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Generator Protection System

P. A. Amilkanthwar
Assistant Engineer (Gen)
Test - II
Topics for Discussion
 Basics of Electrical Protection system
 Synchronous machine
 Concept of reactive power and real power sharing
 Different Protections used for generator
 Advanced Protection Relays(Microprocessor based)
 Case studies (analysis of electrical faults)
 Synchronization
Different Protections used for Generator
 Generator Differential Protection.
 Generator Inter Turn Protection.
 Generator Negative Sequence Protection.
 Generator Loss of Excitation Protection.
 Generator Over Voltage Protection.
 Frequency Protection
 Generator Over Load/ Over Current Protection
 Generator Rotor Earth Fault Protection
 Generator Back Up Impedance protection
 Generator Low Forward power Interlock
 Generator reverse power protection.
 95% stator Earth Fault Protection
Instrument Transformers
 Current Transformers  Potential Transformers
• Turns ratio is • Turns ratio is directly
inversely proportional proportional to the ratio
to the ratio specified specified
• Secondary current is • Secondary current is
according to primary according to burden
current only connected
• Should not be short
• Should not be left
circuited
open circuited
Flow Diagram of Tripping Process
Protection Classes
 Class A Protection
• This master trip will operate when the fault needs to isolate
the generator immediately
• This gives command to open the generator breaker and
field breaker.
 Class B Protection
• This master trip will operate when the fault is not serious in
view of generator or it is not directly harmful to generator
• This gives the command to trip turine
 Prime Mover Tripped

This indicates (gives feed back)prime mover is tripped.


Basics of Electrical Protection system

 The Protection System


 Protection Classes
 Inputs to the protection system.
• Instrument Transformers
• Contact Input

 Elements of protection system.


Generator Differential Protection
 CTR 10000/5
 Relay Setting 5%
 Stabilizing Resistance
 High impedance
Relay
 Sensitivity to the type
of fault
Elements of protection system
• Current relays
• Voltage relays
• Power relays
• Impedance relays
• Frequency relays
• Special function relays
• Auxiliary Relays
• Timers
Protection System
• Cause of Operation of Protection is the the
Fault.
 It Is Basically Designed,
• To detect the fault at its earliest possible stage.
• To give protection to the equipment against
secondary damage.
• To avoid the equipment to run out side the
capability specified.
Specifications of Generator
 Make: BHEL  Synchronous Impedance:
 MVA: 247 222%
 Connection: Three Phase
 Sub Transient
Double Star Connected. Impedance: 30.5%
 Voltage: 15750 Volts
 Transient Impedance:
21.4%
 Current: 9050 Amp  Cooling: water/ Hydrogen
 Frequency: 50 Hz Cooled
 Speed: 3000 RPM  Neutral Grounding: High
 No. of Poles: 2 Impedance (Through
NGT)
Generator Inter Turn Protection
 Difference of sharing between
split phases
 Reasons of diff. In currents
• If there is any inter-turn short
with in the winging
• If gen is supplying through fault
and small circulating currents
gets proportionately increased
• Tripping provided at 5% of rated
current
Generator Negative Sequence Protection.
 Balanced and unbalanced systems
 Sequence components
• Positive sequence component
I1 = 1/3 (IR +a2 *IY + a * IB)
• Negative sequence component
I2 = 1/3 (IR +a *IY + a2 * IB)
• Zero sequence component
I0 = 1/3 (IR +IY + IB)
 Effect of negative sequence component on
synchronous machine.
 Generator Capability for I2
• Continuous I2 capability 5% of Im
• I22 * t = 8
Balanced Phasers
Generator Loss of Excitation Protection.
 Study of Generator capability curve

Setting criteria
Xa1 = 0.5*Xd*CTR/PTR
Xd = 30.5% = 0.305 pu ……sub-
transient reactance of generator
Xd in ohms = Xd (pu)*kv2/MVA
= 0.305*15.752/247
=0.306311993
Xa1 = 2.139 ohm
Xb1 = Xd * CTR/PTR
Xd (ohmic) = Xd(pu)*kv2/MVA
Xb1 = 2.22(15.752/247)(10000/5)
(110/15750)
= 31.14 ohm
Generator capability curve
Generator Over Voltage Protection.

 Generator high voltage is harm full to the


insulation of generator, generator
transformer, excitation transformer, UAT,
etc
 Generator Over Voltage Capability – 10%
 Setting Adopted
• Stage – 1 = 10%, 5 Sec delay
• Stage – 2 = 15%, 500msec delay
Frequency Protection
 Over frequency protection
• It indicates excess generation than
demand hence tripping should graded
among the units
 Under frequency protection

Under frequency is harmful to turbine


 Adopted settings
Adopted Frequency settings
UNIT NO. CAPACITY UNDER FREQ. OVER FREQUENCY TRIP
TRIP SETTING SETTING

1 30 MW 47 HZ, 0.5 SEC54.5 HZ, 21.15 SEC DELAY


DELAY
2 30 MW

3 210 MW 52.5 HZ, 1 SEC DELAY

4 210 MW 52.0 HZ, 2 SEC DELAY

5 210 MW 52.0 HZ, 2.0 SEC DELAY


Generator Over Load/ Over Current
Protection1
% O/C Gen Capability Relay Char.

1.1 3600

1.15 900 652.8

1.2 360 362.4

1.25 300 252.6

1.3 240 192.6

1.35 180 155.4

1.4 120 129.3

1.5 60 90
Generator Over Load/ Over Current
Protection2
Generator Capability Relay characristic

950
900
850
800
750
700
650
600
time in Sec.

550
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
1 1.05 1.1 1.15 1.2 1.25 1.3 1.35 1.4 1.45 1.5 1.55 1.6
% over current
Rotor E/F
Generator Back Up Impedance protection
Impedance protection to be covered up to 220 KV bus bar that is Z = Z(G.T.) 12.5%
Ohmic value of Z (G.T.) = Z(pu)*KV2/MVA
= 0.125*15.752/250 = 0.124 ohm
Z at C.T.,P.T. secondary level = Z*(CTR/PTR)
= 0.124*(10000/5)*(110/15750)= 1.73 ohm
For 3 phase impedance 1.73*sqrt(3) = 2.996 ohm
Time setting = 2.5 sec (considering the line under Impedance time setting that is to allow the
line protections to clear the fault before tripping of generator)
Z<1 setting (for P343 main only) Setting criteria: for long faults and sustained overloading the
setting of this stage should be kept to operate at 30% overloading i.e. it should be set at 70%
impedance of the full load parameters of the generator.
Zfull load at C.T., P.T. level = rated volts (phase to phase)/ Ifull load
= 110/4.525 = 24.3 ohms
Z 70% = Zfull load*0.7 = 24.3*0.7 = 17.01 ohms delay = 5 sec
95% stator Earth Fault Protection
Salient Features of the relay P343:
Following Protections of generator are covered in the relay
. Generator Differential Protection: - High Impedance / Biased Differential

. Phase fault over current protection: -

.Neutral voltage displacement protection: -

.100% Stator earth fault protection: -

.Under/over voltage protection: - Two stage under and Over voltage


protection.

.Under/over frequency protection: - Four stage under frequency and two


stage over frequency protection.

.Reverse power: - Protection against loss of prime mover.

.Low forward power: - Provides an interlock for non-urgent tripping.


Other non-protective features of the relay:
1. Voltage transformer supervision: - To prevent mal-operation
of voltage dependent protection elements upon loss of a VT
input signal.
2. Measurements: - Various measurement of value for display on
the relay or accessed from the serial communications e.g.
Currents, voltages, Power etc.
3. Fault / event / disturbance records: - Available from the serial
communication or on the relay display (fault and event records
only on relay display.
4. Four setting groups: - Independent setting groups to cater for
alternative arrangements or user specific application.
5. Continuous self monitoring: - Power on diagnostics and self
checking routine to provide maximum relay reliability and
availability.
6. Circuit breaker state monitoring: - Provides indication of
discrepancy between circuit breaker auxiliary contacts.
P343
Case studies (analysis of electrical faults)

 Tripping of unit on Loss of excitation protection.


 Tripping of unit No 4 on over voltage protection
during external disturbance.
 Local AC failure due to theft attempt in switch
yard
 Unit 4 tripped on stator earth fault.
 Tripping of unit on Negative sequence protection
 Tripping of units while supplying external faults
Synchronization Procedure
 Keep Excitation on Manual Channel.
 Make the FF Supply ON.
 Close the field Breaker and observe
FF and FB both breakers ON
Voltage start building up
At @ 70% of rated voltage FF breaker gets OFF
Voltage stops rising at @ 14 KV
 Raise the voltage to @15.75KV with the help of Manual Control.
 Match the Null meter with the help of Auto Pot.
 Put the excitation on AUTO
 Proceed for Synchronization.
Thank You