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Development Across the Lifespan
Presented By: - Nishant
Personality Development and Successful Aging
Whether personality changes or stays stable in late adulthood depends on which facets of personality are considered. According to Costa and McCrae, basic personality traits remain stable. agreeableness satisfaction intellect extroversion energy
Some changes in personality occur as a result of new challenges that appear in later adulthood. Erikson labeled the last stage of personality development EGO-INTEGRITY-VERSUSDESPAIR, which is characterized by a process of looking back over one's life, evaluating it, and coming to terms with it.
Integrity comes when people feel they have realized and fulfilled the possibilities that have come their way. Despair occurs when people feel dissatisfied with their life, and experience gloom, unhappiness, depression, anger, or the feeling that they have failed
changes in personality: peck’s developmental tasks
Robert Peck suggests that personality development in elderly people is occupied by three major developmental tasks or challenges. The first is REDEFINITION OF SELF VERSUS PREOCCUPATION WITH WORK-ROLE, which means that those in old age must redefine themselves in ways that do not relate to their work-roles or occupations.
(peck’s developmental tasks, continued)
The second major task is BODY TRANSCENDENCE VERSUS BODY PREOCCUPATION, a period in which people must learn to cope with and move beyond changes in physical capabilities as a result of aging. The third developmental task is EGO TRANSCENDENCE VERSUS EGO PREOCCUPATION in which elderly people must come to grips with their coming death.
Changes in personality: Levinson’s views on the Winter of Life
According to Daniel Levinson, people enter late adulthood after passing through a transition stage that typically occurs about age 60 to 65. During this transition time people begin to view themselves as entering late adulthood. People struggle with being "old", and often must face illness and death of one's friends and loved ones
( Levinson’s views on the winter of life, continued)
People must struggle with the loss of power, respect, and authority. People can serve as resources for younger people and be in a position to give advice. Old age brings freedom to do things for fun and entertainment
Coping with Aging: Bernice Neugarten’s Study
Rather than focusing on commonalities of aging, this classic study focused on the different ways that people cope with aging. Four different personality types among those in their 70’s Disintegrated & disorganized Passive-dependent personalities Defended personalities Integrated personalities
& disorganized Unable to accept aging Experience despair as they age Often end up in nursing homes, or are hospitalized Passive-dependent personalities Lead lives filled with fear Illness Future Inability to cope May seek out hope, even when not needed
personalities Seek to ward off aging May try to act young Exercise vigorously Youthful activities Unrealistic expectations may lead to disappointment Integrated personalities Most successful Cope comfortably with aging Accept becoming older & maintain self dignity ~Most people studied fell into the final category
Erikson, Peck, Levinson & Neugarten all suggest that a major characteristic of personality development in old age is looking backward, called a LIFE REVIEW, where people examine and evaluate their lives.
Life Review & Reminiscence: The Common Theme of Personality Development
According to Robert Butler, the life review is triggered by the increasing awareness that one will die. There are benefits to a life review. a better understanding of one's life resolution of lingering problems a sense of sharing and mutuality with others like them may improve memory
A life review is not always positive. People may become obsessed with the past. This may cause psychological dysfunction Overall, a life review and reminiscence can play an important role in the ongoing lives of the elderly Continuity between past & present Increases awareness of the contemporary world New insights
(Overall personality growth & development!)
Age Stratification Approaches to Late Adulthood
Age stratification theories suggest that economic resources, power & privilege are distributed unequally among people at different stages of the life course, impacting development. Power declines among elderly in industrialized nations lead to more distance between this group and young adults
~These theories help explain why aging is viewed more positively in less industrialized societies
Culture Shapes the Way We Treat People in Adulthood
Cultures that revere old age have several things in common. They are homogeneous in socioeconomic terms and the elderly control the finances. Older adults in these cultures continue to engage in activities that are valued by society. These cultures tend to be organized around extended families.
Cultural differences in the way the elderly are treated are often exaggerated
The Eskimos do not leave their elderly to die on ice floes. The Chinese revere old age but there is great individual variation. ~ Important to avoid broad global statements about how older adults are treated in a given society!
Does Age Bring Wisdom?
Wisdom: expert knowledge in the practical aspects of life. This concept has received little attention from gerontologists and other researchers Developmentalists disagree on whether we should expect a relationship between wisdom and aging. Is wisdom a trait that declines with age? Does wisdom reflect an accumulation of knowledge, experience, and contemplation?
Another challenge: differentiating wisdom from intelligence Timing? Intelligence
Related to the here-and-now Logical & systematic thinking
Timeless quality Understanding of human behavior
~Psychologist Robert Sternberg: Intelligence permits people to invent the atom bomb, wisdom prevents them from using it
Successful Aging: What is the Secret?
No proven way to age successfully How people age depends on personality factors and personal circumstances 2 major approaches provide alternate explanations
Disengagement Theory: Gradual Retreat
According to DISENGAGEMENT THEORY, the period in late adulthood that marks a gradual withdrawal from the world on physical, psychological, and social levels; people withdraw from the world and the world compels the elderly to withdraw (e.g., retirement). The theory suggests that withdrawal is a mutual process norms and societal expectations allows more reflection and freedom
Disengagement Theory, continued
People can become more reflective about their lives. People can become less constrained by social roles. People become more discerning about relationships, which can help them adjust to increasing frequency of serious illness and death among their peers. Disengagement is not an automatic, universal process for all people in late adulthood.
Activity Theory: Continued Involvement
According to ACTIVITY THEORY, successful aging occurs when people maintain the interests, activities, and social interactions with which they were involved during middle age. Happiness and satisfaction with life are assumed to spring from a high level of involvement with the world.
Activity Theory, continued
When it is no longer possible to work, successful aging according to activity theory suggests that replacement activities be found. Being involved in any activity just to remain active may not always contribute to happiness and satisfaction. Some people are happier when they can slow down and only do those things that bring them the greatest satisfaction.
Neither theory provides a complete picture of aging Which theory best explains successful aging may depend on one's behavior prior to late adulthood. Those active in youth better off with activity Those that were uninvolved/socially independent may be more satisfied with disengagement
A General Model of Successful Aging…
Good physical and mental health are important in determining an elderly person's sense of well-being. Financial security and a sense of autonomy and independence also give one's later life a significant advantage. A positive outlook on life helps people view their old age more favorably.
e selective optimization model of successful ag
Developmental psychologists Baltes and Baltes focus on the selective optimization model Suggests that older people overcome changes and losses in old age according to the principle of SELECTIVE OPTIMIZATION, where people concentrate on particular skill areas to compensate for losses in other areas.
Selective Optimization with Compensation
According to this model, successful aging occurs when an older adult focuses on his or her most important areas of functioning & compensates for losses in other areas.
Daily Life in Late Adulthood: Living arrangements
Contrary to the stereotype, only 5 % of elderly people end their lives in a nursing home. 2/3 of people over the age of 65 live with other members of the family. Most live with their spouse. The adjustment to living with children can be difficult. African-Americans are more likely to live in multigenerational families than Whites.
(Living arrangements in late adulthood, continued)
10 % live in a CONTINUING-CARE community, which typically offers an environment in which all the residents are of retirement age or older and need various levels of care. Several types of nursing homes exist. ADULT DAY-CARE FACILITIES are where elderly individuals receive care only during the day, but spend nights and weekends in their own homes.
(Living arrangements in late adulthood, continued)
SKILLED-NURSING FACILITIES provide fulltime nursing care for people who have chronic illnesses or who are recovering from a temporary medical condition. Only 1 % of those aged 64 to 74 are in nursing homes. 25 percent of those over 85 are in nursing homes.
Fears of nursing homes can lead to INSTITUTIONALISM, a psychological state in which people develop apathy, indifference, and a lack of caring about themselves. Often brought about by a sense of learned hopelessness, the belief that one has no control over one's environment. Langer and Janis found that when given simple choices over their lives, only 15 % of the choice groups died within 18 months, compared to 30 % of the comparison group.
Financial issues in late adulthood
People who were well-off in young adulthood remain so in late adulthood; those who were poor remain poor in late adulthood. 12 % of the elderly over age 65 live below the poverty line. Women are twice as likely to live in poverty than men. 7 % of White people live below the poverty line.
(Financial issues in late adulthood, continued)
18 % of Hispanics live below the poverty line. 25 % of African-Americans live below the poverty line. 82 % of African-American women are "poor" or "near-poor". The elderly must often live on a fixed income. social security pensions savings
The elderly face rising health costs. The average older person spends 20 % of his or her income on health care costs. Nursing homes can cost $30,000 to $40,000 a year
Work and retirement in late adulthood
When to retire is a major decision faced by the majority of people in late adulthood. The typical retirement age is moving downward to age 60. Social security and pensions allow people to retire earlier. A disincentive is built into Social Security by having workers taxed at higher rates on both social security and earnings.
Work and retirement in late adulthood, continued
Many people continue to work full- or parttime for some part of late adulthood. Mandatory retirement is illegal (since the 1970s) with the exception of certain public safety jobs such as police, firefighters, prison guards, and pilots.
The retirement decision is based on a number of factors.
Workers may be burned out after working all their lives. Jobs can be frustrating and tension-filled. Health may decline. Incentives are offered by their company to retire early. Desire to travel and see more of family
According to Atchley, people pass through stages in the process of retirement.
At first there is a honeymoon period, in which former workers engage in a variety of activities, such as travel, that were previously hindered by full-time work. Disenchantment may occur when retirees conclude that retirement is not all they thought it would be. Reorientation is the stage where retirees reconsider their options and become engaged in new, more fulfilling activities
Atchley, stages in the process of retirement continued
A retirement routine stage occurs when retirees come to grips with the realities of retirement and feel fulfilled in this new phase of life. The final stage is the process of termination where the retiree either goes back to work or health deteriorates so badly that the person can no longer function independently. Not everyone passes through each stage and the sequence is not universal (table in text)
Gerontologists suggest several factors related to a successful retirement
Plan ahead financially. Consider tapering off from work gradually. Explore your interests before you retire. Plan to volunteer your time.
Relationships: Old and New
Marriage in the later years The proportion of men who are married over the age of 65 is far greater than that of women. 70 % of women outlive their husbands. The marriage gradient makes remarriage easier for elderly men than for women. The vast majority of those still married report they are satisfied with their spouse.
Living Patterns of Older Americans
Think about what these patterns might suggest about the relative health & adjustment of men & women.
(Marriage in the later years, continued)
For some, the stress of retirement or old age changes the relationship 2 % of divorces in the U. S. involve women over 60 Reasons for divorce at such a late stage are varied. Women initiate it because: Husband may be abusive or alcoholic. The husband may have found a younger woman. Men in retirement may suffer psychological turmoil
(Marriage in the later years, continued)
Divorce is harder on women than men. Happiness and quality of life for women often plummets since marriage may have been central to their identity 5 % of the elderly never married and late adulthood brings fewer changes to their lives. Report feeling less lonely than most people of the same age Greater sense of independence
The Lasting Influence of Childhood: Evidence from the Terman Study
The Terman study of over 1,500 children of high intelligence began in the 1920s (“termites”) Still ongoing with subjects now in their 80s being tested every 5 years. Longest-running longitudinal study in the field of psychology Recent analyses have examined the impact that several types of psychological stresses have had on participants current lives—and deaths
Terman study, continued
Subjects whose parents divorced when they were children faced a 1/3 greater risk of an earlier death compared to those whose parents remained married until the children were at least 21 There was greater stigma attached to divorce then. Children of divorced parents had greater marital instability themselves.
Terman study, continued
Those who were prudent, truthful, and free from vanity had a 30% lower chance of dying in a particular year perhaps due to a greater adherence to health habits. Childhood cheerfulness was related to a shorter life perhaps because of carelessness and a carefree attitude about health habits. Earlier death is related to occupational choice: Men & women with more stereotypically male jobs showed higher mortality rates!
Dealing with retirement: Too much togetherness?
For many couples, retirement means that relationships have to be refashioned. Couples spend more time together. Provides an opportunity for sharing household chores. Men become more affiliative and less competitive and women become more assertive and autonomous.
Caring for an Aging Spouse
Shifts in health mean that in late adulthood men and women may have to care for an ill spouse. May provide closeness and a sense of fulfillment. The caregiver may not be in good health either. In most cases, the caregiver is the wife.
The Death of a Spouse: Becoming Widowed
Few events are more painful than the death of a spouse. No longer part of a couple. Must deal with profound grief. No one to share life with. Social life often changes. Economic changes often occur
--According to Gloria
Heinemann and Patricia Evans, the process of adjusting to widowhood occurs in three stages. In the first stage, preparation, spouses prepare for the eventual death of the partner.
The second stage, grief and mourning, is an immediate reaction to the death of a spouse. May last years or months. Length depends on the degree of support and personality factors. The last stage is adaptation, where the widowed individual starts a new life. These stages do not apply to everyone
The Process of Adjustment to Widowhoo
Heineman n& Evans, 1990
Social networks of late adulthood
Friendships play an important role in the lives of those in late adulthood. Friendships are often more valued than family because of the element of control: we choose our friends. Friendships are more flexible than family. When a spouse dies, friends help fill the gap. When a friend is defined as irreplaceable, the death of that friend may be quite difficult.
Social Activity in Late Adulthood
Friends & family play an important role in the social activity of the elderly.
Social Support: The Significance of Others
Friends provide SOCIAL SUPPORT, assistance and comfort supplied by another person or a network of caring, interested people. Social support is important for successful aging. Provides an ear. Can sympathize when they have been through the same crises. Can help furnish material support such as solve problems, give a ride, or fix broken things.
The Significance of Others, continued
Dogs can be especially good at providing social support. Reciprocity, the expectation that if someone provides something positive to another person, a return benefit ought to be received, makes social support effective and beneficial.
Family relationships: The Ties that Bind
Connections with siblings, children, grandchildren, and great-grandchildren may provide an important source of comfort to adults in the last years of their lives. Siblings are important because they have shared a large portion of life with you.
(Family relationships, continued)
More important are children and grandchildren. Often provide support and care. Parents often have a greater developmental stake in close ties because they see their children as perpetuating their beliefs, values, and standards.
Most parents and children remain close.
75 % of children live within a 30-mile drive to their parents. Daughters tend to be in more frequent contact than sons. Mothers tend to be the recipient of communication more than fathers. Children may turn to their elderly parents for advice, information, and monetary help.
Grandchildren & Great-Grandchildren
Not all grandparents take great pride in their grandchildren. Grandmothers are more involved than grandfathers. Many grandchildren express a greater preference for their maternal grandmother than for their paternal grandmother. African-American grandparents are more involved with their grandchildren than are European-Americans.
(Grandchildren & Great-Grandchildren, continued)
African-American grandfathers play a larger role in their grandchildren's lives than do white grandfathers. Most grandparents do not have close relationships to their great-grandchildren although they enjoy having them. May relate to the fact that great-grandparents are very old. May have so many great-grandchildren that it is hard to keep track of them.
Elder Abuse: Relationships Gone Wrong
Elder abuse (the physical and psychological mistreatment or neglect of elderly individuals) is all too common!
as many as 2 million people above the age of 60 each year (may be low, because unreported!) Expected to increase as the number of elderly increase
(Elder Abuse, continued)
Elder abuse is most often directed at family members (particularly parents) Unhealthy and isolated most at risk; also, those with dementia (esp. Alzheimers) Usually results due to economic, psychological, and social pressure on caregivers required to give high levels of care around the clock More efforts need to be made by society at prevention Education Support agencies