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P. A. Amilkanthwar Assistant Engineer (Gen) Test - II
Topics for Discussion
Basics of Electrical Protection system Synchronous machine Concept of reactive power and real power sharing Different Protections used for generator Advanced Protection Relays(Microprocessor based) Case studies (analysis of electrical faults) Synchronization
Different Protections used for Generator
Generator Differential Protection. Generator Inter Turn Protection. Generator Negative Sequence Protection. Generator Loss of Excitation Protection. Generator Over Voltage Protection. Frequency Protection Generator Over Load/ Over Current Protection Generator Rotor Earth Fault Protection Generator Back Up Impedance protection Generator Low Forward power Interlock Generator reverse power protection. 95% stator Earth Fault Protection
Current Transformers Turns ratio is inversely proportional to the ratio specified Secondary current is according to primary current only Should not be left open circuited
Potential Transformers Turns ratio is directly proportional to the ratio specified Secondary current is according to burden connected Should not be short circuited
Flow Diagram of Tripping Process
Class A Protection • This master trip will operate when the fault needs to isolate the generator immediately • This gives command to open the generator breaker and field breaker. Class B Protection • This master trip will operate when the fault is not serious in view of generator or it is not directly harmful to generator • This gives the command to trip turine Prime Mover Tripped This indicates (gives feed back)prime mover is tripped.
Basics of Electrical Protection system
The Protection System Protection Classes Inputs to the protection system. • Instrument Transformers • Contact Input Elements of protection system.
Generator Differential Protection
CTR 10000/5 Relay Setting 5% Stabilizing Resistance High impedance Relay Sensitivity to the type of fault
Elements of protection system
• • • • • • • •
Current relays Voltage relays Power relays Impedance relays Frequency relays Special function relays Auxiliary Relays Timers
Cause of Operation of Protection is the the Fault. It Is Basically Designed, To detect the fault at its earliest possible stage. To give protection to the equipment against secondary damage. To avoid the equipment to run out side the capability specified.
Specifications of Generator
Make: BHEL MVA: 247 Connection: Three Phase Double Star Connected. Voltage: 15750 Volts Current: 9050 Amp Frequency: 50 Hz Speed: 3000 RPM No. of Poles: 2
Synchronous Impedance: 222% Sub Transient Impedance: 30.5% Transient Impedance: 21.4% Cooling: water/ Hydrogen Cooled Neutral Grounding: High Impedance (Through NGT)
Generator Inter Turn Protection
Difference of sharing between split phases Reasons of diff. In currents If there is any inter-turn short with in the winging If gen is supplying through fault and small circulating currents gets proportionately increased Tripping provided at 5% of rated current
Generator Negative Sequence Protection.
Balanced and unbalanced systems Sequence components Positive sequence component I1 = 1/3 (IR +a2 *IY + a * IB) Negative sequence component I2 = 1/3 (IR +a *IY + a2 * IB) Zero sequence component I0 = 1/3 (IR +IY + IB) Effect of negative sequence component on synchronous machine. Generator Capability for I2 Continuous I2 capability 5% of Im I22 * t = 8
Generator Loss of Excitation Protection.
Study of Generator capability curve
Setting criteria Xa1 = 0.5*Xd*CTR/PTR Xd = 30.5% = 0.305 pu ……subtransient reactance of generator Xd in ohms = Xd (pu)*kv2/MVA = 0.305*15.752/247 =0.306311993 Xa1 = 2.139 ohm Xb1 = Xd * CTR/PTR Xd (ohmic) = Xd(pu)*kv2/MVA Xb1 = 2.22(15.752/247)(10000/5) (110/15750) = 31.14 ohm
Generator capability curve
Generator Over Voltage Protection.
Generator high voltage is harm full to the insulation of generator, generator transformer, excitation transformer, UAT, etc Generator Over Voltage Capability – 10% Setting Adopted Stage – 1 = 10%, 5 Sec delay Stage – 2 = 15%, 500msec delay
Over frequency protection • It indicates excess generation than demand hence tripping should graded among the units Under frequency protection Under frequency is harmful to turbine Adopted settings
Adopted Frequency settings
UNIT NO. CAPACITY UNDER FREQ. OVER FREQUENCY TRIP SETTING SETTING 47 HZ, 0.5 SEC54.5 HZ, 21.15 SEC DELAY DELAY TRIP 1 2 3 4 5 30 MW 30 MW 210 MW 210 MW 210 MW 52.5 HZ, 1 SEC DELAY 52.0 HZ, 2 SEC DELAY 52.0 HZ, 2.0 SEC DELAY
Generator Over Load/ Over Current Protection1
% O/C 1.1 1.15 1.2 1.25 1.3 1.35 1.4 1.5 Gen Capability 3600 900 360 300 240 180 120 60 652.8 362.4 252.6 192.6 155.4 129.3 90
Generator Over Load/ Over Current Protection2
Generator Capability 950 900 850 800 750 700 650 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1 1.05 1.1 1.15 1.2 1.25 1.3 1.35 1.4 1.45 1.5 1.55 1.6 % over current Relay characristic
time in Sec.
Impedance protection to be covered up to 220 KV bus bar that is Z = Z(G.T.) 12.5% Ohmic value of Z (G.T.) = Z(pu)*KV2/MVA = 0.125*15.752/250 = 0.124 ohm Z at C.T.,P.T. secondary level = Z*(CTR/PTR) = 0.124*(10000/5)*(110/15750)= 1.73 ohm For 3 phase impedance 1.73*sqrt(3) = 2.996 ohm Time setting = 2.5 sec (considering the line under Impedance time setting that is to allow the line protections to clear the fault before tripping of generator) Z<1 setting (for P343 main only) Setting criteria: for long faults and sustained overloading the setting of this stage should be kept to operate at 30% overloading i.e. it should be set at 70% impedance of the full load parameters of the generator. Zfull load at C.T., P.T. level = rated volts (phase to phase)/ Ifull load = 110/4.525 = 24.3 ohms Z 70% = Zfull load*0.7 = 24.3*0.7 = 17.01 ohms delay = 5 sec
Generator Back Up Impedance protection
95% stator Earth Fault Protection
Salient Features of the relay P343:
Following Protections of generator are covered in the relay
Generator Differential Protection: - High Impedance / Biased Differential
. Phase fault over current protection: .Neutral voltage displacement protection: .100% Stator earth fault protection: .Under/over voltage protection: - Two stage under and Over voltage protection. .Under/over frequency protection: - Four stage under frequency and two stage over frequency protection. .Reverse power: - Protection against loss of prime mover. .Low forward power: - Provides an interlock for non-urgent tripping.
Other non-protective features of the relay:
Voltage transformer supervision: - To prevent mal-operation of voltage dependent protection elements upon loss of a VT input signal. Measurements: - Various measurement of value for display on the relay or accessed from the serial communications e.g. Currents, voltages, Power etc. Fault / event / disturbance records: - Available from the serial communication or on the relay display (fault and event records only on relay display. Four setting groups: - Independent setting groups to cater for alternative arrangements or user specific application. Continuous self monitoring: - Power on diagnostics and self checking routine to provide maximum relay reliability and availability. Circuit breaker state monitoring: - Provides indication of discrepancy between circuit breaker auxiliary contacts.
Case studies (analysis of electrical faults)
Tripping of unit on Loss of excitation protection. Tripping of unit No 4 on over voltage protection during external disturbance. Local AC failure due to theft attempt in switch yard Unit 4 tripped on stator earth fault. Tripping of unit on Negative sequence protection Tripping of units while supplying external faults
Keep Excitation on Manual Channel. Make the FF Supply ON. Close the field Breaker and observe FF and FB both breakers ON Voltage start building up At @ 70% of rated voltage FF breaker gets OFF Voltage stops rising at @ 14 KV Raise the voltage to @15.75KV with the help of Manual Control. Match the Null meter with the help of Auto Pot. Put the excitation on AUTO Proceed for Synchronization.