Name: RAFAEL, DUNE VIENIS KAREN N. Pharmacy 4A Date Performed: November 27, 2009 ____________________ Activity No.

6 ANILINE

Year & Section: BSRating:

I. Objectives: 1. To detect the presence of aniline in a sample by performing hypochlorite test, phenyl-isocyanide test, bromine water test, and chromic acid test, 2. To understand the principles behind each test, and 3. Interpret the results after performing each method of detection. I. Data: Method of Detection Hypochlorite Test Observation/s Actual: The solution changed from dark brown to dark blue color upon the addition of aqueous phenol solution containing drops of ammonia. Ideal (+): A violet-blue or purple-violet color, gradually changing to a dirty red, will appear if aniline is present. Addition of ammonia produces a blue color (Warren, 1921). Actual: A white precipitate settled at the bottom of the test tube after heating. Ideal (+): A repulsive odor of phenylisocyanide shows the presence of aniline (Warren, 1921). Actual: There was formation of two (2) layers in the solution in which the upper layer is transparent and the lower layer is brick-red color. Ideal (+): Bromine water added to a solution containing aniline produces a flesh-colored precipitate (Warren, 1921).

Phenyl-Isocyanide Test

Bromine Water Test

Chromic acid Test

Actual: The solution solidified and changed its color to dark blue. Ideal (+): The solution will take on a pure blue color. Addition of 1-2 drops of water produces a deep blue color at once (Warren, 1921).

II. Answers to Questions: 1. What are the health effects of aniline? The health effects of aniline are (Scorecard, 2009):

➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢

Causes cancer Cardiovascular or blood intoxication Kidney intoxication Neurotoxicant Respiratory toxicant Skin or Sense Organ Toxicant

Aniline is moderately toxic in its action. Doses of 1.5 to 2 grams, administered in the course of a day, have proved fatal to small dogs. It is not possible to state definitely the average lethal dose for human beings. Very serious results are said to have followed a dose of 3 or 4 grams of aniline. The lethal dose is certainly less than 25 grams, for that quantity of aniline was sufficient to kill a healthy man. Even inhalation of aniline vapor may cause severe or fatal intoxications (Warren, 1921). Aniline produces methaemoglobin and therefore poisons the blood. The conversion of oxyhemoglobin into methemoglobin by aniline may be demonstrated by adding an aqueous aniline solution to blood in a test tube. Aniline changes their form and partially decomposes red blood-corpuscles. Thereby the quantity of available oxygen in the blood is so diminished that it amounts to only 5 to 10 volumes instead of 15 to 20, the normal quantity. The number of red blood corpuscles is diminished in aniline poisoning but not that of the white blood cells (Warren, 1921). 1. Where in the environment does aniline end up? Aniline can evaporate when exposed to air. It dissolves when mixed with water. Most releases of aniline to the United States environment are to underground injection sites and to air. In air, aniline breaks down to other chemicals. Sunlight also breaks downs aniline in surface water and in soil. Microorganisms that live in water and in soil can also breakdown aniline. Because it is a liquid that does not bind well to soil, aniline that makes its way into the ground can move through the ground and enter groundwater. Plants and animals are not likely to store aniline (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1994). I. Conclusion/s: Aniline is a colorless, oily inflammable liquid with a peculiar odor and a burning aromatic taste. Aniline produces methaemoglobin and therefore poisons the blood. In case of poisoning, aniline can be detected by hypochlorite test, phenyl-isocyanide test, bromine water test and chromic acid test. Aniline poisoning can be treated by a solution of the antidote toluidine blue or methylene bkue given through a vein to seriously exposed patients. Aniline can evaporate when exposed to air and dissolves when mixed with water. Proper chemical disposal of aniline should be strictly practiced and followed to prevent unintentional or accidental exposure of aniline. II. Bibliography

Scorecard. (2009, December 08). Aniline. Retrieved December 08, 2009, from Scorecard.org: http://www.scorecard.org/chemical-profiles/summary.tcl?edf_substance_id=62-53-3 United States Environmental Protection Agency. (1994, December). Aniline Fact Sheet. Retrieved December 08, 2009, from epa.org: http://www.epa.gov/chemfact/anali-fs.pdf Warren, W. H. (1921). Laboratory Manual for the Detection of Poisons and Powerful Drugs. New Jersey: Read Books.