨n-cp-¶p-sh¶v hyà-am-hp-¶p. ssN\-bn \n¶pw Cd-¡p-a- Xn-sN-¿p¶ ]«p-sIm-­p-Å-Xm-bn-cp¶p an¡hmdpw -h-kv{X-§Ä. km-[m-cW P\-§fpw kzÀ®hpw hne- tb-dnb cXv\§fpw ap¯p-I-fp-saÃmw B`-c-W-§f- mbn D]-tbm-Kn-¨n-cp-¶p. bh-\t- Zi- -¯p-\n¶pw ap´nb Xcw hoªv Cd-¡p-aXn sNbvXncp-¶p. tIcf- X- oc- s¯ Xqda- pJ- §- Ä hntZi- -cmP- y§- -fnÂ\n¶pa- pÅ I¸-ep-IÄ sIm­v \nd-ªpInS¶ncp- ¶p. tIc-f-¯nse hÀ¯I kwL-§Ä¡v tdmw, AeIvk-mWv{Unb, sN¦-Sensâbpw t]Àjy³ DÄ¡- Sensâbpw Xoc-§Ä, kpam-{Sm, Pmhm XpS-§nb CS-§-fn tImf\n-IÄ D­m-bn-cp-¶p. BZn-tN-c-·m- cpsS \mhnI¸S AXn-i-àa- mbncp¶p. tNc-N-{I-hÀ¯n-am-cpsS kwc-£-W-bn {]hÀ¯n-¨n-cp¶ hÀ¯- I-kw-L-§Ä¡v kz´-am-bn-]S-¡-¸-ep-Ifpw t]mcm-fn-Ifpw D­m-bn-cp-¶p. GXp-\n-an-jhpw N{I-hÀ¯n- bpsS XpW-bvs¡-¯p-am-bn-cp-¶ Ch-cm-bn-cp¶p tNcsâ \mhnI iàn-bpsS apJyt{kmX-Êv. hn]p-e-amb Ic-ssk\yw B\-¸-S, IpXn-c-¸-S, th¸-S, hn¸-S XpS-§nb ]e Zf-§Ä DÄs¸-«- Xm-bn-cp-¶p. bh\ tZi¯p \n¶p-amWv IpXn-c-Isf e`n-¨n-cp-¶-Xv. AXym-hiy L«-§-fn kv{XoI-f- S¡w apgp-h³ {]P-I-fpw tZi-¯n-\p-th­n t]mcm-Sm³ X¿mdmbn Bbp-[-ta-´n-bn-cp-¶p. Ipe-ti-J-c-·m- cpsS A´y\- m-fpI- fn kwPm-Xa- mb {_mÒ-W- ta[m-hnXzw hÀ®-hyh- Ø \S¸- m-¡n, [oc-cmb kmam\y P\s¯ ]pd-´-Åp¶Xphsc tIc-f-¯nsâ Cu {]Xm]w \ne-\n-¶n-cp-¶p.

bp²-cw-Ks¯ s]cp-amä kwln-XIÄ.

hr²-·mÀ, kv{XoIÄ, tcmKn-IÄ, Ip«n-IÄ, apX-em-b-hÀ bp²-`q-an-bn-e-I-s¸-«p-t]m-bmepw Ahsc

B{I-an-¨n-cp¶- nÃ- . bp²-¡f¯n apdnt- häphog- p¶hsc ip{iqjn-¡m³ Ah-cpsS `mcyamcpw A½-amcpw

h¶n-cn-¡pI ]Xn-hm-bn-cp-¶p. kz´w cmPm-hn-s\bpw tk\m-\n-I-sfbpw t{]mÕm-ln-¸n-¡m³ Ihn-Ifpw t]mÀ¡-f-¯n F¯n-bn-cp-¶p. ]pd-\m-\q-dnse 274,275,276 F¶o ]m«p-IÄ bp²-cw-K-¯p\n-¶p-]m-Sp-¶- h-bm-Wv. cmPm-¡-·mÀ t\cn«p \bn-¡p¶ bp²¯n Hcp ]£s¯ cmPmhv h[n-¡-s¸-«m-ep-S³ bp²w \nÀ¯n-bn-cp-¶p. ]n´n-cn-tªm-Sp¶ ssk\n-Isc ]n´p-SÀ¶v B{I-an-¡p-I-bn-Ãm-bn-cp-¶p. bp²¡f- ¯nÂsh¨v apXp-In apdn-th¡p¶ cmPmhv A]-am-\-`m-c-¯m hS-t¡m«v Xncn-ªn-cp¶v \ncm-lm-c- {hXw A\p-jvTn¨v PohX- ymKw sNbvXn-cp-¶p. hS-¡n-cp¶p acn-¡pI F¶m-W-Xn\v ]d-ªn-cp-¶X- v. bp²- ¯n-\p-t]m-b aI³ apXp-In apdn-th-ämWv acn-s¨-¶-dn-ªmÂ, A½ eÖn¨v Ah-\p-]m-ep-sIm-Sp¯ kz´w ape-IÄ apdn-s¨-dn-bp-¶-Xmbn Ihn-IÄ ]mSp-¶p­v. Hmtcm cmPy-s¯bpw `S³amÀ {]tXyI C\w ]q¡ÄsIm­pÅ ame-IÄ Igp-¯nepw inc-Ênepw AWn-ªn-cp-¶p. tZhm-e-b-¯nse _en-th-Zn-bn- eÀ¸n¨v, BioÀh-Zn¡s¸« Bbp-[-§fpw sImSn-I-fpw ]S-¡-f-¯n-te-¡p-t]m-Ip¶ ssk\n-IÀ hln-¨n- cp-¶p. bp²w Pbn-¨p-h-cp¶hÀ thÄhnbpw s]cp-t©mäp kZybpw \S¯n ssZh-¯n\v \µn AÀ¸n-¨n-cp- ¶p.

tPymXn-im-kv{X-hn-Úm-\hpw tPymXnjhnizm-k-hpw.

hni-Z-amb tPymXn-im-kv{X- ]T-\-§-fnteÀs¸-«n-cp-¶-h-cmWv kwLIme ]WvUn-X³amÀ. Bcy`- S³ (A- d- nb- -]S³) Ah-cn-semc- p-h\- mb- nc- p-¶p. kwLI- me- s¯ apJy P\-]-Za- mb I¸-tem«- -¡m-cmb hÀ¯- IÀ¡v tPymXnÀ tKmf-§-f- psS Øm\-§fpw KXn-hn-K-Xn-I-fp-saÃmw Adn-ªn-cn-t¡-­-Xv AXym-h-iy-am- bn-cp-¶p. Iem-hØm t`Z-§sf ap³Iq«n a\-Ên-em-¡m\pw \Sp-¡-S-en Zn¡p-I-f-dn-bm\psams¡ hm\- \n-co-£-Ws¯ B{i-bn-t¡-­n-bn-cp¶p. tPymXnj ]mT-§sf ASn-Øm-\-am¡n {]hN-\-§Ä \S-¯n- bn-cp-¶p. bmss\-¡Sv tNbvam-´-c³ tNc-ensâ acWw Ggp Znhkw ap³]v {]h-Nn-¡p-¶p­v (]pd-\m-\q- dvþ]m«v 229, IpS-eqÀ IogmÀ ]mSn-b-Xv). bm{X, DÕ-hw, hnhmlw XpS-§nb Imcy-§Äs¡Ãmw ip`m-ip- `k- -ab- §- Ä \nÀ®-bn¨- n-cp¶- p. F«pZ- n¡- epw sImÅna- o³ hogpI- , kqcy-Xm]whÀ²n¡- pI- , ac§- Äs]s«¶v DW-§n-t¸m-hp-I, `bw P\n-¸n-¡p¶ hn[w ]£n-IÄ Ic-bp-I, ]Ãn \ne¯p hogp-I, F® \nd¨ ]m{Xw adn-bp-I, Bbp[w h¨n-cn-¡p¶ I«n adn-bpI XpS-§nbh ZpÈ-Ip-\-§-fmbn IW-¡m-¡n-bn-cp-¶p.

]ndÀ

- 42 -

]ndÀ F¶ ]Zw kwL-I-hn-X-I-fn BhÀ¯n¨p {]Xy-£-s¸-Sp¶ H¶m-Wv. ]Xn-äp-¸¯v hnhÀ¯-\-¯n sshZy-\m-Y-¿À Cu ]Z-¯n\v {]P-IÄ F¶À°w \ÂIp-¶p. ]pd-\m-\qdv hn-hÀ¯- \-¯n {io. hn. BÀ. ]c-ta-iz-c³ ]nÅ ]te-S¯pw ]e AÀ°-§Ä \evIp-¶p. ]m«v 40 i{Xp-¡Ä F¶pw 156,158 ]m«p-Ifn aäp-Å-hÀ F¶pw AÀ°w ]d-bp-¶p. ]m«v 171 A\yÀ F¶pw ]m«v 317 AÀ°n-IÄ F¶pw hnhÀ¯\w sN¿p-¶p. ]ndÀ F¶m P\n-¡p-¶-hÀ F¶-bÀ°w Adn-bm-Xn-cn- ¡p-¶-Xp-sIm-­Ã C§s\ kw`-hn-¡p-¶Xv. NmÀ¯v AYhm kv\m\-¯m ho­pw ]nd-¡p-¶-h-cm- b ss{IkvX-h-cm-Wn-hÀ F¶ Xncn-¨-dn-hn-se-¯n-t¨-cm-\pÅ _p²n-ap«psIm­p kw`-hn-¡p¶ hnI-e-X- I-fm-Wn-h.

kv{Xosb \K-c-t¯mSv D]-an-¡p-I.

\mbn-I-bpsS kuµ-cys¯ \K-c-¯nsâ kar²n-tbmSp]an-¡p-¶-Xv Xangv kmln-Xy-¯nse Hcp-

h-g-¡-am-Wv F¶v F³. hn. IrjvW-hm-cyÀ AIw Ihn-X-IÄ hnhÀ¯\w (2007 FUn-j³) ]pdw 51 tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯nbncn-¡p-¶p. \änssW F¶ kwL-Ir-Xn-bn 265þmw ]m«v (]-c-WÀ ]mSn-b-Xv) Xe-ap-Sn- bpsS DSa F¶ t]cnÂhnhÀ¯\w sNbvXnc- n¡- p¶- n-S¯- mW- v At±lw C§s\ ]db- p¶- Xv. Cu ]m«nse \mbn-Isb anRn-en-bpsS ]mcw F¶ \K-c-t¯mSv ]c-WÀ D]-an-¡p-¶p. ]pcm-X\ `mc-Xob kmln-Xy- ¯nse§pw ImWm¯ Cu coXn kwL-Im-e-{Zm-hn-UÀ¡v FhnsS \n¶pw In«n-sb-¶-t\z-jn-¡p-t¼m-

gmWv thZ-]-WvUn-X-cmbncp¶ ChÀ¡v ]cn-Nn-X-am-bn-cp¶ thZ-{K-Ù-ta-sX¶v hyà-am-Ip-¶Xv. ss fnsâ ]gb \nb-a-]p-kvX-I-¯n Pcp-Ètew, _m_n-tem¬, \n\sh, Uam-kvIkv XpS-§nb \K-c-§-sf- sbÃmw kv{XotbmSp-]-an-¨p-sIm-­pÅ hÀ®-\-IÄ \nc-¶p-In-S-¸p-­v.

n-

AI-¯n-bÀ(-A-K-kvXyÀ)

tXmhm-f-þ-A-K-kvXo-izcw Xmeq-¡p-IÄ tNÀ¶-XmWv \m©n-\mSv. \m©n-\mSv Bbv cmPm-¡-fpsS cmPy-¯n DÄs¸-«-Xm-bn-cp-¶p. ]pd-\m-\q-dnse 137þmw ]m«v \m©n-\mSv hmgp¶ \m©n hÅp-hs\ Ipdn-¨p-Å-Xm-Wv. hÅp-hÀ hÀ¯I tKm{X-am-Wv. AXm-bXv Bbv hwi-PÀ hÀ¯-I-cmbncp¶p. \m©n\m«pIm-c-\mb AI-¯n-bcpw Bbv hwi-¯n s]«-h-\m-Wv. thZ-{]-Nm-c-W-¯n-\mbn hÀ¯-I- tcm-sSm¸sa¯nb At±-l-¯n\v BZyw {ZmhnU-`m-j (kw-L-¯-angv) Adn-bn-Ãm-bn-cp-¶p. F¶m B `mj-bn {]mhoWyw t\Sn AI-¯nbw F¶ e£-W{KÙw hsc At±lw cNn-¨p. ssNh³ (in- h³) BWv AI-¯n-b-cpsS Xangv Kpcp, F¶v A¸À {]IoÀ¯n-¡p-¶p-ap-­v. ]WvUn-X-\mb Cu thZ- \m-b-Isâ t]cn ]n¶oSv ]Ån-bpw Øm]n-¡-s¸-«p. Xncp-Úm\kw_-ÔÀ (XncpRm\N¼-´À), Xncp- \mh- p-¡-civ (A¸- À) F¶o ssihm-Nmc- y³amÀ IS¡c- -bnse AI-¯nb- ³ ]Ån kµÀin¡- p¶- -Xmbn tN¡n-gm-cpsS s]cnb ]pcmW¯n ImWmw. (sI.-]n. sI. tat\msâ s]cnb ]pcmWw hn- hÀ¯\wþ2006þ]pdw 53)

Ipcniv

IpcpNv (Ip-cn-Nv) F¶ hm¡v kwL-þ-kw-Lm\-´c IrXn-I-fn At\-I-Ø-e-§-fn ImWmw. 2006 G{]n 16 Rmb-dmgvN ae-bm-f-a-t\m-c-a-bpsS {io bn Ipcn-ins\¸än sI. ]n. A¸³ Fgp-Xn-bn- cn-¡p¶ Nne-`m-K-§Ä ImWpI: {InkvXp-hnsâ ac-W-¯n\p ap³]v Ipcnip \nµ-bpsSbpw A]-am-\- ¯nsâbpw shdp-¸nsâbpw NnÓ-am-bn-cp-s¶-¦n tbip-hnsâ càw AXns\ XymK-¯n-sâbpw {]Xo-

£-bp-sSbpw NnÓ-am-¡n-am-än

{]Xo-I-am-W- v Ipcn-iv

AS-bm-fa- m-Wv. hnim-ea- mb AÀ°¯- n Ipcniv a\pjyhntZz-j-¯n-te¡vXncn-bp-¶ a\pjy a\-Ên-\pÅ hne-¡m-W v . C¸-dª AÀ°-§-fn-seÃmw Ipcn-ins\ Xncn-¨-dn-ª-h-cm-Wv BZna {Zmhn-U-ss{I-kvX- hÀ. Hcp-]s£ Ah-cpsS Iq«m-bva-bmWv Cu Xncn-¨-dn-hn\v temI-¯m-Zy-ambn XpS¡w Ipdn-¨-Xv. tdmam km{am-Py-¯nsâ N{I-hÀ¯n-]-Z-¯n-\mbn t]mcm-Sn-s¡m-­n-cp¶, {InkvXp-hn-izmknbÃm- Xn-cp¶ tIm¬Ì-ssâ\v Ipcn-È-S-bm-f-apÅ sImSn hnP-b-¯n-tebv-¡p \bn-¡p-sa¶ ktµihpambv Hc- Ûp-X-Zriyw A\p-`-th-Zy-am-b-Xn-\p-ti-j-amWv ]Sn-ªm-d³ \mSp-I-fn Ipcniv Hcm-cm-[y-h-kvXp-hm-Ip-¶- Xv. tIm¬Ì-ssâ³ N{I-hÀ¯n-bmWv G. Un. 313 {InkvXym-\n-IÄ¡v kzmX{´yw \evIp-¶Xpw Ipcn- Èn-teän h[n-¡p¶ in£m-hn[n \nÀ¯-em-¡n-bXpw. tdmap-ambn A¡m-e¯v hn]p-e-amb hmWnPy_Ô- amWv tIc-f-¯n-\p-­m-bn-cp-¶-Xv. Ipcn-È-ns\ ]pI-gv¯n-bn-cp¶ tIc-f-¯nse hÀ¯-I-cn \n¶pamWv tIm¬Ì-ssâ\v Ipcn-È-S-bm-f-apÅ Zriyw ImWm-\pw AXv hniz-kn-¡m-\p-apÅ A´ÀÚm\w e`n-¨-

Ccp-h-i-§-fn-tebv¡pw \o«nb ssII-fp-ambv \nev¡p¶ a\p-jysâ

Ipcniv hnizm-k-¯n-sâbpw Icp-W-bp-sSbpw cq]m-´-c-s¸« Pohn-X¯nsâbpw

- 43 -

sX-¶p-thWw Icp-Xm³.

\n¶p Xs¶-bmWv e¯o³`mjbnse {Iqkv( CRUZ) F¶ ]Zw tIc-f-¯nse¯p-¶-Xv. {Iqkv {Zmhn- U-¯n IpcpNv F¶mbn. CtX-t]mse Xs¶ tdma³ `mj-bn sIm«mcw F¶À°-apÅ ]tejyw F¶ hm¡n \n¶p-w {Zmhn-UÀ cq]w sImSp-¯-Xm-Wv ]Ån F¶ ]Zhpw. ]Å-nIfnse Xncp-hn-gm-I- tfmSv (s]-cp-¶m-fp-I-tfmSv) tNÀ¶v arK-§sf sIm¶v Ah-bpsS Cd¨nbn«p thhn¨ tNmdp hnf-¼p-¶- Xnsâ hÀ®-\-IÄ kwL Ihn-X-I-fn At\-Iap­v. Cu tZhm-e-b-§Ä _p²þ ssP\-·m-cp-tS-Xmhm³ Xc-an-Ã-tÃm. kwL-Im-e-IrXnI-fnse ss{IkvXh ]cm-aÀi-§-Ä A\y{X hnh-cn-¡p-¶-Xn-\m kwLm-\-´-c- Im-e¯v Ipcn-Èns\ ]cm-aÀin-¡p¶ Hcp ]Zyw Xmsg sImSp-¡p-¶p. (c-N\m Imew 12þmw \qäm­v) sI. ]n. sI. tat\msâ s]cnb ]pcmWw, hnhÀ¯\ ¯n\v tae-§¯p \mcm-b-W³ Ip«n Fgp-Xnb Ah- Xm-cn-I-bpsS Ah-km-\-¯n s]cn-b-]p-cmW IÀ¯m-hmb tN¡n-gmÀ kzman-IÄ NnZw-_-c-¯p-sh¨p kam-[n-bm-b-t¸m-gpÅ A´y-bm-{Xsb Ipdn-¨pÅ Hcp tÇmI-amWnXv (sI. ]n. sI. tat\msâ s]cnb ]pcmWw hnhÀ¯\w -þ 2006 FUn-j³, ]pdw: 33,34).

sXm­À NoÀ ]chp tN¡n-gmÀ Ipcn-Nn Xqb XnssÃ-\-IÀ X¶nte ]­p aqhÀ ]Xn-I¯p h´ Adp-]¯p aqhÀ IssX Xm\p-WÀ\v \­-hmWÀ ASn-bmÀI-Ä X½p-S³ Acp´ h´-\n Ccp-´-]n³ Xnss­-hmbv¯NssS F¼-e-¯-hÀ FSp¯ ]mX-\n-gÀ FbvXn\mÀ ssZh-Ir-]-bpsS al-Xz-amÀ¶ tN¡n-gmÀ, IpcnÈnsâ ]cn-ip²n Db-cp-¶-k-`m-\-K-c-¯nÂ, ]­v aqhÀ (]-cn-ip-²{Xn-Xzw) `àcm-bn-cp¶ 63 t]cpsS Ncn{Xw DWÀ¯n-bXv (c-Nn¨p ]mSn-bXv) {Kln-¨n- «pÅ `c-Wm-[n-]\pw DS³ AhnsS hs¶-¯n, Cl-tem-I-hmkw shSnªhs\ hln-¨p-sIm-­p-t]m- Ip¶ hoYn-bn-eqsS, \ng t]mse ]n³Xp-SÀ¶v FÃmw `{Z-ambn \nÀÆ-ln-¨p.

_n. kn. Ah-km-\-\q-äm-­p-IÄ apXÂ tdmap-am-bp­m-bn-cp¶ _Ô-¯nÂ

]pd-\m-\q-dnse ss{IkvX-h-]-cm-aÀi-§Ä

hn.- BÀ. ]c-ta-iz-c]nÅ-bpsS ]pd-\m-\qdv hnhÀ¯-\-¯n \n¶p-amWv ]m«p-IÄ D²-cn-¨n-«p-Å- Xv. ]m«p-I-fpsS {Ia-\-¼cpw Cu hnhÀ¯-\s¯bm[m-c-am-¡n-bp-Å-XmWv.

]m«vþ1 Cuizc-{]mÀ°-\þ `mcXw (]m-c-Xw) ]mSnb s]cp-t´-h-\mÀ ]mSn-b-Xv. I®n-ImÀ\dp-s¦m³ssd ImaÀ h®-amÀ]nddm-cp-s¦m³ssd DuÀXn-hm shtÅtd Nnd´ NoÀsIgp sImSn-bp-ahv thsd³] Issd-an-S-d-Wn-bep aWn-´³d¡ssd assd\ hne-´-WÀ\p hehpw ]Spta. s]®p-cp-shm-cp-Xn-d-\m-In³dhvhpcpXv X¶p-f-S-¡n-¡c- -¡n-\p-¦-c¡pw ]nssd\p X³ h®-am-In³d¸nssd ]Xn-s\¬ IW-\p-ta-¯hpw ]Spta FÃm-hp-bnÀ¡p-ta-a-am-Inb \oc-d-h-dn-bm-¡-c-I-¯pXv XmgvN-ssS-s¸m-en-´-h-cp-´-h-t¯mÀt¡

I®n-ImÀ \dp-s¦m³ssd= I\y-I-bpsS ]cn-ip²n DÄs¡m­

- 44 -

I¶n AYhm

I\yI bpsS ]qPI_lp-h-N-\-amWv. I®n ¡v {io. ]c-ta-iz-c³ ]nÅ sIm¶ F¶mWv AÀ°w \evIn-bn-cn-¡p-¶Xv. At¸mgpw ® F¶ A£cw ¶ Xs¶sb¶p-hy-à-am-Ip-¶p.þ Ima-Àh®-amÀ]ndÀ = {]Xo-£n-¨n-cp¶ h®w Xncp Ah-Xmcw sNbvXh³. Acp-s¦m³ssd = Acp-a-tbmsS kzoI-cn¨mepw DuÀXn-hm = temIs¯Znhy-am-¡p¶ shtÅtd Nnd´ = ip{`-`wKn XqIp¶ GÀ = AgIv NoÀsI-gp-sIm-Sn-bp-ahv thsd³] = Ir]-sbgpw sImSnbpw asäm-¶Ã {]Xn-\n-[m\w sN¿p-¶-Xv. IssdanS-d-Wn-b = ]m]-¯n-te-¡pÅ CSÀ¨-A-Wn-b (-D-Û-h-]m-]w) -þ -BZnam-Xm-]n-Xm¡fmb BZhpw lÆbpw ssZh-I-ev]\ A\pk-cn-¡msX ]m]w sNbvX-Xn-\m k´- Xn-]-c-¼-c-IÄ¡v P·\m ]m]-hm-k\ e`n-¡p-¶p. CXn\v DÛ-h-]m]w F¶p ]d-bp-¶p. þ AWn-´³d¡ssd = sNbvXp-t]mb ]m]-§-fpsS Id (IÀ½-]m-]w) assd\ = ambv¡p-I. hne-´-WÀ\p-h-ehpw ]Spta = kzÀ¤-aWª kÀÆ-i-IvX\p Ignbpw - hnew kzÀ¤-`-h\hpw Cew Cutem-I-s¯-`-h-\hpw-þ s]®p-cp-shmcp = kv{Xosb-cq-]-s¸-Sp-¯m³ (-I-\ym-a-dn-bs¯ Aa-tem-Û-h-bm-¡m³) þ]ca ]cn-ip-²-\mb ssZh-]p-{Xsâ amXm-hm-Im\pÅ kv{Xosb DÛ-h-]m-]-¯n \n¶pw tamNn-¸n-t¡- ­n-bn-cp-¶p. AXn-\m BZn-am-Xm-]n-Xm-¡Ä ]m]-¯n hogp-¶-Xn\p-ap³t] Ahsf krjvSn¨v ]nXm- hmb ssZh-¯n (ssN-h-\nÂ) tNÀ¯p-sh-¨n-cp-¶p.þ þAÀ²-\m-coizc³ F¶ ssNhZÀi\wþ Xnd-\m-In³dÆpcpXv -= Xo\m-hm (]-cn-ip-²m-ßm-hn-\mÂ) Pzen¸n¨v (D-cp-¡n-s¯-fn¨v) X¶pf- -S¡n = Xsâ DÅn kq£n¨v Ic-¡n-\p-¦-c¡pw = ico-c¯n\pÅ ico-c-ambn (tb-ip-hnsâ ico-c-¯n\p P·w \evIm-\pÅ ico-c-am-bn)

]nssd-\p-X³ h®-am-In³d¸nssd = Ah-Xmcw sNt¿-­-h\p amXm-hm- Im³ tbmPn-¨h®w P·w \evIn. ]Xn-s\-¬ IW\p ta¯hpw ]Spta = ]Xn-s\«p KW-§fpw hmgv¯n- kvXp-Xn-¡p-¶p. þ\h-hrµw kzÀ¤-hm-kn-I-fpw \h-hrµw temI-hm-kn-Ifpw F¶ k¦ev]w {Zmhn-U-ss{IkvXhÀ ]peÀ¯nbncp¶p (tám-ÌnIv ZÀi\w ).þ FÃm-hp-bnÀ¡p-ta-a-am-Inb = FÃm-hÀ¡pwt£aw \evIp¶ \ocdhdn-bm-¡-c-I-¯pXv = Ir]-bpsS t{kmXÊmWm¡-c-§-fn Xnf-§p-¶-sX-¶-dn-bpI XmgvN-ssS-s¸m-en-´h cp´-h-t¯mÀt¡ = \n]-Xn¨ ]m]-K-À¯-§-fn \n¶papbÀ¯n-b-hs\

I®n-ImÀ F¶Xv {Zmhn-U-aq-e¯n I¶n-ImÀ F¶m-hmw. I¶n-ImÀ ,

a\-kvXm-]t¯msS kvacn-¨m-epw. I\ymhnip-²n-X-¶p-Z-c-¯n-epÄs¡m-s­mcm Imew Im¯n-cp¶ Xncp-¸n-d-aqÀt¯, kvXpXn. temI-¯n³ {]Im-i-ambv shtÅ-dp-XqIn-Sp¶

- 45 -

Ir]sbgpw sImSn-bp-a-Xp-Xm-t\m-Xn-Sp-¶p. P·-]m-]-¡-d-Ifpw IÀ½-]m-]hpw ambv¡m³ kzÀ¤aW-sªm-cm-iànt¡ km[y-am-Iq. amXr kv{Xosb apt¶, Aán\mhm \oän tZh-¸n-d-hn-s¡m¯ tZls¯ Na-¨Xpw Aa-e-P·w tXmän ]Xn-s\-«p-hrµ§fpw ]mSn-¸p-I-gv¯n-Sp-¶n-¼-tam-sS-¶p-sa-¶pw. FÃm Dbn-cp-IÄ¡pw t£aw \evIo-Sp¶ Ir]m \oscm-gp-¡n-¶p-d-hm-Wm-¡-c-§-Ä ]Xn-t¨m-sc-bp-bÀ¯pam s]mcp-fns\ kvacn-¡-\mw.

]m«v þ 2

s]cpw tNmäpXn-b³ tNc BXs\¡pdn¨v apcn-©n-bqÀ apSn-\m-I-cm-bÀ ]mSnbXv

hcn: 13- þ 17

Ae-¦-pssf ¸pc-hnssbhscm-Sp-Nn-ss\C \ne´ssesIm­ s]me-¼q-´pss¼ Cussc-¼-Xn-·-cpw s]mcp-Xp-I-f-s¯m-gn-b]v s]cpt©mäpan-Ip-]-Xw-h-ssc-bm-Xp- sIm-Sp-t¯mbv

Ae¦v = kuµcyw Dssf = \jvSs- ¸-SÂ(-\m-iw) Ae-¦pssf¸pc = kuµcyw sI«p-t]m-b-h-cpsS Bhm-k-Øew (\-c-Iw)

þ kzÀ¤-¯nse amem-J-am-cn Hcp hn`m-K-amWv ssZh-t¯mSv adp-X-en-¨-t¸mÄ ]nim-Np-¡-fmbn amdn \c- I-¯n ]Xn-¨-sX¶v sFXn-lyw. þ hnssb-h-scmSp = kzÀ¤-hm-kn-I-tfmSv Nnss\C = adp-X-en-¨t¸mÄ(-FXn-À¯t¸mÄ) \ne-´-sse-sIm­ = Xe-¸¯p \ne-sIm­ s]me¼q´pss¼ = I\-I-tim-`-bmÀ¶ tZh³ Dss¼ = ssZhw Cussc¼ = tIm]-taäv CuÀ = tIm]w Xn·cpw = Xn·-bpsS aqÀ¯n-IÄ(-]n-im-Np-¡Ä) s]mcp-Xp-I-f-s¯m-gn-b]v= t]mcm-Sn-t¯mäv If-sa-mgn-bp-¶. s]cp-t©mÀ = aln-a-bmÀ¶ tNmdv(-_-en-t¨m-dv) anIp-]-Xw-h-ssc-bmXv = Xr]vXn-h-cp-thmfw.

\cIw kzÀ¤-hmk-

n-I-tfmSv adp-Xe- n-¨-t¸mÄ, Xe-¸-¯p-\n¶p t]mcm-Snb {]`m-]q-cn-X-\mb tZhsâ

tIm]-ta-äv Xn·-bpsS aqÀ¯n-I-fmb ss]im-NnI iàn-IÄ If-sam-gn-bp-¶ aln-a-bmÀ¶ tNmdv Xr]vXn

hcp-thmfw \evIn-b-h³.

]m«v þ 9

]m­n-b³ ]Âbm-INmsse apXp-Ip-Sp-an-s¸-cp-h-gp-Xn-sb-¸-än s\«n-ssa-bmÀ ]mSn-b-Xv.

hcn: 9.

sImÂI-fnddp aoan-ssN-s¡mSnhn-Np-¼p-\n-gäpw

sImÂI-fnddp (sIm + IfnÀ + Adp) = arXypIm-c-Iamb AÔ-Im-cs¯ \in-¸n-¡p¶

þ

ss

n-fnÂ

ss]im-NnI-i-àn-Isf AÔ-Im-c-i-ànIÄ F¶p hnti-jn-¸n-¡p-¶p.þ aoanssN = {]`-bmÀ¶ aninlm

þ ao F¶Xv ao³ (an-¶p-¶) F¶-Xnsâ {lkz-cq-]-am-Wv. {]Im-i-am-b-h³ F¶À°w. anin-lm-bpsS

NnÓa- mbn {]`m-X¯-

J\w sNbvXn-cp-¶Xv.þ

nsâ BKa\w hnfn¨- d- nb- n-¡p¶ ]qh³tImgn (tNh- Â) sbbmWv sImSn-bn Bte-

- 46 -

hnNp-¼p-\n-gäpw = BIm-i¯v \ng-ep-IÄ hogv¯p¶ AÔ-Imc iàn-Isf \in-¸n-¡p¶ {]`m-]q-cn-X-\mb anin-lm-bpsS sImSn BIm-i¯v \ng-ep- IÄ hogv¯n ]mdn-¸-d-¡p-¶p.

Ipdn¸v :

]mWvUy³ ]ÂbmIN- msse apXpI- pS- pa- ns- ¸-cp-h-gp-Xnsb thÄhn¡- pS- ns- Nt- ¸-Sp-I-fn ]cm-aÀin-¡p-¶X- v, thÄhn-¨msse ap³]p-\nâF¶m-Wv. thÄ_-en-\-S-¯p-¶-Xn ap¼-\m-bn-cp¶p Cu cmPm-hv.

]m«v þ 14

tNc-am³ sNÂh-¡SpwtImhmgn-bm-Xs\¡pdn¨v I]n-eÀ ]mSn-bXv.

hcn: 10,11

]cn-Nn-eÀ¡cp¦e \ÂIhpw Ipcn-Nn hen-b-hmIp\n³dmtSmbv XSss¡

]cn-Nn-eÀ¡v = k½m\mÀ°nIÄ¡v ]cn-Nn = ]mcn-tXm-jnIw Acp¦e \ÂI = ]m{Xw \nd-sb \evIp-I (-k-ar-²n-bmbv Zm\w sN¿p-I.) Ipcn-Nn hen-b-hmIp = Ipcn-È-nsâ hgnsb k©-cn-¡p¶

hen = hgn \n³dmtSmbv XSss¡ = \nsâ \o­ Icp-¯pä Ic-§Ä AXn-Yn-IÄ¡v \nÀtem`w Zm\w sNbvXv Ipcn-È-nsâ hgn-bn Ncn-¡p¶ \nsâ \o­ Icp-¯pä Ic-§Ä.

þ A]cÀ¡mbv kzPo-h³ hsc \evIp¶XmWv IpcnÈv {]tLm-jn-¡p¶ amÀ¤w.þ

]m«v þ16

tNmg³ CcmN Nqbw th« s]cp-\À InÅnsb¸dn ]m­m-c-¦-®-\mÀ ]mSn-bX.v

hcn: 16

apcp-IÀ Nodd¯pcp-sI-gp-Ip-cp-NnÂ

apcp-IÀ = apcp-I³ ({]-Im-i-am-b-h³)

Nod-d¯p = Ir]-bm-Ip¶ kXyw(-NoÀ+ Ad¯p)

NoÀ

= Ir]

Adw = kXyw (Adw ]äpI= kXy-ambn `hn-¡p-I) þ-hÅ-phcpsS Xncp-¡p-dÄ {]Ya A²ym-b-¯nsâ t]cv Ad-¯p-¸m AXmbXv kXy-amÀ¤w

F¶mW- v.þ Dcp-sI-gp-Ip-cp-Nn = Dcphw sImÅp¶ Ipcp-Èn apcp-Isâ (temI-¯nsâ {]Im-i-amb tbip-hnsâ) Ir], D×-]q­ Ipcn-ÈnÂ.

]m«v þ 26

s\Sp-s©-gn-b³ F¶ ]m­nb cmPmhns\¡pdn¨v am¦pSnIngmÀ ]mSn-bXv.

hcn: 15

thÄhn apänb hmbvhmÄtht´ thÄ_en-bn AÀ¸n¨v iàn-bmÀÖn¨ aqÀ¨-tb-dnb JUvK-ta-´p¶ cmPm-th.

þ Ccm-N-Nqbwth«- s]-cp-\ÀInÅn F¶ tNmf-s\bpw bmss\-¡Sv tNbv am´-c³ tNc-en-s\bpw

A©p-Ip-dp-\ne a¶-·m-scbpw (km-a´³amÀ) Xsse-bm-e-¦m-\¯v h¨p \S¶ bp²-¯n tXmev]n- ¡p¶Xv Cu ]mWvUy-cm-Pm-hmWv. Cu bp²w Nn¶-a-\qÀ sNt¸-Snepw tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-«p­v. Xsse-bm- e-¦m\w bp²-¯n s\Sp-t©-gn-b-t\m-tS-äp-ap-«n acn-¨-hcpw s\Sp-t©-gn-bs\t¸mse Xs¶ thÄhn \S- ¯p¶hcmb- n-cp¶- X- n\- m Ahcpw kzÀ¤¯- nt- e¡- mW- vt]mbs- X¶v CtX]- m«- n Ihn]- -db- p¶- X- n \n¶pw ]mWvUycpw tNmfcpw tNc-·mcpsaÃmw thÄhnth-«hÀ Bbn-cp-s¶¶v hyà-am-Ip-¶p.-þ

- 47 -

]m«v þ 17

Xsseb- m-e-¦m\w bp²-¯n ]mWvUy³ s\Sp-t©-gn-b\m XS-hn-em-¡-s¸« bmss\-¡Sv tNbv

am´-c³ tNc AhnsS \n¶pw c£-s¸-«v knwlm-k-\-Ø-\m-b-t¸mÄ Ipdp-t¦m-gn-bqÀ IngmÀ ]mSn-b-Xv.

hcn : 1 þ 4

sX³Ip-acn s]cp-¦Â IpW-IpS IS-em-shssà Ip³dp asse ImSp\m sSm³dp ]«p-hgn samgn-bIv

sX³ = hS = IpW-IpS = H³dp ]«p-hgn =

sX¡v hS¡v Ing¡pw ]Sn-ªmdpw Htc -Bcm-[-\m-hgn

sX¡v I\ym-Ip-am-cnbpw hS¡v s]cp-¦Ãpw (ln-am-e-b-hpw) Ing¡pw ]Sn-ªm-dpw IS-epw AXn- cm-bpÅ cmPy¯v, ae-bnepw Im«nepw \m«nepw Htc coXn-bn-epÅ Bcm[\-I-fmWv \S-¡p-¶Xv. þ`mc-Xs¯ I\ym-Ip-amcn apX lnam-ebw hsc H¶m-bn-¡m-Wp¶ BZy ]cm-aÀi§Ä kwL- Ir-Xn-I-fn-em-Wp-ÅXv. G. Un. BZy-i-X-I-§-fn D¯-tc-´y-bn \ne-\n-¶n-cp¶ iI-kw-kv¡m-cs¯ \in-¸n-¡p-¶Xv Kp]vX³am-cm-Wv. AXn-\m-emWv hn{I-am-ZnXy Kp]vXs\ (G. Un. 380- þ 413) iIcn F¶p hnti-jn-¸n-¡p-¶Xv. iI-kw-kvIm-c-¯nse aXw iI-ap-\n-bn-e-[njvTnX-amWv. iI-ap-\oi: imkvXm-ap\n F¶s{X Aacw. {ioIWvtT-iz-c-¯nsâ i_vZ-Xmcmhen-bn imkvXmbpw Nm¯\pw H¶p-X-s¶-bm- sW-¶p-ImWmw. iICuiXs¶-bmWv imen-hml\\pw. imen-hm-l-\\v ac-¡p-cn-ip-h-ln-¡p-¶-h³ F¶v tamWn-bÀ hneywkv kwkvIrX \nL-­p-hn AÀ°w \evIn-bn-cn-¡p-¶p. iveoh F¶ t]Àjy- ³ ]Z-amWv imen BbX v. iI-kw-kvIm-c-amWv C-´ysb BZy-ambn H¶n-¸n-¡p-¶-Xv. Ipdpt¦m-gn-bqÀ IngmÀ kqNn-¸n-¡p¶ Htc coXn-bn-epÅ Bcm-[\ B kw-kvIm-c¯nsâ `mK-am-Wv. C´y apgp-h³ {]m_-ey-¯n h¶ iIh- Àj k{¼-Zmbw CXnsâ sXfn-hm-Wv. iIk- wk- vImcw {]_-ea- mb- nc- p¶ Ime¯v Bcy-·mÀ hS-¡pÅ s]cn-b-ssN-e-¯n HXp-§n-¡q-Sn-¡-gn-ªn-cp-s¶¶v Bcn-bÀ Xqh³dnb t]cn- ssN-bnabw F¶ ]Xn-äp-¸-¯nse ]cm-aÀiw (2þmw ]¯v, ]m«v þ 1 hcn : 2, 3 ) hyà-am-¡p¶p. G. Un. 78  iI-hÀjw Øm]n-¡p-¶Xv I\n-jvIsâ {]]nXmal-\mb hnam ISv^n-kkv (`o- a³ IS-I-t`m-P³) BWv. {InkvXp-amÀ¤w kzoI-cn-¨n-cp¶ sKm­-^-d-Ênsâ (Kp-´-^À) \mSp-Io-g-S-¡n- bm-Wv Ipim-\À X£-in-e-bnse¯p¶-Xv. Ipim-\cpw ss{IkvXh ZÀi\w DÄs¡m-­n-cp¶p. G. Un. 196 se Hcp kndn-b³ enJn-X-s¯-bm-[m-c-am¡n Ipim-\c- psS ss{IkvXh _Ôw s{]m^. tPmÀÖp ta\m-t¨c- n kqNn-¸n-¡p¶p­v. (skâv tXmakv {InkvXy³ F³ssk-s¢m-]o-Unb Hm^v C´y, hmeyw 1 ]pdw 134). Cu Ime-L-«-¯nse Hcp IpcnÈv X£-in-e-bn \n¶pw 1935  Is­-Sp-¯n-«p­v. I\n-jvIsâ Ime¯v P·w sIm­ almb- m\ _p²a- X- ¯- nse aninlm ZÀi\w sdmaoe Xm¸-dns\t¸mse- bpÅ {]kn² Ncn-{X-Im-c³amÀ Nq­n-¡m-«p-¶p. Xr¸q-Wn-¯pdbnse kwkvIrX tImf-Pn kq£n-¨n- cn-¡p¶ _p²-N-cnXw F¶ t]cn-epÅ ]e Xmfn-tbme {KÙ-§-fnepw tbip-hnsâ Ncn-{X-amsWgp-Xn- bn-cn-¡p-¶-sX¶ tUm. kn. sI. Ico-ansâ \nco-£-Ws¯¡pdn¨v {io. F³. sI. tPmkv tIc-f-N-cn-{X- ¯n-eqsS F¶ {KÙ-¯n {]kvXm-hn-¡p-¶p­v (1982 FUn-j³, ]pdw 32). Cuiz-c-hn-izm-kn-bm-bn- cp¶ i¦-cm-Nm-cysc {]O-¶-_p-²³ F¶p Ipä-s¸-Sp-¯n-b-hcpw \nco-iz-c-\mb KuXa _p²-s\-bà Dt±-in-¨-Xv. G.-Un.4-þmw iX-I¯nsâ Bcw-`-Im-e¯v tIc-f-¯n-se-¯nb tNbvam-cpsS (Kvt\mÌnIv ss{IkvX-h-cp-sS) Úm\n Bb tbiphn-s\-bmWv ChnsS _p²³ F¶p hnti-jn-¸n-¡p-¶Xv. Ipjm- \-cpsS ssZh-¯nsâ AhXm-chpw temIm-h-km-\\mfn ho­pw hcp-¶-h-\pamb _p²\pw asäm-¶- Ã.

_p²aX-¯nse alm-bm\m hn`m-K-¯nsâ BhnÀ`mhhpw hfÀ¨bpw at²y-jy-bn \n¶pw h¶ hntZ-in-b-cpsS aX-]-c-amb A`n-em-j-§fpw Bh-iy-§fpw km[n-¨p-sIm-Sp-t¡­ kml-N-cy-hp- ambn _Ô-s¸«p InS-¡p-¶p (F. {io[-c-ta-t\m³; C´ym-N-cn{Xw 1þmw `mKwþ1993 FUn-j³þ ]pdw 149). G. Un. H¶mw \qäm­v A´y-am-b-tXmsS at²y-jy {InkvXp-ZÀi\w DÄs¡m­p Ign-ªncp-¶p. I\n-jv¡sâ Ime¯v (G. Un. 115--þ 140) cq]w sIm­ alm-bm\ _p²-a-X-¯n\v {InkvXp-ZÀi-\-§-fp-am- bpÅ _Ôw kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶X- mWv {io[-c-ta-t\msâ {]kvXm-h\. alm-bm-\¡- m-cpsS ssZh-¯nsâ Ah- Xm-c-amb _p²³ Bsc¶v Cu kqN\ hyà-am-¡p-¶p. KmÔmc ssienbn \nÀ½n-¡-s¸« hn{K-l-

- 48 -

§Ä Cu _p²-tâ-XmWv. Ah-bmWv temI-\mY {]Xn-a-IÄ F¶-dn-b-s¸-Sp-¶-Xv.þ

vIsâ `c-W-Imew G. Un. 78þ120 F¶mWv

tcJs- ¸S- p¯- nb- nc- n¡- p¶- -Xv. tXmakv At¸m-kvXe- -\n \n¶pw {InkvXpa- mÀ¤w kzoIc- n¨ KmÔmctZis¯ ]mÀ°y cmPm-hmb sKm´-^-d-Ênsâ ]n³Km-an-bmb ]mt¡m-d-kns\ tXmev¸n¨v KmÔmcw Iog-S-¡p- ¶Xv I\n-jvIsâ {]]nXm-a-l-\mb hnam IUv^n-k-kmsW¶pw Ct±-l-amWv iI-hÀj Øm]-Is\¶pw

kqNn-¸n-¨ncp¶p-htÃm.

h-bp-ambn I\n-jvIsâ Inco-S-[m-c-Ws¯ _Ôn-¸n-¡p¶ \nK-a-\-§Ä IqSp-X ]T-\-§-fpsS shfn-¨-

¯n Ncn-{X-Im-c³amÀ

`c-W-Imew G. Un. 115 þ-------1------4- 0 F¶mWv tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-cn-¡p-¶-Xv. (BURTON STEIN : ‘A HISTORY OF

INDIA’- FOURTH IMPRESSION 2006 -p 91 ). I\n-jvIsâ `cW- mcw`w G. Un. 128 hsc apt¶m«pam-dp-¶- Xmbn tPm¬ tIbv F¶ Ncn-{X-Im-c³ tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶p. “ On the otherhand the latest scholarship, based

on numismatic correlations between Kushana and Roman coins, pushes Kanishka’s accession way forward to about 128 A.D” (JOHN KEAY: ‘INDIA: A HISTORY’ -2000 p.112).

Kp]vX-·m-cpsS Ime¯v Bcy-·m-cpsS thZ-kw-ln-X-Ifpw iI-a-X-¯nsâ ZÀi-\-§fpw _p²-þ- ssP-\-·m-cpsS BNm-c-co-Xn-Ifpw kt½-fn-¡p¶ Hcp _Z aX-¯n\v Bcy-ssh-Zn-IÀ cq]w sImSp-¯p. tIcf `mjmC³Ìnäyq-«v {]kn-²oI-cn-¨, s{]m^. Ipªn-¸-¡n, s{]m^. ]n.-sI. apl-½Zv Aen F¶n-hÀ Fgp-Xnb C´ym-N-cn{Xw (H¶mw `mKw) ]¯mw-]-Xn¸v ]pdw 98  C´y³ kaq-l-¯n ebn-¨p-tNÀ¶ {Ko¡v, iI, ]mÀ¯nb, Ipim-W- -·mÀ B{I-a-W-Im-cn-I-fm-bn-h-¶-Xp-sIm­v Ahsc ssk\n-I-k-aq-l- amb £{Xn-b-hn-`m-K-¯nÂs¸-Sp-¯m-sa¶pw F¶m iI-þ-]mÀ¯n-b-·mÀ [À½-¯n \n¶pw hyXn-N- en-¨-h-cm-I-bm Ahsc c­mw-Xcw £{Xn-b-c- mtb IW-¡m¡mhq F¶pw a\p \nÀt±-in-¡p-¶-Xmbn tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-cn-¡p-¶p. a\p C§-s\-sbmcp {]kvXm-h\ \S-¯p¶ Ime-ta-sX¶v Duln-¡m-a-tÃm. C¡m-e-¯mWv thÄhn- ¡p- _-Z-embn {]Pm-]-Xo-bmKw cq]w sImÅp-¶-Xv. ]pcm-tW-Xn-l-mk-§fpw thZ-{K-Ù-§fpw Imem-\pkrX-ambn ]pXp-¡n-sb-gp-Xp-¶Xv, tIkcn kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶p-­v (-N-cn{X]-T-\- §Ä,1992þ]pdw100).iI-kw-kv¡m-c-¯nse Bi-b-§Ä A¡m-e¯p cNn-¡-s¸« D]-\n-j¯p-I-fnepw aoamwkI-fnepw {]I-S-amWv. Hcp DZm-l-cWw Xmsg-sIm-Sp-¡p-¶p.

{io[c- -tat- \m³ DÄs¸sS ]e Ncn-{XI- mc- ³amcpw I\nj-

_n. kn. 58 Â Bcw-`n¨ hn{I-a-hÀjw, G. Un. 78Â Øm]n¨ iI-hÀjw F¶n-

XÅn-¡-f-bp-¶p.

_À«³sÌbv³ Fgp-Xnb C´ym Ncn-{X-¯n I\n-jvIsâ

Cuim-hm-tkym-]-\n-j¯v þ 11-þmw a{´w

hnZymwN Ahn-ZymwN bkvXZv thZ-D-`-bw-kl Ahn-Zybm arXypw XoÀXzm hnZy-bm-ar-X-a-iv\ptX hnZy, AhnZy F¶o amÀ¤-§-fn-eqsS Ncn-¡p-I.Ahn-Zy-sIm­v ac-Ws¯ AXn-Po-hn¨v hnZy- sIm­v Aa-cXzw A\p-`-hn-¡p-I.

ss

hN-\-§Ä

ssZh-`-àn-bmWv Adn-hnsâ Dd-hnSw (kp-`m-jn-X-§Ä þ A²ymbw 1, hmIyw 7). kÀÆ-Úm- \hpw IÀ¯mh- nÂ\n¶p hcp¶p; AXv Ft¶bv¡pw AhnS- pt- ¯m-SpI- qs- Sb- mWv ({]-`m-jI- ³ þ A²ymbw 1, hmIyw 1). bYmÀ° Úm\n-bm-tI-­-Xn\v X¶-¯s¶ t`mj-\m-¡s« (]u-tem-kv, tImdn-t´m-kp- ImÀ¡v Fgp-Xnb H¶mw-te-J\w þ A²ymbw 3, hmIyw 18). Cu t`mj-¯-amWv AhnZy. kzbw iq\y- h-Xv¡-cn-¡pI F¶pw ]utemkv ]d-bp-¶p-­v. At¸mÄ Pohn-Xm-k-àn-IÄ¡v AdpXnh-cpw, ac-W- `bw CÃ-XmI- pw. ap³hn-[nI- -fn-ÃmsX kzbw iq\yc- mb- ns- ¡m­v ssZhs¯ tXSp-¶-hc- nt- ebv¡v IÀ¯mhv Úm\s¯ D¶-X-¯nÂ\n¶pw \evIpw. Úm\-t¯m-Sp-Å- _-Ô-¯n AaÀXyX IpSn-sIm-Åp-¶p (Úm\w þ A²ymbw 8, hmIyw 17).

]m«v þ 31

tNmg³\-e-¦n-Ån-sb-¸än tImhqÀIn-gmÀ ]mSn-bXv

hcn : 1,2

Nnd-¸p-ssS-a-c-]nÀ s]mcp-fp-an³]apw Ad-¯p-h-gn-¸Sq Dt´m-äw-t]me

Nnd-¸pssS = _en-bm-tLm-j-¯nsâ DS-b-h³ ac-]nÀ = acn-¨p-bÀ¯-h³ (tb-ip) C³]w = D]hn (\-·)

- 49 -

Ad-¯p-h-gn-¸-Sq-D³ = kXy-amÀ¤-¯nÂs¸-Sp-¶-h³ tXmäw = IoÀ¯n (a-l-Xzw) _en-bpsS DS-tbm-\mb tbip-hnsâ s]mcpfpw C¼hpw kXy-amÀ¤-¯nÂs¸-Sp-¶-hsâ al-Xz- am-bn-¯o-cp-¶p. þPoh³hsc Zm\w-sN-¿p-¶-XmWv tbip-hnsâ s]mcpfpw C¼hpw. amS-a-Xpssc hsc Zm\w sN¿p-¶-h- \mWv tNmg³\-ew-In-Ån-sb¶v ]pd-\m-\qdv þ 32-þmw ]m«n tImhqÀIn-gmÀ ]d-bp-¶p-­v.þ

]m«v þ 33

tNmg³\e-¦n-Ån-sb-¸än tImhqÀIn-gmÀ ]mSn-b-Xv.

hcn : 20-þ22

HXp-¡nânWn aWÀ]p-Xp-¸qw-]Ån hmbn³ amS-s´m-dp-ssa-hn-ssS-hogv¸ \obm-¦p-s¡m­ hng-hn-\pw-]-eth

HXp-¡nânWn aWÀ¸p-Xp¸qw = Ae-¦-cn-s¨m-cp-¡nb kpK-Ô-apÅ ]pX-¸q-¡-tfm-Sp-Iq-Snb ]Ån-hm-bn³ = ]Ån-ap-äs¯ amS-s´mdp = amSw-tXmdpw ssahn-ssS-hogv¸ = BSp-Isf Adp¯v \obm-¦p-s¡m­ = \obm-tLm-jn¨ hnghn\pw ]eth = s]cp-¶m-fp-IÄ ]eXv

kpK-Ô-hm-ln-bmb ]pXp-]q-¡ÄsIm­v `wKn-bmbn Ae-¦-cn¨ ]Ån-bpsS apä-¯pÅ ime-I- fn B«n-d¨n thhn-s¨m-cp-¡n \o F{Xtbm s]cp-¶m-fp-IÄ BtLm-jn-¡p-¶p. -þ\e-¦nÅn thÄ_-en-tbmSp tNÀ¶p \S-¯p¶ s]cp-t©mäp kZy-I-sf-¡p-dn-¨mWv Ihn ]d-bp- ¶Xv. Cu BtLm-j-§-tfmSv tNÀ¶v t]bvI-sf( ss]im-NnI _m[-I-sf) Hgn-¸n-¡p¶ AÃn-¸m-ssh- bm«w \S-¯p-¶-Xmbpw Cu]m«ne- p­v. AÃn-¸mssh F¶-Xn\v \nÀ½e- -amb I\ym{- hXw F¶mWÀ°w. c£-I\v P·w \evIpI hgn ]nim-Nnsâ Xe-X-IÀ¯-h-fmb I\ym-a-dn-bs¯ kvXpXn-¡p¶ \r¯-\m-S- I-amWv AÃn-¸m-ssh-bm-«w. -

]m«v þ 34

tNmg³ InÅn-h-f-h-s\-¡p-dn¨v Be-¯qÀ IngmÀ]m-Sn-bXv.

hcn : 3

]mÀ¸mÀ¯-¸n-b-sImS- p-ssa ]mÀ¸m-sc-t{Zm-ln-¡p-¶Xv sImSpw-]m]w.

]mÀ¸mÀ ]mcnsâ ]nXm-¡-·m-cm-Wv, AXm-bXv k`m-]n-Xm-¡-·m-cmb ]ptcm-ln-XÀ. ]m¸m³amÀ, F¶v kwLI- rX- nI- f- n ImWp-¶Xpw ChÀX-s¶. BtKmf- I- t- ¯me- n¡mk`b- psS Xe-hs\ ]m¸m F¶p hnti-jn-¸n-¡m³ hgn-sbm-cp-¡n-bXpw {Zmhn-U-ss{I-kvX-h-k-`-bm-Imw. ss{IkvX-h-k` C¶pw ]ptcm-ln- Xsc t{Zmln-¡p-¶X- v, s]mdp-Xn- AÀln¡- m¯ ssZht- ZmjambmWv Icp-Xp¶- -Xv. {_mÒ-Wt- cm-SpÅ A\m- Z-chv sImSn-b-]m-]-am-sW¶ ImgvN-¸m-Sp-ambn Cu ZÀi-\-¯n-\pÅ _Ôw {it²-b-am-Wv.þ

]m«v þ 40

tNmg³In-Ån-h-f-h-s\-¸än BhqÀaq-e-¦n-gmÀ ]mSn-b-Xv.

hcn : 1þ5

\otb ]nd-tcm-¼pdp ad asd-¶-bn Hm¼mXp IS-´-«-hÀ apSn-]p-ss\´ ]Npw-s]m-¶n³ ASn-s]m-en-b-¡-gs- sd-Cb hÃm-fss\ hb-tht´

]nd-tcm-¼pdp = ]ndÀ-Hm-¼p¶ (kv\m-\-s¸-«-h-À {]tLm-jn-¡p-¶.)

- 50 -

ad-a-d-s¶-bn = thZ-[À½w ad¶v Hm¼m-Xp-I-S-´-«-hÀ = `àn-bn-ÃmsX Ign-bp-¶-hÀ apSn-]p-ss\´ = in£n¨p \bn¨v ]Npw-s]m-¶n³-A-Sns- ]m-enb= ]cn-ip-²-amb s]m³]m-Z-§-fm tim`n-¡p¶ þCu Xn-cp-¸m-Z-§Ä s]m¶pXnÀ¡p-¶p, AXm-bXv t£aw \evIp¶p F¶p [z\n þ Ig-ssd-Cb = ta\n-tbm-Sp-Iq-Snb hÃm-fss\ = hen-b-hs\ hb-tht´ = Bcm-[n-¡p¶ cmPmth \otb, kv\m\-s¸-«-hÀtLmjn¡- p¶ thZ-ap-d-IÄ ad-¡p-¶-hsc imkn¨v t\Àh-gn-¡p-\b- n¨v ]cn- ip-²-amb s]m¶p-s]m-en-bp¶ ]mZ-§-tfm-Sp-Iq-Sn-b-h-\mb hen-b-hs\ (Ir]-sNm-cn-bp¶ tbip-hns\) hW-§p¶ alm-cm-Pm.

]m«v þ 50

s]cp-t©-c-en-cp-s¼mssd sIm«m-c-¯n CÃm-Xn-cp¶ ka-b¯v Ahn-sSs- b-¯nb tamNn-Io-c-\mÀ F¶ Ihn bm{Xm-£o-Ww-sIm­v , AhnsS I«n-en InS-¶p-d§n-t¸mbn.AXv apc-Np-I-«n (cm-Pm-hnsâ Bbp[w kq£n-¡p¶ I«nÂ) BsW¶v At±lw Adn-ªn-Ã. apc-Np-I-«n-en cmPm-hp-t]mepw Ccn- ¡m-dnÃ. DWÀ¶-t¸mÄ Ihn ImWp-¶Xv cmPmhv Xs¶ Nmacw sIm­v hoin-¯cp-¶-Xm-Wv- . Xm³ InS- ¶p-d-§n-bXv apc-Np-I-«n-en-em-sW¶pw At¸m-gmWv At±lw Adn-bp-¶-Xv. Cu ka-b¯v s]cp-t©- cencps¼mss-dsb kvXpXn-¨p-sIm­v tamNn-Io-c-\mÀ ]mSnbXv.

hcn : 14-þ17

Ch-Wn-ssN-bp-ssS-tbmÀ¡ÃXhW XpbÀ\n-sse-bp-e-I-¯p-ssd-bp-fn³ssa hnf-¦-t¡« amdp-sIm hew-]Sp Ipcp-Nn-\o-bo¦nXp sNb-te.

Ch-Wn-ssN-bp-ssS-tbmÀ¡v = Cu h®w Cutimsb (C-h¬ + CssN + DS-tbmÀ¡v) kz´-am-¡nb- -hÀ¡v AÃXh-WXv = AÃmsX Bhp-¶-Xà DbÀ\n-sse-bp-eIw = kzÀ¤w Dssd-bp-fn³ssa = {]m]n-¨m-\-µn-¡m³ hnf-¦-t¡-«-am-dp-sIm = \¶m-bn-tI-«-h-\m-I-bm hew-]Sp = _e-amÀ¶ (a-l-Xz-s¸-«) Ipcn-Nn-\obv = Ipcn-in-\m Cu¦n-Xp-sN-bte = C{]-Imcw sN¿p-¶Xv Cu hn[w s]cp-am-dm³ Cuisb kz´-am-¡n-b-hÀ¡ÃmsX Ign-bp-I-bn-Ã. Ahtc kzÀ¤-cmPyw {]m]n-¡p-I-bp-Åp-sh¶v \¶mbn {Kln-¨-h-\m-I-bm al-Xz-s¸« Ipcn-ÈmWv A§sbs¡m­n-{]-Imcw sN¿n¨- -Xv.

]m«v þ 57

]m­n-b³ \³am-d-s\-¸än Imhn-cn¸qw]«n-\-I-¯p-¡m-cn-¡-®-\mÀ ]mSn-b-Xv.

hcn : 3

Dssc-Nm Nnd-¸nÀ ]pI-gvNm³amd

Dssc-NmÂNn-d-¸nÀ= hN-\-sam-gp-Ip¶ _en-bm-tLm-j-¯n³

]pI-gvNm³ amd

= ]pI-gvN-bm al-Xz-amÀ¶-hs\

hN-\-{]-tLmj-Wt¯m-sS-bpÅ _en-bm-tLmj§-fm IoÀ¯n-t\-Sn-b-h-s\.

]m«v þ 68

tNmg³\-e-¦n-Ån-sb-¸än tImhqÀIn-gmÀ ]mSn-bXv

hcn : 18,19

Dd-ss´tbmt\ Ipcp-NnÂ

- 51 -

]nd³IssS ad-¸-\ÂIp-h³ sNent\.

Dds- s´-tbmt\ = Dd-bqÀImcm Ipcn-NnÂ]n-d³IssS ad¸ = Ipcn-Ènse Ah-Xm-c-cq-]-¯nsâ Imep-IÄ ad-bp-¶{X \ÂIp-h³ = \evIp-¶h³ sNent\ = sN¶mepw Dd-bqÀImcm sN¶m-epw, Ipcn-Ènse Ah-Xm-c-cq-]-¯nsâ Imep-IÄ ad-b-p¶{X [\w Ah³ \n\¡p \evIpw. þ \e-¦n-Ån-bpsS sIm«m-c-¯nsâ A¦-W-¯n hen-sbmcp Ipcn-ip-cq]w \ne-sIm-Åp-¶p-­mhpw þ

]m«v þ 74

tNmg³ sN¦-®m-\p-ambn Xncp-t¸À]pdw F¶ Øe-¯p-h-¨p-\-S¶ bp²-¯n IssW-¡m Ccps- ¼mssd F¶ tNcc- m-Pmhv XS-hne- m-¡s- ¸-«-t¸mÄ, `£W- ]- m\- o-b-§f- p-t]-£n¨v tNc³ kzbw arXyp- h-cn-¡p-¶-Xn-\p-ap³]mbn ]mSn-b-XmWv Cu ]m«v. bp²w \S¶ Øe-¯nsâ t]cv {i²n-¡p-I. tbip- hnsâ Xncp-¸n-dhnbpsS \ma-t[-b-¯n-epÅ Hcp tZhm-ebw ØnXn-sN-bvXn-cp¶ Øe-am-Wn-Xv. CXv Xa- kv¡-cn-¡m³ hnhÀ¯-\-¯n Xncp-t¸mÀ]pdw F¶v Fgp-Xn-bn-cn-¡p-¶Xpw {it²-b-am-Ip-¶p. CfwIpfw Ipª³]n-Å-bpsS A¶-s¯-tI-cfw (1959) F¶ {KÙ-¯n ]pdw 22 Â, IssW-¡mÂ- Ccp-s¼mssd F¶ tNc-cm-Pm-hns\ tNmf-cm-Pm-hmb sN¦-Wm³ Xncp-t¸À]pdw bp²-¯n tXmev]n¨v XS-hp-Im-c-\m-¡p-¶Xv hyà-ambn tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-«p­v. Øe-\m-a-§-tfmSv tNÀ¶p hcp¶ ]ÅnF¶ ]Zs¯ ]nÅnB¡m-\pÅ {iaw Ct¸mÄ \S-¡p-¶Xpw HmÀ¡m-hp-¶-Xm-Wv.

]m«v - 99

tImh-eqÀ Iog-S-¡nb AXn-b-am³ s\Sp-am-\-©n-sb-¸än HuÆ-bmÀ ]mSn-b-Xv.

hcn : 1,2

Aa-cÀt¸-Wn-bp-am-hp-Xn-b-cp-¯nbpw Acp-s¼-d³ ac-]nÀ Icp-¼n-h-«´pw

Aa-cÀt¸-Wnbpw = kzÀ¤-Ø-cm-b-h-sc kvXp-Xn¨pw Bhp-Xn-b-cp-¯nbpw = _en-b-\p-jvTn¨pw ac-]nÀ = acn¨v DbnÀ¯-h³ (tb-ip) Acp-s¼-d³ ac-]nÀIcp¼n h«´pw = XncpA-h-Xmcw sNbvXv acn¨v DbnÀ¯-h\v Bcm-[\ AÀ¸n¨pw. kzÀ¤-hm-kn-Isf kvXpXn¨pw _en-IÀ½-§-f-\p-jvTn¨pw Xncp-A-h-Xmcw sNbvXv acn¨v D°m\w sNbvX- h\v Bcm-[-\-bÀ¸n¨pw.

]m«v þ 122

asse-b-am³ Xncp-ap-Sn-¡m-cn-sb-¸än I]n-eÀ ]mSn-bXv

hcn : 5,6

aqh-cp-sfm-cp-h³dp-¸m-Inb-sc\

G¯n-\À

aqh-cp-sfm-cp-h³ = aq¶v Acp-fn Hcp-h³

þ ss{IkvXh ZÀi-\-¯nse {XnssXz-I-ssZ-hw, ]nXmhv þ]p{X³ þ ]cn-ip-²m-ßmhv F¶o aq¶m-fp-IÄ

tNÀ¶-Xm-Wv. CXn ]p{X³

BWv aninlm Bbn Ah-X-cn¨v c£-mIc_en AÀ¸n-¡p-¶Xv þ

dp¸m-In-b-sc\ = _en-bm-b-Xns\ (D-cp-In-b-Xn-s\)

G¯n-\À = Bcm-[n¡-

p-¶-hÀ.

]cn-ip-²-{Xn-Xz-¯n-sem-cp-h³, _en-hkvXp BbXns\ DÄs¡m-­m-cm-[n-¡p-¶-hÀ.

Ipdn¸v

kwLm-\-´-c-Im-es¯ ssi-hcpw {XnssXz-I-tZh ZÀi\w ]peÀ¯n-bn-cp-¶p. 9þmw \qäm-­n-sâ-bm-cw-`-¯nÂ

- 52 -

Pohn¨- n-cp¶ kpµ-c-aqÀ¯n \mb-\mÀ cNn¨ Xncps- ¯m­-

bpÅ Hcp {]mÀ°-\m-Ko-X-am-Wv. 62 ASn-I-fpÅ Cu {]mÀ°-\-bn Hmtcm ASnbpw Ah-km-\n-¡p-¶Xv ASn-tb³ AXm-bXv kaÀ¸n-¡p¶p Rm³ F¶mWv. CXnse 15 þma-Xp-h-cn-Im-Wp-I; apss½-bm-epesIm­-aqÀ¯n¡paSn-tb³ þ aq¶p sa¿m tim-`n-¡p¶ aqÀ¯n¡v kaÀ¸n-¡p¶p Rm³. þ kpµc- -aqÀ¯n \mb-\m-cpsS amXm-hnsâ t]cv CssN- Rm-\n-bmÀ F¶m-sW-¶Xpw {it²-b-am-Wv. þ (C-ssN-Rm-\n-bmÀ = C-ssi-Úm-\n-bmÀ)þ

À sXmssI-X-nc- p-¸-XnIw, ss{IkvX-h-cpsS ep¯n\- nb t]mse-

]m«v þ 135

Bbv cm-Pm-hmb A­n-c-s\-¡p-dn¨v apS-tam-Nn-bmÀ ]mSn-bXv

hcn : 5þ10

s]m³hmÀ´¶ ]pcn-b-S-¦p-\-c-¼n³ hcn-\-hnÂ]-\p-h ]pe-s¼-bÀ´nssN¸]v ]Sp-asse \nâ-]-b-s¦-gp-No-dn-bmgv HÂI-ep-Å-sam-sSmcp ]pssS-¯-go-C]v ]pI-gvNmÂNn-d-¸n-\n³ \Ãn-ssN-bpÅn h´s\

s]m³hmÀ´¶ = s]m¶pIpan-bp¶ ]pcn-b-S-¦p-\À = ]«-W-¯n hkn-¡p-¶-hÀ A¼n³ = kvt\l-t¯msS hc-n\v = h¶p AhnÂ]-\p-h = hnip-²-{KÙw ]pe-s¼-bÀ´v = Dd-s¡-hm-bn¨v CssN-¸]v = Cuisb ]Sp = kvXpXn-¡p¶ asse = aeb- n \nsâ ]b-s¦gp = \nsâ `ànsb-gp¶ Nodn-bmgv = at\m-l-c-amb bmgv (bmgv = Hcp Xcw hoW) HÂI-ep-Å-samSp = If-¦-an-Ãm¯ DÅ-t¯msS ]pssS-¯-goC]v = cmK-ap-XnÀ¯v

]pI-gvNmÂNnd-¸n\- n³

= ]pI-gvs]ä BtLm-j-§-fn (thÄhn-I-fnÂ)

\Ãns- sNbv = \Ã Cuisb

DÅnh- -´s\ = lrZ-b-¯n-emc- m-[n-¡p-¶p.

Ä hnip-²-{KÙw Dd-

s¡-hm-bn¨v Cuisb kvXpXn-¡p¶ ae-bn (A-hn-sS-bpÅ tZhm-e-b-¯nÂ) \nsâ If-¦-an-Ãm¯ s\t©mSv tNÀ¯- bm-gn \n¶pw `à-cm-K-§Ä DXn-cp-¶, ]pI-gvs]ä thÄhn BtLm-j-§-fn FÃm- hcpw \Ã-h-\mb Cuisb Bßm-hn-em-cm-[n-¡p-¶p.

]m«v þ 161

k¼-¶-amb \K-c-¯n ]c-kv]cw kvt\l-t¯msS Ign-bp-¶-hc- mb P\§-

apXn-c-a-e-bpsS \mY-\mb Ipa-W-s\-¸än s]cp-©n-¯n-c-\mÀ ]mSn-bXv.

hcn : 19-þ22

]SpaWn-bn-c« thdn-s¨-½m´p sNe-\-ssN-C-bp-ä-s\³ hnd³ anIp-Ipcp-Nn C³ssa-Xp-c-¸-hn-ssN-X-c-h´p \n³ h¬ssa

]Sp-a-Wn-bn-c«- -th-dn-s¨-½m´p = apg-¡-ap-Å-aWn c­pw amdn-amdn ASn-¡th sNe-\-ssN-C-bpä- -s\³ = Db-cp¶ Km\{]Np-cn-a-bn hnd³an-Ip-Ip-cpNn = t{ijvT-\mbh³ an-I-th-änb Ipcn-ÈnÂ

- 53 -

C³ssa-Xp-c¸ = kvt\lw sNmcn-bp¶ hnssN-X-c-h´p = hnPbw hcn-¡p¶p

\n³h¬ssa = \nsâ IoÀ¯n aWn c­pw amdn-amdn ASn-¡-sh, Db-cp¶ Km\-{]-Np-c-na-bnÂ, t{ijvT-\m-b-h³

apg-¡-ap-Å

anI-th-änb (c-£m-I-c-_-en-bmÂ) Ipcn-Èn \n¶pw hmÀs¶m-gp-Ip¶ Ir] hnPbw hcn-¡p-¶t- Xm-sSm¸w \obpw IoÀ¯n-t\-Sp-¶p.

þ 163-þmw ]m«pw s]cpw-Nn-¯n-c\m-cp-tS-XmWv. Cu ]m«n Ipa-W-\n \n¶pw e`n-¨-k-¼-s¯Ãmw

Xsâ `mcysb Gev]n-¨n«v \nsâ CjvSw t]mse, \½psS Ab¡m-cpsS \·-Xn-·-I-sfm¶pw t\m¡m- sX, \ap-¡m-h-iy-ap-Å-t¸mÄ Xncn-¨p-In-«p-tam-sb¶p Nn´n-¡m-sX, \ap-¡p-Ipsd IqSn kpJ-ambn Pohn- ¡m-asÃm F¶p hnNm-cn-¡msX CsX-Ãm-hÀ¡pw sImSp-¯mepw F¶v Ihn ]d-bp-¶-XmWv {]Xn-]mZyw þ

]m«v þ 166

tNmg-\m«p ]q©m-äqÀ ]nd-a-W³ Ihp-Wn-b³ hn®-´m-b-s\-¸än BhqÀ aqe-¦n-gmÀ ]mSn-bXv

hcn : 1þ9

\âmbv´\oWn-anÀ-NssS apXp apXÂh³ hmbv t]mIm sXm³dp-]p-cn´ hocn-c-­n³ Bdp-WÀ´-shm-cp-ap-Xp\q CI It­mÀ anIÂNm-bvamÀ sa¿¶ s]m¿p-WÀ´p s]mt¿m-cm-Xp sabv sImfoC aqthgv Xpssd-bp-ap-«nâpt]mInb Dssc-Nm Nnd-¸n-\p-c-thmÀa-cpI

\âm-bv´-\o-Wnav = \¶mbn kzb-apÄs¡m­v (\âmbv+X³+CuWn-av) CÀNssS = Ipcp-¡p-I-f-gnªp (kw-i-b-§-fn-Ãm-sX) apXp-ap-XÂh³ = BZn apXÂh³ (ssZ-hw) hmbv = hN\w (sam-gn) t]mIm-sXm³dp = H¶pw hn«p-t]m-ImsX

]pcn´ =

Adnª

hocn-c-­n³ Bdp-WÀ´ = hoc-cmb ]{´-­p-t]À

(hoc+Cc­n³Bdv+DWÀ´)

(Ço-l-·mÀ ) ]Tn-¸n¨

þþ ss]im-NnI iàn-I-tfmSp t]mcm-Sp-¶, B²ym-ßnI ssNX-\y-ap-Å-hsc hocÀ F¶v kwL- Im-e-I-hn-IÄ hnfn-¨n-cp-¶p. cà-km-£n-I-fm-b-h-scbpw hocÀ F¶mWv hnti-jn-¸n-¨n-cp-¶-Xv. þþþ

apXp-\q = aqe-ZÀi\w (]-g-b-{K-Ùw) CIÂI-t­mÀ = Ipäw I­-hÀ anIÂNm-bvamÀ = anI-hpÅ NmbvamÀ

þ NmbvamÀ (tN-bvamÀ) F¶-dn-b-s¸-«Xv bh\ tZi-¯p-\n-¶p-sa-¯nb Kvt\m-ÌnIv ss{IkvX-h-

cmW.v Kvt\m-knkv F¶m Úm\w F¶m-WÀ°w. Úm\-hm-Zn-I-fmb Chsc _p²À F¶p-hn-fn- ¨n-cp-¶p. G.-Un. 325  tIm¬Ìssâ³ N{I-hÀ¯n hnfn-¨p-Iq-«nb BtKm-f-ss{I-kvXh t{ij-v-T-·m- cpsS kt½-f\w (\n-Jym-kq-\-l-tZm-kv) NÀ¨-sN-¿p¶ hnjb- -§-fnÂ\n¶pw Kvt\m-Ìn-¡p-IÄ¡v ap³Xq- ¡-apÅ Ing-¡³ k` ]e-th-Z-ZÀi-\-§-fnepw hyXykvXX ]peÀ¯n-bn-cp-¶-Xm-bn-Im-Wmw. þþ sa¿¶ s]m¿p-WÀ´p =kXys¯ A_-²-ambn ]Tn-¸n¨p. s]mt¿m-cm-Xp-sa-bvsIm-foC = AXv (A-hÀ ]Tn-¸n-¡p-¶-Xv) Ak-Xy-am-sW¶p {Kln¨v aqth-gvXp-ssd-bp-ap-«nâp t]mInb = Ccp-]-s¯m-¶p-Xp-d-I-fp-sSbpw _p²n-ap-«p-IÄ amäm-\mbv Dssc-Nm Nnd-¸n-\p-c-thmÀ acpI = hN-\-sam-gp-Ip¶ Nnd-¸p-IÄ (thÄhn-IÄ) \S-¯n-b-h-s\, hmgpI \¶mbv kzbw DÄs¡m-­v, kwi-b-§-fn-ÃmsX ssZh-h-N\w H¶pw hn«p-t]m-ImsX Adnª hoc-cmb ]{´­p t]À ]Tn-¸n¨ ]gb {KÙ-¯n Ipäw ImWp¶ {]K-Û-cmb NmbvamÀ kXys¯ A_-²-ambn ]Tn-¸n-¡p-¶p. AhÀ ]Tn-¸n-¡p-¶Xv Ak-Xy-am-sW¶p {Kln¨v Ccp-]-¯n-sbm¶p Xpd-I-fp-

- 54 -

sSbpw _p²n-ap-«p-IÄ (G-Xm-Wp-i-cn, GXm-Wp-sXäv F¶ Bi-¦) amäm-\m-bv, hN-\-sam-gp-Ip¶ Nnd-¸p- IÄ \S-¯n-b-h-t\, hmgp-I.

]m«v þ 189

aXp-ssc-I-W-¡m-b-\mÀ aI-\mÀ \¡o-c-\mÀ ]mSn-b-Xv. þþ ]Ån-tbmSp tNÀ¶pÅ ]mT-im-e-bnse A²ym]-I-\mWv IW-¡m-b³ þþ

hcn : 5þ8

D¬]-Xp-\m-gn-bp-Sp¸sshbn-ct­

]nd-hp-sa-Ãm-tam-scm-¡pt½

sNÂh¯-

p-¸-b-t\b- o-XÂ

Xpbvt¸-sa-\nt\ X¸p-\-]-eth

D¬]-Xp-\mgn = D®m³ \mgn DSp-¸-ssh-bn-ct­ = DSp-¡m³ cs­®w ]nd-hp-sa-Ãm-tam-scm-¡pt½ = P\-\-¯nepw FÃm-hcpw H¶p-t]mse Xs¶ sNÂh-¯p-¸-bt\ = ssZh-kvXp-Xn-¡mbv CuX = Zm\w (D-]-hn) Xpbvt¸-sa\- nt\ = A\p-jvTn-¨n-Ãm-sb-¦n X¸p-\-]e- th = \miw ]e-hn[w D®m³ \mgnbpw DSp-¡m³ cs­-®hpw aXn-bm-Ipw. P·\m FÃm-hcpw ka-·mÀ Xs¶. ssZh- kvXp-Xn-¡mbv Zm\-[À½w A\p-jvTn-¡p-¶n-sÃ-¦n ]e-hn[ sXäp-I-fn ]Xn-¡pw. þþ IoÀ¯n-tbm, {]Xn-^-etam CÑn-¡m-sX, Bhiy¯n IqSp-X-epÅ k¼¯v CuizcNn´- tbmsS Zm\w sN¿p-¶-XmWv sXäp-I-fn hogmsX \nXy-c-£-{]m-]n-¡m-\pÅ amÀ¤sa¶v Ihn DXvt_m- [n-¸n-¡p-¶p.-þþ

]m«v þ 198

]m­n-b³ \³am-d-s\-¸än hS-a-h-®-¡³ t]cn Nm¯-\mÀ ]mSn-b-Xv.

hcn : 10,11

thÄsI-gp-Ip-cp-Nn It­-\m-X-en³ hnSp-¯s\³ hmgvI

thÄsI-gp-Ip-cp-Nn = {]`p (tb-ip) Gänb Ipcn-Èn It­³ = Rm³ I­ BX = ]oU hnSp¯ = hnSp-X (c-£) aninl Fgp¶ Ipcn-Èn Rm³ I­ ]oUm-k-l-\-§-fmWv Fsâ hmgvhn\v c£-bm-b-Xv .

]m«v þ 281

AcNn IngmÀ ]mSn-bXv

hcn : 5,6

CssN-a-Wn-sb-dn´p Im©n-]mSn s\Sp-\-IÀ hssc-¸nÀ ISn-\ssd ]pssI-CIv CssN-a-Wn-sb-dn´p = Cui-bv¡m-bpÅ aWn-In-ep¡n Im©n = Hcp {]mÀ°\m KoXw s\Sp-\-IÀ = \nXy-\-Kcw (kzÀ¤w) hssc-¸nÀ = hcw-]n-d-¡m³ (Ir-]-e-`n-¡m³) ISn-\ssd = hoSp-\n-dsb ]pssI-CIv = kpKÔw ]pI-bv¡pI Cui-bv¡m-bpÅ aWn-In-ep¡n Im©n sb¶ {]mÀ°\- -mKo-X-ame- ]n¨v, kzÀ¤-¯n \n¶p-apÅ Ir]-bv¡m-bn, `h\w \ndsb kpK-Ô-{Z-hy-§Ä ]pI-¨mepw þcmPm-hn\p th­n bp²w sNbvXv, apdn-th-äv, ho«n i¿m-h-ew-_n-bm-bn-cn-¡p¶ `À¯m-hns\

- 55 -

ip{iq-jn-¡p¶ `mcy, tXmgn-am-tcmSp ]d-bp-¶Xv Ihn tIÄ¡p-¶-Xm-bmWv Cu ]m«v þ

]m«v þ 285

Ac-Nn IngmÀ ]mSn-bXv

hcn : 11-þ17

s\Sp-thÂ

amÀ]p-fw-t]mI

\nWw-s]m-Xn-I-g-sem-Sp-\n-e-t©À´-\t\ AXp-I­p ]c-t´m-scÃmw ]pI-g-v¯-sse-]-Wn\v Xnssd-©n-tbmt\ Ipcp-Nn ]nW-¦p-I-XnÀ Ae-a-cp-¦-g-\n¯- -®-ssS-sbm-gnb Ce-¼m-sSm-¡-ä-sse-hÀtImÀ Ic-ss¼-¨o-dqÀ \ÂIn\ s\\th

s\Sp-th = s\Snb- -Ip´w

amÀ]p-fw-t]mI = amdnSw ]nfÀ¶-t¸mÄ \nWw s]mXn-¡-g-semSp = càw-s]m-Xnª ]mZ-§-tfmsS

\ne-t©À´\- t\ = Ah³(t]mcm-fn)\new-]-Xn¨p

]ct- ´mÀ = kzÀ¤-hm-kn-IÄ ( ]-WvUn-XÀ F¶pw AÀ°w ]d-bp-¶p-­v)

]pI-gv¯-sse-]-Wn\v = ]pI-gv¯Â XpS§n Xnssd-©n-tbm³ = Znhy-{]-`-bmÀ¶-h³ Ipcp-Nn ]nW-¦p-I-XnÀ

Ae-a-cpMv = Ipcn-Ènse IXnÀ ]nW-cp-IÄ Ae-IÄ XoÀ¡p¶ -þIXnÀ ]nW-cp-IÄ¡v {]Im-i-sa¶pw X½n ]nWª \nd-I-Xn-cp-I-sf¶pw AÀ°w [z\n-¸n- ¡p¶ {]tbm-K-am-Wn-Xv. XpSÀ¶p hcp¶ hb F¶À°-apÅ Ig\n F¶ ]Zt- ¯m-Sp-tN-cp-t¼m-gmWv Cu Imhy-_nw_w {it²-b-am-Ip-¶Xv.þ Ig\n = hb X®-ssSbv (X¬+ AssS-bv) = A\p-{Kl AS-bmfw Hgnbm = Hgn-bm¯ (am-ªp-t]m-Im-¯)

Ce¼- mSv = Ip´-ap-\-X-d¨ ]mSv

Iä-sse-hÀIv = ]qÀÆn-I-cpsS HmÀI-css¼ = A³t]m-sS-bpÅ kvacW NodqÀ (NoÀ +DuÀ) = Ir]m-\new (kzÀ¤w) \ÂIn\ = \ÂIp¶ s\\th = \n\-¨mepw (HmÀ¯m-epw) Ip´w amdnSw ]nfÀ¶-t¸mÄ \nWw-s]m-Xnª ]mZ-§-tfmsS Ah³ (t]m-cmSn \n¶-h³) \new-

]X- n¨- p. AXp- I-­v, Znhy-{]`- bmÀ¶h- sâ Ipcn-Ènse IXnÀ]n-W-cpI- Ä AeI- Ä XoÀ¡p¶ hb Ah\v k½m-\n-¡-s¸-«p-sh¶v kzÀ¤-hm-kn-IÄ Ahs\ ]pI-gv¯n. s\©nse amªp-t]m-Im¯ apdn-¸mSv (Ip- cn-Èn acn¨p InS-¡p-t¼mÄ, acWw Dd-¸p-h-cp-¯m-\mbn tbip-hnsâ lrZbw Ip´-¯m Ip¯n-¯p-

d-¡-s¸«- t- ¸mg- p-­mb apdnhv) Zbm-hmb- vt]msS Ir]m\- new \evIp-¶hsâ A\p{- K-l-NnÓ- a- m-sW¶- , ]qÀÆn-

I-cpsS kvt\l-t¯m-sS-bpÅ HmÀ½-s¸-Sp-¯Â ad-¡m-Xn-cp-¶m-epw. þ-]m-]m-Ô-Im-c-¯n ]Xn¨ a\p-jy\v tbip-hnsâ Ipcn-Èn \n¶pw ]pd-s¸-Sp¶ IXnÀ]n-W-cp- I-fmWv {]Im-i-am-\-amb kzÀ¤w t\Sn-s¡m-Sp-¡p-¶-Xv. þ þ ac-W-tijw hoc-·mÀ¡p-am{Xw sNs¶-¯m³ Ign-bp¶ Fen-kn-b-³ hb {Ko¡p-]p-cm-W-

§f- n ImWmw. Fen-knb- ³ hbepw ss

(^m. skUv. Fw. apgqÀ : {Ko¡p ]pcmW IYm-km-Kcw -þ 1994 FUn-j³, ]pdw 37.)þ

]m«v þ 303

n-fnse

]dpZ- o-kmbpw hn`n¶ an¯pI- f- nse Htc DZym\amWv.

Fcpssashfnb\mÀ ]mSn-bXv

hcn : 6

Dssc-Nm Nnd-¸n³ th´À ap¶ÀIv

- 56 -

ap¶ÀIv = ap¶n-te¡v hN-\-{]-tLm-j-W-t¯msS thÄ_en \S-¯p¶ ]ptcm-ln-X-cpsS ap¶n-te¡v. þ kwL-Im-e¯v ss{IkvXh ]ptcm-ln-X-·msc th´À F¶pw AÂam-bsc (hn-izm-kn-Isf) thfnÀ F¶pw hnti-jn-¸n-¨n-cp-¶p. th´cpw thfncpw F¶v At\Iw ]m«p-I-fn Chsc tNÀ¯p ]d-bp-¶Xv ImWmw. thÄhn BtLm-j-¯nsâ apJy-ImÀ½n-IÀ cmPm-¡-·mcpw tKm{X-¯-e-h-·mcpw BbX- n\- me- mWv Ahsc th´À F¶p hntij- n¸- n¨- Xv. k`m-Xe- h- -\mb s]cp-amsf apSnt- h´- À F¶mWv ]d-ªn-cp-¶Xv. amthÄ Bb anin-lm-bn hniz-kn-¨n-cp-¶-hÀ thfm-fÀ (thÄ + BfÀ)AYhm thfnÀ F¶-dn-b-s¸«p. bp²w Pbn-¨p-h-cp-¶-hÀ Ah-cpsS hnP-b-¯n-\mbv _enbÀ¸n¨v {]mÀ°-\m-\n- c-X-cm-bn-cp¶ ]ptcm-ln-X-cpsS ap¶n-te¡v hcp-¶-XmWv Fcpssa shfn-b-\mÀ hÀ®n-¡p-¶X.vþ

]m«v þ 310

s]m·p-Sn-bmÀ ]mSn-b-Xv.

hcn : 7,8

am\pssfb¶ IpSp-anXv tXm³ anssN-¡n-S´ ]pÃ-W-temt\

am\p-ssf-b¶ IpSpav = Xoä-bv¡p-g-ep¶ arK-§-fpsS Iq«nÂ

am³ =

arKw

CXv tXm³ = tXmb-t¯msS

(k-t´mj-

-t¯msS)

anssN = aninlm

InS´ =

InS¶

]pÃ-W = ]pÃnsâ aosX Xoä-bv¡p-g-ep¶ arK-§-fpsS Iq«nse ]pÃn kt´m-j-t¯msS InS-¡p¶ aninlm. þ Imen-s¯m-gp-¯nse ]pÂs¯m-«n-bn kt´m-j-t¯msS InS-¡p¶ D®n-tb-ip-hn-s\-t¸m-se, bp²-¡-f-¯n A¼p-I-tfäphoWn«pw thZ-\-b-dn-bm-¯-h-\mbn InS-¡p¶ aI-s\-¡­v Ahsâ A½ A`n-am-\w-sIm-Åp-¶-XmWv Ihn hnh-cn-¡p-¶-Xv.þ

]m«v þ 312

hcn : 4

s]m³ap-Sn-bmÀ ]mSn-bXv

\¶-ssS-\ÂIÂ th´ÀIp-¡-St\

\¶ssS = \Ã-\-S¯ (\Ã kz`m-hw) \ÂIÂ = \evIp-¶Xv IS\ = ISa Hmtcm-cp-¯-cp-sSbpw kz`mhw \¶m-t¡­Xv th´-cpsS IS-a-bm-Wv.

]m«v þ 333

A]qÀ®-amb Cu ]m«nsâ Ah-km-\s¯ c­p hcn-IÄ Xmsg sImSp-¡p-¶p. D¬]Xp a¶p-a-Xpth ]cn-Nn³ a¶p-¦p-cn-NnÂsIm-­-Xpth

D¬]-Xp-a-¶p-a-Xpth = `qan-D-®p-¶Xpw AXp-Xs¶ ]cn-Nn³ = ]mcn-tXm-jnIw Ipcn-NnÂsIm-­-Xpth = Ipcn-Èn t\Sn-b-Xs{X `qan D®p-¶Xv (`-qhm-knIsf c£n-¡p-¶-Xv)Cua-¶n-\mbv IpcnÈm t\Sn-b-k-½m-\w (-ssZ-h-Ir- ]) Xs¶-bm-Wv.

]m«v þ 335

am¦p-Sn-In-gm³ ]mSn-bXv. Ah-km-\s¯ aq¶p hcn-IÄ Hfn-td-´p-a-cp-¸nÀ Ifn-sd-dn-´p-ho-gvs´-\Iv

- 57 -

ItÃ-]-c-hn-\-ÃXp

s\Ãp-Ip-¯p-¸-c-hp-¦-S-hp-fp-an-eth

Hfnt- d´p = {]Im-i-hmln acp-¸nÀ = acn¨v DbnÀ¯-h³ (tb-ip) IfnÀ = Imfna (A-Ô-Im-cw) þ IfnÀ F¶-Xn\v B\ F¶À°-ap-­v. ChnsS AÔ-Imcw AYhm ss]im-NnI iàn sb- bmWv \nÀt±-in-¡p-¶-Xv. Idp¸p \nd-amWv B\-sbbpw IfnÀ B¡p¶Xv. þ Ifn-sd-dn-´p-ho-gvs´³ = AÔ-Im-cs¯ Iog-S-¡n-b-h³ A¡tà = If-¦-an-Ãm¯ (]-cn-ip-²-\m-b) I = If¦w (]m-]w) ]c-hn-\-ÃXp = Bcm-[n-¡p-¶-X-ÃmsX s\Ãp-Ip-¯p-¸-chp = tNmäp-_-en-bÀ¸n-¨m-cm-[n-¡p¶ IS-hp-fp-an-eth = ssZhw thsd-bnà {]`m-]q-cn-X-\m-bn, ac-Ws¯ Pbn¨v D°m\w sNbvXv AÔ-Im-c-i-àn-Isf Iog-S-¡nb ]cn-ip-²- \-mb-h-s\-b-ÃmsX asäm-¶n-s\bpw Bcm-[n-¡p-¶n-Ã, tNmäp-_-en-bn-eqsS Bcm-[n-¡-s¸-Sp¶ ssZhhpw asäm-¶-Ã. þþ XpSn-b³, ]mW³, ]ssd-b³, IS-¼³ F¶n-§s\ \mep-Ip-Sn-I-f-ÃmsX thsd PmXn-I-fn-sÃ- ¶p-]-d-ªn-«mWv taev]-d-ª-{]-Im-cw, FÃm-hÀ¡p-ambn Hscmä ssZh-ta-bp-Åp-sh¶v Ihn ]mSp-¶Xv.-þþ þ XpSn-bÀ hmZy-¡m-cpw ]mWÀ Kmb-Icpw ]d-bÀ hN-\ {- ]t- Lmj- -Icpw IS-¼À Npäpw \n¡p¶ `àcpw BIp-¶p.þ

]m«v þ 377

tNmg³ Ccm-N-Nqbw th« s]cp-\ÀIn-Ån-sb-¸än Dtem-¨-\mÀ ]mSn-b-Xv.

hcn : 25-þ30

hSn-aWn hm¦p-cpf sImSn-an-ssN-\-täÀ¡p-gp-hn\À IX-gn-ssN-h³ IWn-\À hmfn³hm-gv\-cmÀh-sam-So­nIv IS-sem-en-sIm-­-Xmss\ ASÂsh-¦p-cn-Nn³ a¶n-b-s\-Sn-tX .

hSn-a-Wn-hm¦v = \o­ aWn-ap-g-¡-t¯msS Dcp-f-sImSn = sImSn-D-b-cp-t¼mÄ anssN = anin-lm \täÀ¡pg- p-hn-\À = \a-kvI-cn¨v Bcm-[n-¡p-¶-hÀ IX-gn-ssN-h³ = kvt\lmÀ{Z-ssZhw IWn-\À = sIm­m-Sp-¶-hÀ hmfn³hm-gv\À = hmfmÂhm-gp-¶-hÀ BÀh-sam-So-­nIv = Bc-h-t¯msS kvXpXn-¡p¶ IS-sem-en-sIm-­-Xmss\ = IS-en-c¼w t]mse-bpÅ ASÂshMv = AS-§nb (tNÀ¶) Ipcp-Nn³ = Ipcn-Èn a¶n-bs- \-SntX = \oWmÄhm-gpI \o­- a-Wn- ap-g-¡-t¯msS sImSn- D-bc- p-t¼mÄ, anin-lmsb \an-¨m-cm-[n-¡p-¶-hcpw kvt\lmÀ{Z- ssZ-hs¯ BtLm-j-t¯msS kvXpXn-¡p-¶-h-cmb hmfm hmgp-¶-hcpw (cm-Pm-¡-·m-cpw) IS-en-c¼w t]msebpÅ Bc-h-kvXp-Xn-¸p-I-tf-äp-hm-§p¶ Ipcn-Ènsâ al-Xz-¯m \oWmÄ hmgp-am-dm-I-s«.

]m«v þ 380

\m©n hÅp-h-s\-¸än Icp-hqÀ¡-X-¸nssÅ ]mSn-b-Xv.

hcn : 6

- 58 -

anssN¸-bvX-\oÀ ISÀ]-c-´p-ap-¯m-Ip´p

anssN-s¸-bvX-\oÀ =

anin-lm-hÀjn-¨-\oÀ

ISÀ]-c´p =

IS-enÂ]-c¶v

ap¯m-Ip´p =

ap¯m-Ip¶p

aninlm hÀjn-¡p¶ Pe-amWv IS-enÂ]-c¶v ap¯mbn amdp-¶-Xv. þþ anin-lm-bpsS Ir]-bmWv hne-tb-dnb ap¯p-IÄ D­mhm³ Imc-W-am-Ip-¶-sX¶ Ihn-`m-h\ ]Xn-äp-¸¯v Ggmw-]-¯nse ]m«v Ggnepw ImWmw.-þþ I]n-eÀ]mSn-bXv þ hnip-²-ameyw

hcn : 2þ4

]´Às¸-cnb t]cn-ssN-ap-XqÀIv IS-\-dn-a-c-]nÀ ssIh-ev]mW sX³ ISÂ ap¯v

]´Às¸-cnb t]cnssN = ]´À F¶ t]cn {]kn²- -amb apXÀIv = apXqÀ F¶ Øes¯ IS-\dn = ]c-a-k-Xy-amb ac-]nÀ = acn-¨p-bnÀ¯-h³ (tb-ip) ssIhev = ssIhÃyw

þssZhw a\p-jy\p \ÂIp¶ Gähpw henb k½m-\-amWv ssIhÃyw.þ ]mW = tl ]mWm F¶ kwt_m-[\

sX³I-SÂ =

sXfnª ISÂ

tl ]mWm, ]´À F¶ t]cn {]kn-²-amb apXp-cn-se- sX-fnª IS-en hnf-bp¶ ap¯v,

]c-a-k-Xy-amb tbip \evIp¶ k½m-\-am-Wv.

]m«v þ 381

Icp-¼-\qÀ Ingm-s\-¸än \¶m-I-\mÀ ]mSn-bXv

hcn : 19,20

tNssb-bm-bn-\p-an-h-ssW-bm-bn-\pav CXÀsIm-­-dnss\ hmgn-tbm.

tNssb-bm-bn\pw = tNbv Bbmepw Ch-ssWb- m-bn\pw = Chn-sS-bp-tÅm-cm-bmepw CXÀsIm-­-dnss\ = Zm\w-sIm-­-dnbmw CXÀ = D]hn (Cu-XÂ) hmgntbm = hmgp-t¶ms\ ]pXp-Xm-sb-¯nb tNbvam-cm-bmepw ]t­ Chn-sS-bp-Å-h-cm-bmepw Zm\-[À½w-sIm­v Ah-sc- Xn-cn-¨-dn-bmw, hmgp-t¶ms\ þþ kwL-I-hn-IÄ, tNbvamÀ (Nm-bn-amÀ) F¶p hnti-jn-¸n-¨n-cp-¶Xv t]Àjy-bnÂ\n¶pw 4þmw \qäm-t­msS Chn-sS-sb-¯nb Kvt\m-Ìn¡v ss{IkvX-h-sc-bm-sW¶v ap³]v kqNn-¸n-¨n-«p-­-tÃm. AXn- \p-ap³t] Chn-sS-bpÅ ss{IkvX-h-cn \n¶pw thÀXn-cn-¨-dn-bm³ Ch-sc ]p¯À F¶pw hnfn-¨n-cp- ¶p. ChÀ Hcp \mK-{]-Xn-a-sIm-­mWv _en-h-kvXp-¡sf BioÀh-Zn-¨n-cp-¶Xv. \mI-]en (\m-K-_-en) t]mI-]en (t`mK-_en), sImdm\ (IpÀºm\) F¶n-§-s\-bpÅ t]cp-I-fn thÄhn Adn-b-s¸-«p-Xp- S-§n-bXv tNbvam-cpsS BK-a-\-¯n-\p-ti-j-am-Wv. \mK-cq]w A\-´-amb Ime-¯nsâ {]Xo-I-am-bmWv ChÀI-­-Xv. Ign-ªp-t]m-bXpw hcm-\n-cn-¡p-¶-Xp-amb FÃm-¡m-e-t¯bv¡pw th­n _en-h-kvXp-hm- bn-¯oÀ¶ tbip-hns- \-bmWv ChÀ \mK-{]-Xn-a-bn k¦e- v]n-¨Xv. tNbvamÀ DÄs¡m-Åp¶ ss{IkvXh hn`mKw t]Àjy-bn Adn-b-s¸-«n-cp-¶Xv Hmss^ävkv (Ophites) F¶m-Wv. Cu ]Z-¯nsâ AÀ°w \mK-·mÀ F¶-s{X. D¯-tc-´y-bn-se \m-K-·mÀ¡v Hmss^-ävkpam-bpÅ _Ô-s¯-¡p-dn¨v sP.- sP.- tamd- nkv tIcf- -aX- h- n-izmk- §- Ä F¶{KÙ¯- n (]pdw 60þ- 77) hni-ZoI- c- n-¡p¶- p- ­v.C¶pw Xangv\m«nse AhÀ®-cmb sslµ-h-P-\X \mK-{]-Xn-jvT-bn apcp-I-s\-bmWv k¦-ev]n-¡p-¶-sX-¶Xpw kvac-Wo-b-

- 59 -

amWv.

{io. G. {io[-c-ta-t\m³ tIc-f-N-cn-{X -¯n (2006 FUn-j³ þ ]pdw 115) tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶p,

kwL-Im-e¯v tIc-f¯-

n \mKm-cm[- \ \ne-hn-ep-­m-bn-cp¶-

-Xmbn sXfnh- n-Ã. \mKmc- m-[-\-bnÃ- , ]t£

A¶v \mI³ (\m-K³) F¶ tZh-k-¦ev]w D­v. ]pd-\m-\qdv 380-þmw ]m«nse hcn 14 ImWpI

A¶-\m-I³ amtd-bn-¶new

A¶ =

A¶v

amtdbv = A\p-{K-ln-¨Xv C¶new = Cu \new At¶- \m-I³ A\p-{K-ln-¨-XmWv Cu Øew Z£n-tW-´y-bnse \mKÀtIm-hnÂ, Icp-\m-K-¸Ån XpS-§n-b-hbpw D¯-tc-´y-bnse \mKv]q-cpw, \mKm-em³Up-saÃmw Cu \m-K-\p-ambn _Ô-s¸-«-Xm-h-Ww. \mItemIw F¶m kzÀ¤w BIp¶Xv taev¸dª \mIsâ (an-in-lm-bp-sS) temIw BIp-¶-Xp-sIm-­m-Wv. C¶pw Nne- ss{I-kvX-h-k-`-I-fn ]ptcm-ln-X-t{i-jvT-cpsS Øm\-Z-WvUn \mK-cq]w sIm¯n- h-¨n-cn-¡p-¶-Xp- Im-Wmw. ^d-thm-bpsS ap¶n h¨v Al-tdmsâ Øm\-ZWvUv kÀ¸-ambv amdn, sIm«m- c-¯nse a{´-hm-Zn-IÄ krjvSn¨ kÀ¸-§sf hngp-§n-¡-f-ª-Xn-s\-bmWv Cu NnÓw kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶- sX¶ hymJym-\-ap-s­-¦nepw ]g-b -\m-I-\p-ambn CXn-\pÅ _Ôw XÅn-¡-f-bm-\m-hn-Ã. tNbvam-cpsS hchv BZna -{-Zm-hn-U -ss{I-kvX-h-cn `n¶n-¸p-­m-¡n-b-Xmbn ]pd-\m-\q-dnse 166 þmw ]m«n hyà-am-Ip-¶p-­v. ]g-b-ZÀi-\-§-fn (ap-Xp-\qÂ) sXäp-IÄ ImWp¶ NmbvamÀ F¶ {]kvXmhw CXmWv kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶-Xv. (Cu `mKw t\cs¯ hnh-cn-¨n-«p-­v.) 7þmw \qäm-­n aqÀ²-\ym-

hØ {]m]n-¡p¶ aX-I-e-l-¯nsâ XpS-¡-an-Xm-Wv.-þ

]m«v þ 382

tNmg³ \e-¦n-Ån-sb-¸än tImhqÀIn-gmÀ ]mSn-b-Xv.

hcn : 6,7

]ndÀ¸m-Sn-s¸-d tht­w AhÀ ]mSp-Xp-a-hâmÄhm-gn-b-sh\

]ndÀ¸m-Sn-s¸-d = kv\m\-s¸-«-hÀ ]mSn-t\-Sp-¶-Xv. tht­w = F\n-¡p-th­ AhÀ]m-Sp-Xpav = AhÀ ]mSp-¶Xv AhâmÄ hmgn-b-sh\ = Ahsâ cmPm-hn-s\-¡p-dn-¨mWv kv\m\-s¸-«-hÀ ]mSn t\Sp-¶-sX-\n-¡p-th-­. AhÀ Ah-cpsS cmPm-hn-s\-¡p-dn-¨mWv ]mSp-¶-Xv. þ ]ndÀ GXp-cm-Py-¡m-cm-bmepw Ah-cpsS ta A[n-Im-c-apÅ k`m-X-e-h-\mb cmPmhv thsd- bp-­m-bn-cp-s¶¶v Cu hcn-IÄ kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶p.þ \mÀap-Sn-t¨-c-ens\¡pdn-¨pÅ ]Xn-äp-¸¯v \memw-]-¯v, ]m«v H¶nse BZy 3 hcn-IÄ ImWp-I. Ipâp-Xsse aW-´p-Ip-gp-D-¡-S-ep-Sp¯ a¬sI-gp-Rm-e-¯p-am-´-scm-cm-¦-IqIv ssINp-a-´-edpw ]qN-evam-Xn-c¯p Ip¶n³ Xe¸- p-IÄ NqSn, XncI- -fp-gn-bp¶ IS-en-s\-bp-Sp¯v, hnf-§p¶ `pan-bn am´À H¶msI Iq¸p ssII-fp-bÀ¯n, sNmÃp¶ ]qPm-a-{´-§Ä. C\n, sXmss­ (]-Ã-h) \mSnsâ al-Xz-s¯-¸än tN¡n-gmÀ ]mSn-bn-«p-ÅXpw ImWpI (sI.-]n.- sI. tat\msâ s]cn-b]p-cmWw þ hnhÀ¯-\w, 2006 FUn-j³ þ ]pdw 30) Xob-sh³]\ I\-hnepw \nss\hnem-¨nss´ ¯qb am´À hmgvsXmss­ \m«n-b ]q sNmÂh-ssc¯m ZpÀhn-Nm-c-§Ä kz]v\-¯nÂt]mepw \n\-bv¡m¯ ip²-·m-cmb am´À hmgp¶ sXmss­-\mSv kzÀ¤ aln-asb kvXpXn-¡p-¶-h-cp-tS-Xm-Wv. AXm-bXv tNcsâ \m«nepw ]Ã-h-\m-«nepw am´À hkn-¡p-¶p. BcmWv am´À ? tIc-f- ¯nse tNäp-hm-¸p-gbv¡p kao-]-apÅ amss´ \Kcw {ZmhnU ss{IkvX-h-cpsS k`m-X-e-h-\mb s]cp- am-fpsS BØm-\a- m-bnc- p¶- p. tdmans- e, k`m-Xe- h- sâIogn hcp¶ {InkvXym-\nI- sf tdma³{InkvXym\n-

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IÄ F¶p-]-d-bp-¶-Xp-t]m-se, amss´ \K-c-¯nse, k`m-X-e-h³ `cn-¨n-cp¶ {InkvXp amÀ¤-¡msc

am´À

F¶v hnti-jn-¸n-¨p. hnhn[ cmPy-§-fpsS AXnÀ¯n-IÄXo-X-am-bn, hntZ-i-§-fnse hÀ¯I

tImf-Wn-IÄ DÄs¸sS FÃm-bn-S-§-fn-ep-apÅ {ZmhnU ss{IkvX-hcpw am´-csâ (a-mss´-XeØm\-am- ¡n-hm-gp-¶-h³) k`m-`-c-W-¯n³ Iogn-em-bn-cp-¶p. þ hnbm-I-c³ (sXäpw icnbpw hnth-Nn-¡p-¶-h³ )

hnImcn Bb-Xp-t]mse

am´-c³ F¶ {ZmhnU ]Z-¯n \n¶p-am-h-Ww, ]n¶oSv saXvdm³ F¶

hm¡p-­m-Ip-¶-Xv. þ Z£n-tW-´y-bnse cmPm-¡-·- m-scÃmw BZ-cn-¨n-cp¶ hn]p-e-amb Cu A[n-Imc Øm\-s¯-s¨m-Ãn-bpÅ XÀ¡hpw hntZ-i-¯p-\n¶v ]ptcm-lnX t{ijvTsc £Wn¨p hcp¯n A[n- Imcw ssIamd- m³ bmss\-¡Sv tNbvam-´-c³ tNc-ens\ t{]cn-¸n¨- n-cn-¡mw. At±-l-¯nsâ £Ww kzoI- cn-s¨-¯n-bXv t]Àjy-bnse Kvt\m-ÌnIvss{IkvX-hÀ (kw-L-Ir-Xn-I-fn ]d-bp¶ tNbv AYhm Nmbv amÀ) Bbn-cp-¶p. am´-c³, B\-sb-t¸mse ià-amb tNbv hnizm-kn-bm-hp-Ibpw sNbvXp. AXn- \m bmss\-¡-SvtNbv F¶ hnti-j-Whpw h¶p-tNÀ¶p.

kwL-Ir-Xn-IÄ A{]-Xy-£-am-b-sX-§s\

kwL-Im-e-Ir-Xn-IÄ \jvS-s¸-Sp-¶-Xnsâ Hcp kqN\ s]cn-b-]p-cmW ¯n Xncp-\m-hp-¡-ci \mb-\msc hÀ®n-¡p-¶-`m-K-¯p-­v. ap³]v FÃm-hcpw D]-tbm-Kn-¨n-cp¶ thZ-{K-Ù-§Ä Xncp-a-ssd-¡m- «n BÀ¡pw FSp-¡m-\m-hm-¯-hn[w Ad-bv¡p-Ån ]q«n-h-¨n-cp-¶Xv ssihm-Nm-cy-·m-cmb Xncp-\m-hp- ¡-cipw kpµ-c-aqÀ¯n \mb-\mcpw IqsS Xpd-¶p-sIm-Sp-¯p. c­p-Iq-«-cmWv kaq-l-¯n \n¶pw ]gb {ZmhnU IrXn-IÄ Hgn-hm-¡m³ {ian-¨-Xv, H¶vþ BtKmf k`m-t\-Xr-Xz-¯nsâ \nÀt±-im-\p-k-cWw aX-\- ho-I-c-W-hp-ambn apt¶-dnb Chn-Ss¯ ss{IkvXh k`m-[n-Ir-XÀ, c­v þ sshjvW-hÀ. kpdn-bm-\n-k-`- bpsS aX-\-ho-I-c-W-{i-a-§sf¯pSÀ¶v {ZmhnU {InkvXpamÀ¤w hn«p-t]m-b-hÀ sshjvW-hÀ F¶pw ssihÀ F¶pw, c­p hn`m-K-§-fmbn Xncn-ªp. sshjvW-hÀ XpS¡w apX BcysshZn-I-a-X-hp- ambn tNÀ¶p-\n-¶-h-cm-Wv. F¶m {ZmhnU ss{IkvX-h-cpsS amtX-hs\ (in-h-s\) kpdn-bm-\n-a-X-h- XvIc- W- ¯- n \jvSs- ¸S- mX- nc- n¡- m³ {InkvXp-aXw Dt]£- n¨pw Bcys- shZ- nI- a- X- ¯- nse cp{Zsâ Øm\¯v {]Xn-jvTn-¡-s¸-Sm-Xn-cn-¡m³ sshjv-W-h-tcmSp tNcm-sXbpw kvt\l-kz-cq-]-\mb ]nXr-ssZ-h-sa¶ k¦ev]w Im¯p-kq-£n¨v, ]gb aX-ZÀi\w \ne-\nÀ¯n-b- -h-cmWv ssihÀ. AXp-sIm-­p-Xs¶ ]gb {ZmhnU ZÀi\w kv]jvS-am-Ip¶- h- -sbÃmw \jvS-s¸-Sp¶- -Iq«- ¯- n ssih-cpsS [mcmfw IrXnI- fpw DÄs¸- «p. Xncp-\m-hp-¡p-civ cNn¨ \mem-bn-c-¯n-s¯m-Åm-bn-c-t¯mfw ssih-Km-\-§-fn 312 F®w am{Xsa Ah-ti-jn-¨n-«p-Åp-sh-¶-dn-bp-t¼m-gmWv Cu \jvS-¯nsâ Bgw shfn-s¸-Sp-¶Xv.

Xncp-¡p-dÄ: ]mbncw (B-ap-Jw)

Xncp-h-Åp-h-cpsS Cuiz-c-ZÀi\w

Xncp-¡p-dÄ IÀ¯m-hmb Xncp-h-Åp-hÀ Pohn-¨n-cp-¶Xv ]Ãh \m«nse ssaem-¸q-cn-em-bn-cp-¶p. G.-Un. 3þmw iX-I-¯nsâ ]qÀÆmÀ-²-¯n tIcfw hmWn-cp¶ IS ]nd-tIm-«nb tNc³ sN¦p-«p-h- \n \n¶pw D¼À Im«nse BZm-bhpw cmP-]p-{Xsâ Kpcp-Øm-\hpw ]mcn-tXm-jn-I-ambn t\Snb ]c- WÀ, hÅp-h-cpsS IrXnsb hmgv¯p-¶-Xn \n¶pw A¡m-e¯v Xncp-¡p-dÄ Z£n-tW-´y-bn-seÃmw {]kn-²-am-bn-¡-gn-ªn-cp-s¶¶v hyà-am-Ip-¶p. kap-{Z-Kp-]vXsâ (G.-Un. 330 þ380) B{I-a-W-s¯-¯p- SÀ-¶m-Wv, ]Ã-h-\m-«n hÀ®-hy-hØ Øm]n-X-am-Ip-¶-Xv. AXn-\p-ap-¼pÅ ]Ã-h-cm-Pm-¡-·msc lo\- Pm-Xn-¡mÀ F¶mWv khÀ®-]-£-¡m-cmb Ncn-{X-Im-c-·mÀ hnti-jn-¸n-¡p-¶-Xv. Ch-cpsS Ime-¯mWv Xncp-¡p-d-Ä IÀ¯mhv ]Ãh tZi¯v Pohn-¨n-cp-¶-Xv. A¡m-e¯v Bcy-ssh-ZnI aXtam kwkvIr-Xtam Ahn-sS-sb-¯n-bn«n-Ã. C¶s¯ Xan-gn\pw ap¼pÅ {XhnS ({ZmhnU) `mj-bm-bn-cp¶p A¶v {]Nm-c-¯n- en-cp-¶-Xv. AXn-]p-cm-X-\-amb sskÔ-h-kw-kv¡m-c-¯nsâ DS-a-I-fpsS `mjbv¡v Xan-gnsâ {]mNo\ cq]- t¯m-SmWv _Ô-sa¶v ^m.-sl-dmkv Fkv.-sP. tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-«p-­v. sskÔ-h-`m-j-sb-¡p-dn¨v B[n-

Im-cn-I-amb Kth-j-W-]T- -\-§Ä \S¯- nb- n-«pÅ hyànb- mWv ^m. sldmkv. Bcy·- m-cpsS BK-a-\¯- n\p ap¼v `mc-X-sam-«msI {]tbm-K-¯n-en-cp¶ `mj-bmWv {Xhn-Sw. sskÔ-h-kw-kv¡mct¯mfw ]g-¡-ap­- Xn-\v. AXn-J-c, arZp, tLmj-§Ä am{X-aÃ, Xangv ]n¡m-e¯v kwkvIr-X-¯n \n¶pw kzoI-cn¨ hS-

{Zmhn-U-¯n-en-Ã.

is¯¯pSÀ¶v sskÔ-h-kw-kv¡mcw \mia- -S-sª-¦nepw Z£n-tW-´y-bn {_mÒ-W-ta-[m-hnXzw \S- ¸m-Ip¶ G.-Un. 7þmw \qäm-­p-hsc {Zmhn-U-`mj hfÀ¶p-sIm-t­-bn-cp-¶p.

samgn Fgp-¯p-Ifpw (P, j,-k,-l,-£, {io)

_n.-kn. 1500-þ1300 Imes¯ Bcy-k-¶n-th-

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G.-Un. H¶mw \qäm-­nsâ A´y-¯ntem c­mw \qäm-­nsâ XpS-¡-¯ntem BWv Xncp-¡p-dÄ Fgp-X-s¸-«n-«p-Å-sX-¶s{X s]mXpth AwKo-I-cn-¡-s¸« ]WvUn-X-a-Xw. Xncp-¡p-d-fnsâ Cw¥ojv ]cn-`m- j-bpsS IÀ¯m-hmb s{]m^. F. N{I-hÀ¯n, Xncp-¡p-dÄ s]mcpÄ]m-ensâ IÀ¯m-hmb än.-]n. ]f- \n-b-¸nÅ XpS-§n-b-hÀ Cu {KÙ-c-N-\-bpsS Imew _n.-kn. A´y-i-XIwhsc ]pd-tIm«p amäp-¶Xv hÅp-h-cpsS `mj-bpsS ]g-asb kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶p. C¡m-e¯v sNss¶bv¡p kao-]-apÅ ssaem-¸q-cn Pohn-¨n-cp¶ hÅp-hÀ Bcy-ssh-ZnI aX-¯n-\p-th­n Hcp {KÙw cNn-¨p-sh¶p hniz-kn-¡m-\m-hptam? C¶s¯ Xan-gn\pw ap¼pÅ ip²-{Zm-hnU `mj-bn-emWv Xncp-¡p-dÄ cNn-¡-s¸-«-sX-¶-ptamÀ¡p-I. kwkvIr-X-`m-j-sb-¡p-dnt¨m Bcy-ssh-ZnI aX-ZÀi-\-s¯-¡p-dnt¨m hÅp-hÀ¡v bmsXm-c-dn-hp-an-Ãm-bn- cp-¶p. F¶n«pw Xncp-¡p-d-fnse {]Xn-]m-Zy-§sf kwkvIrXw P·w sImSp¯ A£-c-§-fn s]mXnªv Bcy-ssh-Zn-I ZÀi-\-§-fp-ambn s]mcp-¯-s¸-Sp-¯n-s¡m-­pÅ ]e hymJym-\-§-fp-ap-­v. Xncp-h-Å-ph- cpsS al-Xz-¯n\pw {Xhn-S-`m-jbv¡pw e`n-¡p¶ AwKo-Im-c-amWv Cu hI hymJym-\-§Ä. Xncp-¡p-d- fnse `mjs- bb- mWv CtX hymJym-Xm-¡Ä \oNw, A]-IrjvSw Fs¶ms¡ hn[n-¡p-¶-sX-¶-XmWv hntcm- [m-`m-kw. Xncp-h-Åp-hÀ Pohn-¨n-cp¶ ssaem-¸q-cnÂh-¨mWv {InkvXp-amÀ¤w {]tLm-jn-¡p-hm-\mbn `mc-X- ¯n-se-¯nb tXmakv At¸m-kvX-e³ h[n-¡-s¸-Sp-¶-Xv. ssaem-¸q-cn AS¡w sNbvX At¸m-kvX- esâ `uXn-Im-h-injvSw G.Un 4þmw \qäm-­n Kp]vX-·m-cpsS B{I-a-W-s¯-¯p-SÀ¶pÅ Bcy-h-Xv¡-

c-W-Ime- ¯v \in¸- n-¡-s¸S- m-Xn-cn-¡m\- mbn Xt±-io-b-cmb ss{IkvX-h-cpsS klmb- -t¯msS I_oÀ F¶

hÀ¯-I³ I¸ÂamÀ¤w FsU-Êm-bn-te¡p sIm­p-t]m-bn. ssaem-¸qÀ, sXm­-bva-­ew F¶-dn-b- s¸« ]Ãh tZi-¯nsâ `mK-am-bn-cp-¶p-h-sÃm. ]Ã-h-cpsS ]qÀÆn-IÀ t]Àjy-bn \n¶pw D¯-tc-´y-bn-

te¡p IpSn-tb-dn-b-h-cmWv. t]Àjy-bn \n¶pw C´y-bn-te-¡pÅ IpSn-tbäw Bbn-c-¯m-­p-IÄ¡p apt¼ XpS-§n-b-Xm-sW-¦nepw _n.-kn. 6þmw \qäm-­n t]Àjy-bnse sskdkv N{I-hÀ¯nbpw XpSÀ¶v tUdn-bkpw C´y B{I-an-¨-t¸m-gmWv Iq«-t¯m-sS-bpÅ IpSn-tbäw \S-¡p-¶-Xv. knÔp \Zo-Xo-cs¯

lnµp F¶p hnfn-¨p-Xp-S-§n-bXv t]Àjy-¡m-cm-Wv. A¡m-es¯ t]Àjy³ km{amPyw ]Sn-ªm-dv, ]m¯nb (]mÀ°y) apX Ing¡v lnµp AYhm C´nb hsc \o­p-In-S-¶n-cp-¶p. ]m¯n-bmbv¡pw C´n-bmbv¡pw at²y-bpÅ {]tZiw ssk¯nb F¶-dn-b-s¸-«n-cp-¶p. ssk¯n-b-¡m-cmWv C´ym Ncn- {X-¯n ImWp¶ iI-·mÀ. ]e \qäm-­p-IÄ¡p apt¼ ]Ýna ssN\-bnse knXn-b³ hÀ¤-¯n \n¶pw _mIv{Sn-bm-bn-te¡v IpSn-tb-dn-b-h-cm-Wn-h-sc¶v Ncn-{-X-Im-c-·mÀ A`n-{]m-b-s¸-Sp-¶p. ]n¡m- e¯v iI-þ-]mÀ°y-·mÀ thÀXn-cn-¨-dn-bm³ Ign-bm-¯-hn[w X½n sFIy-s¸-Sp-Ibpw sNbvXp. C´y³ P\-X-bn ebn¨p tNÀ¶ ]m¯n-bm-¡mÀ (]mÀ°yÀ) BWv ]Ë-hÀ (]-Ã-hÀ) F¶-dn-

b-s¸-«-Xv.

bn-cp¶ C´y³ {]tZ-i-§Ä {Ko¡p-Im-cpsS A[o-\-X-bn-em-bn. C¡m-e¯v D¯-tc-´y-bn \n¶pw Hcp Iq«w ]Ë-hÀ Z£n-tW-´y-bpsS hS-¡p-In-g-¡³ {]tZ-i¯v IpSn-tb-dn. Ch-cmWv Im©n-]pcw Xe-Øm-

_n.-kn. 327-þ326 Â \S¶ Ae-Ivkm-­-dnsâ B{I-a-W-t¯msS t]Àjym-¡m-cpsS `c-W-¯n-em-

\-am¡n ]Ã-hc- mPyw Øm]n-¡p-¶X-

v.

_n.k- n. A´ya- mb- t- XmsS ]Ýnt- a´- yb- n iI-]mÀ°y·- mÀ ho­pw

A[n-Im-c-¯n h¶p. ]©m-_pÄs¡m-Åp¶ KmÔm-c-tZiw G.-Un. 19 apX 42 hsc `cn-¨n-cp-¶Xv ]mÀ°y-cm-Pm-hmb sKm´-^-dkv (Kp-´-^À) BWv. skâv. tXma-knsâ \S-]Sn¸pkvX-I-¯n (ACTA THOMA) sKm´-^d- kv cmPm-hn-s\bpw KmZv F¶ ktlm-Z-c-s\bpw {]PI- s- fbpw At¸mk- vX-e³ {InkvXp- amÀ¤¯- nte¡- m-\b- n-¨-Xmbn tcJs- ¸-Sp¯- nb- n-cn-¡p¶- p. It¯me- n¡m k`mt\XrXzw XÅn-¡-fª Kvt\m- Ìn¡v IrXn-I-fn (hn-e-¡-s¸« kphn-ti-j-§Ä) DÄs¸-«-Xn-\m skâv. tXma-knsâ \S-]Sn¸pkvX- Ihpw G.-Un. 4þmw iX-I-¯n \in-¸n¡-s¸-«p. F¶m kwL-Ir-Xn-IÄ¡p kw`-hn-¨-Xp-t]m-seX-s¶ ]Xn\©p \qäm-­p-IÄ¡ptijw, \io-I-c-Ws¯ AXn-Po-hn¨v skâv. tXma-knsâ \S-]-Sn-¸p-kvXIw Is­-Sp-¡-s¸-«p. G.-Un. 1860  {^©p-]-WvUn-X-\mb Fw.-sd-bv\mUv (M. REINAUD) BWv Cu ]pcm- X\ ss{IkvX-h-{K-Ù-¯n ImWp¶ ]©m-_nse cmPm-hmb Kp´-^-dn-s\-¡p-dn-¨pÅ ]cm-aÀiw Ncn- {X-Im-c-·m-cpsS {i²-bn s]Sp-¯p-¶-Xv. tbip-hnsâ amXm-hmb tacn-bpsS ac-W-hmÀ¯-b-dnªv G.-Un. 42-þ KmÔm-c-tZ-i-¯p-\n¶pw Pdp-i-te-an-te¡p aS-§nt¸mb tXmakv At¸m-kvX-e³ ]¯p-sIm-Ã-§Ä¡ptij-amWv tIc-f-¯n-se- ¯p-¶Xv. Cu ]¯phÀj-§-Ä¡n-S-bn-emWv At¸m-kvX-esâ \S-]-Sn-¸p-kvXIw Ad-am-bnIv `mj-bn c- Nn-¡-s¸-Sp-¶-Xv. {Ko¡v, tIm]vän-¡v, kpdn-bm\n `mj-I-fnepw Cu IrXnbpsS ]cn-`m-j-I-fp-­m-bn. KmÔm- c-tZ-i¯p \n¶pw Is­-Sp-¡-s¸« sKm´-^-d-knsâ \mW-b-§-fnepw inem-tc-J-bnepw Ad-am-bnIv `mj- bn-epÅ enJn-X§- Ä ImWmw. Ad-amb- nIv IqSmsX {_mÒn-bn-epÅ enJn-X§- Ä am{Xta Ch-bn ImWp- ¶p-Åq. Ad-am-bn-¡v, {_mÒn, JtcmjvTn XpS-§nb `mj-IÄ Atim-I-im-k-\-§-fnepw ImWmw. Hscmä

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Atim-I-en-Jn-Xhpw kwkvIr-X-¯n-en-Ã. G.- Un. 150se cp{Z-Zm-asâ Pq\m-KVv inemenJn-X-¯nÂ(I-¯n- b-hm-dnÂ) BWv kwkvIrX`m-j-bpsS BZy amXrI {]Xy£-s¸-Sp-¶Xv. G.-Un. 52  tIc-f-¯n-se-¯nb tXmakv At¸m-kvX-e³ ChnsS \n¶pw ]e XhW ]Ã-h-tZ- i¯p t]mIm³ ImcWw KmÔm-c-¯n Xsâ an{X-§-fm-bv¯oÀ¶ ]lve-h-cpsS Hcp ktlm-Z-c -k- aqlw `cn-¡p¶ \mSmWv AsX¶ Adn-hp-X-s¶-bm-h-Ww. G.-Un. 72  tXmakv At¸m-kvXe³ cà- km-£nXzw hcn-¡p-t¼mÄ Xncp-h-Åp-hÀ bphm-hm-bn-cn-¡m-\mWp km[y-X. At¸m-kvX-e³ {]kw-Kn¨ hN-\s¯ Bkv]-Z-am-¡n-bpÅ thZ-ZÀi-\-amWv Xncp-¡p-d-fn {]Xn-]m-Zn-¡-s¸-Sp-¶-Xv. Ihn-bmb hÅp- hsc ]g-b\- n-b-a]pkvX-I-¯nse tPm_nsâ ]pkvX-Iw, k¦oÀ¯-\-§Ä, kp`m-jn-X-§Ä, {]`m-j-Isâ ]pkvXIw XpS-§n-bh kzm[o-\n-¨n-«p-Å-Xmbn Ch-bn \ns¶Ãmw DÄs¡m­ Bi-b-§Ä Xncp-¡p-d- fn at\m-l-c-ambn Ah-X-cn-¸n-¨n-cn-¡p-¶-Xn \n¶pw hyà-am-Wv. ka-Im-enI {Zmhn-U-k-aq-l-¯nsâ k·mÀ¤ Nn´-I-fp-ambn {InkvXp-ZÀi-\s¯ hÅp-hÀ ka-\z-bn-¸n-¡p-¶p-ap­v. \nb-X-amb hr¯-¯n ZznXo-bm-£-c-{]mkw, A\p-{]mkw XpS-§nb i_vZ-hn-\ym-k-§-tfmsS Ae-¦m-c-§fpw [z\n-I-fp-saÃmw tNÀ¶ Imhy-`wKn Xpf-¼p¶ 1330 Cuc-Sn-IÄ DÄs¡mÅp-¶-XmWv Xncp-¡p-dÄ. Hmtcm Cuc-Snbpw AXnÂXs¶ AÀ°-]qÀ¯n-bp-Å-Xm-Wv. 10 Cuc-Sn-IÄ hoX-apÅ 133 A²ymb- §- Ä, ]e A²ymb- -§Ä tNÀ¶ `mK§- Ä F¶n§- s\{]Xn]- mZ- yh- nj- b- §- sf IrXn-bn thÀXn- cn-¨n-«p-ap­v. IpdÄ F¶Xv Hcp hr¯-¯nsâ t]c-Ã. Ipd-fn\v CucSn F¶-bÀ°w NneÀ I¸n-¡p- ¶p­v. \mep-h-cn-bpÅ ]m«n\v \me-Sn-bmÀ F¶p ]d-bp¶ `mj-bn Cuc-Sn-¸m-«n\p IpdÄ Fs¶mcp {]tXy-I-t]cv D­m-Iptam? tUm. sI. A¿-¸-]-Wn-¡À, sI.-Pn. N{µ-ti-J-c³ \mb-cpsS Xncp-¡p-dÄ `mjy¯ns\g- pX- nb BapJ- ¯- nÂkqNn¸- n¨- Xp t]mse IpdÄ F¶mÂHcp PohnX- Z- Ài\- a- mW- v. ss{IkvX- h-`m-jy-¯n hN\w F¶mWv AXn-sâ-bÀ°w; Xncp-¡p-dÄ F¶m Xncp-h-N\w . Xncp-¡p-d-fnse Hmtcm Cuc-Snbpw Hcp hN\w {]tLm-jn-¡p-¶p. Xncp-h-Åp-hÀ {InkvXp-aXw kzoI-cn¨ Hcp NmtâmÀ AXm-bXv hN-\-{]-tLm-j-I³ Bbn-cp-¶p.

Xncp-¡pdÄ- cN\m Ime-¯pÅ ssNhaXw(ssi-haXw) ]nev¡- me kwLS- nX ss{IkvXh ]utcm-

lnXyw sN¯n-an-\p-¡m¯ {InkvXp ZÀi\w DÄs¡m-­-Xm-bn-cp-¶p. {InkvXob ZÀi\ {]Imcw GI- ssZ-h-¯n aq¶p k¯-IÄ \nesImÅp¶p. Hmtcm k¯bv¡pw hyàn-Xzhpw Iev]n-¡p-¶p. ]nXmhv, ]p{X³, ssZhmßmhv Ch-bmWv B aq¶p k¯-IÄ. hÅp-hÀ, Xncp-¡p-d-fnsâ {]mcw-`-¯n (]mbn-c- ¯nÂ) {XnssXzI ssZh-¯nse (ap¡¨n sNÂhÀ) Cu aq¶p Bfp-Isf IS-hpÄ hmgv¯pv,hm³ Nnd¸v, \o¯mÀ s]cpssa F¶o A²ym-b-§-fn-embn ]pI-gv¯n-b-tijw \mem-a-Xmbn Ad³h-en-bp-dp-¯Â F¶ A²ym-b-¯n kXy-amÀ¤-¯n Ncn-t¡-­-Xn-\pÅ {]t_m-[-\-§fpw \evIp-¶p. (Adw = kXyw, hen = hgn, Ddp-¯Â= t{]cn-¸n-¡Â). hÅp-h-cpsS IS-hpÄ, {kjvSmhpw kvt\l-kz-cq-]-\p-amb ]nXr- ssZ-hamWv. Cu \nXy ssZh-amWv ssNh³(-in-h³). IS-hp-fns\ ]hm³ F¶pw hnfn-¡p-¶p. hm³ (h- n®- v) ]nXm-hmb ssZh-¯n \n¶pw ]pds- ¸S- p¶ ]p{X³ BW.v hm\nsâ ]nXm-hv F¶mWv ]hm³ F¶-Xnsâ AÀ°w. ]p{X-\n-eqsSbmWv ]nXmhv {]]© krjvSn \S-¯p-¶-Xv. {]]© c£-bv¡mbv Ah-Xmchnt[-b-am-Ip-¶Xpw ]p{X-\mb hn®p BWv. ssZh Ir]-bpsS Dd-hnShpw {XnssXzI ssZh- ¯nse aq¶mw k¯-bp-amb ssZhm-ßm-hn-eq-sS-bmWv hn®p-hnsâ Ah-Xm-c-IÀ½w \nd-th-dp-¶Xv. Ir]- bpsS Dd-hn-S-amb ssZhm-ßm-hn-s\-bmWv Xncp-¡p-d-fn \o¯mÀ F¶p hnfn-¡p-¶-Xv. \o¯m-dnÂ

\n¶papÅ Ir] `qan-bn-te¡v hÀjn-¡-s¸-Sp-¶-Xv, Ah-Xmcw sNbvX c£-I-\mb anssN (an-in-lm) bneq-sS-bm-Wv. Cu Ir]m hÀj-amWv hÅp-hÀ hm³ Nnd-¸n kvXpXn-¡p¶ assg (amcn).

1 IS-hpÄ hmgv¯p

1. AIc apXe Fgp-s¯Ãmw BXn ]hm³ apXtä De-Ip.

AIc apXe =

A F¶ A£cw apXÂ

BXn = BZn. ]hm³ = ssZhw (hm-\nsâ ]nXm-hv) apXtä = Bcw-`w.

A Imcw A£-c-§-fpsS XpS¡w BIp-¶-Xp-t]mse, {]]-©-¯nsâ Bcw`w ssZh-¯n³ \n¶p-am-Ip-¶p. 2. Iä-X-\m Bb-]-b³ F³sIm hme-dn-h³ \ämÄ sXmgmÀ F\n³

Iä-X-\m Bb-]-b³ = hnÚm-\-¯m FÃmw t\Sp¶-

- 63 -

-h³.

F³sIm = F¶Xp sIm­v hme-dn-h³ = kÀÆ-Ú³ \ämÄ (-\-¯mÄ) = Xncp-¸mZw sXmgmÀ F\n³ = sXmgm-¯-hÀ F¦nÂ

Adnhv sIm­v Fs´ms¡ t\Sn-bmepw FÃmw Adn-bp-¶-h-\mb ssZh-¯nsâ Xr¸m-Z-§Ä hW-§m-Xn-cp-¶m F´p ^ew?

3. aeÀanssN GIn-\m³ amWSn tNÀ´mÀ

\neanssN \oSp hmgvhmÀ. aeÀanssN GIn-\m³ = ]qt]mse \nÀ½-e-\mb anin-lmsb \evIn-b-h³ (]nXmhmb ssZhw, ssNh³) anssN = anssi(-an-in-lm, AhXmcw sNbvX ssZh ]p{X³) amWSn tNÀ´mÀ = Xr¸m-Z-§-fn-e-W-bp-¶-hÀ \ne-anssN = aninlmbpsS cmPy¯v (kzÀ¤-¯nÂ) \oSp hmgvhmÀ = \nXy-ambv hmgp-¶-hÀ aeÀt]mse \nÀ½-e-amb anin-lmsb \evIn-b-hsâ Xr¸m-Z-§-fn-e-`bw tXSp-¶-hÀ anin-lm- bpsS cmPy-¯n (kzÀ¤-tem-I¯v) \nXyw Pohn-¡p-¶-h-cm-Ipw. 4. th­p-X th­mssa Cem³ASn tNÀ´mÀ¡p bm­pw CSpwss] Ce.

th­p-X th­mssa Cem³ = thWw th­m F¶n-Ãm-¯h³ (-kzbw ]qÀ®-\m-b-h³) ASn = ]mZw tNÀ´mÀ¡v = tNÀ¶-hÀ¡v

bm­pw = Hcn¡-

epw

CSpwss] = Zp:Jw, \miw

Ce =

CÃ.

thWw, th­m F¶n-Ãm-¯-hsâ (kzbw ]qÀ®-\mb ssZh-¯nsâ) ]mZ-§-fn icWw {]m]n- ¨-hÀ¡v Hcn-¡epw \miw D­m-hp-I-bn-Ã.

5. CcpÄtNÀ Ccphn-ss\bpw tNcm Cssd-h³

s]mcpÄtNÀ ]pI-gv]p-cn-´mÀ am«v CcpÄ tNÀ Ccp-hnss\ = AÔ-Im-c-¯n s]Sp¶ c­p {]hÀ¯nIÄ (c-­p-Xcw ]m]-§Ä) þ \ap¡v AÔ-Im-c-¯nsâ {]hÀ¯n-Isf ]cn-Xy-Pn¨v {]Im-i-¯nsâ Bbp-[-§-Ä [cn¡mw (]u-temkv tdmam-¡mÀ¡v Fgp-Xnb teJ\w A²ymbw13 hmIyw12). ss]im-NnI iànsb thZ-{K-Ù- ¯n AÔ-Im-csa¶p hnti-jn-¸n-¡p-¶p. ]m]-§Ä c­p Xc-ap­v. H¶v BZhpw lÆbpw sNbvX- ]m]w aqew k´Xn ]c-¼-c-I-Äs¡Ãmw h¶p-tN-cp¶ DÛ-h-]m]w, c­v Ah-\-h³ kza-\-Êmse ssZth-jvS-¯n-s\-Xn-cmbn sN¿p¶ IÀ½]m]w. Ch-bmWv hÅp-hÀ kqNn-¸n-¡p¶ CcpÄ tNÀ Ccp-

hnss\.þ tNcm

tNcp-I-bnÃ

=

Cssd-h³

= {]Im-i-am-b-h³(-Cu-iz-c³)

Cssd

= {]Imiw (RAY)

þ ssZhw {]Im-i-amWv (tbm-l-¶m³ Fgp-Xnb H¶mw teJ\w A²ymbw 1 hmIyw 5)þ

s]mcpÄ tNÀ

þhnizm-k-t¯msSbpÅ ic-W-s¸-S-emWv s]mcpÄ tNcÂþ

= s]mcpÄ tNÀ¶

]pIgv

= alXzw

]pcn-´mÀ

= Adnbp-¶-hÀ

am«v

= kvXpXn

AÔ-Im-c-¯nsâ c­p ]m]-§fpw {]Im-i-am-b-hsâ (Cu-iz-csâ) alXzw Adnªv hnizm-k- t¯msS kvXpXn-¡p-¶-hÀ¡v D­m-hp-I-bn-Ã.

6. s]mdn-hm-bn Abv´-hn-¯m³ s]mbvXoÀ Hgp-¡- s\dn \nâmÀ \oSp-hm-gvhmÀ.

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s]mdnh- m-bn = C{µn-b-§-fnÂ

(-s]mdn = C{µn-bw) Abv´-hn-¯m³ = AÀ¸n-¡-s¸« _en-h-kvXp-hmb-h³ (anin-lm) Abv´ = Agn-ª (-tlm-an-¡-s¸-«) Ahn¯v = lhnÊv (_-en-h-kvXp) þ A kwkvIr-X-¯n l Bbn. {Zmhn-U-¯nse X kwkvIr-X-¯n k BIpw. DZm: Xt´mbw = kt´mjw.þ

- hN\w amwkw [cn¡- p¶- -XmWv aninlm (tbm-l¶- msâ kphn-tijw: A²ymbw H¶v). lrZb-

\n-e-§-fn hnX-bv¡-s¸-Sp¶ hn¯v F¶v hN-\s¯ ss

csâ D]-a þ eq¡m 8, a¯mbn 13, aÀt¡mkv 4) AÀ¸n-¡-s¸« hN-\-am-Ip¶ hn¯m-b-h³ F¶pw Abv´hn¯m³ F¶ ]Z-¯n\v AÀ°w Iev]n¡mw. AÀ°-¯nsâ ]e AS-cp-Ifpw Htc hm¡n \n¶pb- c- p¶ At\Iw hn¯p-hm¡- pI- Ä {Zmhn-U¯- ne- p­v (tUm.-sI. A¿¸- ¸- W- n¡- À: IpdÄs¸cpssa þ sI. Pn. N{µ-ti-J-c³\m-b-cpsS Xncp-¡p-dÄ `mjy-¯nse Bap-J-¡p-dn-¸v). þ s]mbvXoÀ = s]mfn XoÀ¶, Id-bä (]-cn-ip-²-am-b) Hgp¡ = Hgp-Ip-¶, hninjvS s\dn = \oXn, ssNX\yw (Ir-]) \nâmÀ = \ne-sIm-Åp-¶-hÀ C{µn-b-§-fnÂ, kzbw _en-h-kvXp-hmbv AÀ¸n-¡-s¸«h\n-eqsS (an-in-lmbneqsS) Hgp-Ip¶

Id-bä Ir]-bpsS ssNX\yw \ne-\nÀ¯p¶-hÀ \nXym-bpÊv {]m]n-¡pw. 7. X\-¡p-hssa CÃm-Xm³ XmÄtNÀ´mÀ¡p AÃm a\-¡-hsse amä Acn-Xp. X\n-¡p-hssa CÃm-Xm³ = X\n¡v D]a CÃm-¯-h³ XmÄ tNÀ´mÀ¡p = ]mZw tNÀ¶-hÀ¡p AÃm = AÃmsX a\-¡-hsse = at\mZp:Jw (DÄ`o-Xn) amä = amäpI AcnXp = km[y-aà H¶n-t\mSpw D]-an-¡m-\m-hm¯h\mb Cuiz-csâ ]mZ-§-fne`bw {]m]n-¨-hÀ¡-ÃmsX at\mZp:Jw amäpI km[y-a-Ã. 8. Ad-hmgn A´-W³ XmÄtNÀ´mÀ¡p AÃm ]nd-hmgn \o´Â Acn-Xp. Ad-hmgn= kXy-km-Kcw A´-W³(Aw+XW³)= im´n-\-evIp-¶-h³ (Cu-iz-c³) Aw= Xr]vXn, im´n XW³= \evIp-¶-h³ BZna {ZmhnU ss{IkvXhÀ AÀ¸n¨n-cp¶ _en thÄhn , Abv´hn F¶o t]cp-I-fn-e-dn-b- s¸-«n-cp-¶p. thÄ+ Ahn BWv thÄhn . Ahn F¶m _en. Abv´+Ahn BWv Abv´-hn. _en-bn AÀ¸n-¡-s¸« `£-W-]m-\o-b-§Ä aninlm-bpsS icoc cà-§-fmbn Xocp-¶p-sh-¶mWv ss{IkvXh hnizmkw. A´y A¯m-gt- h-f-bn tbip A¸hpw hoªpw BioÀÆ-Zn-¨psIm­p ]dª AtX hN-\-§Ä, þ CXv Fsâ ico-c-am-Ip¶p, CXv Fsâ cà-am-Ip¶p þ Xs¶-bmWv _en-bÀ¸n- ¡p¶ thZ-\m-b-Icpw ]d-bp-¶Xv. AXm-bXv ]ptcm-ln-XÀ, ]nd-aÀ(-]n-d¶ Aa-c³) Bb anin-lmsb {]Xn-\n-[o-I-cn-¡p¶p. AXn-\m ]ptcm-ln-X-·m-sc A´-WÀ , ]nd-aWÀ F¶n-§s\ hnti-jn-¸n-¨n-cp- ¶p. ssZhw Acp-fn-s¨-¿p¶p : Rm³ BZnbpw A´hpw BWv ( shfn-]mSv, A²ymbw 1 hmIyw 8 ). A´w Bb Cuizcs\ AWªhÀ F¶-bÀ°hpw A´-WÀ F¶-Xn\p Iev]n-¡p-¶p­v. ]nd-hmgn = P·-km-Kcw kXy-km-K-c-amb ssZh-¯nsâ ]mZw tNÀ¶hÀ¡ÃmsX P·-km-Kcw \o´n-¡-S-¡m³ Ign-bp-

n-fnÂ

hnti-jn-¸n-¡p-¶p­v. (hn-X-¡m-

I-bn-Ã.

þ P·-km-K-c-¯nsâ A¡-sc-bmWv \nXy-amb kzÀ¤temIw. ssZh-¯n ic-W-s¸-Sp-¶-hÀt¡

- 65 -

Ahn-sS-sb-¯n-t¨-cm³ km[n-¡p-I-bp-Åp.þ

9. tImfn s]mdnbn KpW-an-eth F¬KpW-¯m³ Xmssf hW¦m Xsse. tImfn = tImfn-Ãm-¯(-tImfv = hnth-Iw) s]mdnbn = C{µn-b-§-fn KpW-an-eth = KpW-an-Ãm-¯-Xp-t]mse F¬Kp-W-¯m³ = F«p-Kp-W-§-fp-Å-h³ (ssZ-hw) ]nXm-hmb ssZh-¯nsâ (ssN-h-sâ) F«p-Kp-W-§Ä

1. þ

BZnbpw A´-hp-an-Ãm-¯-h³

2. þ BZn-Im-c-I³

3. þ

4. þ kÀÆ-kz-X-{´³

5. þ kÀÆ-hym]n

6. þ kÀÆ-Ú³

7. þ kÀÆ-i-à³

8. þ Xr]Xn(-im-´n) Zmb-I³

Acq]n ({]-Im-i-tZ-l-Xzw)

Xmssf hW¦m = ]mZw hW-§m¯ hnth-I-an-Ãm¯ C{µn-b-§Ä sIm­p KpW-an-Ãm-¯-Xp-t]m-se-bmWv F«v KpW-§-tfm-Sp-Iq- Snbhsâ(ssZ-h-¯nsâ)]mZ-§Ä hW-§m¯ inc-Êpw.

]nd-hn-s¸-cp-¦-SÂ

=

10. ]nd-hn- s¸cp-¦-SÂ \o´-phÀ, \o´mÀ Cssd-h³ ASn tNcm-XmÀ P· alm-km-Kcw

\o´p-hÀ

=

\o´p-¶-hÀ

\o´mÀ

=

\o´n-¡-S-¡m-¯-hÀ

Cssd-h³

=

{]Im-i-am-b-h³(-ssZ-hw)

ASn tNcm-XmÀ

=

]mZ-¯n-e-`bw tXSm-¯-hÀ

]ndhns¸cp-¦-S-en \o´p-¶-hÀ Cuiz-c-]m-Z-§-fnem{i-bn-¡m-Xn-cp-¶m \o´n-¡-S¶v

\nXy-amb {]Im-i-te-mI-s¯-¯p-I-bn-Ã.

2 hm³ Nnd¸v

anssN (an-inlm, c£-I³) Bbn Ah-X-cn¨ IS-hp-fnsâ ]p{X-\mb hm³ AYhm hn®phns\

ag -sb¶ _nw_-¯n-eqsS kvXpXn-¡p¶ hÅp-hc- psS {]Xn` AÛp-Xm-Z-c-thmsS am{Xsa DÄs¡mÅ-

Ign-bq. 11. hm³\nâp DeIw hg¦n hcp-Xem Xm³AangvXw FâpDW-cÀ ]mäp. hm³ \nâp = hm\n \n¶pw DeIw hg¦n hcp-X-em = {]]-©-¯n-\-\p-tbm-Py-ambn hcp-¶Xp Xs¶-bmWv AangvXw = \nXym-bpÊv Fâp DW-cÀ ]mäp = F¶v DWÀ¶n-cn-¡p-¶-hÀ (-Pm-{K-X-bp-Å-hÀ) Xncn-¨-dn-bp-¶p. kzÀ¤-¯n \n¶pw {]]-©-c-£bv¡mbn Cd-§n hcp¶Xp am{Xsa \nXy-Po-h³ \evIp-I-bp- Åpsh¶v hnth-In-IÄ Xncn-¨-dn-bp-¶p.

þkzÀ¤-Ø-\mb ]nXm-hnsâ (B-Im-i-§-fn-en-cn-¡p¶ _mhm-X-¼p-cmsâ) ]p{X³ ]m]w aqew a\p-jyÀ¡p \jvS-amb \nXy-Po-h³, c£m-I-c-_-enbneqsS hos­Sp¯p \evIn.þ 12. Xp¸mÀ¡p Xp¸mb Xp¸p B¡n Xp¸mÀ¡p Xp¸m-bXpw assg.

Xp¸p =

`£Ww

Xp¸mÀ¡p =

`£Ww th­-hÀ¡v

Xp¸p B¡n =

`£Ww D­m¡n

hni¡- p-¶-hÀ¡v Blmcw D­m¡n \evIp-¶Xpw AhÀ¡v kzbw `£Wa- mI- p-¶Xpw ag Xs¶.

- 66 -

þBIm-i-§-fn \n¶pw h¶ (A-h-Xmcw sNbvX) ssZh-amWv `qhm-kn-IÄ¡v th­-sXÃmw \evIn ]cn-]m-en-¡p-¶Xv. CtX ssZhw Xs¶-bmWv Abv´-hn-bn (c-£m-Ic _en-bnÂ) a\p-jyÀ¡v `£-W-am-bn-¯o-cp-¶-Xpw. CXv Fsâ ico-c-am-Ip-¶p, \n§Ä hm§n `£n-¡p-hn³; CXv Fsâ cà-am- Ip-¶p, \n§Ä hm§n ]m\w sN¿p-hn³ F¶v A´y A¯m-g-th-f-bn tbip ]dª hN-\-§Ä

Hmtcm Znhy-_enbnepw BhÀ¯n-¡-s¸-Sp-¶p. anin-lm-bpsS icoc cà-§-fmbn amdp-¶p-sh¶p hniz- kn-¡-s¸-Sp¶ _en-h-kvXp-¡Ä hnizm-kn-IÄ `£n-¡p-Ibpw sN¿p¶p.-þ

13. hn¬\nâp s]mbv¸ne hncn-\oÀ hnb³De-I¯p

DÄ\nâp DSäpw ]in. hn¬ \nâp s]mbv¸ne = hn®n \n¶pw s]bvXn-sÃ-¦n hncn-\oÀ hnb³ De-I¯p = Pe-¸-c-¸m Npä-s¸« temI¯v DÄ \nâp = Bßm-hn \n¶p DSäpw = Dgäpw(-A-e-«pw) ]in = hni-¸v.

kzÀ¤-¯n \n¶pw s]bvXnsæn `qan apgp-h³ shÅw ]c¶p InS-¸p-s­-¦nepw Bßm- hn \n¶pw hni-¸v Ae-«n-s¡m-t­-bn-cn-¡pw.

14. Gcn³ DgmÀ Dg-hÀ ]pbÂF¶pw

hmcn hf-¦pân¡mÂ. Gcn³ = ]mS¯v DgmÀ = Dghv sN¿m-¯-hÀ Dg-hÀ = IÀjIÀ ]pb F¶pw = ]pjvTn Xcp-¶ (-[m-cmfw hnfhp Xcp-¶) hmcn hf¦pân-¡m = shÅ-¯nsâ Afhv Ipd-hm-bmÂ

kar-²-amb hnf-hp-X-tc­ ag Ipd-hm-bm IÀj-IÀ ]mS¯p ]Wn-sb-Sp-t¡-­-Xn-Ã.

þ ss

n-fnse

hnX-¡m-csâ D]-a-bpsS kmcmw-i-amWv hÅp-hÀ [z\n-¸n-¡p-¶-Xv. anin-lm-bn-

eqsS hÀjn-¡-s¸-Sp¶ Ir]-bm IpXnÀ¶ Bß-\n-e-§-fnte ssZh-h-N-\-am-Ip¶ hn¯v apf¨v ^ew

]pd-s¸-Sp-hn-¡p-Ib-p-Åp. ssZh Ir]-bn-Ãm-¯n-S¯v hn¯p hnX-¨-Xp-sIm­v {]tbm-P-\-an-Ã.þ

15. sISp-¸Xpw sI«mÀ¡p NmÀhmbv ad-dmt¦ FSp-¸Xpw FÃmw assg.

sISp-¸Xpw = \in¸- n-¡p¶-

Xpw

sI«mÀ¡p = \in-¨p-t]m-b-hÀ¡v (ar-XÀ¡v) NmÀhmbv = im´n-bmbv ad-dmt¦ FSp-¸Xpw = hos­-Sp-¡p-¶-Xpw. \in¸n¡p-¶Xpw sI«p-t]m-b-hÀ¡v c£-tbIn hos­-Sp-¡p-¶Xpw FÃmw ag-X-s¶.

þin£bpw c£bpw \evIp¶ anin-lmsb ag F¶ _nw_-¯n-eqsS Ah-X-cn-¸n-¡p-¶p.þ

16. hnNp-w]n³ Xpfn-ho-gn³ AÃm aäp Bt¦ ]Npw-]p Xsse-Im¬] Xcn-Xp.

hnNp-w]n³ Xpfn hogn³ AÃm = BIm-i-¯p-\n¶pw ag s]bvXn-sÃ-¦nÂ. aäp Bt¦ = asäm-cp-amÀ¤-¯n-eqsSbpw ]Npw = Cfw (\nÀ½-ew)

]p Xsse Im¬]XcnXp = ]p¯e ImWp-I-bn-Ã. BIm-i¯p \n¶pw ag hogp-¶n-sÃ-¦n asäm-cph- n-[-¯nepw Cfw ]p¸-c-¸p-IÄ ImWp-I-bnÃ. þssZhw I\n-ªn-sÃ-¦n `qan-bn ]pÃp t]mepw apf-bv¡p-I-bn-Ã.þ

17. s\Sp¦Sepw X³\oÀssa Ipâpw XSn-s´-gnen Xm³ \ÂIm-XmIn hnSn³. X³ \oÀssa Ipâpw = Xsâ Pe-i-cocw timjn¡pw XSn-s´-gnen -= XSn¨ Fg-IÄ

- 67 -

(k-ar-²-amb ag) Xm³ \evIm-XmIn hnSn³ =Xm³ (hm³) \ÂImsXt]mbm kar-²-amb ag- Xm³ (hm³) \evIm-Xn-cp-¶m alm-k-ap-{Z-¯nsâbpw Pe-i-cocw timjn¨p t]mIpw. -þF{X hen-b-hm-\m-bmepw ssZh Ir] e`n-¡p-¶n-sÃ-¦n Ahsâ alXzw \jvS-s¸Spsa¶v [z\n.þ 18. Nnd-s¸mSp ]qNss\ sNÃmXp hm\w hd-¡p-ta hmt\mÀ¡pw Cu­p. Nnd-s¸mSp = kvXpXn-¸p-I-tfmsS ]qNss\ sNÃmXp = Bcm-[\ (]q-P) AÀ¸n-¡mX- n-cp-¶m hm\w hd¡pw = hm\w X]n-¡pw. ta hmt\mÀ¡pw Cu­p = At¸m-Ä kzÀ¤-hm-kn-Ifpw Zp:Jn¡pw. kvXpXn¸pI-tfmsS Bcm-[-\-I-fÀ¸n-¡p-¶n-sÃ-¦n hm³ (hn®p) Xm]-{K-kvX-amIpw, At¸mÄ hm\-hÀ¡pw Zp:Jap-­mIpw. þs- sZhs¯ ad¶v {]mÀ°-\-I-tfmsS Bcm-[\- -bÀ¸n¡- mX- m-bm a\p-jyÀ¡v Cuiz-cI- r] kzoI- cn-¡m-\m-hnÃ. a\p-jy-cpsS \miw I­v kzÀ¤-hm-kn-IÄ Zp:Jn¡pw. Hmtcm a\p-jym-ßmhpw c£-{]m-]n- ¡p-t¼mÄ kzÀ¤w kt´m-jn-¡p-Ibpw \nXy-in-£-bv¡v, hn[n-¡-s¸-Sp-t¼m-Ä kzÀ¤w Zp:Jn¡p-Ibpw sN¿p¶p (-ss_-_nÄ).þ Nnds¸mSp ]qNss\ F¶v Ihn hnti-jn-¸n-¡p-¶Xv kwL-Ime ss{IkvX-hÀ \S-¯n-bn-cp¶ Abv´hn (th-Ä-hn, Znhy_en) sbbm-Wv. Xmf-ta-f-§-fpsS AI-¼-Sn-tbmsS ]m«pw B«hpw Du³ tNmdv (C-d-¨nbn«p thhn¨ tNmdv) hnf-¼p¶ kZy-bp-sams¡-bmbn henb BtLm-j-§-tfm-sS-bmWv cmPm-¡- ·mcpsS t\Xr-Xz-¯n Dssc-Nm thÄhn-IÄ (hN-\-{]tLm-j-W-t¯msSbpÅ thÄhn-I-Ä) \S-¯n-

bnc- p-¶Xv. Nnds- ¸mSp ]qNss\ BcpsSs- b¦- nepw Iev]\ sImt­m, kaql- -{`jvSp `bt¶m DÅX- söpw

ssZh kvt\l-¯n kzbw ad¶v B\µw A\p-`-hn-¡p-¶-h-cmWv Cu hnizmknI-sf¶pw Adn-bp-I. 19. Xm\wXhw Cc­pw X¦m hnb-\p-eIw hm\w hg¦m sX\n³ Xm\w Xhw Cc­pw X¦m = Zm\w, X]Êv c­pw X§p-I-bn-Ã. hnb-\p-eIw = hnime temIw hm\w hg¦m sX\n = hm\w hg-§p-¶n-sÃ-¦nÂ(-I-\n-bp-¶n-sÃ-¦nÂ) hm\w I\n-bp-¶n-sÃ-¦n Zm\w, X]Êv c­pw Cu temI¯v (`q-hm-kn-IÄ¡v) km[y-a-Ã. þtbip-hnsâ {]t_m[- \- §- fpsS kmcmwiw c­v A\-p-imk- \- §- f- mWv. H¶v: \ns¶t- ¸mse \nsâ Ab¡m-c-s\bpw kvt\ln-¡p-I. \ap-¡p-ÅXp ]¦ps- h-bv¡p-¶-Xn-eq-sS-bmWv CuI-ev]\ {]mhÀ¯n- I-am-¡p-I. AXmWv Zm\w. c­v : FÃm-änepw D]-cn-bmbn ssZhs¯ kvt\ln-¡p-I, Cuiz-tcm-]m-k-\- bm-Wv Xhw . c­pw c£I- \- mb ssZh-]p{- X-\ne- qsS (hm-\n-eqs- S) hÀjn-¡p¶ Ir]-bpsS klmb- ¯- mse km[y-am-Ip.þ 20. \ocnâp Assa-bmXp De-sI-\n³ bmÀbmÀ¡pw

\ocnâp =

Assa-bmXp =

De-sI-\n³ =

hm\nâp Assa-bmXp Hgp-¡p. Pe-¯n \n¶pw kpJw/ im´n e`n-¡p-¶p. `qan-bn-ep-Å-hcmb

hm\nâp Assa-bmXp Hgp-¡p. Pe-¯n \n¶pw kpJw/ im´n e`n-¡p-¶p. `qan-bn-ep-Å-hcmb
hm\nâp Assa-bmXp Hgp-¡p. Pe-¯n \n¶pw kpJw/ im´n e`n-¡p-¶p. `qan-bn-ep-Å-hcmb

bmÀbmÀ¡pw = Hmtcm-cp-¯À¡pw

hm\nâp =

hm\n \n¶pw

Hgp¡p =

\·(-Ir]m hÀjw)

Pe-¯n \n¶pw `qhm-kn-IÄs¡Ãmw kpJw e`n-¡p-¶p. hm\n \n¶papÅ Ir]m-hÀjw im´n-tb-Ip-¶p. Pew euInI kpJhpw Ir] Bß-im-´nbpw \evIp-¶p.

3. \o¯mÀ s]cpssa

Ir]mPe-¯nsâ t{imX-Êmb ssZhm-ßm-hmWv hÅp-hÀ hmgv¯p¶ \o¯mÀ (\oÀ+XmÀ).

ss{IkvXh {KÙ§-

-fn ]cni- p²- m-cq-]n, ]cni- p²- mß-

mhv, hnip²- -Úm\w, t_m[Ú-

- 68 -

m\¯nsâ knwlm-

k\w, Bizm-k-Zm-b-I³, dqlm XpS-§nb \ma-§Ä ssZhm-ßm-hn\p \evIp-¶p. kwL-I-hnI-- Ä dqlmsb Xnd\- mIv (Xo\- mh- v) F¶pw hntij- n-¸n¨- n«p­- v. kzÀ¤mt- cml- W- ¯- n\p sXm«pap¼v tbip, injy³amtcmSp ]d-ªp, ]cn-ip-²m-ßmhv \n§-fpsS ta h¶p Ign-bp-t¼mÄ \n§-Ä iàn-{]m-]n-¡pw (A-¸-kvtXme {]hÀ¯\§Ä A²ymbw 1 hmIyw 8). ]cn-ip-²m-ßm-hn-\m iàn-{]m-]n-¡p-¶-Xp-hsc Pdp-ksew hn«p-t]m-I-cp-sX¶pw tbip injy-·m-tcm-Sp-I-ev¸n-¡p-¶p­v. tbiphnsâ A½-bmb tacn-tbm-sSm¸w {]mÀ°-\-bn apgp-In-bn-cp¶ At¸m-kvX-e-·mÀ, Xo\m-hnsâ cq]-¯n {]Xy-£-s¸« ssZhm-ßm-hn- \m \ndªp F¶v \S-]-Sn-¸p-kvXIw c­mw A²ym-b-¯n tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-cn-¡p-¶p. CXn-\p-ti-j- amWv At¸m-kvX-e-·mÀ kphnt- ijw {]tLm-jn¡- m-\mbn Cd-§n¯- n-cn¡- p¶X- v. ]nXmh- mb ssZh-¯nsâ Nn´-IÄ {Kln-¡pI ssZhm-ßm-hn-\-ÃmsX aämÀ¡pw km[y-a-à (]u-temkv sImdn-´ym-¡mÀ¡v Fgp- Xnb 1þmw teJ\w A²ymbw 2 hmIyw 11). AXn\m ssZth-jvS-a-dnªv AX-\p-k-cn¨v Pohn-¡p-hm³ ssZhm-ßm-hnsâ klmbw IqSntb Xocp. apJy-ambpw 7Zm\-§Ä ]cn-ip-²m-ßm-hn \n¶pw e`n-¡p-¶-

Xmbn At¸m-kvX-e-·mÀ ]Tn-¸n-¡p-¶p. 1.Úm\w

5. Adnhv 6. `àn 7. ssZh`bw Ch-bmWv B Zm\-§Ä. kvt\lw, B-\µw, kam-[m\w, £a, Zb, \³a, hniz-kvX-X, kuay-X, Bß-kw-b-a-\w F¶o ]pWy-§Ä ]cn-ip-²m-ßm-hnsâ ^e-§-fm-Ip-¶p.

2.

_p²n 3. hnth-Iw(-hn-th-N\m iàn) 4. Bß-i-àn

21. Hgp-¡¯p \o¯mÀ s]cpssa hngp-¸¯p

th­pw ]\p-h XpWnhp Hgp-¡¯p = \³a-tbmsS (`-àn-tbm-sS) Hgp¡w (]p-Wyw) X Cgp¡w (]m-]w)

\o¯mÀ s]cpssa hngp-¸¯p th­pw ]\p-h XpWnhp

= dqlm-bpsS alXzw = kvXpXn¡ th­pw = {KÙw = t{ijvTX

`àn ]pÀÆw ssZhm-ßm-hns\ kvXpXn-¡p-¶-XmWv {KÙ-§-fpsS al-Xz-¯nsâ \nZm-\w.

þÚm\-¯n-sâbpw shfn-]m-Sp-I-fp-sSbpw Dd-hnSw ]cn-ip-²m-ßm-hm-Wv. dqlm-bpsS A\p-{Klw sImt­ t{ijvT-amb {KÙ-§Ä cNn-¡m-\m-hq.þ

22. Xpd-´mÀ s]cpssa XpssW-¡p-dn³ sshb¯p Cd-´msc F®ns¡m¬Säq. Xpd-´mÀ = ]cn-ip-²m-ßmhv (a-\p-jy\v

ssZthjvSw Adn-bm-\p-Å Xpdhn \evIp-¶-h³.)

XpssW¡- p-dn³ = klm-b-§-sf Ipdn-¡p-¶-Xv.

sshb¯p Cd-´mssc = `qan-bn Ign-bp-¶-hsc (C-d´ = Ignª, acn-¨)

F®n-s¡m¬Säp = F®n-s¡m-­n-cn-¡p-¶-Xp t]m-se-bm-Wv.

]cn-ip-²m-ßmh- nsâ al-Xz-¯m e`n-¡p¶ klm-b-§sf \nÀ®-bn-¡p-¶Xv Cu `qan-bn Ign-

ª-h-cpsSsbÃmw F®-sa-Sp-¡p-¶-Xp-t]m-se-bm-Wv.

23. Ccpssa hssI-sX-cn´p Cu­p Adw]q­mÀ

s]cpssa ]nd-¦näp DeIp Ccpssa hssI sXcn´p = Bß icoc-§-fpsS Imcy-§Ä hnth-Nn-¨-dn-ªv. Cu­p Adw ]q­mÀ = \njvT-tbmsS [À½w A\p-k-cn-¡p-¶-hÀ s]cpssa ]nd-¦näp DeIq = De-In {]ikvXn D­m-¡n-bn-«p-Åp.

Bß-i-co-c-§fpsS Imcy§Ä hnth-Nn-¨-dnªv \njvT-tbmsS [À½w A\p-jvTn-¡p-¶-h-cmWv Cu temI¯v {]ikvXn BÀÖn-¡p-¶-Xv.

- þ ssZhm-ßm-hnsâ Zm\-amWv hnth-N-\-miàn.þ

24. Dc-s\¶pw tXm«n-bm³ Hmssc´pw Im¸m³ hc-s\¶pw ssh¸nÀt¡mÀ hn¯p.

Dc-s\¶pw tXm«n-bm³ = hm¡p-IÄ F¶pw \nb{- ´n-¡p¶- -h³

Dc³ =

\mhv

Hmssc´pw Im¸m³ = ]t©-{µnb- -§-sfbpw

- 69 -

kwc-£n-¡p-hm³ hc-s\¶pw = hcp-¶-h-s\¶pw ssh¸nÀt¡mÀ = al-¯p-¡Ä (ssh¸v = \n[n, ssh`-hw) hn¯p = hmgv¯p¶p (ssh-¯pI = kvXpXn-¡p-I) hm¡p-IÄ Ft¸mgpw \nb-{´-W-t¯msS {]tbm-Kn-¡p-¶-hsâ ]t©{µn-b-§sfbpw kwc-£n- ¡p-hms\¯p¶hs\¶v dqlmsb al-¯p-¡Ä hmgv¯p-¶p. þ kwkm-c-¯n sXäp hcp-¯m¯ Gh\pw ]qÀ®-\mWv; Xsâ ico-cs¯ apgp-h³ \nb-{´n-

¡m³ Ah-\p-I-gnbpw (bm-t¡m_v Fgp-Xnb teJ\w: A²ymbw 3 hmIyw 2). hnth-I-t¯msS kwkm- cn-¡m³ ssZhm-ßm-hnsâ hcw e`n-¡Ww.þ

25. Abv´hn¯m³ Bä AIÂhnNp-w]p-fmÀ tImam³ C´nc-nbt\ Nmepw Icn. Abv´-hn-¯m³ = AÀ¸n-¡-s¸-«- _enhkvXp-hm-b-h³(-an-in-lm) Bä = Bizmkw (Ir-])

(Bä X \oäÂ) AI hnNpw-]p-fmÀ tImam³ = ]cn-ip-²-cmb kzÀ¤-hm-kn-I-fpsS cmPmhv (ssZhw)

C´n-cnb- t\ = C{µn-b§-

fn-eqsS

Nmepw Icn = Hgp-¡n-s¡m-­n-cn¡-

p-¶p.

_enhkvXp Bb-h-\n-eqs- S-bpÅ Ir] kzÀ¤ hmkn-I-fpsS cmPmhv (ssZhw) a\p-jy-cpsS C{µn- b-§-fn Hgp-¡n-s¡m-­n-cn-¡p-¶p.

- þssZhm-ßm-hnsâ hc-§-fmWv Ihn kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶Xvþ

26. sNbÀ¡pAcnb sNbvhmÀ s]cn-bÀ Nndn-bÀ sNbÀ¡p Acnb sNbvI-em-XmÀ.

sNbÀ¡p Acnb =

sNt¿­ t{ijvTambh

sNbvhmÀ = sN¿p-¶-hÀ

s]cn-bÀ =

hen-b-hÀ

Nndn-bÀ = sNdn-b-hÀ

sNbvIemXmÀ =

(-A-ev]-·mÀ, t`mj³amÀ) sN¿m-¯-hÀ.

(A-cnb = Bcy, t{ijvT)

t{ijvT-amb IÀ½-§Ä Ghsb¶dnªv Ah sN¿p-¶-hÀ alm-·mcpw A§s\ sN¿m-¯-hÀ t`mj³am-cp-am-Wv.

þAh-\-h\v DNn-X-amb t{ijvT IÀ½-§Ä Gh-sb-¶-dn-bm-\pÅ hnth-N\ hcw ]cn-ip-²m-ßm- hnsâ Zm\-am-Wv.þ

27. NpsshHfn DudpHmssN \mäwFâ sF´n³

hssI-sX-cn-hm³ It« De-Iq. Npssh = cpNn (\m-hv) Hfn = {]Im-iw(-I-®v) Dudp = kv]Àiw(Xz-¡v) HmssN = H¨(-sN-hn) \mäw = aWw(-aq-¡v) Fâ sF´n³ hssI = F¶ A©n-sâbpw hI-Isf sXcn-hm³ = Adn-bp-¶-h³ It« DeIp = temIw \ne-\n¡p-¶Xv cpNn, shfn¨w, kv]Àiw, i_vZw, KÔw F¶o A©p {Kmly-X-e-§fpw th­-t]mse hne-bn- cp-¯p-¶-h-cn-emWv temIt£aw \ne-\n¡p-¶-Xv.

þC{µn-b-§-fpsS CjvS-a-\p-k-cn¨v tXm¶p-¶Xp t]mse {]hÀ¯n-¡p-I-bÃ, {]XypX ssZthÑ-b- dn-ªv C{µn-b-§sf \nb-{´n¨v IÀ½w A\p-jvTn-¡p-I-bmWv Pohn-X-hn-P-b-¯nsâ ASn-Øm\w. ]cn-ip- ²m-ßmhn-eq-sS-b-ÃmsX ssZthjvSw Adn-bpI km[y-a-Ã.þ

28. \nssd-samgn am´À s]cpssa \ne¯p

- 70 -

assd-samgn Im«n hnSpw \nssd samgn= \nd-hpÅ samgn (kXy hN-\w) am´À s]cpssa = am´-cpsS alXzw þ am´À F¶ ]Zw kwL-Ir-Xn-If- n At\I- -an-S§- -fnep­v. amss´ \Kcw kwLI- me {ZmhnU ss{IkvX-h-cpsS k`m-X-e-hsâ BØm-\-ambncp¶p. Ct±-l-¯nsâ `c-W-¯n³ Iogn hcp¶ hnizm- kn-Isf am´À F¶p hnti-jn-¸n-¨p. tdmanse k`m-X-e-hsâ Iogn hcp¶ ss{IkvX-h-sc tdma³ {InkvXym-\n-IÄ F¶p hnfn-¡p-¶-Xp-t]mse.þ \ne-¯p = `qan-bn assd samgn-Im«n hnSpw = thZ-h-N-\-§Ä sXfn-bn- ¡p¶hbm-Ipw. \· \ndª samgn-IÄ am{Xw {]tLm-jn-¡p¶ am´-cpsS alXzw thZ-h-N-\-§Ä¡v km£yw hln-¡p-¶p.

þ\·-bm-bh Xncn-¨-dn-bm\pw Ah {]tLm-jn-¡phm\pw th­ t_m[-Úm-\hpw Bß-i-IvXnbpw dqlm- X-¼p-cmsâ Zm\-§-fm-Wv.þ

29. IpW-sa¶pw Iptâdn \nâmÀ shIpfn

IW-tabpw I¯Â Acn-Xp. IpW-sa¶pw Iptâdn \nâmÀ = ]pWy-¯n hfÀ¨{]m]n-¨-hÀ shIpfn = tIm]mán IW-tabpw = £Wt\cw t]mepw I¯Â AcnXp = I¯p-I-bn-Ã. ]pWy-¯n hfÀ¨ {]m]n-¨-h-cn tIm]mán £W t\cw t]mepw I¯p-I-bn-Ã. þ]cn-ip-²m-ßm-hnsâ ^e-§-fm \nd-ª-hÀ Hcn-¡epw tIm]n-¡p-I-bn-Ã.þ Cu Ipd-fn ImWp¶ I¯Â F¶ ]Z-¯n-\p-]-Icw Nne {KÙ-§-fn Im¯Â Fs¶-gp-Xn-

bn-cn-¡p-¶p. ]pWy-hm³amcn \ndb- p-¶Xv ssZhm·- m-hnsâ Zm\-amb Bß-i-àn-bmWv. AXnsâ {]hm- ls¯ BÀ¡pw XSªp \nÀ¯m³ km[y-a-à F¶mIpw At¸mÄ AÀ°w.

30. A´-WÀ -F³t]mÀ Ad-thmÀ asä-Æp-bÀ¡pw

sN´¬ssa ]q­p Hgp-I-em³. A´-WÀ F³ t]mÀ = ]ptcm-ln-XÀ Bbn-«p-Å-hÀ Ad-thmÀ = kXy-\n-jvT-bp-Å-hÀ asä-Æp-bÀ¡pw = asä-Ãm-h-cnepw sN´¬ssa ]q­p Hgp-I-em³ = Imcp-Wy-]qÀÆw s]cp-am-dp-¶-h³ X¬ssa = IcpW ]ptcm-ln-X-cm-bn-«p-Å-hÀ kXy-\n-jvTbp-Å-hcpw FÃm-h-tcmSpw IcpWy]qÀÆw s]cp-am-dp-¶-h-

cp-a-s{X. þssZhm-ßm-hn-\m \nd-ª-h-\mWv bYmÀ° ]ptcm-ln-X³ F¶À°w.þ

4. Ad³ hen-bp-dp-¯Â (k-Xy-amÀ¤ {]tLm-jWw)

Adw = kXyw hen = hgn Ddp-¯Â = t{]cn-¸n-¡Â

31. Nnd¸pCu\pw sNÂhapwCu\pw Ad-¯n Du¦p

B¡w Fht\m DbnÀ¡p. Nnd¸p Cu\pw sNÂhapw Cu\pw = {]mÀ°\m kvXpXn-¸nepw ssZh-¯n-ep-apÅ Ad-¯n Du¦p B¡w = kXy-¯n Dd¨ hnizmkw Fht\m DbnÀ¡p = DÅ-h³ Btcm Aht\ DbnÀ¡q. (\nX- ym-bpÊp {]m]n¡-

q.)

{]mÀ°\m kvXpXn-¸p-I-tfmsS ssZh-¯n B{i-bn-¨p-sIm­v kXy-amÀ¤-¯n Dd¨p hniz- kn-¡p-¶-ht\ \nXym-bp-Ên\v AÀl-\m-Iq.

32. Ad-¯nÂDu¦p B¡hpw Cssà AXss\ ad-¯-en³ Du¦nssà tISp. Ad-¯n Du¦p = kXy-¯n Dd¨

- 71 -

B¡hpw Cssà = hnizm-k-sam-¶p-an-ÃmsX AXss\ ad-¯-en³ = AXns\ ad-¶m (A-Xns\ adp-X-en¨p {]hÀ¯n-¨mÂ) Du¦nssà = iàn-bn-ÃmsX tISp = \in¡pw (sI-«p-t]m-Ipw)

þ ssZh-am-Ip¶ þ kXy-¯nsâ iàn-bn Dd¨ hnizm-k-an-ÃmsX ssZth-Ñ-bvs¡-Xn-cm-bn {]hÀ¯n-¨m _e-lo-\-\mbv \mi-a-S-bpw.

33. HÃpw hI-bm Ad-hnss\ HmhmtX

sNÃpw hmsbÃmw sNbÂ

HÃpw hI-bm = H¡p-¶-t]mse Ad-hnss\ = kXy-IÀ½-§Ä ([À½w) HmhmtX = HmXmsX (]-dªp \S-¡m-sX) sNÃpw hmsbÃmw = e`y-amb hgn-I-fn-eq-sS-sbÃmw

sNb = {]hÀ¯n-¡Ww H¡p¶ hn[-saÃmw [À½w HmXn-\-S¡msX In«p¶ FÃm amÀ¤-§-fn-eq-sSbpw IÀ½w sN¿-Ww.

34. a\-¯p-¡¬ amNp-C-e³ BX Ass\-¯p-A-d³ BIpe \oc ]nd

a\-¯p-¡¬ = a\-¡-®n amNp = amip (A-gp-¡v, Im]-Syw) BX = B[n (Zp:Jw) Ass\¯p = amäp¶p (A-\-¯p-¶p, XWp-¸n-¡p-¶p) Ad³ = kXyw (k-Xy-ssZ-hw)

BIpe \oc ]nd = BIpe \ocn ]nd-¶-h³ a\-Ên Im]-Sy-an-Ãm-¯-h-\m-sW-¦n Ahsâ Zp:Jw ssZhw amäpw; Fs´-¶m kXy-ssZhw BIp-e\o-cn ]nd-¶-h-\m-Wv. þ P\n-¡m-\nSw In«msX Imen-s¯m-gp-¯n ]nd¶v Ipcn-Èn acn-¨-h³ k³a-\-Êp-Å-hÀ¡q kam-[m\w hmKvZm\w sNbvX-h-\m-Wv. þ

35. Agp-¡mdp Ahm-sh-Ipfn C¶m-s¨m \m³Ipw Cgp¡m CbâXp Adw

Agp-¡mdp =

Akqb