11K views

Uploaded by boyarsky

You are on page 1of 5

Problem 4/ p. 813. Write each vector’s expression as a single vector. In other words

perform the vector’s operations.

−−→ −−→ −→ −→ −→ −→ −→ −→ −−→

Solution. (a) P Q + QR = P R; (b)RP + P S = RS; (c) QS − P S = QP ;

−→ −→ −−→ −−→

(d)RS + SP + P Q = RQ;

Problem 6/ p. 813. Copy the vectors a and b in the figure and use them to draw the

following vectors.

(a) a + b; (b) a − b; (c) 2a

1

(d) − b; (e) 2a + b; (f ) b − 3a.

2

Solution. Let a = (2, 3) and b = (7, 3.5). Then we give a graphical solution to the problem

using only sum of vectors and multiplication of a vector by a scalar. Another solution is

possible in some of the examples by using subtraction of vectors.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

1

(e)

Problem 14/ p. 813. Find the sum of the given vectors and illustrate it geometrically.

Solution. We have

(−2, −1) + (5, 7) = (3, 6)

and here is the geometry of the problem

Problem 32/ p. 814. Ropes 3 m and 5 m in length are fastened to a holiday decoration

that is suspended over a town square. The decoration has a mass of 5 kg. The ropes,

fastened at different heights make angles of 52◦ and 40◦ with horizontal. Find the tension

in each wire and the magnitude of each tension.

Solution. Denote by T1 and T2 the two tension forces corresponding to the ropes of length

3 m and 5 m. Then

T1 = −|T1 | cos(52◦ )i + |T1 | sin(52◦ )j

T2 = |T2 | cos(40◦ )i + |T2 | sin(40◦ )j

T1 + T2 = W j = mgj = 5 · 9.81j = 49.05j,

where W is the weight of the decoration in N, m is the mass of the decoration in kg, and g

is the gravity acceleration.

From here

[−|T1 | cos(52◦ ) + |T2 | cos(40◦ )]i + [|T1 | sin(52◦ ) + |T2 | sin(40◦ )]j = 49.05j

2

and

−|T1 | cos(52◦ ) + |T2 | cos(40◦ ) = 0

|T1 | sin(52◦ ) + |T2 | sin(40◦ ) = 49.05

Then trivially, solving the above linear system with respect to |T1 | and |T2 | we obtain the

magnitudes of the tension in each wire

49.05 × cos(52◦ )

|T2 | = = 30.19N

sin(92◦ )

49.05 × cos(40◦ )

|T1 | = = 37.56N

sin(92◦ )

and from here the tensions in each wire is

Problem 8/ p. 820. Find a · b, where a = 4j − 3k and b = 2i + 4j + 6k.

Solution.

a · b = (4j − 3k) · (2i + 4j + 6k

= 8j · i + 16j · j + 24j · k − 6k · i − 12k · j − 18k · k = 16 − 18 = −2.

√

Problem 10/ p. 820. Find a · b, where |a| = 3, |b| = 6 and the angle between a and b

is 45◦ .

Solution. We have

√

◦

√ 2 √

a · b = |a||b| cos(45 ) = 3 6 = 3 3 ≈ 5.1962.

2

Problem 14/ p. 820. A street vendor sells a hamburgers, b hot dogs, and c soft drinks

on a given day. He charges 2$ for a hamburger, 1.50$ for a hot dog, and 1$ for a soft drink.

If A = ha, b, ci and P = h2, 1.5, 1i, what is the meaning of the dot product

Solution. The dot product

A · P = P · A = 2a + 1.5b + c

Problem 20/ p. 821. Find the angle between the vectors a = i + 2j − 2k and b = 4i − 3k.

First, find an exact expression and then approximate to the nearest degree.

Solution. Let us denote the angle between the given vectors by θ. We have

a · b = |a||b| cos(θ)

3

a · b = [i + 2j − 2k] · [4i − 3k = 4 + 6 = 10

q √ q √

|a| = 1 + 2 + (−2) = 9 = 3; |b| = 42 + 02 + (−3)2 = 25 = 5

2 2 2

a·b 10 2

cos(θ) = = = , 0◦ ≤ θ ≤ 180◦ .

|a||b| 15 3

Finally,

θ = arccos(2/3) = 48.1897 ≈ 48◦ .

Problem 40/ p. 821. Find the scalar and the vector projections of b onto a, where

a = i + j + k and b = i − j + k.

Solution. By using the ready formulas on page 819 we compute

a·b 1−1+1 1

compa b = = √ =√ .

|a| 3 3

a·b 1−1+1

proja b = 2

a = √ 2 (1, 1, 1) = (1/3, 1/3, 1/3).

|a| ( 3)

Problem 52/ p. 821. Find the angle between a diagonal of a cube and a diagonal of one

of its faces.

Solution. Suppose that the cube has the points (0, 0, 0) and (1, 1, 1) as opposite vertices.

Then the one the diagonals of the face on the xy− plane has endpoints (0, 0, 0) and (0, 1, 1).

The angle θ between the vectors (1, 1, 1) and (0, 1, 1) satisfies

(1, 1, 1) · (0, 1, 1) 2

cos(θ) = √ √ =√

12 2 2

+1 +1 0 +1 +1 2 2 2 6

and from here, taking into account that 0 ≤ θ ≤ 180◦ we obtain

√

θ = arccos(2/ 6) ≈ 35.26◦ .

and verify that the cross product obtained is orthogonal to both a and b.

Solution. Following the definition of a cross product we have

i j k

1 3

a×b= 1 -1 -1 = i − j + k.

1/2

2 2

1 1/2

In order to show that the vector [cross product of a×b] is orthogonal to a and b we compute

the corresponding dot products.

1 3

a · (a × b) = (i − j − k) · i − j + k = 1/2 + 1 − 3/2 = 0

2 2

4

and from here, a and a × b are orthogonal.

Analogously,

1 1 1 3

b · (a × b) = i+j+ k · i − j + k = 1/4 − 1 + 3/4 = 0

2 2 2 2

and from here, b and a × b are orthogonal, also.

Problem 12/ p. 828. Find the vector, not with determinants, but by using properties of

cross product.

Solution.

(i + j) × (i − j) = i × i − i × j + j × i − j × j = 2j × i = −2k.

Problem 34/ p. 829. Find the volume of the parallelepiped determined by the vectors

a = i + j − k , b = i − j + k, c = −i + j + k.

Solution. We compute the triple scalar product

-1 1 1

c · [a × b] = 1 1 -1 = −2 − 2 = −4

1 -1 1

and the volume V of the parallelepiped is the absolute value of the triple product

|c · [a × b]| = | − 4| = 4.

Problem 42/ p. 829. Let v = 5j and let u be a vector of length 3 that starts at the origin

and rotates in the xy− plane. Find the maximum and the minimum value of the length of

the vector u × v. In what direction does u × v points.

Solution.

|u × v| = |u||v| sin(θ) = 15 sin(θ), 0 ≤ θ ≤ π

and from here the maximum value of the length of the vector u × v we have for θ = π/2,

i.e., for u = ±3i and the minimum value for θ = 0; π, i.e., u = ±3j.

By using the right-hand rule, u × v points the direction of k (positive direction) if u vary

from −3j to 3j in the counterclockwise direction. In this continuous move of u the length of

u × v vary from 0 at u = −3j and increasing to maximum 15 at u = 3i and again decreasing

to 0 at u = 3j. Next, if u vary from 3j to −3j in a counterclockwise direction, the vector

u × v points the direction of −k (negative direction).

- {Physics}.Pg 469-568Uploaded byChatura Ahangama
- sHW4Uploaded byAaron Cherian
- 14Uploaded byphysicsdocs
- Assignment 5 SolutionsUploaded byboyarsky
- 16Uploaded byphysicsdocs
- Assignment 2 SolutionsUploaded byboyarsky
- 13 - Vector FunctionsUploaded byEloy Abanto Espinoza
- Assignment 1 Solutions 1Uploaded byboyarsky
- 112Uploaded byphysicsdocs
- Assignment 3 SolutionsUploaded byboyarsky
- Lab Report 1Uploaded byTeiyuri Aoshima
- 15Uploaded byphysicsdocs
- 13Uploaded byphysicsdocs
- Assignment 5Uploaded byMohammed N. Jamous
- ch12Uploaded bytntran91
- LEC 1.pptxUploaded byNoor Khan
- Physics Homework #10 (SOLUTIONS)Uploaded bynsharma1000
- 17Uploaded byphysicsdocs
- MP EM Ass 22: AC Circuits and TransformersUploaded byBlueAstro
- MP EM Ass 8: CapacitanceUploaded byBlueAstro
- MP EM Ass 19: Induced Electric Fields and Displacement CurrentUploaded byBlueAstro
- Dot and Cross ProUploaded byAbraham Gm
- CE201 Statics Chap2Uploaded bytania
- Multistep Synthesis of 2-Chloro-4-BromoanilineUploaded byjcrider2
- Ch21ProblemsUploaded byHowie Reál
- w05d2_class_12Uploaded byeviroyer
- masteringphys14Uploaded byCarlosGomez
- The Vector Cross ProductUploaded byDavidMcAfee42
- ch4_5lecture.pptUploaded bybessho
- Mastering Physics_ Assignment 1 Print ViewUploaded byDavis Gregory

- syllabus (2)Uploaded byHong Chul Nam
- operators quantum mechanicsUploaded byAritra Lahiri
- Vector AnalysisUploaded bySoy Rubio
- dualmod.pdfUploaded byAlbertoAlcalá
- Zero ForcingUploaded byAnonymous 4bUl7jzGq
- TRANSFORMATIONUploaded byBurhan Basit
- Numerical AnalysisUploaded byKamal Hameed Al-taiy
- Cobb DouglasUploaded byRob Wolfe
- mata 14.pdfUploaded byDani Pizarro
- Plus Minus OneUploaded bydragance106
- MGMT 221, Ch. IIUploaded byMulugeta Girma
- Chapter3 DFT FFT z Transform FIR FiltersUploaded byPranay Arya
- STATIcS-Chap2 Force Vectors 2.72.9Uploaded byazrainzainudin
- DFT.pdfUploaded byAnkit Bansal
- 2.- Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors (Part 1)Uploaded byAna Juárez
- Differential EquationsUploaded bypinkangel1337
- EssentialMathematicsForComputationalDesign_SecondEditionUploaded byShreyas Srivatsa
- Data Structures and Algorithms AssignmentUploaded byVibhu Mittal
- Dima Ql Intro 2Uploaded byMark Chan
- MA225 - DifferentiationUploaded byRebecca Rumsey
- BS Physics Syllabus 3107201Uploaded byBaboo Jan
- 1.Mathematical Physics_NET-JRF_June 2011-June 2017Uploaded byRamesh Iswara
- KPCAUploaded byParmida Afshar
- Vector Calculus Allanach EvansUploaded byTheBayesianJedi
- Mechanism kinematics & dynamics.pdfUploaded byeuch00
- An Adaptive Nonlinear Least-squares AlgorithmUploaded byOleg Shirokobrod
- Matrix Theory and Linear Algebra II Solutions to Assignment 1Uploaded byWirda Zafira
- multilinear-algebra-tenssors-1.pdfUploaded byBudhaditya Bhattacharjee
- Elements of Pure and applied mathematicsUploaded byRangothri Sreenivasa Subramanyam
- Bsc Book of Subjects CommonUploaded byMarko Kostic