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## Technology Training that Works

Maintenance Philosophies

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## Vibration in everyday life

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Useful Vibration

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Vibration Monitoring

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Vibration Basics

## Any external force has to overcome structures

properties:
- Mass
- Stiffness
- Damping
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## A force cause vibration!

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Vibration Basics
Vibration can be described in terms of:
- Acceleration
- Velocity
- Displacement

## Single degree of freedom system:

- Forced vibration response
- Free vibration response
- Resonance is free vibration

## Frequency is the number of vibration cycles / time!

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Vibration Basics

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System Response

10N

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2g

## Nature of Vibration - SHM

X = Xo sin w t
X = Disp. at instant t
Xo = Maximum disp.
w = 2 .p. f (rad/s)
f = frequency (Hz)
t = time (seconds)

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## Technology Training that Works

Wave Terminology

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## A time lag of T is a phase angle of 360.

A time lag of T/4 will be a phase angle of 90.
The two waves are out of phase by
90 !
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## Also called the Frequency

Domain or Vibration Spectrum
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Harmonics

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## Frequency and Time Domains

FFT is the Frequency
Domain
Time Waveform is the
Time Domain

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Frequency Analysis

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Overall Amplitude
It is the total vibration
amplitude over a wide
range of frequencies.
Acceleration, Velocity,
or Displacement.

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## Technology Training that Works

Which to choose?

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## Real world vibration levels

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Vibration Terminology
Displacement [peak-peak]
Velocity [peak]
Velocity [rms]
Velocity rms tends to provide the energy
content in the vibration, whereas the Velocity
peak depicts more of the intensity of vibration.

Acceleration [peak]

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## Machinery Fault Diagnosis

Vibration analysis is used to
monitor the state of a machine.
concerning the health of the
machine and any faults, which may
be arising or may have already
arisen.
The need for higher reliability and
availability of critical machinery
forces the use of this technique of
PdM.
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## Common Machinery Faults

Unbalance
Bent shaft
Eccentricity
Misalignment
Looseness
Belt drive problems
Gear defects
Bearing defects

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Electrical faults
Oil whip / whirl
Cavitation
Shaft cracks
Rotor rubs
Resonance
Hydraulic + aerodynamic
forces
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Unbalance - Static
Amplitude due to
unbalance will vary with
the square of speed
The FFT will show
1 rpm frequency of
vibration.
It will be predominant
Phase difference is as
shown
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## Technology Training that Works

Unbalance - Couple
Amplitude varies with
square of speed
Predominant 1 peak
May cause high axial
vibrations.
Phase difference is
180 on shaft ends in
both planes.
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## Unbalance - Overhung Rotors

Amplitude varies with
square of speed.
Predominant 1 peak
May cause high axial
vibrations.
Axial plane phase
direction phase is
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## Technology Training that Works

Bent Shaft
Bend near centre:
1 is predominant
Bend at ends:
2 is predominant
No phase difference in
location.
180 phase difference
in axial plane.
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## Technology Training that Works

Misalignment
After unbalance, misalignment is the major cause
for high vibrations.
Two kinds of misalignment:
Angular - shaft ends meet an angle.
Parallel - shaft ends are parallel but have an offset.

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Angular Misalignment

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Angular Misalignment
Predominant peak is
1
1, 2 , 3 may be
present.
High axial vibration
with 1 and 2
Axial phase difference
across the coupling is
180.

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## Bent Shaft - Angular Misalignment

Difference between
angular misalignment
and a bent shaft is
differentiated only by
phase difference.
In misalignment,
phase difference is
180 across the
coupling.
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Parallel Misalignment

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Parallel Misalignment
The predominant
peak is at 2
direction are higher
than in the axial
direction.

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Parallel Misalignment

Phase difference in
the coupling is 180.

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Misaligned Bearing
Cocked bearing show
high axial vibrations
Opposite ends have
an axial plane phase
difference of 180.
FFT may show peaks
of 1, 2 and 3

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Misalignment - Orbits

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Mechanical Looseness
Internal assembly looseness:
Bearing liner in its cap.
Sleeve or rolling element bearing.
Impeller on a shaft.

## Looseness at machine to base plate interface:

Loose bolts.
Cracks in the frame structure or bearing pedestal.

Structure looseness:
Weakness of machine feet, baseplate or
foundation.
Loose hold-down bolts, distortion of frame or base.
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Internal Looseness
Phase is unstable.
taken at 30. Will see
different spectrums
for each (directional).
FFT will show
harmonics of or
even .

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## Looseness at Machine to Base Plate interface

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Structure Looseness

## Measure each bolt, one at a time.

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Resonance
Every body has a resonance frequency.
Frequency is dependant on mass, stiffness and
damping.
Forced and free vibrations (e.g. ringing of bell).
Resonance is free vibrations.
Bump test is simple technique to find resonant
frequency of stationary mass or system.

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## Technology Training that Works

Bump Test

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## Thank You For Your Interest

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