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**Problem 10/ p. 684. Sketch the region in the plane consisting of all points whose polar
**

coordinates (r, θ) satisfy the given conditions:

2 < r ≤ 5, 3π/4 < θ < 5π/4.

Solution. The sector is bounded by the black curve that is a part of the circle of radius 5

centered at the origin, by the two blue line-segments, and by the blue curve that is a part

of the circle of radius 2 centered at the origin; not including the blue boundary because of

the strict inequalities there. See the plot:

Problem 26/page 684. Find a polar equation for the curve represented by the Cartesian

equation xy = 4.

Solution. x = r(θ) cos(θ), y = r(θ) sin(θ) and

r

2

(θ) cos(θ) sin(θ) = 4.

From here, taking into account that x and y must have the same sign (both positive or

both negative) we conclude that the polar angle θ must be restricted to0 ≤ θ ≤ π/2 and

π ≤ θ ≤ 3π/2. Assuming that r ≥ 0 we have

r(θ) =

2

cos(θ) sin(θ)

=

2

√

2

sin(2θ)

.

In order to verify the result ﬁrst by using CAS Maple parametric plot

plot([[cos(t) ∗ 2 ∗ 2

0.5

/(sin(2 ∗ t)

0.5

), sin(t) ∗ 2 ∗ 2

0.5

/(sin(2 ∗ t)

0.5

), t = 0..Pi/2],

1

[cos(t)∗2∗2

0.5

/(sin(2∗t)

0.5

), sin(t)∗2∗2

0.5

/(sin(2∗t)

0.5

), t = Pi..3∗Pi/2]], color = [black]);

we draw the graph of the curve with polar coordinates

r(θ) =

2

√

2

sin(2θ)

, x = r(θ) cos(θ), y = r(θ) sin(θ), 0 ≤ θ ≤ π/2, π ≤ θ ≤ 3π/2.

and next, by using CAS Maple implicit plot we draw the graph of the same curve but with

the Cartesian equation xy = 4:

implicitplot(x ∗ y = 4, x = −30..30, y = −30..30);

We see that both graphs are the same so, this veriﬁes the correctness of our answer.

Problem 30/ p.684. Sketch the curve with the given polar equation

r

2

−3r + 2 = 0.

2

Solution. We have

r

2

−3r + 2 = (r −1)(r −2) = 0

and from here r = 1 or r = 2. Hence, the curve consists of two circle centered at the origin

of radius 1 and 2, correspondingly. Here is the graph of the curve by using CAS Maple

polar-plot:

polarplot([1, 2], t = 0..2 ∗ Pi);

Problem 38/ p.684. Sketch the curve with the given polar equation

r = cos(5θ).

Solution. We have | cos(5θ)| ≤ 1 and let us call the points from the curve with θ such that

cos(5θ) = ±1 the pick-points of the curve.

(a) For k = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 at 5θ

k

= kπ ⇒ θ

k

=

kπ

5

we have cos(5θ

k

) = 1. Hence, the points

with polar coordinates (1, 0), (1, 2π/5), (1, 4π/5), (1, 6π/5), (1, 8π/5) are pick-points of the

curve.

(b) For k = 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 at 5θ

k

= kπ ⇒ θ

k

=

kπ

5

we have cos(5θ

k

) = −1. Hence, the

points with polar coordinates (−1, π/5) = (1, 6π/5), (−1, 3π/5) = (1, 8π/5), (−1, 5π/5) =

(1, 0), (−1, 7π/5) = (1, 2π/5), (−1, 9π/5) = (1, 4π/5) are from the curve but these are the

same points described in (a).

From here the curve will contain only 5 leaves with pick-points given in (a).

(c) In order to see better the shape of the leaves we are to determine the polar coordinates

of the points with r = 0, i.e., r = cos(5θ

s

) = 0 ⇒ θ

s

=

(2s+1)π

10

, s = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.

From here we obtain 10 points with polar coordinates:

(0, π/10), (0, 3π/10), (0, 5π/10), (0, 7π/10), (0, 9π/10),

(0, 11π/10), (0, 13π/10), (0, 15π/10), (0, 17π/10), (0, 19π/10)

3

all of them coinciding with the pole (the origin) of the polar coordinate system. May be

you remember that we agree the pole to be considered as a set of all points

with polar coordinates (0, θ) with r = 0 and any angle θ.

Description of the sketch of the curve:

(1) Between θ = 0 and θ = π/10 we sketch a half-leaf with a pick point (1, 0).

(2) Between θ = π/10 and θ = 3π/10 we sketch one leaf with a pick point (−1, 2π/10) =

(1, 6π/5).

(3) Between θ = 3π/10 and θ = 5π/10 we sketch one leaf with a pick point (1, 2π/5).

(4) Between θ = 5π/10 and θ = 7π/10 we sketch one leaf with a pick point (−1, 3π/5) =

(1, 8π/5).

(5) Between θ = 7π/10 and θ = 9π/10 we sketch one leaf with a pick point (1, 4π/5).

(6) Between θ = 9π/10 and θ = π we sketch the second-half to the half-leave sketched in

(1). Note that the curve is entirely traced once for 0 ≤ θ ≤ π. Here is the sketch of the

ﬁve leaves curve r = cos(5θ):

Remark. it In order to verify the sketch we can use CAS Maple polar-plot:

polarplot(cos(5 ∗ t), t = 0..Pi, color = [blue]);

or CAS Maple parametric plot:

plot([cos(5 ∗ t) ∗ cos(t), cos(5 ∗ t) ∗ sin(t), t = 0..Pi], color = [red]);

Problem 56/ p.684. Match the polar equations with the graphs labeled I-VI. Give reasons

of your choice. Do not use a graphing device.

Solution. (a) Consider ﬁrst the polar equations (a) and (b). These two curves are spirals

4

and for θ > 1 the spiral (b) will be more stretched than the spiral (a); and for θ < 1 the

spiral (b) will shrink more than (a). From here the polar equation (a) corresponds to

the curve V and the polar equation (b) corresponds to the curve II.

From the other 4 curves only one, that is I, does not have the origin (0,0) as its point. From

here, the polar equation (e) corresponds to the curve I because concerning the polar

equation r(θ) = 2 + sin(3θ) in (e) we have

r = 2 + sin(3θ) ≥ 2 −1 = 1 > 0.

Now, consider what is left: (c), (d), (f) and III, IV, VI. We observe that between the curves

III,IV,VI, only the curve III has two points with strictly positive cartesian x-coordinate. The

points on the x-axis distinct from (0,0) of one curve has a polar angle θ = kπ, k = 0, 1, 2, . . ..

With θ = 0 in (d) we obtain a point with cartesian coordinates (3,0) and with θ = π in

(d) we obtain a point with polar coordinates (−1, π) = (1, 2π) = (1, 0) that is a point with

cartesian coordinates (1,0). Hence, (d) corresponds to III.

Now, consider what is left: (c), (f) and IV, VI. The points with cartesian x-coordinate

0, excluding the origin (0, 0), correspond to a polar angle θ =

(2k+1)π

2

, k = 0, 1, 2, . . ..

Consider the polar equation (f). For θ = π/2 we obtain a point with polar coordinates

(−1, π/2) = (1, 3π/2) and for θ = 3π/2 we obtain a point with polar coordinates (3, 3π/2)

hence, 2 points with negative cartesian y-coordinates on the y-axis. Obviously, choosing

from IV and VI, this corresponds to IV. Hence, the polar equation (f ) corresponds to

the curve IV. In addition to our observation we can add that, concerning the curve with

a polar equation (c) and all its points on the y-axis (possibly excluding the origin (0,0)) we

have

cos

(2k + 1)π

2

1

3

= cos

(2k + 1)π

6

= {−

√

3/2, 0,

√

3/2}

and from here again we can conclude that the polar equation (c) does not correspond to

the curve IV hence, the polar equation (f) corresponds to the curve IV.

Finally, from the previous considerations, the polar equation (c) corresponds to the

curve VI.

Remark. By using CAS Maple polar-plot we plot the curves with polar equation

(a),(b),(c),(d),(e),(f) in order to verify the solution:

5

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

6

(f)

Problem 12/ page 689. Sketch the curve and ﬁnd the area A that it encloses:

r(θ) = 2 −sin(θ).

Solution.

A =

2π

0

(2 −sin(θ))

2

2

dθ =

9π

2

.

Problem 32/ page 689. Find the area A of the region that lies inside both curves:

r(θ) = 3 + 2 cos(θ), r(θ) = 3 + 2 sin(θ).

Solution. 3 + 2 cos(θ) = 3 + 2 sin(θ) for θ = π/4, 5π/4. From here considering for conve-

nience a negative angle in the ﬁrst integral we have

7

A =

π/4

−3π/4

(3 + 2 sin(θ))

2

2

dθ +

5π/4

π/4

(3 + 2 cos(θ))

2

2

dθ.

Substituting v = π + θ in the ﬁrst integral we obtain

π/4

−3π/4

(3 + 2 sin(θ))

2

2

dθ =

5π/4

π/4

(3 −sin(v))

2

2

dv

and in view of this

A =

5π/4

π/4

¸

(3 −sin(θ))

2

2

+

(3 + 2 cos(θ))

2

2

¸

dθ =

5π/4

π/4

18 + 12 cos(θ) −12 sin(θ) + 4

2

dθ

= 11π + 6 (sin(θ) + cos(θ))|

5π/4

π/4

= 11π −12

√

2.

Remark. 1. Instead of the substitution v = π + θ in the ﬁrst integral, we can substitute

v = π/2 −θ, dv = −dθ:

π/4

−3π/4

(3 + 2 sin(θ))

2

2

dθ = −

π/4

5π/4

(3 + cos(v))

2

2

dv

=

5π/4

π/4

(3 + cos(v))

2

2

dv

and from here:

A = 2

5π/4

π/4

(3 + 2 cos(θ))

2

2

dθ = 11π −12

√

2.

8

Remark 2. Denote r

1

(θ) = 3 + 2 cos(θ) and r

2

(θ) = 3 + 2 sin(θ). Another solution to

the problem can be obtained by observing that r

1

(π/2 − θ) = r

2

(θ) which means that the

curves are symmetric with respect to the line determined by the directions θ = π/4, 5π/4.

From here:

A = 2

5π/4

π/4

(3 + 2 cos(θ))

2

2

dθ = 11π −12

√

2.

Problem 46/ page 689. Find the exact length L of the polar curve

r = e

2θ

, 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π.

Solution. We have

L =

2π

0

(e

2θ

)

2

+ (2e

2θ

)

2

=

2π

0

e

4θ

+ 4e

4θ

dθ

=

2π

0

√

5e

4θ

dθ =

√

5

2π

0

e

2θ

dθ =

√

5

e

2θ

2

2π

0

√

5

2

e

4π

−1

.

Problem 6/ page 696. Find the vertex, focus, and the directrix of the parabola x − 1 =

(y + 5)

2

and sketch its graph.

Solution. Consider ﬁrst x = y

2

or equivalently 4px = y

2

. From here x = −1/4 is the

directrix of this parabola, (1/4, 0) is its focus, and (0, 0) is its vertex. The graph of the

given parabola is 1 to the right and 5 below if we compare with the graph of x = y

2

. From

here, the vertex of the given parabola is (1, −5), the directrix is x = 1 −1/4 = 3/4 and the

focus is at (1 + 1/4, −5) = (5/4, −5). Here is the graph

9

Problem 14/ page 696. Find the vertices and foci of the ellipse 4x

2

+ 25y

2

= 25 and

sketch its graph.

Solution. The ellipse has a center at (0, 0). If x = 0 we obtain y = ±1. If y = 0 we obtain

x = ±5/2 = ±2.5. Hence, the vertices of the ellipse are (−2.5, 0) and (2.5, 0). On the other

hand c =

(5/2)

2

−1

2

=

25/4 −1 =

21/4 and from here the foci of the ellipse are at

(−

√

21/2, 0) and (

√

21/2, 0). Here is the graph

Problem 20/ page 696. Find the vertices, foci and asymptotes of the hyperbola y

2

/16 −

x

2

/36 = 1 and sketch its graph.

Solution. The center of the hyperbola is (0, 0). If x = 0 we obtain y = ±4 and from here

the vertices of the hyperbola are (0, −4) and (0, 4). If we divide the given equation by x

2

and multiply by 16 we obtain

y

2

x

2

=

16

36

+

16

x

2

and when x →∞, then 16/x

2

→0 and the two asymptotes are determined by

y

2

x

2

=

16

36

⇒

y

x

= ±

2

3

⇒ y = ±

2

3

x.

We compute c =

√

16 + 36 =

√

52 = 2

√

13 to conclude that (0, −2

√

13) and (0, 2

√

13) are

the foci of the hyperbola. Here is the graph of the hyperbola given by a Cartesian equation

y

2

/16 −x

2

/36 = 1.

10

Problem 28/ page 696. Identify the type of conic section with Cartesian equation y

2

−

8y = 6x −16 and ﬁnd its vertices and foci.

Solution. The given Cartesian equation can be written in the following form

(y −4)

2

−16 = 6x −16 ⇒(y −4)

2

= 6x.

Consider a conic with a cartesian equation y

2

= 6x. Its graph is the graph of the given conic

but moved 4 units below. This is a parabola so, the given cartesian equation represents a

parabola. In addition 4p = 6 and from here p = 3/2 hence, the directrix of the parabola

y

2

= 6x is x = −3/2, its focus is at (3/2, 0) and its vertex is at (0, 0).

Going back to the given conic we are to move all above data with 4 units above. From here,

the directrix of the given conic is x = −3/2, its vertex is at (0, 4) and its focus is at (3/2, 4).

Here is the graph of the conic given by the Cartesian equation y

2

−8y = 6x −16.

11

Problem 46/ page 697. Find a Cartesian equation for the hyperbola with vertices

(−1, 2), (7, 2) and foci (−2, 2) and (8, 2).

Solution. The center of the hyperbola with the given data is at (3, 2). In order to obtain

data with a center at the origin we move the data 3 units to the left and 2 units below to

look for a hyperbola with vertices (−4, 0), (4, 0) and foci (−5, 0) and (5, 0). Such a hyperbola

has a Cartesian equation

x

2

16

−

y

2

b

2

= 1.

with c = 5 and c

2

= 16 + b

2

⇒25 = 16 + b

2

⇒b = 3 and from here we have

x

2

16

−

y

2

9

= 1.

Now, moving back 3 units to the right and 2 units above we obtain a Cartesian equation

for the hyperbola satisfying the given conditions

(x −3)

2

16

−

(y −2)

2

9

= 1.

This hyperbola has asymptotes

y −2

x −3

= ±

3

4

⇒y = ±

3

4

(x −3) + 2 ⇒ y =

3x −1

4

, y =

−3x + 17

4

.

12

Here is the graph of the hyperbola conic having vertices at (−1, 2), (7, 2) and foci at (−2, 2)

and (8, 2).

13

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