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I compulsory reading materials

al lntroduction- Evolution of Sports

b) Sports: Genetics and Ethics

c) 2 case studies of taking drugs

d) Sports: The Singapore Context

e) Past GCE question

ll Supplementary reading materials

a) Sports and politics

b) Rules on sportsmanship

c) State Funding - for or against

d) Speeches by

i Dr Vivian Balakrishnan, Minister of community Development, Youth and Sports ii Mr Teo ser Luck, Parliamentary secretary, Ministry of Community Development, Youth and Sports

e) Youth olympics

f) Singapore lcons

3 lll Further Reading (A-listers only)

a) stem Cell Research to enhance performance

(Opposing Viewpoints)

bl Sports

lcon - (David Beckham, the end of an era)

c) Boycott Beijing Olympics


(Two perspectives)


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I What is sports?


SPORTS: lntroduction

A'tport" is a game, an amusement and a pastime. However, "sports" are physical contests pursued for the

goals and challenges they entail. Theyare part of every culture pastand present, but gAqb-lqllqC has its

own definition of sports- Sports can be defined as autotelic (played for their own sake) phvsical contests

Spoft is important. lt can have a huge impact on people's lives, bringing them togeth€r and helping them to be happy, healthy and fulfilled. lt can build communities Sport at the local level can help to establish r community/svalues, create harmonY and even improve an area/s€conomy. On the basis of this definiticn,

one can categorise varioustypes ofsports.



spontanes s play _,'_

n'lncomrJeiiti'r'e oames

arganized Flay (CAMESI


co!'nF stiti,,,e garlres (CONTE$TS,i

-l I


int'3llctual cont@sts physical coutosts 4SPORTS]

II The Evolution of Sports

Sports today has changed drastically from when it was first introduced to the world'

When you think about it, some questions should come to mind like:


lvhat was it like being a sportsman in the past compared to


What is the odgin of the different sports we have today?


When did it all begin?


Why is Chess consideled a sport?

the present?

What have you discovered about the odgins of a sport?

How are rules determined?

III The Irnportance of SPort and the power of SUBLIMATION'

l. Wat./aggression


l. wa!/Aggression

SPORTS: lntroduction

Most sports as you would have seen stem from very violent beginnings and while thete

may be many reasons for this, we picked out the few we thought you should know'

' Sports as a means to channel rage/aggEession into something other than wat.

> Cames like soccer and mgby were born out of war; heads of enemies

killed in batue was used as the baII.

> Is this a possible alternative to war or a new kind of battlefield altogether?

> Is this lvhen violence is acceptable and maybe even expected?

> Here are some websites and articles you may want to look at:




History of soccer:,/historv/

"Violence in Spo s" by Ismat Abdal-Haqq for ERIC digest I -89:

"Violence and Sports - Ugly but Useful?" by Joseph Maguire for

Bdtannica Blog 6 December 2006:

http //blogs.bril!4ryq 4-cott\/blog/ rnal / 2096 / lz&islcasqalnd'


Sports as a glodfication of aggression in the fotm of strength, mastery of skill and


> The Olympics was an event build on strength and excellence Athletes

from all over Greece would train and Push their bodies to the limits in

events like cha.Iiot races, foot taces and lqresUing Sometimes these

athletes would even compete to the death'

> Consider events like w:restling and boxing Do we still fight to the death? Are these sports still considered violent? Is this violence accePtable?

> Have you observed peopte at $'restling matches or boxing matches? How

do they behave? \ 41y do you think they behave in such a manner?

> Here are some websites and articles you may want to look at:

o b$p-lllrrlr{.LoqtaE qqlqlqlympiqs/


SPORTS: lntroduction


"The Ancient Olympics" by Paul Sussman on Monday, 12 JuIy 2004 at, world spolt:


"Exposed: Great Olympic Myths" by Simon Reeve, Friday 29 September 2000 at TIMES Online:

2. Spiritual/Mental,/Religious

Another side of sports is that of the spititual or teligious nature. Sports are not always

about violence or based on it. Some sports take on a holislic aPProach'

. Some sports have theit roots in religion. They started off as a way to strengthen

not only the body, but the mind and the soul as well.

> Sports such as Yoga and Kung Fu are a blend of discipline of the mind as

well as the body. Movements are often associated with the natural world

and based on spiritual studies.

> OI course the ancient Olympics was also very spiritual/religious in nature

beinq a tdbute to the gods and held on sacl:ed glounds Vuinners were

crowned with laurels from the sacred laurel tree said to belong to Zeus'

> Conversely, the Mayans who also held sporting events as a tibute to their

gods relvarded their winners with death- V/inners were sacificed in honor

of the gods and many would fight for this very honor' This can also be

linked of course to the violent nature of sports which is at the same time

coupled with the religious and spidtual nature'

> Can you think of any other sports that have their roots in spiritual beliefs?

> How have sports such as yoga and shaolin kung Iu changed? \^hat do you

think brought about such changies?

> Do changes in religious sports also aflect our kaditions and culture?

> Here are some websites and ajticles you may qrant to look at:




Wikipedia on Yoga: http:,//en.wlkipedia orglv'iki/Yoga

Oriqins of shaolin: htpllzed4q@lshaqh-alhiElqry hlml

Tribal Gifts to OlymPics:

http://!var'!v.nativqvoices. orglarticles/tdbal girts htm

SPORTS: lntroductiol

o "The Sacred Origin and Nature of Sports and Culture" by Ghazi bin

Muhammad. Fons Vitae (1998)

. Besides having roots in religious/spiritual beliefs some sports also focused on

philosophy and were a way to hone skills of the body as well as the mind.

> Taekwondo is one such sport along with Gatka which aligns Philosophy

with the practice of martial arts.

> Does this mean that the violence displayed in such sports can then be

considered acceptable since it is not "mindless"?

> What about the religious sports that changed to be used in self defense? Is

violence in those sports acceptable as 0qell? If so, why?

> Consider the game of chess which is an interesting sport in lhe west as well as the east. Chess is considered a mental spod which requires not just

cladty of thought but strategy and cunning as well. It is in effect a

war/battle fought on paper or in some cases a board-

! ls Chess is a way of rationalizing war?

> Can spotts like chess and those oJ a spiritual natule actually make us better


! Here some websites and articles you may lvant to look at:




Wikipedia on Gatka: http://en.wikipedia.orglwiki/Gatka

Smug Home with some bdef description of the oigins of some

martial arts: http:/,/r -,

The origin of Chess:


http://chess. I 4 htm 3. Status - commercial/social Accordinq to Maslow's hieiarchy of needs, people only seek out higher needs when

base needs are met. So it is with sports, once the basic needs of sports is met, peoPle

move on to seek sports on higher planes.

. Ce ain sports may start off as a ritual, a part of something and then grow to

encompass many other ideas too-

5PORTs: lntroduction

Sports like Sumo have their roots in mythology and were first held as a

ritual to honor the harvest gods bul later evolved into a popular pastime in

the Impedal Court and still later, into a form oftraining for soldiets

The versatility of certain sports allow them to be used not only to

strengthen the body and mind, but to reaffirm key ideas like National

ldentity and cultural inhedtance.

Read: "In Search of Personal and National ldentity" by Henning Eichberg

for PIay The Game:

o% 20of o/o 20PersonaIo/o2020ando/o2ONationaIo%20ldentity.


> ln some countries, Spofis are a way of life. If Sumo is the ultimate Japanese

sport, then Baseball would be the American sport.

> \tr/hy are certain sports associated with certain counties?

> Can national identity really be built upon sports? If so, hovl,?

> How can countries benefit from having a certain ability at a sport


Read: "Moving Forward While Presewing National Identity" at


2004 pdf

Spo is also about international relatiottships and commerce

> "The modern Olympic Games have become a stage for a global audience,

not just as a venue for athletic competition, but as an internationat arena

where many of the most important political and social themes of the 20th

century have played prominent roles-"1

> Research: 1936 Berlin Olympics, 1972 Munich Olympics, 1980 boycotts,

l984 communism.

> Besides the Olympics are there other events you can think of that would

involve countries and international relationships?

I Professor Dv an M. Bloy, "Pol lics, Propaganda, and violence a! the Ancicnl and Modern o vmpics" cettYsburg Co ege, Department oI Classics.

http://www.sq{y:b!rE edql!!lE!] csllirstvear seminars/coLLrse

itt iPlDoLlt cs Drop-ea4&.&l

SPORTS: lntroduction

> \,uhy is it important for countdes to meet annually or otherwise to pit strength and skills agarnst each other?

> How do these games help to improve relationships betlveen countries?

! Here are some websites and articles you may want to look at:



"The Ancient Olympics" at http:/./ww! t.perseus tufts edu/Olvmpicg:

"In Search of Personal and National Identity" by Henning Eichberg

for Play The Came:

http : //w{'w.plavthe game. orglKnowled(1e 7o ?Qbe4kl4!!9lcvl4%209

earcho% 20of o% 20Personal"%2020and"Z20National% 20Identity.a5+x


"Sport and International Relations: An Emerging Relationship" by

Roger Levermore and Adrian Budd.

' Sport is about status. It has become a "Civil Religion".

> Sports like soccer evolved from the ground up therefol:e people of a

certain income group (generally lower) tend to enjoy this sport as opposed

to spolts like golf or Polo.

> Consider thelefore corunon sporls vs genteel sports. Prince Hary is

knol4m to be an excellent polo player whereas soccer is more of a sport for

commoners like David Beckham. Howevel, Beckham can also stand to

benefit from his status as a soccer player namely that ofthe new "Rock Star

Athletes". Flint: What's the difference btw Sportsrnen and


> Spo'k hy the fiasses fot !fte rnasses are [ast gaining econo'nic slatus

with sPorts such as Football heing called the gteal equalizers and civil

religions that unite people despile diffetent socio'econornic



> Sports and Consumerism.' How have sports equipment and sports apparel become status symbols? E.g. Ifhat is the brand Nike associated with? \tr/hen you think of tennis, who do you think of? Is that Person also

linked with certain products as well?

> Has sport become Too commetcialized?


SPORTS: lntroduction

> Here are some websites and atticles you may want to look at:


"A Look at the Commercialization of Sport: Profound Impacts on

American ldentity and Culture" by Mike Chiacos:


"Commercialization of sport" by Brian Sather, Eastern Oregon

University. historv philosophv sport/co

qrt4crslaLz4uer slrp 3!


Spo s and related issues: a PowerPoint presentation.


3o4 Pdf

IV Useful Concepts

The IOC (Inlernational Olympic Committee)

The International Olympic

organization which

IOC has its headquarters

orthopedic surgeon

Committee (IOC) is the international non-governmental

conducts, promotes and regulates the modern Olympic Games The

Rogge, an

in Lausanne, east of Geneva- Its Plesident is Jacques

and former Olympic athlete from Belgium. The IOC, founded in

Paris in t894, is the supreme authoity of the Olympic Movement;

The IOC promotes sport in the Olympic tradition

strengthening ties among

athletics. The IOC'S

research in sports The IOC ensures

selects the site where they

by supporting regional games'

athletes of all countries, and seeking to guide modern

will be held Since 1994 the Games of the Olympiad (summer

Winter Games are no longer held in the same year but tlvo

locations of past games are: Athens, Greece, August 13-29,

future games in Beijing, china' 2008;

medical commission collabotates with other bodies dealing with

medicine such as in the fight against doping. the regular celebration (every fout years) of the Olympic Games, and

Olympics) and the Olympic years apart. The dates and

z0o+; Tnritr, Italy, February ll-26,2006; and

Vancouver, Canada, 2010 and London, 2012

World Anli-Doping Agency (WADA)

In 1999, the IOC hosted a World Conference on Doping in Sport in Lausanne,

Switzerland where an agreement

antidoping agency to oversee

conJerence was the "i,ausanne

was reached to set up an independent

the global fight

against drugs.



product of the

Declalation" which states that in future the Olympic oath

will be taken not only by

declaration stipulates a minimum two-year

athletes but also extended to coaches and other officials The

suspension from competition for any athlete

More severe sanctions will apply to coaches and

found guilty of a first doping offense.

officials Jound guilty ofviolations of the anti-doping code.


SPORTS: lntroduction

In November 1999, the IOC announced the establishment of the Wolld AntiDoping

Agency, which has its headquarters in Montreal. WADA aims to provide a solution to

drugs in sports by standardizing

testing. In March 2003,

lules and providing an independent mechanism for.

governments and sports federations adopted a World Anti-

Doping code at the second IMorld Conference on Doping in Sport in CoPenhagen.




Governance in Sport governance can be descdbed as the system by which an organisation is

and controlled, including the distribution of rights and lesponsibilities among

those involved



in the organisation.

of relationships


corporate grovernance is the successful

an organisation

through fair,

organizations have an

among members of

and accountable systems and structures. Sport

obligation to govern responsibly and effectively.

Sports Rehabilitation



Athletes, referees, umpires, coaches and other participants are often considered arrd supported while they are participating but ignored, forgotten or dismissed as soon as

case of tendonitis to an administrator or

are unable to put in a performance.

instance, what can look like a simple

reporter may mean the end of a career,

potential income, status and life passion for the


It is good practice for sport

participants through


olganisations to have a set plocedure for assisting

the plocess of lehabilitation- These procedures are supported on a

members, medical or other relevant Professionals,

as parents, partne6 and children'

basis by organisation

and/or participant supportets such

Fair Play

Fair playrefers

such_as players

to the conduct of individuals involved with any Part of sPorting practice'

on the field, sPectators on the sideline, coaches in the stadium, umptes

!oom. It encompasses all aspects of the




a match ol managers in the dressing

event and all individuals involved.

Fai! play can be defined as the upholding

fairness before, during and afte!, and directly relating to, a game/match/event' Fair

a code of conduct

thal clearly defines specific

ApPropdate disciplinary

play can often be best promoted ttuough

prattices that capture

the ethical

values of the sport'

pro."""a", sanctions

of misconduct.

Gender Discrimination in SPotts

lists and reinstatement conditions are essential to the management

It has been identified internationally

against and ale disadvantaged by a


that women and girls are negratively discriminated


of balliers in sport'

women and girls are: unequal

pay; verbai and

bias in selection; exclusion of

for position, and innuendo These

the negative promotion of

.rau" of discrimination against

sexual halassment and abuse;


lack of promotion;

rights; pictures, assumptions, disregard

types of

women's and girls' sport, in particular the portrayal of

discrimination are then often reinforced through

women's and girls' sport as an

infedor version of men's participation in sport-

SPORTS: lntrodLrction

In terms of global media and broadcast, women athletes receive very Iittle coverage on

sports programs that supposedly feature both men and women athletes. While we

would not expect to see women athletes in male sports programs such as the NFL, NBA,

and Major League Baseball games or Wrestling, we would expect to see male athletes

on Sports Centet and Extreme Sports. Even Extreme SPorts programming that is seen as an "alternative" open to men and women devotes only 1o% of its coverage to women


Even if they do appear, they are portrayed in stereotypical ways. such as sex objects,

supportive spouses, or spectators on the sidelines cheedng the men on.

Race, Elhnicity

Racism can be

and Sport

described as negative discrimination against an individual because of

thet colour, racial origin, ethnicity, ancestry,

identilication or connection with any of

and/or place of birth, or an indiwidual's

these. While there were few overtly racist

images or comments,



sports programs occasionally

reinJorced racial stereotypes or

For instance in America, lacial

attention to race/ethnicity in commentary.

or comments wele found dudng the

NBA and NFL games. Even Tiger

received unfavourable remarks about his prowess. When wrestling shows are


staged, Latino, Asian, and other non-White wresuers never won the matches On the

othlr hand African A:rnerican

performances in certain

athletes have been lauded Jor their natural supelhuman

sports such as in long distance run4ing and in basketball

(Michael Jordan, Carl Lewis, Marion Jones)

V fact Finding Exercise (Oral Presentation)

Now that you've learnt a little bit about Sports, it's time for you to apply your knowledge

and skills to answerinq the examination questions.

You may use all the material in this package as well as information you've found tbJough

your own lesearch to help you. Remember to use the essay structure that you've learnt

to help you tackle the question.




From the list of questions belor[ choose betlqeen one of tlvo questions Per Ievel


Use information given and researched to answer the questions'


Show clearly how to use the essay structu{e you've learnt'



Everyone in the grroup must present as you WILL be graded'


You must have:

l A handout for your classmates

2. Proper preseniation slides

SPORTS: lntroduction

. You are expected to consult with your tutor AILIcEEILII{qlqeg&qbclblc your


Essay questions

Level I l. "Today's athlete is more of a television star than a sportsman." Do you agree?

oJc PEg? Q1)

Level 2

l Do sportswomen deserve the same treatment as their male counterparts? (VJC

PE99 Q4)

Level 3

l. The reality of sport is that it is often very unsPorting. Is this a fair descriBltia! of

the world ofspo today? (ACJC)

2. Is sports too closely Iinked to money these days? (2001 A-LeveIs)

Prepored by Mr:

The Ethics of Gene Doplng by Jonalhan Gittins

Sports: Genetics and Ethics

ln its July 2004 issue, Discover l\,4agazine asks, "Will Gene Doping Destroy


Sports" (Behar 2004)? The article indicates that gene doping, introducing


synthetic genes for non therapeutic uses is "cheating and a misuse of

What does the

genetics." While the research was meant to help those with debilitating


diseases, it could be used by athletes to increase performance The media,


government, and spofts organizations have all demonized it without

reveal about the

explaining why gene doping is

considered unethical and immoral The

attitude of the

intent oI this research is to discover the ethica{ obiections to gene doping, effectively trying to gauge the strength or weakness of each

argument. *'Students, when reading, note how the last line of the introductory

paragraph sums up his enlire essay?

The tirst argument against gene doping is that of cheating and

untaimess and is voiced by many (Lavin 1987). ln some instances' gene

doping would be "cheating" as it would break the contractual obligation of an athlete, for example rf the NFL explicitly prohibited it. IMany other athletes

though, are not under any specific contract. People indicate that for these

athletes. it would be "unfail' for the athlete to obtain an advantage over their

competitors, giving them the edge in strength and stamina lt would also be

"disrespectful" to others (Lavin 1987).

media, govt and



Why are the words



disrespectful in

. Notice how the first line of each paragraph is sometimes the topic


The argument above tends to tug on society's belief that everyone

should have equal opportunities. The problem is that some athletes

already have an innate genetic advantage above their competitors For

example, the Finnish cross-country skier, Eero l\4dntyranta, was found to

have a genetic mutation that lead to increased erythropoietin levels and

hiqher numbers of oxygen-carrying red blood cells (Sweeney 2004) There

are other examples of athletes having increased levels oJ cedain proteins.

Sports have not prevented these people from competing, even though they have an advantaqe. We apparently consider these to be fair advantages.

How is this a


What does the

w ter's use of the

"apparently" suggest about his



orts : Genetics and Ethics

Gene doping could be used to increase protein levels in all athletes, thereby removing the advantage held by a few. The competition would

then be based on equality. One problem with this idea is based on the economic disparity between societal classes and various countries. The

wealthy would be able to purchase the genetic therapy mLlch more easily than

the poor, with a similar dilemma with developed and developing countries Even now, not all athletes have the ability to obtain performance_enhancing

technoloqy, so the argument could be made that gene doping should be

banned based on unfairness arising from economic disparity. lt is optimistic

to believe that gene doping could make everyone equal, bul it would be

unrealistic from an implementation standpoint, as not everyone would be able to afford the technology.

What is ironic about the

possible impact

of doping on compelitive

spo rt?



the gulf betw€en

reality and an



.Gene doping is harmful. This is the second argument presented against

gene doping, and it comes in a variety of shades and colors. Gene

doping could essentially harm the athlete, other athletes, the sporting

commLrnity, society, and the nature of sports. Some of these arguments are

solely spofts-oriented, while others expand to concerns of social division

cene therapy is a relative- ewcorner to science, and its abiiities and

benefits have been unproven up to now (Holowchak 2000). Most research

has been done solely on animals, and trials that have been done on human

beings have not been accepted well by society. ln 1999, Jesse Gelsinger died

after an extreme immune reaction occurred while on gene therapy (Beardsley

2OOO). I/any are unsure what this therapy will to do the body lt could cause

unexpected problems and therefore many believe it should not be allowed,

especially for athletes that do not require it for therapeLltic use (Miah 2004)

Wittr this argument, though, the idea of harm appears to be relative for

athletes. Some sports, such as boxing and football, are harmful by nature/

intrinsicallv harmful. Should we ban these sports just because they are harmful to the body? These sports are stillextremely popular, so there is no

way they would be banned. The physiological and anatomical effects of gene

doping may be more or less damaging that the brLltal blows of boxing Until more trials and research have been done, the possible harm to the athlete

will be unknown, so this argument coLlld either gain support or be


Why woutd the

idea that athletes

may be harmed

by gene doping be unwarranted?

Explain this in

yout own words.

Professional sports and the Olympics wouldn't be neady as popular if it

weren't for the spectators. Gene doping could harm the sporting

community, affecting how they enjoy the sport. Spectators have expectations for their teams, and when these expectations are unmet, there can be a great amount of backlash. When the NHL went under strike talks, the attendance

at games greatly decreased (Strachan 2004). lf gene doping was allowed

and it didn't live up to all it was made to be, lhe sporting community could be

annoyed. Other spectators may feel that sport may lose some of its

: Genetics and Ethics

What does the line

enteftainment value as the athletes would all be genetically enhanced,



making them less unique, and removing some of the advantages that lead to


exciting plays. Essentially, if every athlete had the talent of a Tiger woods or Michael Jordan, it would be less competitive. Andy [,4iah


though, suggests that gene doping could lead to "greater levels of excellence

in peformance, reducing the risk of unsafe drug enhancements, allowing

athletes to express their authenticity through their relationship with

technology" (lMiah,